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Kolb .

concrete experience, observation of and reflection, formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection, testing the new concepts , Learning preferences: active experimentation-reflective observation, abstract conceptualization-concrete experience ELT methodologyOther disciplinesThe models of the teachingEvaluation and assessmentThe function of E as school subject Syllabus design Course book writingThe historical development of the discipline Contexts of ELT Contents of ELT,Communicative skills,Language means,Situations of language use,Information on culture Learner variables Assimilation Accommodation New ideas Socio-linguistic competences: Markers of social relations,Politeness conventionsExpressions of folk-wisdom Metacognitive principlesPreplanningExecutionMonitoringRepair action Oral productionSustained monologue: describing experience , putting a case Public announcements, Adressing audiences ProductionstrategiesConscious preparationThe effect of different stylesDiscourse structures or formulationsLooking things u pot obtaining assistance Oral interaction Understanding a native speakerConversation Informal discussion Formal discussion and meeting Goal-oriented co-operation Transactions Info exchange Interviewing Interaction strategies Turntaking Co-operating Asking for clarification CLT communicative methodology Know what u are doing.The whole is more than the sum of the partsThe processes are as important as the formsTo learn it, do it Mistakes are not always a mistake

Grammar - The procedure - To have exposure to the language - To notice and understand items being used - To try using language - To get themselves in safe practice ways (exercises in ex. book a check correct answers in the key) and in more demanding contexts - To remember the things they have learnt To learn a language items learners need to: - To be exposed to a lot of language while reading/listening - Notice specific items when they are being used, in texts - Understand the form, meaning and use off an item - Form refers to how the pieces fit together, the endings, etc. - Use refers to the typical situation, conversations, contexts in which it may be used - Trying out in a safe environment with limited other linguistic demands - Have opportunities to practice new language, to get their mouths around new items - Safe environment restricted language when they speak and write, with encouragement and feedback - Use the new language when speaking and writing - Remember items pay attention to how learners record items - Return to items again and again with revision tasks

CLT Principles of communicative methodology (Morrow, 1981) - Know what u are doing. - The whole is more than the sum of the parts - The processes are as important as the forms - To learn it, do it - Mistakes are not always a mistake Ms 3 features of communication - Information gap - Choice - Feedback Translation The communicative approach Alan Duff (1994) - Translation develops three qualities essential to all language learning: - flexibility - accuracy - and clarity The process of translation: - planning (developing background knowledge) - preparing a glossary - locating supports Translation activities

- authentic materials, - the whole language, not just those parts isolated by the textbook - illustration of particular aspects of language and structure - integration of reading, listening and writing activities - development of language awareness - sensitivity to alternate ways of expressing meaning The criteria for translation activities - language is used for a purpose - they create a desire for communication - they encourage students to be creative and contribute their ideas - students are focus on what they are saying rather than how they are saying it - students work independently of the teacher - students determine what they what to say or write The psycholinguistic models of reading Expectations based on the knowledge of the subject Minimal sampling of the text in deriving meaning Predictions as to what message is expected to get from the text Testing predictions confirming or revising them Recreating of a replica of the textual message using minimal orthographic, syntactic and semantic clues in the material After reconstruction, testing accuracy against previous information If it is in agreement, the cycle of sampling begins again If there is an inaccuracy or inconsistency, some compensatory strategy such as re-reading is adopted A fluent reader reads in meaningful unit Conceptual abilities refer to intellectual capacity such as the ability to analyze, synthesize and infer Background knowledge includes socio-cultural knowledge of the English-speaking communities Process strategies refer to the abilities and skills to reconstruct the meaning of the text through sampling based on the knowledge of information, syntactic information (deep and surface), lexical meaning, contextual meaning, and cognitive strategies