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AND

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1

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wwd,ykHESdyfjcif;/2008 ckESpf

KARL MARX and FREDERICK ENGELS
MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY

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6

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7

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8

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9

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tkyrf S 10 tkypf aD vmufukd vef'efòr@&dS rmhupf t
f xdr;f trSwf AdrmefrmS xm;&Sd
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J ,f?
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wzGJ@ apv$wfcJhw,f?
'DqHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif; 1948 ckESpf tapmydkif;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrL
epfygwD A[dak umfrwDu 'Dpmtkyu
f kd Armbmomjyef+yD; xkwaf 0cJw
h ,f?·
rdwWL 10 apmifudkvnf; vef'efòr@&Sd rmhufpftxdrf;trSwfAdrmefodk@ ydk@cJh
w,f?
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d @kd wikd ;f &if;
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ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw/D A[dak umfrwD. jynfo@l tm%m pmyHEk ydS w
f u
kd /f
&efuek òf r@rS yxrqH;k t}udrf yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJjh cif; jzpfonf?
10

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

bmomeJ@ rxkwfa0&ao;wJh wdkif;jynf&,fvdk@ r&Sdoavmuf jzpfae+yDvdk@
,lq&w,f?
tckwcg ygwDwGif;ynmay;a&; vdktyfr_twGuf 'Dpmtkyfudk
'kwd,t}udrf xyfrH bmomjyef ykHESdyfxkwfa0vdkufygw,f?
'Dpmtkyf&J@ tESpfom&udkðcH=unfh&if wjcm;tcsufrsm;tjyif
atmufyg wavmuvHk;qdkif&m trSefw&m;wcsKd@udk awG@Edkifygw,f?
1? 'Dpmtkyftcef; (1) yxrpma=umif;rSm azmfjyxm;wmu
“,ae@xufwdkif wnf&Sdaeaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm;vHk;. ordkif;onf
vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf rJG sm;.ordik ;f yif jzpfayonf” qd+k yD; vlwef;pm;/ vlwef;
pm;yËdyuQeJ@ vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;ta=umif;udk t"dutom;ay; a&;
om; azmfjyxm;w,f?
'Dtcsuf[m tvGefyJta&;}uD;w,f? vlwef;pm;/ vlwef;pm;
yËdyuQe@J vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf rGJ sm;udk rjrifw/hJ vufrcHw/hJ rusio
hf ;kH wJh vlawG
[m b,fenf;eJ@rS vlr0_ Zd m… ynmudk rSeu
f efpmG ravhvmEdik /f rusio
hf ;kH Edik f
yg?
vDeifoif=um;csut
f & uGejf rLepfwa,muftzd@k q&kd if vlwef;pm;eJ@
vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf u
JG kd vufc±H ekH @J rvHak vmuf/ vlwef;pm;eJ@ vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf JG
jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_w&m;t& {uefrkcs ypPnf;rJhtm%m&Sifpepfudk a&mufap
vdrfhr,fvdk@ vufcH,Hk=unfolrSom uGefjrLepfwa,muf jzpfEdkifr,f?
OuUÏ}uD; armfpw
D ek ;f u xyfr+H yD; ypPn;f rJt
h m%m&Sipf epfatmuf
rSm qufvufawmfvSefa&; vkyf&r,fvdk@ wdk;csJ@jznfhpGufvdkufjyefygw,f?
2? ajr,mbHyk ikd q
f ikd rf &_ w
dS hJ a&S;bHak cwfrmS vlwef;pm; ray:ayguf
ao;yg?
'DaemufrmS xkwv
f yk af &;y&dabm*awGukd yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf t
_ jzpf
ay:vmwmeJ@tr# vlwef;pm;awG/ aoG;pkyfr_pepfawGeJ@ EkdifiHawmfawG
qkdwm xGufay:vm&awmhwmyJ?
'ga=umifh tcktxd ay:aygufcJhwJh aoG;pkyfr_&SdwJh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
awGjzpfwJh aus;ykdifu|efykdifpepf/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfeJ@ t&if;&Sifpepf
11

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

twGif;rSm vufwqkyfpm vlenf;pku xkwfvkyfa&;y&dabm*awGudk
yk*v
~ u
d ydik yf pPn;f awGtjzpf ydik q
f ikd x
f m;&S+d yD; vltrsm;wumh trsm;pk}uD;udk
aoG;pkyfzdESdyf=uawmhw,f?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u t&if;&SifeJ@ wjcm;azmufjyefwJh aoG;pkyf
vlwef;pm;awGudk awmfvSefum wnfaxmifvdkufwJh/ ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;
u acgif;aqmifwJh EdkifiHawmfrSmawmh trsm;wumh trsm;pk}uD;jzpfwJh
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;eJ@ vkyfom;jynfolvlxkwdk@u tkyfpdk;wJhvlwef;pm;jzpf
vm+yD; t&if;&SifawG/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfawGeJ@ azmufjyefwJh vlwef;pm;
awGtay: tm%m&Sipf epf usio
hf ;kH &w,f? 'g[m vl@ordik ;f rSm trsm;pk}uD;
u vufwqkypf m tenf;pktay: tm%m&Sipf epfusio
hf ;kH wJh yxrqH;k pepf
jzpfw,f?
aus;ydkifu|efydkifpepfudk wufopfp ya'o&mZfvlwef;pm;u
awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&mrSmvnf;aumif;/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfudk
wufopfp "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&mrSmvnf;
aumif;/ t&if;&Sifpepfudk ypPnf;rJhrsm;u awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&m
rSmvnf ; aumif ; t=urf ; zuf w J h e nf ; (0g) vufeufudkifwdkufyGJenf;eJ@
om t}urd }f urd f wdu
k yf q
JG if+y;D rSom tkypf ;kd wJv
h w
l ef;pm;topf&@J tm%m[m
wnf+rEJ ikd v
f rd rhf ,f?
rmhupf u
f xyfro
H if=um;vdu
k w
f mu aoG;pkyw
f v
hJ w
l ef;pm; w&yf
u wjcm;aoG;pkyw
f v
hJ w
l ef;pm;a[mif; w&yfvufxu
J tm%mudk odr;f
,l+yD;aemuf EdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk rzsufodrf;bJ rGrf;rHjyifqif toHk;ðy
cJ=h uw,f? 'gayrJh ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;uawmh "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;vufxu
J
tm%mudkvk,l&mrSm aoG;rpkyfwJh vlwef;pm;u aoG;pkyfwJhvlwef;pm;
a[mif;&J@ tm%mudk vk,lwmjzpfvdk@ t&if;&Sifpepfu xlaxmifxm;wJh
EdkifiHawmf,EW&m; ta[mif;udk ,cifaoG;pkyfwJh vlwef;pm;awGvdk rGrf;rH
jyifqif toHk;csjcif;rðy&bl;? 'geJ@qef@usifbufyJ "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u
wnfaxmifxm;wJh AsL±dkua&pDEdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk {uefrkcs zsufqD;
ypf&r,fqdkwJh yJ&pfbHktzGJ@u ay;vdkufwJh tawG@tñuHudk tav;teuf
12

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

*±kpdkuf=u&r,f?
3? rmhufpfeJ@ tdef*,fwdk@ oif=um;cJhwmu vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ
jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ w&m;twdkif;qdk&if t&if;&Sifpepf[m OD;pGmtm;jzifh rdrd
wdk@tjrwf &&Sda&;twGuf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk jzpfay:apcJhw,f? 'gayrJh
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; rodwmuawmh 'DvdkypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk jzpfay:ap
vdu
k w
f meJ@ wòyifeuf/ rdrw
d @kd "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;eJ@ t&if;&Sipf epfukd ajrjr‡Kyf
o+*õK[fr,fo
h al wGukd arG;zGm;apvdu
k w
f ,fqw
kd hJ tcsuyf ?J 'g[m ordik ;f &J@
tEkyËdavmrw&m; jzpfw,f?
'ga=umifh vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_w&m;t& "e&Sif
vlwef;pm;tkyfpdk;r_udk ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u rvGJraoGwdkufzsuf+yD; "e&Sif
vlwef;pm;vufxrJ S tm%mudk t=urf;zufwehJ nf;eJ@ vk,u
l m/ trsm;pk
u tenf;pkukd tkypf ;kd wJh Edik if aH wmfukd xlaxmifum wjznf;jznf; vlvl
csi;f aoG;pkyrf u
_ if;wJh uGejf rLepfpepfukd {uefrck sxal xmifEikd rf mS jzpfw,f?
vlvlcsif; aoG;pkyfwJhpepf/ vlwef;pm;/ EdkifiHawmf/ ygwDqdkwJh tjcif;t&m
awG[m xkwv
f yk af &;y&dabm*awGukd yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf t
_ jzpf xm;&S&d mu
ay:aygufvmwmawG jzpfw,f?
'ga=umifh xkwv
f yk af &;y&dabm*awGukd yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf p_ epftjzpf
xm;&Sdr_tm; zsufodrf;EdkifrSom vlwef;pm;/ vlvlcsif; aoG;pkyfr_pepf[m
yaysmufayvdrfhr,f? EdkifiHawmf/ ygwDqdkwJh tjcif;t&mawG[m wjznf;
jznf;!‡dK;EGrf; uG,faysmufoGm;vdrfhr,f?
'ga=umifh uGefjrLepfavmura&mufrD aemifjzpfay:vmr,fh
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm;vHk;&J@ ordkif;[mvnf; vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ&J@ordkif;yJ
jzpfayvdrfhr,f?
4? 'Dpmtkyt
f cef; (2) xJrmS “Tt"dym` ,ft& uGejf rLepfrsm;.
oabmw&m;udk pmwa=umif;wnf;jzifh csKyfvu
kd v
f #if yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf u
_ dk
zsufodrf;a&;yifjzpf.” vdk@ygw,f?
'Dae&mrSm yk*v
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d ypPn;f zsuo
f rd ;f a&;qdw
k m bmudq
k v
kd w
kd mvJ?
vlwOD;csif;pDydkifwhJ aexdkifr_b0ypPnf;rsm; (Oyrm pm;0wfaea&;
13

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

twGuf vdktyfwJhae@pOfoHk; yk*~vduydkifypPnf;rsm;) udk yk*~vduydkifypPnf;
tjzpf ydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;ypf&ef ajymaewmr[kwf? zsufodrf;ypf&ef
ajymaewmu vlvlcsif;aoG;pkyfr_udk jzpfay:apwJh/ aoG;pkyfvlwef;pm;udk
jzpfay:apwJ/h Edik if aH wmfukd jzpfay:apwJh xkwv
f yk af &;y&dabm*awG (Oyrm
ajr,m/ opfawm/ puf±Hk/ tvkyf±Hk/ owWKwGif;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;/
ukeo
f ,
G af &;/ b%fwu
kd f tp&Sw
d mawG) udk yk*v
~ u
d ypPn;f tjzpf ydik q
f ikd rf _
udkom zsufodrf;ypf&ef ajymaewmjzpfw,f?
5? 'Dpmtkyftcef; (3) xJrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' twkta,mif
trsKd;rsKd;udk azmfjyxm;w,f? tESpf 100 ausmfu rmhufpfeJ@ tdef*,fwdk@
a&;om;azmfjycJhwJh qdk&S,fvpf0g' twkta,mifawG[m uae@xufwdkif
&Sad eao;wmyJ r[kwv
f m;´ Oyrm rvGwaf jrmufrD ,cifuarBm'D;,m;u
oD[mEk/ tdEdN,u tif'D&m*END/ tD*spfu emqm tp&Sdoltrsm;tjym;
uvnf; olwdk@wdkif;jynfawGrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' wnfaqmufaeygw,fvdk@
ajymcJh=uwmyJ r[kwfvm;´ ArmjynfrSmaum´ ae0if;/ pef;,kwdk@[m
ArmjynfrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' wnfaqmufaewmyJvdk@ jynfolvlxkudk
vdrfnmaewmyJ r[kwfvm;´
olwdk@ajymae=uwJh qdk&S,fvpf0g'qdkwmawG[m qdk&S,fvpf0g'
twk ta,mifawGom jzpfw,f? rmhupf 0f g'/ vDeif0g'/ armfpw
D ek ;f tawG;
tac:udk vufrcHbJ b,fheJ@vkyf+yD; qdk&S,fvpf0g'tppfudk wnfaqmuf
EdkifrSmvJ´
u|ef a wmf w d k @ uG e f j rLepf y gwD t ppf a wG u wnf a qmuf r ,f h
qdk&S,fvpf0g'uawmh rmhufpf0g'/ vDeif0g'/ armfpDwkef;tawG;tac:
rlawGtay: tajccH+yD;/ 'DrlawGeJ@ rdrdwdkif;jynftajctaeeJ@ udkufnDwJh/
0dZ…menf;uswJh qdk&S,fvpf0g' tppfjzpfw,f?
'DuGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk xkwfjyefcJhwm ESpfaygif; 129
ESp&f ydS g+yD? 'gayrJh 'Dpmtkyx
f rJ mS ygwhJ tajccHral wG[m tckxufwikd f rSeu
f ef
vsuf&Sdaewkef;yJ?
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14

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

o¿mefrmS awmh tvGeaf wmufajymif vSywduswhJ pum;vH;k awGukd a&G;
cs,o
f ;kH E_e;f xm;wmudk awG@Eikd yf gw,f? Oyrm 'Dpmtky&f @J aemufq;kH tyd'k f
2 ydk'fudk zwf=unfhyg? 'Dvdka&;xm;w,f?
“uGejf rLepfrsm;onf rdrw
d @kd .tjrifEiS hf &nf&,
G cf surf sm;udk zk;H uG,f
xdrf0Sufxm;&ef rkef;wD;&GH&Sm=uonf? wnf&Sdaeaom vlr_a&;tajctae
tm;vHk;udk t=urf ; zuf a omenf ; jzif h òzcszsuf q D ; ypf E d k i f r S o m ·
rdrw
d @kd .&nfreS ;f csuu
f kd &&SEd ikd v
f rd rhf nf[k ajAmiftwdtvif; a=unmonf?
uGejf rLepfawmfveS af &;udk tkypf ;kd aomvlwef;pm;rsm;u xdwfvef@+y;D a=umuf
'l;wkefae=uygap/ ypPnf;rJhrsm;twGufum; olwdk@udkwky f aESmifxm;aom
aESmifóu;rsm;rSty qHk;±_H;p&m[lIr&Sd? olwdk@pdk;ydkif&rnfum; wurBmvHk;
yifwnf;?”
“wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm; aoG;pnf;=uavmh!”
uJ- 'Dpmyd'k u
f kd zwfvu
kd &f wmeJ@wòyifeuf 'Dpmtky&f @J tESpo
f m&
eufeJr_eJ@ tvGefvSywJh toGifo¿mefudk awG@&+yDr[kwfvm;´ uGefjrL
epfawGeJ@ awmfvSefa&;orm;awGtwGuf 'Dpmydk'f[m b,favmufrsm;
pdwt
f m;xufoefra_ wG wzGm;zGm; wufapygovJ? awmufajymif aumif;
rGefwJhtem*wfudk b,favmufrsm; uGif;uGif;uGufuGuf &Sif;vif; jywf
om;pGm jrifEikd yf gapovJ´ u|eaf wmfw@kd uGejf rLepfawGe@J ypPn;f rJh vlwef;
pm; vkyfom;jynfolawGuomv#if aemufqHk; atmifyGJudk qGwfcl;Edkif&
r,fqdkwm ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpfzG,f&m &SdEdkifygao;ovm;´
awmfvSefa&;vkyfief;rSefor#udk aqmif&Guf&mrSm vlwef;pm;/
vlwef;pm;yËdyuQ/ vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJqdkwmudk uGefjrLepfavmu r
a&mufrD uGefjrLepfwdkif;u pGJpGJ+rJ+rJqkyfudkifxm;&r,fh aomhcsufjzpfw,f
qdkwm b,fawmhrSrarh=uygeJ@?
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· trSmpum;a&;ol. tav;xm;csuf
15

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

t}uHay;vdkygw,f?
aemufq;kH taeeJ@ 'Dpmtkyu
f kd tckvkd tcuftcJtrsK;d rsK;d =um;xJrS
atmifjrifpmG yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0Edik af tmif wm0efxrf;aqmif=uwJh omomjyef
&JabmfawG/ pmpDykHESdyfwJh &JabmfawG/ pmwnf;jzwfwJh &JabmfawGeJ@
'Dvkyfief;eJ@ywfoufwhJ &Jabmf awGtm;vHk;udk csD;usL;*k%fðyvdkufygw,f?
Armpmom wwfwhJ &Jabmfrsm;eJ@ jynfov
l x
l {k &mr trsm;pk}uD;
twGuf rmhupf /f tde*f ,f/ vDeif/ pwmvife@J OuUÏ}uD;armfpw
D ek ;f wd@k ðypk
a&;om;cJhwJh usrf;}uD;usrf;i,f tapmifapmifudk qufvufyHkESdyfxkwfa0
Edkifygap?
Aodef;wif
OuUÏ
A[dak umfrwD
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD
1977 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmv 8 &uf

16

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

rmwd u m
1872ckEpS f *smrefbmomyHEk ydS jf cif;ed'ge;f
(18)
(21 )
1882 ckESpf ±k&Sm;bmomyHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef;
1883 ckEpS f *smrefbmomyHEk ydS jf cif; ed'ge;f
(24)
1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f momyHEk ydS jf cif; ed'ge;f
(26)
1890 ckEpS f *smrefbmomyHEk ydS jf cif;ed'ge;f
(35)
(44)
1892 ckESpf ydkvefbmomyHkESdyfjcif; ed'gef;
1893 ckEpS f tDwvDbmomyHEk ydS jf cif; ed'ge;f
(47)
uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;
(50)
(52)
tcef; (1) "e&Sifrsm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;
(73)
tcef; (2) ypPnf;rJhrsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfrsm;
tcef; (3) qd&k ,
S v
f pfEiS hf uGejf rLepfpmay
(88)
1? azmufjyefaomqd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'
(88)
(u) ya'o&mZfq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'
(88)
(c) "e&Siaf ygupf qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'
(91)
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2? orm;±d;k us od@k r[kwf "e&Siq
f &kd ,
S v
f pf0g' (97)
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uGejf rLepf0g'
(99)
tcef; (4) wnf&Sdaeaom qef@usifbuf
ygwt
D oD;oD;tay: uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmxm;
(104)
aemufqufwJG
(108)
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(108)
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(110)
trnft!$e;f
(121)
17

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

1872 ck E S p f *smref b mom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
xdkpOfu wnf&Sdaeonfh ta=umif;tcsufrsm;a=umifh v#Kd@0Suf
toif; wckom jzpfEdkifaom EdkifiHwumh tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; wck
jzpfonfh uGejf rLepftoif;csKyfonf vef'efòr@wiG f 184& ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmvu
usif;yaomuGef*&ufY ygwD. oabmw&m;a&;ESifh vufawG@ tao;
pdwfvkyfief;pOfwckudk yHkESdyfxkwfa0a&;twGuf atmufwGif vufrSwf
a&;xd;k xm;olrsm;tm; a&;qG&J efwm0efay;tyfcahJ yonf? Tum; azmfjy
rnfh a=unmpmwrf; ay:xGufvmyHkyif jzpfygonf? vufa&;rlrsm;udk
azazmf0g&DawmfvSefa&;· rwdkifrD &ufowWywftcsKd@uyif yHkEdSyf&eftwGuf
vef'efòr@odk@ ydk@vdkufonf? OD;pGm*smrefbmomjzifh yHkESdyfcJhonf? ‚
bmomESiyhf if *smr%Djynf/ t*FvefjynfEiS hf tar&duwdu
k w
f @kd wiG f tenf;
qHk; q,fEh pS }f udrrf # yHEk ydS jf cif;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh jyefvnfxw
k af 0cJyh gonf? 1850
1
ck E S p f Y &uf & D y wf y vpf u if wG i f t*F v d y f b momjzif h rpP [ ,f v if
rufzmvde.
f bmomjyefcsuu
f kd yxrqH;k t}udrf yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJ+h yD;/ 1871
ckESpfwGif tar&duwdkufY rwlaombmomjyefcsuf tenf;qHk;oHk;rsKd;jzifh
xkwaf 0cJah yonf? 1848 ckEpS f ZGev
f xºur_rwdik rf u
D av;rSmyif yJ&pfòr@wiG f
jyifopfbmomjyefcsuf yxrqHk; ay:xGufvmcJh+yD;aemuf e,l;a,mufòr@
qdk&S,fvpf*sme,f2 xJwGif r=umao;rDu azmfjycJhjyefonf? bmomjyef
qdkcsuf topfwckudkvnf; jyifqifaeqJjzpfonf? *smrefbmomESifh
yxrt}udrf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJh+yD;aemuf r=umrDrSmyif ydkvefbmomjzifh
vef'efòr@wGif ay:xGufvmcJhonf? 60 pkESpfrsm;wGif ±k&Sm;bmomjzifh
*sDeDAmòr@wGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? a=unmpmwrf; yxrqHk;ay:xGuf+yD;
·

18

jyifopfjynf 1848 ckEpS f azazmf0g&aD wmfveS af &;? (t,f'w
D m)

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

aemuf r=umrDwiG yf if 'de;f rwfbmomjzifv
h nf; bmomjyefqv
kd u
kd o
f nf?
+yD;cJhaom ESpfq,fhig;ESpfwmumvtwGif; tajctaersm;onf
rnfr#yif ajymif;vJapumr_ Ta=unmpmwrf;wGif csrSwfcJhaom a,bk
,srlrsm;onf wckvHk;taejzifh ,ae@xdwav#mufvHk; rSefuefayonf?
xkdae&m Tae&mwdk@Y tcsKd@ tao;pdwfrsm;udk ðyjyifaumif; ðyjyif
&ayrnf? rlrsm;udk vufawG@ toH;k csa&;onf a=unmpmwrf;u azmfjy
xm;onft
h wdik ;f tcsed af e&mra&G; umvwckwiG f wnf&adS eaom orkid ;f
qkdif&m ta=umif;tcsufrsm;ay:wGif wnfayvdrfhrnf? T ta=umif;
a=umifh tcef; (2) . tqH;k wGif wifjyxm;aom awmfveS af &; aqmif&u
G f
csurf sm;ESihf ywfoufI txl;tav;wif; razmfjyawmhay? ,ae@tzd@k qdyk grl
Tpmyd'k &f dS jy\emtajrmuftjrm;udk tvGeu
f jJG ym;jcm;em;aom pum;
toHk;tE_ef;wdk@jzifh a&;om;&ayvdrfhrnf? +yD;cJhaom ESpfq,fhig;ESpfwm
umvtwGif; acwfopfpufr_vkyfief;. ajcvSrf;usJ}uD;rsm;ESifh vSr;f wuf
vmr_/ ‚ESifhtwl vdkufygvmaom tvkyform;vlwef;pm;. ygwDpnf;
±H;k a&; aumif;rGeu
f s,jf yef@vmr_w@kd ukd axmuf±v
_ #iv
f nf;aumif;/ azazmf
0g&aD wmfveS af &;wGif yxrqH;k &&Sv
d u
kd af om vufawG@tawG@tñuHEiS hf xdrk #
ru ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u ESpfvwdkifwdkif yxrqHk;t}udrf EdkifiHa&;tm
%mudk odrf;ydkufvdkufaom yJ&pfbHktzGJ@ wGif ydkrdkI&&Sdvdkufonfh tawG@
tñuH w d k @ ud k axmuf ± _ v #if v nf ; aumif ; / tcsKd @ tao;pd w f r sm;wG i f
Tvkyfief;pOfonf acwfrrDawmhay? bHktzGJ@u tcsufwckudk txl;
oufaojyvdkufay.? ‚rSm “tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf toifh&Sd+yD;
om; Edik if aH wmf,EW&m;udk tvG,w
f ul qkyu
f ikd u
f m rdr.
d &nf&,
G cf surf sm;udk
jyifopfjynf
xajrmufatmif toHk;ðyIrjzpfEdkifay” [lIjzpfonf? (jyif
,ff tvk y f o rm;tpnf ; t±H k ; taxG
jynf w G i f ; ppf y G J / tif w mae&S i f e ,
axGaumifpD rde@f ceG ;f / vef'efòr@- x±l;vyfz/f 1871 ckEpS /f pmrsuEf mS 15 wGif
Ttcsufudk qufvufjzpfay:wdk;yGm;xm;onf u d k =unf h y g?) xd k @ jyif
rsufarSmufumvwGif qdk&S,fvpf0g'pmaytay: a0zefa&;onf rjynfhpHk
onf r S m tvd k v d k x if & S m ;ayonf ? tb,f a =umif h q d k a omf ‚a0zef
19

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

a&;onf 1847 ckESpftxdom jzpfaoma=umifh yifwnf;? qef@usifbuf
ygwt
D oD;oD;tay: uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmxm;ta=umif; rSwcf surf sm;
(tcef; 4) onfvnf; rlt& rSefuefaeqJ jzpfapumrl vufawG@wGif
acwfrrDawmhay? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf EdkifiHa&;tajctaeonf vHk;0
ajymif;vJoGm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif ordkif;wdk;wufvmr_u
xdktcef;wGif azmfjyxm;aom EdkifiHa&;ygwD trsm;ydkif;udk urBmajrjyifrS
z,f&Sm;ypfvdkufay+yD?
odk@aomf a=unmpmwrf;onf ordkif;qdkif&mpmwrf; jzpfvm
&um; ajymif;vJypf&ef rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rS u|efawmfwdk@wGif r&Sday?
aemiftcgwiG f 1847 ckEpS Ef iS hf ,ae@t=um;&Sd uGm[r_ukd aygi;f ul;ay;aom
ed'gef;wckyg0ifonfh aemufw}udrf yHkESdyfjcif; ay:xGufvmEdkifp&m &Sday
onf? odk@aomf TjyefvnfyHkESdyfjcif;onf ±kwfw&uf ay:xGufvmaom
a=umifh xdk@uJhodk@aom ed'gef;a&;&eftwGuf u|efawmfwdk@wGif tcsdefrvHk
avmufawmhay?
um;vfrmhufpf/ z&uf'&pf tdef*,f
1872 ckEpS f ZGev
f 24 &uf/vef'efòr@?

20

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

1882 ck E S p f ±k & S m ;bmom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
bmuleif bmomjyefqdkaom uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf ;
±k&Sm;bmom yxryHkESdyfjcif;udk udkvdkaum3 owif;pmtm; yHkESdyfonf h
pmyHkESdyfwdkufu 60 pkESpfrsm;tapmydkif;· wGif xkwfa0cJhonf? xdkpOfu
taemufwdkif;onf ‚ (a=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmomyHkESdyfjcif;) udk
pmayavmu txl;tqef;wcktjzpfom em;vnfEdkif=uayonf? T
tjrifrsKd;onf ,ae@wGif rjzpfEdkifawmhay?
xdktcsdef (1847 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv) u wnf&Sdaeaom ypPnf;
rJ h v l w ef ; pm; v_ y f & S m ;r_ e ,f y ,f o nf rnf r #tuef @ towf & S d a eonf
qdo
k nfukd Ta=unmpm wrf;. aemufq;kH tcef;&Sd wdik ;f jynftoD;oD;rS
qef@usifbuf ygwDtoD;oD;tay: uGefjrLepfrsm;. oabmxm;wGif
t&Sif;vif;qHk; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf? xdktcef;wGif ±k&Sm;jynfESifh tar&d
uefjynfaxmifpkwdk@onf vHk;vHk;rygcJh=uay? xdktcsdefu ±k&Sm;jynfonf
Oa&myazmufjyefa&;tm;vH;k . aemufq;kH t&efwyf}uD; jzpfae+yD;/ tar&d
uefjynfaxmifpo
k nf Oa&myrS ydv
k #aH om ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; tiftm;pk
rsm;udk ajymif;a&$@aexdkifcGifhay;um 0g;rsKdypfaeayonf? xdkwdkif;jynf
ESpjf ynfpvH;k onf Oa&mywdu
k o
f @kd uke=f urf;ypPn;f rsm; axmufy+hH yD; wcsed f
wnf;wGif Oa&mywdkuf. pufr_xGufukefrsm; a&mif;cs&maps;uGufrsm;
vnf; jzpfcJhonf? odk@jzpfI xdkpOfu wdkif;jynfESpfjynfpvHk;onf wnf&Sd
aeaom Oa&mypepf. a'guw
f ikd rf sm; wenf;r[kwf wenf; jzpfcahJ yonf?
·

T&ufpaJG zmfjycsurf mS rrSeu
f ef/ ud;k um;azmfjyxm;onfh yHEk ydS jf cif;rSm
1869 ckEpS w
f iG f ay:xGucf o
hJ nf? (t,f'w
D m)
21

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

,ae@qdkv#if vGefpGmuGmjcm;oGm;avpG! Oa&mywdkufu ajymif;
a&$@aexdkifr_onf ajrmuftar&duwdkuf. }uD;us,fvSaom v,f,m
xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf vHk;0tH0ifcGifus jzpfapcJhonf? ajrmuftar&du
wdu
k .
f òyifqikd rf o
_ nf Oa&my&Sd ajr,mt}uD;tao;ydik q
f ikd rf u
_ kd t&if;
tjrpfrS udik v
f y_ yf pfvu
kd af wmhonf? xdrk #ru ‚tjcif;t&mu tar
&duefjynfaxmifpktm; rdrd. }uD;rm;vSaom pufr_vkyfief;a&aomuf
jrpfrsm;udk tifwdkuftm;wdkuf oHk;pGJEdkifaponf? ToHk;pGJr_twdkif;twm
onf taemufOa&my txl;ojzifh ,ckx&d adS eaom t*Fvefjynf. pufr_
vkyfief; vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udk tcsdeftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif rkcsyif csKd;zsuf
ypfvrd rhf nf jzpfonf? tajctaeESp&f yfpvH;k u tar&duwdu
k u
f kd awmfveS f
aom *,uf±u
kd cf wfr_ jzpfapjyefonf? Edik if aH &;taqmufttHk wckv;kH .
tajccHtkwfjrpfjzpfonfh ti,fpm;ESifh tvwfpm; v,f,mydkif&Sifrsm;.
ajr,monf v,f,mvkycf if;}uD;rsm;. òyifqikd rf u
_ kd wpwpESihf t±_;H ay;
vdkuf&ay+yD? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif pufr_vkyfief;a'orsm;wGif ypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;xkESifhwuG t&if;tESD;rsm; tHhrcef;pkpnf;vmr_onfvnf;
yxrqHk;t}udrf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmaeayonf?
,ck ±k&Sm;jynfudk =unfh=updk@! 1848- 49 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;
jzpfyGm;pOfu Oa&myrS rif;nDrif;om;rsm;omru/ Oa&my"e&Sifrsm;uyg
Edk;=um;pðyvm+yDjzpfaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;.vufwGif;rS ‚wdk@udk
u,fwifEikd o
f nfh wckwnf;aom u,fwif&iS rf mS ±k&mS ;jynf. usL;ausmf
pGuzf ufro
_ mjzpfa=umif;udk awG@&SdcJh=uonf? Zmbk&ifudk Oa&mywdkuf&Sd
azmufjyefa&; xdyo
f ;D tjzpf armif;cwfc=hJ uonf? ,ae@wiG u
f m; Zmbk&if
4
onf *wfcsDem; wGif awmfvSefa&;. ppfoHk@yef; jzpfaeav+yD? ±k&Sm;
jynfonf Oa&mywdkuf awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. wyfOD;jzpfvmay+yD?
uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;u acwfopf"e&Sifydkifqdkifr_onf rkcs
ysuo
f Ok ;f awmhrnf jzpfa=umif;udk a=unm&ef &nf&,
G af yonf? od@k aomf
±k&mS ;jynfwiG f vsijf refpmG jzpfay:wd;k yGm;vmaeaom t&if;&Siv
f n
S jfh zm;r_EiS hf
pwifwdk;yGm;vmaeaom "e&Sifajr,mydkifqdkifr_wdk@onf v,form;rsm;
22

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

udk,fwdkif ajr,mxuf0ufausmftm; bHkydkifqdkifxm;r_ESifh xdyfwdkufjzpfae
onfudk u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrif=u&onf? rsufarSmufjy\emrSm tvGef
trif; ,dk,Gif;aeapumrl a&S;OD;ajr,mbHkydkifqdkifr_o¿mefyif jzpfae
atmhAf&SD;em;5 onf ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom uGefjrLepfbHkydkifqdkifr_
ao;onfh ±k&Sm;atmh
o¿mefodk@ wdkuf±dkuful;ajymif;oGm;Edkifoavm? odk@r[kwf qef@usif
buftm;jzifh taemufwikd ;f . wpwpajymif;vJa&; ordik ;f jzpfay:r_uo
hJ @kd
aom a=uðyef;a&; jzpfpOftwdik ;f OD;pGmjzwfoef;&rnfavm? [lIyifjzpf.?
‚jy\em. wckwnf;aom tajztjzpf ,ae@jzpfEikd o
f nfrmS / tu,fI
±k & S m ;awmf v S e f a &;onf taemuf w d k i f ; ypP n f ; rJ h a wmf v S e f a &;twG u f
wyfveS @f ay;r_ jzpfvm+yD;/ wckEiS w
hf ck tjyeftvSef tm;jznfah y;vdu
k yf gu
vuf&±dS &k mS ;jynf. bHak jr,mydik q
f ikd rf o
_ nf uGejf rLepfpepf jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_
twGuf tpcsD&mtcsufjzpfayvdrfhrnf?
um;vf rmhupf /f z&uf'&pf tde*f ,f
1882 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D 21 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

23

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

1883 ck E S p f *smref b mom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
Tt}udrfyHkESdyfjcif;.ed'gef;wGif u|efawmfwOD;wnf;omv#if
vufrw
S af &; xd;k &ayawmhrnf? Oa&myESihf tar&duwdu
k &f dS tvkyo
f rm;
vlwef;pm;w&yfvHk;tm; rnfol@xufrqdk ydkrdktusKd;ðycJhol rmhufpfonf
[dik ;f *dwo
f o
k mefwiG f vJavsmif;aeay+yD? ol.ajryHx
k ufwiG f yxr jrufEk
uav;rsm;yifv#if ayguI
f aeav+yD? olu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;uwnf;u Ta=u
nmpmwrf;udk jyifqif&ef/ od@k wnf;r[kwf xyfrjH znfph u
G &f efw@kd ukd pOf;pm;
r_wdk@onf ydkIenf;yg;oGm;av+yD? Ted'gef;wGif atmufygtwdkif; tav;
teufxyfrHazmfjy&ef vdktyfonf[k u|efawmfxifjrif,lqygonf?
a=unmpmwrf ; wck v H k ; . tajccH t awG ; tac:rS m æord k i f ;
acwfumvwdkif;. pD;yGm;a&;xkwfvkyfr_ESifh ‚rS rkcsay:aygufvmaom
vlr_taqmufttHkonf tqdkyg acwfumv. EdkifiHa&;ESifh tod^m%f
qdik &f m ordik ;f twGuf tajccHtw
k f jrpfjzpfa=umif; od@k jzifh (ajr,mtay:
a&S;OD;bHyk ikd q
f ikd rf _ òyuGo
J mG ;+yD;uwnf;u) ordik ;f wckv;kH onf vlrw
_ ;kd yGm;r_
tqifhtoD;oD;&Sd vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;.ordkif;/ aoG;pkyfcHESifh aoG;pkyfol/
tkyfpdk;cHESifh tkyfpdk;ol vlwef;pm;rsm;t=um;&Sd wdkufyGJrsm;. ordkif;jzpfcJh
a=umif;/ odk@aomfvnf; TwdkufyGJonf ,cktcg aoG;pkyfzdESdyfcH&aom
vlwef;pm; (ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;) u vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;udk aoG;pkyfr_/
zdESdyfr_ESifhwuG vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;rS xm0pOf vGwfu|wfoGm;atmif
wcsdefwnf; rvkyfaqmifv#if rdrdtay: aoG;pkyfzdESdyfaom vlwef;pm;
24

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

("e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;) vufatmufrS rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd v
f nf; vGwaf jrmufEikd af wmh
rnfr[kwfonfhtqifhodk@ ,cktcgwGif a&muf&Sdvma=umif;æ[lIyif
jzpfonf? TtajccHtawG;tac:udk rmhufpf wOD;wnf;uomv#if vHk;0
ydkifqdkifay.?·
Ttcsufudk }udrfzefrsm;pGm u|efawmfazmfjycJh+yD; jzpfygonf?
od@k aom af =unmpmwrf;. a&S@q;kH ae&mwGif Ttcsuyf g&adS e&ef ,cktcg
trSefyif vdktyfvSygonf?
tufzf tdef*,ff
1883 ckEpS /f ZGev
f 28 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

·

t*Fvdyfbmomjyef ed'gef;wGif “u|efawmfhxifjrifcsufrSm ZD0aA'
e,fy,fwiG f 'g0if.oabmw&m;u tusK;d ðycJo
h nft
h wdik ;f T wifjycsuo
f nfvnf;
ordik ;f a&;&mtwGuf tusK;d ðyr_ jzpfygonf? 1845 ckEpS rf wdik rf D ESpaf ygi;f tcsK@d u
u|efawmfw@kd EpS Of ;D pvH;k onf/ Ttcsuq
f o
D dk@ wjznf;jznf; csOf;uyfvmcJh=u.?
Ttcsuq
f o
D @kd u|eaf wmf trSt
D cdk uif;pGm tb,fr# OD;wnfwufvrS ;f oGm;cJo
h nfukd
u|efawmfa&;om;cJhaom ‘t*Fveffjynf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;tajctae’
pmtkyu
f taumif;qH;k azmfjyvsu&f ydS gonf? od@k aomf 1845 ckEpS f aEGO;D umv
b&yfqv
J òf r@wiG f u|eaf wmfEiS hf rmhupf f xyfraH wG@qkH aomtcg rmhupf o
f nf ‚
tcsuu
f kd tqifoifðh ypk+y;D jzpfaeonf? Ttcsuu
f kd u|eaf wmfx
h H wifjy&mY toH;k
tE_e;f tm;vH;k eD;yg;yif Tae&mwGif u|eaf wmf azmfjy xm;ouJo
h @kd &Si;f vif;jywf
om;vSygonf?” [k u|efawmfa&;om;cJhonf? (1890 ckESpf *smrefbmom
yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f ?
25

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

1888 ck E S p f t*F v d y f b mom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
“a=unmpmwrf;” udk tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;wckjzpfaom
“uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf” .vkyfief;pOftjzpf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? T
toif;csKyfonf tpydik ;f wGif *smreftoif;csKyf oufoufjzpf+yD; aemufyikd ;f
wGif EdkifiHwumhtoif; jzpfvmonf? Ttoif;onf 1848 ckESpfrwdkif
rDu Oa&mywdu
k .
f Edik if aH &;ta=umif;tcsurf sm;atmufwiG f rv$rJ a&Smif
om v#Kd@0SuftzGJ@tpnf;wck jzpfcJhayonf? 1847 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvu
vef'efòr@wGifusif;yaom uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf. uGef*&ufY rmhufpfESifh
tdef*,fwdk@tm; jynfhpHkaomoabmw&m;ESifh vufawG@qdkif&m ygwDvkyf
ief;pOfw&yf xkwaf 0a&;twGuf jyifqif=u&ef wm0efay;tyfc.
hJ ? 1848
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif *smrefbmomjzifh a&;qGJcJh+yD;/ vufa&;rludk azazmf
0g&v
D 24 &ufae@wiG f jzpfymG ;aom jyifopfawmfveS af &;rwdik rf D &ufowW
ywftcsK@d wiG f vef'efòr@&dS pmyHEk ydS w
f u
kd o
f @kd yd@k ay;cJo
h nf? 1848 ckEpS f ZGev
f
ykefuefxºur_rwdkifrDuav;rSm yJ&pfòr@Y jyifopfbmomjyef ay:xGuf
vmcJhonf? rpP[,fvifrufzmvdef. yxr t*Fvdyfbmomjyefonf
1850 ckESpf vef'efòr@ a*smh*sLvD,ef[mae. “&uf&Dywfyvpfuif”
*sme,fwiG f yg&cdS o
hJ nf? 'de;f rwfEiS hf ydv
k efbmomrsm;jzifv
h nf; xkwaf 0+yD;
26

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

cJhav+yD?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;ESihf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;wd@k . yxrt}udrf }uD;rm;
onfh wdu
k yf jGJ zpfaom 1848 ckEpS f ZGev
f yJ&pfyek u
f efxºur_ ta&;edro
hf mG ;
jcif;u Oa&mytvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;. vlra_ &;ESihf Edik if aH &;ar#mrf eS ;f csuf
rsm;udk umvwckxd xyfrHI aemufodk@wGef;ydk@vdkufavonf? xdt
k csed rf S
pI tay:pD;&a&; wdu
k yf o
JG nf azazmf0g&aD wmfveS af &; rwdik rf u
D uJo
h @kd yif
ypPn;f &Sv
d w
l ef;pm;. rwlaom tpdwt
f ydik ;f rsm;t=um;wGio
f m xyfrHjzpf
yGm;cJhawmhonf? tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rSmrlum; usOf;ajrmif;vSaom
EdkifiHa&;ae&m &&Sda&;twGuf wdkufcdkuf&onfh taetxm;ESifh tv,f
tvwfvlwef;pm; &,f'Du,frsm;. tvGeftu|H*dk%f; taetxm;xd
av#musoGm;cJh&onf? trSDcdkuif;aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
&Sio
f efaom vuQ%mrsm; qufvufjyoaeonfh ae&mwdik ;f wGif t=uif
emuif;rJhpGm vdkufvHzrf;qDjcif; cHcJh&onf? odk@jzifh udkvHk;òr@wGif xdkpOfu
tajcpdkufxm;aom uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf A[dkbkwftzG@J udk y&yf&Sm;ykvdyf
tzG@J u &SmazGawG@&o
dS mG ;+yD; tzG@J 0ifrsm; tzrf;cHc&hJ onf? q,f&h pS v
f wdik w
f ikd f
tusOf;csxm;+yD;aemuf 1852 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvrSm olwdk@tm;
±Hk;wifppfaq;cJhonf? xif&Sm;ausmfapmaom “udkvHk;òr@ uG e f j rLepf t r_
ppfaq;jcif;”6 onf atmufwdkbm 4 &ufae@rS Edk0ifbm 12 &ufae@xd
tcsdef=umjrifhcJhonf? tusOf;om;ckepfa,mufudk cHwyfwckwnf;wGif
axmif'%foHk;ESpfrS ajcmufESpftxd toD;oD;tjypfay;vdkufonf? pD&if
csufcs+yD;aemuf csufcsif;yif usef&pfaeaom tzGJ@0ifrsm;u toif;csKyf
udk w&m;0if zsuo
f rd ;f ypfvu
kd =f u.? “a=unmpmwrf;” rSmrl xdt
k csed rf S
p+yD; arhavsmhypfxm;jcif; cH&oavmufyifwnf;?
Oa&my tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;rsm;udk
aemufxyfwzef wdkufcdkuf&eftwGuf vHkavmufaomtiftm; jyefvnf
&&Sv
d maomtcg tifwmae&Sief ,f tvkyo
f rm;tpnf;t±H;k ay:xGuv
f m
onf? od@k aomf Oa&myESihf tar&duwdu
k rf sm;&Sd wdu
k pf w
d cf u
kd pf w
d f xufoef
aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;w&yfvHk;udk wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfatmif aygif;
27

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

pnf;&ef wdus&iS ;f vif;aom &nfreS ;f csujf zifh zG@J pnf;xm;onfh T tpnf;
t±Hk;onf “a=unmpmwrf;” wGif csrSwfxm;aomrlrsm;udk csufcsif;
rxkwjf yefEikd cf ahJ y? tifwmae&Sief ,fonf t*Fvyd f tvkyo
f rm; or*~rsm;/
jyifopf/ b,fvf*sD,H/ tDwvDESifh pydefjynf&Sd ya&muf'Gef; aemufvdkuf
rsm;ESifh *smr%Djynf&Sd vmaq;0g'Drsm;· u vufcHEdkifavmufatmif
us,fjyef@aom vkyfief;pOfw&yf &Sd&rnfjzpf.? ygwDtm;vHk;u auseyf
Edkifonfh Tvkyfief;pOf·· udk a&;qGJcJhaom rmhufpfonf yl;aygif;ðyrlr_ESifh
tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;r_wdk@rS ay:xGufvm&ef aocsmaom tvkyform;
vlwef;pm;. tod^m%fjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tay: vHk;0,Hk=unfcJh.? t&if;
tESD;udk qef@usifonfh wdkufyGJtjzpftysufrsm;ESifh twuftusrsm;/
atmifyGJrsm;xufyif ydkrdkonfhqHk;±H_;r_rsm;u olwdk@.tóuufjzpfaom
aq;+rD;wkrd sK;d pk.
H rvHak vmufru
_ kd vltrsm;tm; rv$rJ a&Smifom oabm
ayguv
f maponf? xd@k jyif tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm; vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf
vnf; ppfrSefaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;tm; ydkrdkjynfhpHkpGm odjrifr_qDodk@
vrf;cif;ay;vdkuf.? rmhufpfonf rSefuefayonf? 1874 ckESpf tifwm
ae&Sife,f zsufodrf;vdkufaomtcg tvkyform;rsm;rSm 1864 ckESpf
wke;f u awG@&&dS aom tvkyo
f rm;rsm;ESihf vH;k 0rwlawmhay? jyifopfjynf&dS
ya&muf'Gef;0g'onfvnf;aumif;/ *smr%Djynf&Sd vmaq;0g'wdk@onf
vnf;aumif; toufiifaeav+yD? or±dk;us t*Fvdyftvkyform;or*~
·

u|eaf wmfw@kd EiS ahf wG@wikd ;f vmaq;ud,
k w
f ikd u
f olonfrmhupf .
f wynfh
&if; jzpfa=umif;/ wynf&h if;yDopGmyif “a=unmpmwrf;” tay:wGif &yfwnfchJ
a=umif; tpOfajymqdak vh&o
dS nf? od@k aomf 1862 ckEpS rf S 1864 ckEpS t
f wGi;f ol.
vlxv
k @H_ aqmfcsuYf Edik if aH wmfacs;aiGrsm;. tultnD&onfh or0g,rtvkycf ef;
rsm;udk awmif;qdjk cif;xufyI
kd vmaq;onf a&S@rwufawmhay? (tde*f ,f.
f rSwf
csu)f
··
tifwmae&Sief ,f tvkyo
f rm;tpnf;t±H;k tzGirhf ed @f ceG ;f udk ud;k um;
xm;jcif; jzpfonf? (t,f'w
D m)
28

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

trsm;pk o nf tcsd e f = umjrif h p G m uwnf ; uyif tif w mae&S i f e ,f E S i f h
tquf j zwf c J h = uaomf v nf ; ‚wd k @ uyif v #if “Oa&mywd k u f } uD ; u
qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk u|efawmfwdk@ a=umufp&m r&Sdawmhyg” [k ,cifESpfu
qGrfqD; 7 òr@wGif or*~OuUÏu ajymqdkEdkifonfhtajcxd wjznf;jznf;
a&mufomG ;cJo
h nf? trSet
f m;jzifh “a=unmpmwrf;” . rlrsm;onf wdik ;f
jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;twGif; tawmfysH@ESH@oGm;cJhonfrSm trSef
yif jzpfonf?
Todk@jzifh “a=unmpmwrf;” udk,fYyifv#if a&S@wef;odk@xyfrH
a&muf vmcJ.
h ? 1850 ckEpS u
f wnf;u *smrefbmompmrlukd qGpZf mvef/
t*FvefEiS hf tar&duwGif t}udrrf sm;pGm jyefvnfyEkH ydS cf o
hJ nf? 1872 ckEpS f
wGif e,l;a,mufòr@Y t*Fvdyfbmomjyefqdkum 0l;'f[m;vfESifh uvm
zvif 8 wd k @ . tywf p Of * sme,f w G i f xnf h o G i f ; azmf j ycJ h o nf ? Tt*F
vdyb
f momjyefqckd surf mS jyifopfbmomod@k jyefqu
kd m e,l; a,mufòr@&dS
qd k & S , f v pf * sme,f w G i f yH k E S d y f x k w f a 0cJ h o nf ? xd k t csd e f r S p I tenf ;
ESifhtrsm;qkdovkd jzwfawmufxm;aom t*Fvdyfbmomjyef tenf;
qHk;ESpfrsKd; tar&duwGif ay:xGufcJhonf? ‚rSwrsKd;udk t*FvefjynfwGif
xyf r H y H k E S d y f v d k u f o nf ? yxrqH k ; aom ±k & S m ;bmomjyef u d k bmul e if
bmomjyef+yD;/ 1863 ckEpS af vmufwiG f [mZif. *seD AD mòr@&dS “udv
k akd um”
owif;pmudk yHkESdyfonfh pmyHkESdyfwdkufrS xkwfa0vdkuf onf? 'kwd,bm
omjyef· udk &J&ifah omtrsK;d orD; bJ&mZql;vpfcsf u bmomjyefum 1882
ckESpfavmufwGif *sDeDAmòr@rSmyif ykHESdyfxkwfa0onf? 1885 ckESpfwGif
ukdyifa[*ifòr@Y 'def;rwfbmomjyeftopfudk “qdk&S,f'Drdk u&ufwpf
·

trSerf mS bmomjyefoo
l nf yvufuaemhzjf zpf.? 1894 ckEpS f bmvifòr@
xkwf tifwmae&Sief ,f atmhp'f ufaAgph wuf (1871- 75) wGif yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf?
“±k&mS ;jynf&dS vlrq
_ ufqaH &;rsm;” aqmif;yg;jznfph u
G cf suw
f iG f tde*f ,fu,
kd w
f ikd u
f
‚udb
k momjyeforl mS yvufuaemhzf jzpfonf[k ud;k um;azmfjyxm;onf? (t,f'D
wm)
29

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

bDbvdu
k su”f pmpOfwiG f awG@&&dS onf? jyifopf bmomjyef topfrmS 1885
ckEpS f yJ&pfòr@xw
k f qdk&S,fvpf *sme,fwGif yg&Sdonf? ‚jyifopfbmomrS
pydefbmomjyefqdkcsufudk 1886 ckESpf ruf'&pfòr@wGif jyifqifxkwfa0
cJhonf? *smrefbmomjzifh xyfrHyHkESdyf xkwfa0jcif;rsm;ukd ra&wGufEdkif
awmhay? tenf;qH;k q,fEh pS }f udrcf ef@&+dS yD? vGecf ahJ omvtcsK@d u uGepf wif
wDEykd ,fòr@wiG f xkwaf 0&efjzpfaom tmar;eD;,m; bmomjyefrmS rxkwf
a0jzpfawmhay? ta=umif;rl yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0olonf rmhupf .
f trnf yg&adS om
pmtkyu
f x
kd w
k af 0&ef a=umuf&@HG onf? bmomjyefou
l vnf; rdrv
d uf&m
jzpf a =umif ; ud k rajymvd k a oma=umif h [ k u|ef a wmf = um;od & onf ?
tjcm;bmompum;rsm;jzifh bmomjyefqrkd r_ sm;udk =um;&aomfvnf; u|ef
awmfrawG@cJh&ay? Todk@jzifh “a=unmpmwrf;” ordkif;onf acwfopf
tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm; v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f udk }uD;rm;aom twdik ;f twmjzifh
a&mifjyef[yfjyvdu
k af yonf? rsuaf rSmufumvwGif a=unm pmwrf;onf
qd&k ,
S v
f pfpmay tm;vH;k xJwiG f tus,jf yef@q;kH aom Edik if H wumhvuQ%m
taqmifqHk;aom/ qdu
k af A;&D;,m;rS umvDz;kd eD;,m;txd oef;aygi;f rsm;
pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;u wlnDaomvkyfief;pOftjzpf todtrSwfðy
xm;aom pmwrf;jzpfonfrmS oHo,jzpfzG,f&mr&Sday?
od@k apumrl a=unmpmwrf;udk a&;om;cJph Ofu u|eaf wmfw@kd onf
qdk&S,fvpfa=unmpmwrf;[k rac:qdkEdkifcJhay? 1847 ckESpfu em;vnf
csuft&qdkv#if qdk&S,fvpfrsm;qdkonfrSm wzufwGif pdwful;,Ofpepf
trsK;d rsK;d . aemufvu
kd rf sm;jzpf=uaom t*Fvefjynfu td0k if0g'rD sm;/ jyif
opfjynfu zd;k &D;,m;0g'rD sm; jzpf=uonf? olw@kd EpS rf sK;d pvH;k onf *d%
k ;f tkyf
pkoufouftjzpfodk@ av#mus&if; wjznf;jznf; uG,faysmufoGm;ae
onf? wjcm;wzufwGif t&if;tESD;ESifh tjrwftpGef;udk rnfodk@r# tEW
&m,fray;bJ vltzGJ@tpnf;. cHpm;epfemr_aygif;pHkudk ukoay;Edkifonf
[k wwfa,mifum;enf;jzifh a[majymae=uonfh a&mifpHkvlr_a&;orm;
a,mifrsm; &Sd=uonf? olwdk@ESpfrsKd;pvHk;onf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;
v_yf&Sm;r_tjyifbufrS vlrsm;jzpfonf? olwdk@onf “ynm&nf0aom”
30

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

vlwef;pm;rsm;. axmufcrH u
_ o
kd m &SmazGae=uonf? Edik if aH &; awmfveS f
r_rsm;oufoufjzifh rvHkavmufonfudk ,Hk=unfvmum vHk;0O\Hk
vlr_ajymif;vJa&;vkyf&ef vdktyfonf[k a=unmvdkuf=uaom tvkyf
orm;vlwef;pm;. rnfodk@aom tpdwftydkif;uyifjzpfap rdrdudk,fudk
uGejf rLepf[k ac:a0:=u.? ‚rSm tacsmrudik &f ao;onfyh =kH urf;/ yifu,
kd f
todoufouf uGejf rLepf0g' trsK;d tpm;jzpfonf? od@k apumrl ‚onf
t&if;cHtcsuu
f kd xdxrd rd d &So
d nft
h wGuf tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;twGi;f
wGif pdwu
f ;l ,OfueG jf rLepf0g'udk ay:xGuv
f maponftxd tiftm; }uD;
rm;ayonf? jyifopfjynfY umbufEiS hf *smreDjynfY 0ufwvif;wd@k . pdwf
ul;,OfueG jf rLepf0g'yifwnf;? od@k jzifh 1847 ckEpS w
f iG f qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf
tv,ftvwfvlwef;pm;. v_yf&Sm;r_jzpf+yD; uGefjrLepf0g'onf tvkyf
orm;vl w ef ; pm;. v_ y f & S m ;r_ j zpf o nf ? tenf ; qH k ; tm;jzif h Oa&my
wdu
k }f uD;Y qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf “av;pm;zG,”f jzpfae+yD; uGejf rLepf0g'um;
‚ESiahf jzmifah jzmif}h uD; qef@usib
f uf jzpfaeonf? puwnf;uyif “tvkyf
orm;vlwef;pm;. vGwfajrmufa&;onf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;udk,f
wdkif. ðyr_aqmif&Gufcsufjzpf&rnf” [k u|efawmfwdk@ xif[yfxm;onfh
twdik ;f Ttrnf ESprf sK;d xJrS rnfonft
h rnfukd a&G;cs,&f rnfqo
kd nfukd
oHo,r&SdEdkifay? xdk@jyif u|efawmfwdk@onf xdktcsdefrS ,ae@txd T
trnfudk pGef@ypf&ef vHk;0rpOf;pm;cJh=uay?
“a=unmpmwrf;”onf u|efawmfwdk@. yl;wGJa&;om;csufjzpf
aomfvnf; a=unmpmwrf;. tðrawjzpfonfh tajccHusaom azmfjycsuf
udk rmhufpfydkifqdkifa=umif; u|efawmfazmfjy&rnf[k ,lqygonf? tqdkyg
azmfjycsurf mS æordik ;f acwfumvwdik ;f Y v$r;f rd;k aeonfh pD;yGm;a&; xkwv
f yk f
r_enf;em/ zvS,af &;enf;emESihf ‚aemufrS rkcsvu
kd yf gvmaom vlra_ &;
zG@J pnf;yHw
k @kd onf acwfumvqdik &f mEdik f iHa&;ESihf tod^m%fordik ;f udk wnf
aqmufxm;onfh tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfayonf? TtajccH tkwfjrpf
wckwnf;ay:rSom acwfumvqkid &f m Ekid if aH &;ESihf tod^m%f orkid ;f wk@d udk
&Sif;vif;azmfjy Edkifayonf? xdk@a=umifh vlom;ordkif;wckvHk; (ajr,mudk
31

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

bHkydkifqdkifaom a&S;OD;rsKd;±dk;wltkyfpk vl@tzGJ@tpnf; òyuGJoGm;uwnf;u)
onf vlwef;pm;wdkufyrGJ sm;.ordkif;/ aoG;pkyfolESifh aoG;pkyfcH rsm;t=um;
tm;òyifr_/ tkyfpdk;olESifh tkyfpdk;cH&ol vlwef;pm;rsm;t=um; tm;òyifr_yif
jzpfayonf? Tvlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;. ordkif;wGiftqifhqifh ul;ajymif;
r_rsm; tpOfwpdkuf jzpfcJhonf? ,ae@qv
kd #if vl@tzG@J tpnf;w&yfv;kH udk
aoG;pkyzf Ed ydS rf /_ vlwef;pm;cGjJ cm;r_EiS hf vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf rJG sm; tm;vH;k rS wòyifwnf;
vHk;0O\Hk rvGwfajrmufapbJE Si f h aoG ; pk y f z d E S d y f c H v l w ef ; pm;/ ypP n f ; rJ h
vlwef;pm;onf aoG;pkyftkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;/ "e&Sif vlwef;pm;. pdk;rdk;r_
atmufrS rdr.
d vGwaf jrmufa&;udk r&&SEd ikd af wmhonfh tqifw
h cko@kd a&muf
&SdcJhav+yD?
u|efawmfhxifjrifcsufrSm ZD0aA'e,fy,fwGif 'g0if.oabm
w&m;u tusKd;ðycJhonftwdkif; Twifjycsufonfvnf; ordkif;a&;&m
twGuf tusK;d ðyr_ jzpfygonf? 1845 ckEpS f rwdik rf D ESpaf ygi;f tcsK@d u u|eaf wmf
wdk@ESpfOD;pvHk;onf TtcsufqDodk@ wjznf;jznf; csOf;uyfvmcJh=u.? T
tcsuq
f o
D dk@ u|efawmf trSDtcdkuif;pGm tb,fr#OD;wnf wufvSrf;oGm;
cJhonfudk u|efawmf a&;om;cJhaom “t*Fvefjynf tvkyform;vlwef;
f taumif;qH;k azmfjyvsu&f ydS gonf? od@k aomf
pm; tajctae”· pmtkyu
1845 ckEpS f aEGO;D umv b&yfqv
J òf r@wiG f u|eaf wmfEiS hf rmhupf x
f yfraH wG@
qHkaomtcg rmhufpfonf ‚tcsufudk tqifoifhðypk+yD; jzpfaeonf?
Ttcsufudk u|efawmfhxH wifjy&mY toHk;tE_ef;tm;vHk;eD;yg;yif T
ae&mwGif u|efawmfazmfjyxm;ouJhodk@ &Sif;vif;jywfom;vSygonf?
1872 ckESpf *smrefbmom yHkESdyfjcif;twGuf u|efawmfwdk@ yl;wGJ
a&;om;xm;aomed'gef;rS atmufygtwdkif; u|efawmfudk;um;vdkufyg
onf?
·

tde*f ,fvaf &;om;aom “1844 ckEpS f t*Fvefjynf tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;
pm;tajctae” bmomjyefqdkol zavm&ifh au 0pfe,l;ZuD;/ e,l;a,muf?
'AvsL&D;(pf)/ vdAk v
J -f vef'ef/ 1888? (tde*f ,f.
f rSwcf su)f
32

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

“+yD;cJhaom ESpfq,fhig;ESpfwmumvtwGif; tajctaersm;onf
rnfr#yifajymif;vJapumrl Ta=unmpmwrf;wGif csrSwfchJaom a,bk
,srrl sm;onf wckv;kH taejzifh ,ae@xd wav#mufv;kH rSeu
f efayonf? xdak e
&m Tae&mwd@k Y tcsK@d tao;pdwrf sm;udk ðyjyifaumif; ðyjyif&ayrnf? rlrsm;udk
vufawG@toHk;csa&;onf a=unmpmwrf;u azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif;
tcsd e f a e&mra&G ; umvwck t wG i f ; wnf & S d a eaom ork d i f ; qk d i f & m
ta=umif;tcsufrsm;ay:wGif wnfayvdrfhrnf? Tta=umif;a=umifh
tcef; (2) . tqHk;wGif wifjyxm;aom awmfvSefa&; aqmif&Gufcsuf
rsm;ESifhywfoufI txl;tav;wif; razmfjyawmhay? ,ae@tzd@k qykd grl T
pmyd'k &f dS jy\emtajrmuftjrm;udk tvGeu
f jJG ym;jcm;em;aom pum;toHk;
tE_ef;wdk@jzifh a&;om;&ayvdrfhrnf? 1848 ckESpfuwnf;u· acwfopf
pufrv
_ yk if ef;. ajcvSr;f us}J uD;rsm;ESihf vSr;f wufvmr_/ ‚ESihf twlvu
kd f
ygvmaom tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;. ygwpD nf;±H;k a&; aumif;rGeu
f s,jf yef@
vmr_w@kd ukd axmuf±v
_ #iv
f nf;aumif;/ azazmf0g&aD wmfveS af &;wGif yxr
qHk; &&Sdvdkufaom vufawG@tawG@tñuHESifh xdrk #ru ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;
u ESpv
f wdik w
f ikd f yxrqH;k t}udrf Edik if aH &;tm%mudk odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af om
yJ&pfbt
kH zG@J wiG f ydrk I
kd &&Sv
d u
kd o
f nfh tawG@tñuw
H @kd udk axmuf±_v#ifvnf;
aumif;/ tcsKd@tao;pdwfrsm;wGif Tvkyfief;pOfonf acwfrrDawmhay?
bHt
k zG@J u tcsuw
f ckukd txl;oufaojyvdu
k af y.? ‚rSm “tvkyo
f rm;
vlwef;pm;onf toifh&Sd+yD;om; EdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk tvG,fwul
qk y f u d k i f u m rd r d . &nf & G , f c suf r sm;ud k xajrmuf a tmif toH k ; ðyI
rjzpfEikd af y” [lI jzpfonf? (“jyifopfjynf jynfwiG ;f ppfy/GJ tifwmae&Sif
e,f tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; taxGaxGaumifpD rdef@cGef;”/ vef'efòr@x±l;vyfz/f 1871 ckEpS /f pmrsuEf mS 15 wGif Ttcsuu
f kd qufvufjzpfay:
wdk;yGm;xm;onf udk =unfhyg?)
·

Tpum;yd'k o
f nf 1872ckEpS f *smrefbmomrl&if;ESihf tenf; i,f uGjJ ym;
ygonf? pmrsuEf mS ( 19) ud=k unfyh g? (t,f'w
D m)
33

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

xdk@jyif rsufarSmufumvwGif qdk&S,fvpf0g'pmaytay: a0zef
a&;onf rjynfph o
kH nfrmS tvdv
k x
kd if&mS ;ayonf? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf
‚a0zefa&;onf 1847 ckEpS t
f xdom jzpfaoma=umifyh ifwnf;? qef@usif
buf ygwt
D oD;oD;tay: uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmxm;ta=umif; rSwcf surf sm;
(tcef; 4) onfvnf; rlt& rSeu
f efaeqJjzpfapumrl vufawG@wiG f acwf
rrDawmhay? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf Edik if aH &;tajctaeonf vH;k 0ajymif;vJ
oGm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? xd@k jyif ordik ;f wd;k wufvmr_u xdt
k cef;wGif
azmfjyxm;aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDtrsm;ydkif;udk urBmajrjyifrS z,f&Sm;ypfvdkuf
ay+y?D
“odk@aomf a=unmpmwrf;onf ordkif;qdkif&mpmwrf; jzpfvm&
um; ajymif;vJypf&ef rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rS u|efawmfwdk@wGif r&Sday?”
,ckbmomjyeforl mS rpPwm q,fjrL&,fr;kd jzpfygonf? olonf
rmhufpf a&;om;aom “t&if;usrf;” trsm;ydkif;udk bmomjyefoljzpf.?
u|eaf wmfw@kd twlwuG jyefvnfppfaq;cJ=h uonf? ordik ;f ud;k um;csurf sm;
tm; &Sif;vif;xm;aom rSwfcsufwcsKd@udk u|efawmf jznfhpGufxm;vdkuf
ygonf?
z&uf'&pf tde*f ,ff
1888 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D 30 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

34

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

1890 ck E S p f *smref b mom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
txufyged'gef;· a&;om;+yD;uwnf;u a=unmpmwrf;tm;
*smrefbmomjzifh topfyEkH ydS &f ef xyfrI
H vdt
k yfvmonf? a=unmpmwrf;
jzpfysufor#udkvnf; Ted'gef;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&ayrnf?
bJ&mZql;vpfcsf. 'kwd, ±k&Sm;bmomjyefqdkcsufonf 1882
ckESpfwGif *sDeDAmòr@Y ay:xGufvmonf? xdkyHkESdyfjcif;twGuf rmhufpfESifh
u|efawmf ed'gef; a&;om;cJh=uonf? uHraumif; ta=umif;rvSojzifh
*smrefvufa&;rlrmS aysmufq;kH oGm;onf? xd@k a=umifh ±k&mS ;bmomrS xyfrH
+yD; bmomjyefvdkuf&awmhonf?·· Todk@bmomjyef&ojzifh e*dkpmrludk
rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# aumif;rGefvmaprnf r[kwfay?
“bmuleif bmomjyefqdkaom uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;
±k&Sm;bmom yxryHkESdyfjcif;udk udkvdkaum owif;pmtm; yHkESdyfonfh
pmyHkESdyfwdkufu 60 pkESpfrsm;tapmydkif;··· wGifxkwfa0cJhonf? xdkpOfu
·

1883 ckEpS f *smrefbmom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf a&;om;aom ol. ed'ge;f udk
tde*f ,f ud;k um;xm;jcif; jzpfonf? (t,f'w
D m)
··
a=unmpmwrf; ±k&mS ;bmom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf rmhupf Ef iS hf tde*f ,fw@kd
a&;om;aom aysmufq;kH oGm;onfh ed'ge;f . vufa&;rl&if;udk jyefvnfawG@&cdS o
hJ nf?
armfpudk rmhupf /f tde*f ,f/ vDeif wuUov
kd af rmfueG ;f wdu
k w
f iG f xm;&So
d nf? vuf&dS
ed'ge;f t*Fvyd f bmomjyefrmS *smref bmomrl&if;rS jyefq
f x
kd m;onf? (t,f'w
D m)
···
‚ tcsuEf iS hf ywfoufI pmrsuEf mS (21) atmufyikd ;f &Sd t,f'w
D m.
&Si;f vif;csuw
f iG f =unfyh g?
35

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

taemufwdkif;onf ‚ (a=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmom yHkESdyfjcif;) udk
pmayavmu txl ; tqef ; wck t jzpf o m em;vnf E d k i f = uayonf ?
TtjrifrsKd;onf ,ae@wGif rjzpfEdkifawmhay?
“xdt
k csed f (1847 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv) u wnf&adS eaom ypPn;f rJh
vlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_e,fy,fonf rnfr#tuef@towf &Sdaeonf qdk
onfudk Ta=unmpmwrf;. aemufqHk;tcef;&Sd wdkif;jynftoD;oD;rS
qef@usib
f ufygwt
D oD;oD;tay: uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmxm;wGif t&Si;f
vif;qHk; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf? xdktcef;wGif ±k&Sm;jynfESifh tar&duef
jynfaxmifpw
k @kd onf vH;k vH;k rygc=hJ uay? xdt
k csed u
f ±k&mS ;jynfonf Oa&my
azmufjyefa&;tm;vHk;. aemufqHk; t&efwyf}uD; jzpfae+yD; tar&duef
jynfaxmifpo
k nf Oa&myrS ydv
k #aH om ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; tiftm;pkrsm;udk
ajymif;a&$@aexdkifcGifhay;um 0g;rsKdypfaeayonf? xdkwdkif;jynf ESpfjynfpvHk;
onf Oa&mywdkufodk@ ukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm; axmufyHh+yD; wcsdefwnf;wGif
Oa&mywdkuf. pufr_xGufukefrsm; a&mif;cs&m aps;uGufrsm;vnf; jzpfcJh
onf? od@k jzpfI xdpk Ofu wdik ;f jynfEpS jf ynfpvH;k onf wnf&adS eaom Oa&m
ypepf. a'gufwdkifrsm; wenf;r[kwfwenf; jzpfcJhayonf?
“,ae@qv
kd #if vGepf mG uGmjcm;oGm;avpG! Oa&mywdu
k u
f ajymif;
a&$@aexdkifr_onf ajrmuftar&duwdkuf. }uD;us,fvSaom v,f,m
xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf vHk;0tH0ifcGifus jzpfapcJhonf? ajrmuftar&du
wdu
k .
f òyifqikd rf o
_ nf Oa&my&Sd ajr,mt}uD;tao; ydik q
f ikd rf u
_ kd t&if;
tjrpfrS udkifv_yfypfvdkufawmhonf? xdkr#ru ‚tjcif;t&mu tar&d
uefjynfaxmifpktm; rdrd.}uD;rm;vSaom pufr_vkyfief; a&aomufjrpf
rsm;udk tifwu
kd t
f m;wdu
k f oH;k pGEJ ikd af ponf? T oH;k pGrJ _ twdik ;f twmonf
taemufOa&my txl;ojzifh ,ckx&d adS eaom t*Fvefjynf. pufrv
_ yk if ef;
vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udk tcsdeftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif rkcsyif csKd;zsufypfvdrfh
rnf jzpfonf? tajctaeESp&f yfpvH;k u tar&duwdu
k u
f kd awmfveS af om
*,uf±u
kd cf wfr_ jzpfapjyefonf? Edik if aH &;taqmufttHk wckv;kH . tajccH
tkwjf rpfjzpfonfh ti,fpm;ESihf tvwfpm; v,f,mydik &f iS rf sm;. ajr,m
36

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

onff v,f,mvkyfcif;}uD;rsm;. òyifqdkifr_udk wpwpESifh t±_H;ay;vdkuf
&ay+yD? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif pufr_vkyfief;a'orsm;wGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;
xkEiS w
hf uG t&if;tES;D rsm; tHrh cef; pkpnf;vmr_onfvnf; yxrqH;k t}udrf
jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmaeayonf?
“,ck ±k&Sm;jynfudk =unfh=updk@! 1848- 49 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;
jzpfyGm;pOfu Oa&myrS rif;nDrif;om;rsm;omru Oa&my"e&Sifrsm;uyg
Edk;=um;pðyvm+yDjzpfaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. vufwGif;rS ‚wdk@udk
u,fwifEikd o
f nfh wckwnf;aom u,fwif&iS rf mS ±k&mS ;jynf. usL;ausmf
pGufzufr_om jzpfa=umif;udk awG@&SdchJ=uonf? Zmbk&ifudk Oa&mywdkuf&Sd
azmufjyefa&; xdyo
f ;D tjzpf armif;cwfc=hJ uonf? ,ae@wiG u
f m; Zmbk&if
onf *wfcseD m;wGif awmfveS af &;. ppfo@kH yef;jzpfaeav+yD? ±k&mS ;jynfonf
Oa&mywdkuf awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. wyfOD;jzpfvmay+yD?
“uGejf rLepfa=unmpmwrf;u acwfopf"e&Sif ydik q
f ikd rf o
_ nf rkcs
ysuo
f Ok ;f awmhrnf jzpfa=umif;udk a=unm&ef &nf&,
G af yonf? od@k aomf
±k&mS ;jynfwiG f vsijf refpmG jzpfay:wd;k yGm;vmaeaom t&if;&Siv
f n
S jhf zm;r_EiS hf
pwifwdk;yGm;vmaeaom "e&Sifajr,mydkifqdkifr_wdk@onf v,form;rsm;
ud,
k w
f ikd f ajr,m xuf0ufausmt
f m; bHyk ikd q
f ikd x
f m;r_EiS hf xdyw
f u
kd jf zpfae
onfudk u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrif=u&onf? rsufarSmufjy\emrSm tvGef
trif; ,dk,Gif;aeapumrl a&S;OD; ajr,mbHkydkifqdkifr_ o¿mefyif jzpfae
atmhAf&SD;em;
ao;onfh ±k&Sm;atmh
em;onf ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom uGefjrLepfbHkydkifqdkifr_
o¿mefodk@ wdkuf±dkuful;ajymif;oGm;Edkifoavm? odk@r[kwf qef@usif
buftm;jzifh taemufwdkif;. wpwpajymif;vJa&; ordkif;jzpfay:r_uJh
odk@aom a=uðyef;a&;jzpfpOftwdkif; OD;pGmjzwfoef;&rnfavm? [lIyif
jzpf.?
“‚jy\em. wckwnf;aom tajztjzpf ,ae@jzpfEikd o
f nfrmS
tu,fI ±k&mS ;awmfveS af &;onf taemufwikd ;f ypPn;f rJah wmfveS af &;twGuf
wyfveS @f ay;r_ jzpfvm+y;D wckEiS w
hf ck tjyeftvSef tm;jznfah y;vdu
k yf gu vuf&dS
±k&mS ;jynf. bHak jr,mydik q
f ikd rf o
_ nf uGejf rLepfpepf jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_twGuf
37

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

tpcsD&mtcsuf jzpfayvdrfhrnf?
“um;vf rmhupf /f z&uf'&uf tde*f ,f
1882 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D 21 &uf/ vef'efòr@?”
xdak e@&ufavmufrmS yif *seD AD mòr@Y ydv
k efbmomjzifh topfxw
k f
a0aom uG e f j rLepf a =unmpmwrf ; ay:xGufvmonf?
xdk@jyif 1885 ckESpf udkyifa[*ifòr@wGif qdk&S,f'Drdku&uf bDb
vd k u su
suff rS pmpOf w ck t jzpf 'd e f ; rwf b momjyef q d k c suf topf w ck
ay:xGuv
f monf? uHraumif; ta=umif;rvS&um; ‚bmomjyefonf
rjynfph v
kH aS y? bmomjyefqo
kd t
l wGuf cufcpJ &mjzpfaom ta&;}uD;onfh
pmyd'k t
f csK@d ukd csev
f yS x
f m;.? xd@k jyif tcsK@d ae&mrsm;Y uysuu
f acsmf vkyf
xm;onfh vuQ%mrsm;&Sad eay&m ydrk pkd w
d rf csr;f ajr@p&myif jzpfawmhonf?
bmomjyefou
l om tenf;i,f ydrk *kd ±kpu
kd v
f u
kd yf grl taumif;qH;k bmom
jyefcsuw
f ck jzpfvmEdik o
f nfukd ol. bmomjyefcsuu
f azmfjyaeayonf?
1885 ckESpf jyifopfbmomjyef topfonf yJ&pfòr@ qdk&S,fvpf
*sme,fwiG f yg&o
dS nf? ,if;bmomjyefonf ,ae@txd taumif;qH;k aom
bmomjyefqdkcsuf jzpfonf?
tqdyk g jyifopfbmomjyefrS pydeb
f momjyefqckd suu
f kd xdEk pS rf mS yif
ruf ' &pf ò r@ qd k & S , f v pf * sme,f w G i f yxrxk w f a 0+yD ; um;vf rmhufpf/
z&uf ' &pf td e f * ,f a&; uG e f j rLepf y gwD a =unmpmwrf ; trnf j zif h
qd k &S , f v pf *sme,f tkyfcsKyfa&;Xme/ trSwf (8) [meefudkwdpfvrf;/
ruf'&pfòr@rS pmtkyfi,ftjzpf xyfrHxkwfa0onf?
pdw0f ifpm;zG,f t&mwckukd u|eaf wmf azmfjy&rnfqv
kd #if 1887
ckESpfwGif tmar;eD;,m;bmomjyef vufa&;rludk uGefpwifwDEdky,fòr@&Sd
yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0olxo
H @kd ay;vdu
k o
f nf? od@k aomf xdo
k al wmfaumif;}uD;onf
rmhupf .
f trnfyg&adS om pmtkyu
f kd rxkwaf 0&Jojzifh bmomjyefot
l m;
pma&;oltjzpf ‚.trnfudk azmfjy&ef t}uHay;aomfvnf; bmom
jyefolu jiif;y,fvdkufonf?
38

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

tenf;ESifhtrsm; rwdusaom tar&duefbmomjyefcsufrsm;udk
t*FvefjynfwiG f wck+yD;wck xyfwvJvJ jyefvnfyEkH ydS cf o
hJ nf? aemufq;kH
wGif 1888 ckEpS Yf ,H=k unftm;xm;avmufaom pmapmif wapmif ay:
xGufvmcJhonf? ‚rSm u|efawmfhrdwfaqG q,fjrL&,frdk;. bmomjyef
csufjzpf&m yHkESdyfwdkufodk@rydk@rD u|efawmfwdk@ twlwuG xyfrH=unfh±_ppf
aq;=uonf? rsufESmzHk;wGif uGefjrLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;/ um;vf
rmhupf /f z&uf'&pf tde*f ,ff todtrSwðf y+yD; t*Fvyd b
f momjyef z&uf'
&pf tde*f ,fu wnf;jzwf+yD; rSwcf surf sm; a&;om;xm;onf? 1888 ckEpS f
0DvsH&D;(pf)/ trSwf 185 zvdvrf;/ tD;pD- vef'efòr@ [lI jzpfonf?
u|efawmfu ‚yHkESdyfjcif;wGif rSwfcsufrsm; xyfrHjznfhpGufvdkufygonf?
a=unmpmwrf;wGif rdrdudk,fydkif ordkif;wck&Sdayonf? a=unm
pmwrf; ay:xGuv
f mcsed w
f iG f xdpk Ofu ta&twGuf rrsm;jym;vSao;aom
0dZ…menf;us qdk&S,fvpf0g'. wyfOD; (‚tcsufudk yxred'gef;wGif
azmfjyxm;onfh bmomjyefxm;csufrsm;u oufaojyonfhtwdkif;) .
ESpfaxmif;tm;& óuqdkjcif;cH&onf? 1848 ckESpf ZGefv yJ&pftvkyf
orm;rsm; ta&;edrfhr_ESifhtwl pwifcJhaom azmufjyefa&;u a=unm
pmwrf;udk r=umcifrSmyif aemufuG,fodk@ twif;ydk@ypfvdkufonf? 1852
ckESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif udkvHk;òr@uGefjrLepfrsm;udk tjypf'%fay;jcif;ESifhtwl
“w&m;Oya't&” [kqdkum a=unmpmwrf;udk tqHk;owf 0dkif;y,f
xm;vd k u f = uonf ? azazmf 0 g&D a wmf v S e f a &;ES i f h t wl pwif c J h a om
tvkyo
f rm; v_y&f mS ;r_onf vltrsm;. rsupf ad tmufrS uG,af ysmufomG ;
onfESifhwygwnf; a=unmpmwrf;onfvnf; aemufuG,fodk@ a&muf&Sd
oGm;awmh.?
tkyfpdk;aom vlwef;pm;rsm;. tm%mudk topfxdk;ESufwdkuf
cdkufa&;twGuf Oa&my tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf vHkavmufaom
pG r f ; tm; xyf r H j ynf h 0 vmaomtcg tif w mae&S i f e ,f tvk y f o rm;
tpnf;t±H;k ay:xGuv
f mcJ.
h ? ‚ tpnf;t±H;k . &nf&,
G cf surf mS Oa&m
yESifh tar&duwdkuf&Sd wdkufpdwfcdkufpdwf xufoefaom tvkyform;
39

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

vlwef;pm;w&yfv;kH udk }uD;rm;vSaom wyfrawmf w&y
w&yf tjzpf aygi;f pnf;
ay;&efyif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh tifwmae&Sife,fonf a=unmpmwrf;
wGif csrSwfxm;aom rlrsm;rS tpcsDj cif; rðyEdkifcJhay? tifwmae&Sif
e,fwGif t*Fvdyftvkyo
f rm;or*~rsm;/ jyifopf/ b,fv*f s,
D /H tDwvDEiS hf
·
pydef ya&muf'eG ;f 0g'rD sm;ESihf *smrefvmaq;0g'D rsm;udk wHcg;ydwrf xm;aom
vkyif ef;pOfw&yf xm;&Sdvm&ayonf? tifwmae&Sife,f. pnf;rsOf;ed'gef;
jzpfaom vkyif ef;pOfukd rmhupf u
f ajymifajrmufpmG a&;qGcJ &hJ m bmuleifEiS hf
rif;rJ0h g'rD sm;uyif todtrSwf ðy=u&onf? a=unmpmwrf;wGif csrw
S x
f m;
aom t,ltqrsm; tqH;k owf atmifjrifa&;twGuf rmhupf o
f nf wnD
w!Gww
f nf;aom v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh aqG;aEG;r_rS rkcsay:xGufvmrnfh tvkyf
orm;vlwef;pm;. tod^m%fjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tay: vHk;0ESifh tºuif;rJh
trSDðyxm;ayonf?
t&if;tES;D udk qef@usio
f nfh wdu
k yf t
JG wGi;f &Sd tjzpftysurf sm;ESihf
twuf t usrsm;/ atmif y G J r sm;xuf y if yd k r d k o nf h qH k ; ±H _ ; r_ r sm;u
ae&mwumwGif olwdk@ oHk;avh&Sdaom aq;+rD;wdk. rjynfhpHkr_udk wdkufyGJ
0ifolwdk@tm; azmfxkwfjyovdkufonf? tvkyform;vlwef;pm; vGwf
ajrmufa&;ESifh ywfoufonf h ppfrSefaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;tm;
xdxda&mufa&muf em;vnfatmif vkyf&rnfjzpfa=umif;udk vufcH
vmaponf? rmhupf o
f nf rSeu
f efayonf? 1874 ckEpS f tifwmae&Sief ,f
· u|efawmfwkd@ESifhawG@wkdif; vmaq;ukd,fwkdifu olonf rmhufpf.
wynf&h if; jzpfa=umif;/"rRwmtwkid ;f yif wynf&h if;yDopGm a=unmpmwrf;tay:wGif
&yfwnfcahJ =umif; tpOf ajymqkad vh&o
dS nf? vmaq;aemufvu
dk rf sm;ESihf ywfoufIrl
vkH;0jcm;em;ayonf? ‚wkd@onf EdkifiHawmf acs;aiGrsm;. tultnD&onfh
xkwv
f yk o
f rl sm;. or0g,rqko
d nfh vmaq;.awmif;qkcd sux
f uf rausmv
f eG f
=uay? xkd@tjyif tvkyform;vlwef;pm;w&yfvkH;ukdvnf; EkdifiHawmf. tul
tnD,al &;ukd axmufco
H El iS hf rdru
d ,
dk u
f dk rdrd ulnaD &;ukd axmufco
H [
l I
l cGjJ cm;
ypfvu
dk =f uonf?(tde*f ,f.rSwcf su)f
40

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

zsufodrf;vdkufonfhtcsdef&Sd tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf 1864 ckESpf
tifwmae&Sife,f pwif wnfaxmifvdkufpOfuESifh vHk;vHk;rwlawmhay?
vufwifwikd ;f jynfrsm;&Sd ya&muf'eG ;f 0g'onfvnf;aumif;/ *smr%DjynfwiG f
txl;wnf&adS eaom vmaq;0g'onfvnf;aumif; toufiifaeav+yD?
or±d;k usxyd o
f ;D t*Fvyd t
f vkyo
f rm; or*~rsm;onfyifv#if 1887 ckEpS f
qGrq
f ;D uGe*f &ufwiG f or*~rsm;.ud,
k pf m; obmywdu “Oa&mywdu
k }f uD;
u qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'udk u|eaf wmfw@kd a=umufp&m r&Sad wmhyg” [k ajymqkEd ikd f
onfh tqifhtxd wjznf;jznf;wufvSrf;cJhonf? 1887 ckEpS w
f iG f Oa&m
ywdkuf}uD;&Sd qdk&S,fvpf0g'onf a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjya=unm
xm;onfh oabmw&m;twdkif; jzpfvkeD;yg;tajcodk@ a&mufaeay+yD?
a=unmpmwrf;. ordkif;onf 1848 ckESpfuwnf;u acwfopftvkyf
orm;vlwef;pm;. v_yf&Sm;r_ ordkif;udk wpHkwckaomtwdkif;twmtxd
a&mifjyef[yfaeayonf? ‚onf rsufarSmufumv qdk&S,fvpfpmay
tm;vH;k xJwiG f tus,jf yef@q;kH xkwaf 0jzef@cs&d aom Edik if w
H umh vuQ%m
taqmifq;kH aom pmwrf;jzpf+yD; qdu
k af A;&D;,m;rS umvD zd;k eD;,m; txd
wdik ;f jynftm;vH;k rS tvkyo
f rm;oef;aygi;f rsm;pGmwd@k . wlnaD om vkyif ef;
pOf jzpfonfudk oHo,&Sdp&mrvdkay?
rnfo@kd yifjzpfap a=unmpmwrf; ay:xGuv
f maomtcg qdk&S,f
vpf a=unmpmwrf;[k u|efawmfwdk@rac:a0: EdkifcJhay? 1847 ckESpfwGif
vlEpS rf sK;d ESppf m;udk qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'rD sm;[k ,lqxm;=u.? wzufwiG f pdwu
f ;l
,OfpepftrsK;d rsK;d . aemufvu
kd rf sm; txl;ojzifh xdt
k csed u
f wjznf;jznf;csi;f
uG,faysmufoGm;rnfh *dk%f;*%oufouftjzpfodk@ qkwf,kwfae=u+yD
jzpfonfh t*Fvefjynf&Sd tdk0if0g'Drsm;/ jyifopfjynf&Sd zdk;&D;,m;0g'Drsm;
&Sd=uonf? tjcm;wzufwGifum; ae&mwumY oHk;Edkifonfqdkaom
olwdk@. aq;+rD;wdktrsKd;rsKd;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ zmax;r_trsKd;rsKd;jzifhvnf;
aumif;/ t&if;tESD;ESifh tjrwftpGe;f udk tenf;i,fr# rxdyg;ap&bJ vlrl
a&;raumif;r_rsm;udk z,f&mS ;ypfv=kd uaom vlra_ &;orm;a,mif trsK;d rsK;d
&S=d uonf? T ESprf sK;d pvH;k onf tvkyo
f rm;v_y&f mS ;r_ tjyifbufwiG f &yfae
41

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

=uolrsm;ESiS hf “ynm&nf0aom” vlwef;pm;rsm;. axmufcpH memr_uo
kd m
&SmazGae=uolrsm; jzpf=uonf? EdkifiHa&; awmfvSefr_ oufoufjzifh rvHk
avmufa=umif;udk ,Hk=unfvmum vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk t&if;tjrpfrS
jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef awmif;qdk=uonfh tvkyform;vlwef;pm;
tpdwftydkif;url rdrdwdk@udk,fudk uGefjrLepf [kac:a0:=uonf? ‚rSm
t=urf;xnfr#omjzpfaom/ tacsmrudik &f ao;aom/ yifu,
kd t
f od ouf
oufjzpfaom uGefjrLepf0g'yifwnf;? Todk@ t=urf;xnf jzpfapumrl
pdwu
f ;l ,Of uGejf rLepfpepf ESpcf jk zpfonfh jyifopfjynf&dS umbuf. “tDum
&D,ef” uGefjrLepf0g'ESifh *smr%Djynf&Sd 0ufwvif;. uGefjrLepf0g'wdk@udk
jzpfay:vmapaom pGrf;tm;&SdcJhonf? 1847 ckESpfu qdk&S,fvpf0g'onf
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_udkazmfjy+yD; uGefjrLepf0g'onf tvkyform;
vlwef;pm;. v_y&f mS ;r_ukd azmfjyonf? tenf;qH;k Oa&mywdu
k }f uD;Y qd&k ,
S f
vpf0g'onf av;pm;avmufp&myifjzpfI uGefjrLepf0g' rSmum; ‚ESifh
ajzmifah jzmif}h uD; qef@usib
f ufjzpfonf? “tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. vGwaf jrmuf
a&;onf tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;ud,
k w
f ikd .
f ðyrlaqmif&u
G cf suf jzpf&rnf”
[laom tapmydik ;f ,lqcsut
f wdik ;f yif u|eaf wmfw@kd ,wdjywf&cdS ahJ y&m
trnfESpfrsKd;xJrS rnfonfh trnfudk a&G;cs,f&rnfESifh ywfoufI u|ef
awmfwdk@wGif b,fvdkaESmifhaES;r_rSr&SdEdkif? xdktcsdefrSpI Ttjrifudk
pGef@y,fypf&efvnf; u|efawmfwdk@ pdwfrul;rdcJhay?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u rdrdudk,fydkifawmif;qdkcsufrsm;jzifh ay:xGuf
vmcJhaom yxr yJ&pfawmfvSefa&;. tóuumvjzpfonfh vGefcJhonhf
42 ESpfwmumvu “wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm; aoG;pnf;=u
avmh” [lI urBmodk@ u|efawmfwdk@ a=unmvdkufaomtcg wHk@jyefoH
rnfrnf&& r&Scd ahJ y? od@k aomf 1864 ckEpS f pufwifbmv 28 &ufae@wiG f
O'gef ; wG i f & pf r nf h tif w mae&S i f e ,f tvk y f o rm;tpnf ; t±H k ; xJ o d k @
taemufOa&my wdkif;jynftrsm;ydkif;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf vufwGJI yg0if
vmcJh=uonf? trSefyif tifwmae&Sife,frSm oufwrf; 9 ESpfr#om
wnf&cdS o
hJ nf? od@k aomf tifwmae&Sief ,fu zefw;D cJah om wdik ;f jynftm;
42

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

vHk;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm; xm0pOfaygif;pnf;a&;onf &SifoefaeqJ cgwdkif;xuf
ydkrdktm;aumif;aeqJ jzpfonfudk ,ae@xuf ydkrdkaumif;onfh oufao
om"ujyp&m r&Sad wmhay? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf ,ae@ u|eaf wmf Tpm
a=umif;rsm;udk a&;om;pDukH;aecsdefrSmyif Oa&myESifh tar&duef ypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;onf rdr.
d wdu
k cf u
kd af &; tiftm;pkrsm;udk ppfaq;=unf±h a_ e=u+y?D
wckwnf;aom vufwavm&nfrSef;csuftwGuf wckwnf;aom tvH
atmufwGif wckwnf;aom wyfrawmftjzpf yxrqHk;t}udrf zGJ@pnf;
vd k u f = uav+yD ? ‚&nf r S e f ; csuf o nf u m; 1866 ck E S p f *sD e D A m
tifwmae&Sief ,f uGe*f &ufEiS hf aemufwzef 1889 ckEpS f yJ&pftvkyo
f rm;
uGef*&ufu a=unmvdkufonfhtwdkif; wae@tvkyfcsdef 8 em&DpHcsdefudk
w&m;Oya'tjzpf xkwjf yefa&;yifjzpf.? ,ae@ wdik ;f jynftm;vH;k &Sd tvkyf
orm;rsm;onf trSefyif pnf;vHk;=u+yDjzpfa=umif;udk wdkif;jynftm;vHk;u
t&if;&Sifrsm;ESifh ajr&Sifrsm;tm; ,ae@ jrifuGif;u rsufpdzGifhay;vdkufay
vdrfhrnf?
tu,fI TjrifuGif;udk u|efawmfESifh ,SOfwGJum oludk,fwdkif
=unfh±_&ef rmhufpfom touf&Sifaevsuf&Sdygrl æ?
tufzf tdef*,f
1890 ckEpS f arv 1 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

43

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

1892 ck E S p f yd k v ef b mom yH k E d S y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;udk ydkvefbmomjzifh topfyHkESdyfonfh
tcsufonf pOf;pm;r_trsKd;rsKd;udk rv$JraoG ay:xGufvmaponf?
OD;pGmtm;jzifh uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;onf ,cifutwdkif;yif
Oa&mywdu
k }f uD;wGif t}uD;pm;pufrv
_ yk if ef; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_. t!¸e;f wck
jzpfvmonfudk rSwfom;oifhayonf? wdkif;jynfwjynfwGif t}uD;pm;
pufrv
_ yk if ef; wd;k cs@J r_ tcsK;d tpm;wdik ;f tqdyk gwikd ;f jynf&dS tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
twGif;wGif ypPnf;&Sd vlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;vlwef;pm;wdk@.
qufqHa&; tqifhae&mESifhywfoufI todynm zGifhay;a&; awmif;qdk
csufonfvnf; wdk;yGm;vmonf? tvkyform;rsm;twGif;Y qdk&S,fvpf
v_y&f mS ;r_ ys@H E@HS vmum a=unmpmwrf;udk awmif;qdrk o
_ nfvnf; wd;k rsm;
vmawmh.? od@k jzifh wdik ;f jynfwikd ;f &Sd tvkyo
f rm;v_y&f mS ;r_. tajctae
udkomru t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;wdk;yGm;r_ tqifh'D*&Dudkvnf; xdw
k ikd ;f
jynf. bmompum;tvdu
k f xkwaf 0jzef@csad om a=unmpmwrf;apmifa&
ta&twGujf zifh tawmftwef wduspmG wdik ;f xGm =unfEh ikd af yonf?
Ttwdik ;f yif ydv
k efbmomjzifh topfyEkH ydS jf cif;onf ydv
k efpufr_
vkyif ef; odoo
d mom wd;k wufru
_ kd !¸ejf yaeayonf? pmtkyyf EkH ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nfh
vGecf ahJ om q,fEpS u
f wnf;u Twd;k wufr_ trSew
f u,f jzpfay:vmjcif;udk
kd ef9 onf ±k&mS ;
rnfo@fkdr#oo
H , &Spd &mrvdak y? ±k&mS ;ydik f ydv
k ef/ uGe*f &ufyv
tifyg,m. }u;D rm;aom pufrv
_ yk if ef;a'o jzpfvmayonf? pifppftm;jzifh
44

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

±k&mS ;jynf. t}u;D pm; pufrv
_ yk if ef;onf zifvefyifv,fauG@ywfvnfwiG f
wpdww
f ydik ;f / A[dak 'o (armfpudEk iS hf Avm*srD ;D òr@rsm;) wGif wjcm;wpdwf
wydkif;/ yifv,feuf/ taZmhyifv,furf;±dk;wef; wav#mufESifh tjcm;
ae&mrsm;wGif wwd, wpdwfwydkif;tjzpf xdkwuGufTwuGuf jyef@
usJaeonf? ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;onf E_dif;,SOfjcif;t& usOf;ajrmif;aom
a'owGif ¹ywfoyd af eonf? Tod@k pkpnf;aer_a=umifh ay:ayguv
f monfh
omvGecf suEf iS hf csnehf @J csuEf pS rf sK;d pvH;k udk cHpm;&onf? òyifbufjzpfaeaom
±k&mS ; pufr_ vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;onf ydv
k efrsm;udk ±k&mS ;vlrsK;d tjzpf ajymif;vJ
ypf&ef qENjyif;jypGm &Sad pumrl ydv
k efuek rf sm;udk taumuftcGew
f w
H ikd ;f ESihf
10
umuG,fay;&ef awmif;qdkvdkufjcif;jzifh ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;. omvGef
csurf sm;udk todtrSwðf y&m a&mufomG ;ayonf? ydv
k ef tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
twGif; qd&k ,
S v
f pftawG;tac:rsm; vsijf refpmG jyef@ymG ;vmjcif;ESihf a=unm
pmwrf;udk awmif;qdkr_wdk;rsm;vmjcif;wdk@u ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh
±k&mS ;tpd;k &twGuf xdcdkufepfemr_udk azmfjyvdkufayonf?
od@k aomf ±k&mS ;jynfukd ausmv
f eG cf +hJ yDjzpfaom ydv
k efpufrv
_ yk if ef;.
vsifjrefpGmjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_u ydkvefjynfolrsm;. rukefcef;Edkifaom pGrf;
tm;udk topfwzef oufaojyvdkufonf? ‚jyif ay:ayguftHhqJqJ
trsKd;om;jyefvnf ysKd;axmifa&;twGuf opfvGifaom tmrcHcsufvnf;
jzpfonf? trSDcdkuif;+yD; awmifhwif;aom ydkvefjynf jyefvnfysKd;axmif
a&;onf yd k v ef t rsKd ; om;rsm;twG u f o mru u|ef a wmf w d k @ tm;vH k ;
twGuv
f nf; *±kðyp&mta&; jzpfayonf? Oa&mywdu
k f trsK;d om;rsm;.
ajzmifhrSefaom EdkifiHwumh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_onf TtrsKd;om;w&yf
pDrmS rdrw
d ikd ;f jynfwiG f ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfr_ tjynft
h 0&Srd o
S mv#if jzpfEikd o
f nf?
ypPnf;rJ@vlwef;pm;. atmifvHatmuf&Sd 1848 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;onf
t&if;ppfvdkufv#if "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u vkyf&rnfhtvkyfudk ypPnf;rJhvl
wef;pm;tm; vkycf ikd ;f vdu
k jf cif; oufoufjzpfonf? xd@k jyif aowrf;pmt&
aqmif&u
G o
f rl sm;jzpfonfh vl0b
D ekd mywfEiS hf bpfprwfw@kd rw
S qifh tDwvD/
*smr%DESifh [efa*&Djynfrsm;udkvnf; vGwfvyfa&;&apcJhonf? ydkvef
45

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

jynfrmS rl 1792 ckEpS u
f wnf;u txufazmfjyyg wdik ;f jynf oH;k jynf aygi;f
xufyif awmfvSefa&;twGuf tusKd;ðycJhaomfvnf; 1863 ckESpfwGif rdrd
xuf tiftm;q,fq omvGefonfh ±k&Sm;jynf. zdtm;atmufwGif
touf±SLayguf r&onfhtqHk;Y t±_H;ay;vdkuf&onf? r–;rsKd;rwfEG,f
tv$monf ydkvefjynf vGwfvyfa&;udk xdef;Ivnf;rxm;Edkif/ jyefvnf
&&Sdatmifvnf; r,lEdkifay? ,ae@wGifrl tedrfhqHk;ajym&v#if "e&Sifvl
wef;pm;onf TvGwv
f yfa&;udk tav;rxm;awmhay? rnfo@kd yifjzpfap
TvGwfvyfa&;onf Oa&mytrsKd;om;rsm;. avsmfnDaom yl;aygif;r_
twGuf vdktyfcsufwck jzpfonf? ‚udk ysKdjrpfaom ydkvefypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;uomv#if t&,lEdkif+yD; ol. vufxJwGif&SdrSvnf; tmrcH
csuf&Sdonf? Oa&my&Sd usefwdkif;jynftm;vHk;rS tvkyform;rsm;twGuf
qd&k aomf ydv
k ef tvkyo
f rm;rsm;ESihf tvm;wlyif ydv
k efjynf. vGwv
f yf
a&;udk tvkd&Sd=uayownf;?
tufzf tdef*,ff
1892 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v
D 10 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

46

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

1893 ck E S p f tD w vD b mom yH k E S d y f j cif ; ed ' gef ;
tD w vD pmzwf y &d o wf o d k @
uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk yHkESdyfxkwfa0vdkufjcif;onf
1848 ckEpS f rwfv 18 &uf rDvefòr@EiS hf bmvifòr@ awmfveS af &;ae@&ufEiS hf
wdu
k q
f ikd af eonf[k qd&k ayvdrrhf nf? ,if;wd@k onf tv,fA[dw
k iG &f adS om
wdkif;jynfESpfjynf. vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;rsm; jzpf=u.? wjynfonf
Oa&mywdkuf. tv,fA[dkwGif wnf&Sd+yD;/ wjynfonf ajrxJyifv,f.
tv,fA[dw
k iG f wnf&o
dS nf? awmfveS af &;rwdik rf u
D xdw
k ikd ;f jynfEpS jf ynf
onf tuGu
J t
JG jym;jym;jzpfrE_ iS hf jynfwiG ;f r+idrrf oufjzpfrw
_ @kd a=umifh csnehf @J
oGm;onf? Tod@k jzifh jynfypd;k rd;k r_atmuf usa&mufco
hJ nf? tDwvDjynf
onf =op}wD;,m;bk&if. vufatmufcH jzpfaecsed w
f iG f *smr%D jynfonf
xdkr#wdkuf±dkufr[kwfaomfjim;vnf; ±k&Sm;jynfh&Sif Zmbk&if. xrf;ydk;
atmufo@kd tvm;wlyif usa&mufco
hJ nf? 1848 ckEpS f rwfv 18 &uf.
tusK;d qufrsm;a=umifh tDwvDjynfEiS hf *smr%Djynfw@kd onf T*k%o
f u
d mQ rJh
r_rS vGwfuif;oGm;cJh=uonf? tu,fI 1848 ckESpfrS 1871 ckESpftxd
TtrsK;d om;}uD;ESp&f yfonf jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;+yD;aemuf rdrb
d mom &yfwnf
onfqv
kd #if um;vfrmhupf f ajymqdak vh &So
d nft
h wdik ;f 1848 ckEpS f awmf
vSefa&;udk ESdrfeif;cJhaomolrsm; udk,fwdkifyif ‚wdk@wGif qENr&Sdapumrl
TawmfvSefa&;. aowrf;pmtwdkif; aqmif&Gufolrsm; jzpfvm=u
aoma=umifh yifwnf;?
TawmfvSefa&;onf ae&mwdkif;Y tvkyform;vlwef;pm;.
tvkyfjzpfonf? vrf;qHkvrf;cG cHuwkwfrsm; aqmufvkyfolESifh rdrd.
toufaoG;udk ay;cJo
h rl mS tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;yifjzpf.? yJ&pf tvkyf
47

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

orm;rsm;omv#if tpd;k &udk òzcs&if; "e&Sit
f yk pf ;kd r_uv
kd nf; òzcs&ef tvGef
wdus&Sif;vif;aom &nf&G,fcsuf&SdcJhonf? odk@aomf rdrdvlwef;pm;ESifh
"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;t=um; ra&SmifvEJ$ ikd o
f nfh &efbufjzpfr_ wnf&adS eonfukd
od & S d a omf v nf ; wd k i f ; jynf . pD ; yG m ;a&;wd k ; wuf r _ o nf v nf ; aumif ; /
jyifopftvkyform;xk. tod^m%fjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_onfvnf;aumif;
vlr_jyefvnf ysKd;axmifa&; jzpfEdkifaponfhtqifhxd ra&muf&Sdao;ay?
xdk@a=umifh t&if;ppfvdkufv#if awmfvSefa&;. atmifoD;atmifyGifhrsm;udk
t&if;&Sif vlwef;pm;u qGwfcl;oGm;a=umif; awG@&ayrnf? tDwvD/
*smr%DESifh =op}wD;,m;paom tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;
onf puwnf;u "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk tm%m&ap&ef vkyfay;jcif;
r#omjzpf.? odk@aomf rnfonfhwdkif;jynfwGifrqdk trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;
r&Sb
d J "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm; tkypf ;kd r_onf rjzpfEikd af y? xd@k a=umifh 1848 ckEpS f
awmfvSefa&;onf tDwvD/ *smr%DESifh [efa*&Dwdk@xHodk@ ,cifu r&SdcJh
ao;aom trsKd;om; pnf;vHk;r_ESifh trSDtcdkuif;r_wdk@udk wqufwnf;
,laqmifvm&awmhonf? ,ck ydkvefjynf. tvSnfhvnf; a&mufvm
av+yD?
odkf@jzifh 1848 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;onf qdk&S,fvpfawmfvSefa&;
r[kwfonfhwdkifatmif ,if;u qdk&S,fvpfawmfvSefa&;twGuf jyifqif
vrf;cif; ay;vdkufonf? vGefcJhaom 45 ESpfwmumvtwGif; "e&Sif
tkyfpdk;r_onf wdkif;jynftm;vHk;wGif t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;udk wGef;tm;
ay;vdkufojzifh rsm;jym;aom/ pkpnf;xm;aom/ tiftm;}uD;rm;aom
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk ae&mwumwGif zefwD;ay;vdkufay+yD? odk@jzifh a=u
nmpmwrf;. toH;k tE_e;f twdik ;f qd&k aomf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf rdru
d kd
ajrjr‡Kyfo+*õK[frnfo
h rl sm;tm; arG;xkwaf y;vdu
k o
f nf? trsK;d om;wdik ;f tm;
trSDtcdkuif;a&;ESifh aoG;pnf;a&;udk jyefvnfysKd;axmifray;bJ ypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;. Edik if H wumhaygi;f pnf;a&; &&SEd ikd v
f rd rhf nf r[kwaf y? od@k r[kwf
TtrsKd;om;rsm;. wlnaD om &nfreS ;f csurf sm;qDo@kd a&S;±_onfh +idr;f csr;f
aom/ tod&adS om yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G rf o
_ nfvnf; rjzpfEikd af y? 1848 ckEpS f
48

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

rwdik rf u
D wnf&cdS ahJ om Edik if aH &; ta=umif;tcsurf sm;atmufwiG f tDwvD/
[efa*&D/ *smref/ ydkvefESifh ±k&Sm;tvkyform;rsm;. EdkifiHwumhyl;wGJ
vkyfaqmifr_ &SdEdkifygrnfavmqdkonfudk awG;=unfh=uprf;yg?
od@k jzifh 1848 ckEpS w
f iG f wdu
k cf u
kd cf ahJ om ppfyrJG sm;onf tcsn;f ES;D
wdu
k cf u
kd cf =hJ uonf r[kwaf y? xdak wmfveS af &; acwfumvESihf u|eaf wmf
wd@k t=um; uGmvSr;f cJah om 45 ESpw
f mumvonf tcsn;f ES;D ukev
f eG o
f mG ;
cJo
h nfr[kwaf y? awmfveS af &; toD;tyGirhf sm;um; &ifrh n
S ahf eay+y?D a=unm
pmwrf; pmrl&if;u EdkifiHwumhawmfvSefa&;twGuf tusKd;ðycJhonfESifh
tvm;wlyif T tDwvDbmom jyefqckd suo
f nfvnf; tDwvD ypPn;f rJh
vlwef;pm; atmifyt
JG wGuf twdwef rd w
d af umif; jzpfa&;onf u|eaf wmf
. qENyifwnf;?
a=unmpmwrf ; onf twd w f u t&if ; &S i f p epf y g0if c J h a om
awmfvSefonfhtcef;udk w&m;enf;vrf;uspGm tjynfht0 todtrSwfðy
xm;onf? tDwvD jynfonf yxrqH;k t&if;&Siw
f ikd ;f jynf jzpfonf? ya'
o&mZftv,facwf. Zmwford ;f cef;ESihf acwfopft&if;&Sif acwfumv.
zG if h v S p f cef ; udk tv,facwf. aemufq Hk; uAsmq&mES i f h acwf o pf .
yxrqHk;uAsmq&mjzpfaom tDwvDvlrsKd; 'efawqdkonfh yk*Kd~ vf}uD;jzifh
rSwfwdkifxljyvdkufonf? 1300 ckESpfuJhodk@yif ,ae@wGif opfvGifaom
ordkif;acwfumvodk@ csOf;eif;0ifa&mufvmav+yD? tDwvDjynfonf
u|efawmfwdk@tm; 'efawuJhodk@aom yk*~dKvfopfwa,mufudk arG;xkwf
ay;rnfavm ? Tyk*~dKvfonf TopfvGifaom ypPnf;rJhacwfumv
arG;zGm;vmonfh tcsdefem&Dudk rSwfwdkifxljyvdrfhrnfavm?
z&pf'&pf tdef*,f
1893 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v
D 1 &uf/ vef'efòr@?

49

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

um;vfrmhufpf/ z&uf'&pf tdef*,f

uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;

*smref b mom pmrl & if ;
(Armbmomjyef)

1847ckEpS f 'DZifbmvESihf
1848 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D twGi;f
a&;om;onf?

50

1848 ckEpS f azazmf0g&v
D Y
vef'efòr@wiG f yxrt}udrf pmtkyf
i,ftjzpf ykEH ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf?

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

wap>}uD;waumifonf Oa&mywdkufwGif vSnfhvnfoGm;vmae
ayonf? Twap>}uD;um; uGejf rLepf0g'yifjzpf.? yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;ESihf Zm
bk&if/ rufwmepfcsEf iS hf *DaZmh/ jyifopf&,f'u
D ,frsm;ESihf *smrefyv
k yd f olv#Kd
rsm;[laom a[mif;EGrf;onfh Oa&mywdkuf&Sd tiftm;pktm;vHk;onf T
wap>}uD;tm; armif;xkwfypfa&;twGuf olawmfpifr[mrdwfudk zGJ@pnf;
vdkuf=uav+yD?
tm%m&aeaom qef@usifbufrsm;u uGefjrLepf[k ±_wfcsjcif;
rcH&aom twdkuftcHðyaeonfh ygwD[lI tb,frSm&SdtHhenf;? ydkrdk a&S@
wef;a&mufaom twdkuftcHygwDrsm;ESifhwuG ‚wdk@. azmufjyefaom
&efbufrsm;udk uGefjrLepf0g'[k jyefvnfwHqdyfuyf pGyfpGJjcif;rðyonfh
twdkuftcHygwD[lI tb,frSm &SdtHhenf;?
Tjzpf&yfrS ed*Hk;ESpf&yfudk &&Sdvdkufayonf?
1? Oa&mywdu
k f tiftm;pktm;vH;k u uGejf rLepf0g'udk tiftm;pk
w&yftjzpf todtrSwfðy+yD;cJhay+yD?
2? uGejf rLepfrsm;u rdrw
d @kd .tjrifrsm;/ rdrw
d @kd . &nfreS ;f csurf sm;
ESifh rdrdwdk@. }uH&G,fcsufrsm;udk wurBmvHk;a&S@arSmufwGif twdtvif;
azmfxw
k u
f m rdryd gw.
D a=unmpmwrf;jzifh uGejf rLepf0g'wap>}uD;qdak om
,Hkwrf;pum;udk qef@usif&ef tcsdefusa&mufvmay+yD?
T&nf&,
G cf sujf zifh rwlaomvlrsK;d toD;oD;rS uGejf rLepfrsm;onf
vef'efòr@wiG pf ak 0;=u+yD; atmufyga=unmpmwrf;udk a&;qGcJ ahJ y.? ‚udk
t*Fvyd b
f mom/ jyifopfbmom/ *smrefbmom/ tDwvDbmom/ zvrf;
rpfbmom/ 'def;rwfbmomrsm;jzifh yHkESdyfxkwfa0&ef jzpfayonf?
51

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

tcef ; (1)
"e&Sifrsm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;·
,ae@xufwikd f wnf&adS eaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;tm;vH;k . ordik ;f ··
onf vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;. ordkif;yif jzpfayonf?
vGwv
f yfoEl iS hf aus;u|e/f rif;nDrif;om;ESihf vlomrefrsm;/ t&Sif
·

"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;qdo
k nfrmS vlrx
_ w
k v
f yk af &; y&dabm*rsm;udk ydik q
f ikd +f y;D
tcpm;tvkyo
f rm;rsm;tm; cdik ;f pm;ol acwfopft&if;&Sif vlwef;pm;jzpfonf?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;qdo
k nfrmS rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd x
f w
k v
f yk af &; y&dabm*r&Sad oma=umifh
touf&iS f aexdik &f ef rdrw
d @kd .vkyt
f m;udk rvGrJ aoGa&mif;pm;&aom acwfopf
tvkyo
f rm; vlwef;pm; jzpfonf? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f mom yHEk ydS jf cif; t wGuf
tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
··
f rf;wifxm;aom ordik ;f tm;vH;k jzpf.? 1847 ckEpS f
qdv
k o
kd nfrmS rSww
wGif vl@tzG@J tpnf;. ordik ;f rwdik rf u
D mv/ rSww
f rf;wifxm;aom ordik ;f rwdik rf u
D
wnf&adS eonfh vlrt
_ zG@J tpnf;ta=umif;udk vH;k 0rodoavmuf jzpfcahJ yonf?
xd@k aemuf [ufaomqif qdo
k u
l ±k&mS ;jynfwiG f ajr,mbHyk ikd q
f ikd rf u
_ kd awG@&cdS o
hJ nf?
arm&m;qdo
k u
l usLawmepfrsK;d EG,f tm;vH;k .ordik ;f onf ajr,mbHyk ikd q
f ikd rf [
_ o
l nfh
vlra_ &;tkwjf rpf tay:rS pwifcahJ =umif;ESiw
hf uG aus;vufajr,m bHyk ikd q
f ikd rf u
_ kd
tdE,
Nd jynfrS tdik ,
f mvefjynftxd ae&mwumwGif a&S;OD;vl@tzG@J tpnf; o¿mef
tjzpf awG@&Ed S ik d af =umif;/ od@kr[kwf wnf&cd S =hu
J zl;a=umif;udk oufaojyvdu
k af yonf? rsK;d
±d;k . ppfreS af omobm0/ rsK;d ±d;k ESihf rsK;d ±d;k wltyk pf w
k @kd. qufqaH &;udk armf*ef qdkol.
52

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ocifESifh v,fu|ef/ vufr_ynmonf· ESifh usyef;tvkyform;/ wcGef;
wnf;ESiq
hf &kd v#if zdEydS o
f El iS hf zdEydS cf rH sm;onf wOD;ESiw
hf OD; tpOft+rJ qef@
usifbuf jzpfae=uum ykef;uG,fIwrsKd;/ twdtvif;jzifhwzHk tquf
rjywfwdkufcdkufcJh=uonf? TwdkufyGJwdkif;onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;udk
awmfvSefaom jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif; odk@r[kwf wdkufcdkufaeaom
vlwef;pm;rsm;yg wygwnf;qH;k ±_;H ysupf ;D jcif;wd@k jzifh tqH;k owfavh&o
dS nf?
ordkif;. tapmydkif;acwfumvrsm;wGif vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk rwl
aom vl@tv$mrsm;tjzpf ±_yfaxG;aom ae&mcsxm;r_w&yftjzpfvnf;
aumif;/ rwlaom vlra_ &;tqifh avScg;xpfrsm;tjzpfvnf;aumif; ae&m
wdkif;wGif u|efawmfwdk@ awG@&avh&Sdonf? a&S;acwf a&mròr@wGif rif;nD
rif;om;rsm;/ r–;rwfrsm;/ vlomrefrsm;/ aus;u|efrsm;&Sd=u+yD; tv,f
acwf11 wGifrl ya'o&mZft&Sifocifrsm;/ òr@pm;e,fpm;rsm;/ vufr_ynm
onfrsm; usyef;tvkyo
f rm;rsm;/ vufrt
_ vkyo
f ifrsm;ESihf v,fu|erf sm;
[lI&S=d uayonf? Tvlwef;pm; tm;vH;k eD;eD;wGif vufatmufct
H qifrh sm;
xyfrI
H &Sad eonf?
ya'o&mZf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. a=uðyef;ysufpD;r_rS aygufzGm;vm
aom acwfopf"e&Sif vl@tzG@J tpnf;onf vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfrr_ sm;udk
xif&mS ;aom awG@&rdS j_ zifh Ta&S;OD;uGejf rLepf vl@tzG@J tpnf;. twGi;f ydik ;f zG@J pnf;yHu
k kd
pHxm;avmufaom o¿mefjzifh &Si;f vif;jyocJo
h nf? Ta&S;OD;bHt
k zG@J rsm; òyuGrJ E_ iS t
hf wl
vl@tzG@J tpnf;onf tydik ;f ydik ;f pwif uGjJ ym;oGm;um aemufq;kH Y &efbufvw
l ef;pm;
~ u
d
rsm; jzpfuek =f u.? u|efawmfonf TòyuGo
J mG ;aom jzpfpOfukd rdom;pk/ yk*v
ydik q
f ik d r_frE_ iS h f Edik if aH wmfw@k.
d rlvtp pmtky/f 1886 ckEpS /f pwwf*wf/ 'kw,
d yHEk ydS jf cif;
wGif jyefvnfp;l prf;&ef óu;pm;cJo
h nf? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd f bmom yHEk ydS jf cif;
twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
·

vufr_ynmonfqdkonfrSm tcGifhta&;tjynfht0&Sdaom vufr_
tzG@J 0ifjzpfonf? vkyif ef;acgi;f aqmifol jzpfaomfvnf; vufrt
_ zG@J udk OD;pD;olr
[kwaf y? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f mom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
53

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

rzsuo
f rd ;f cJah y? ,if;onf vlwef;pm;topfrsm;/ zdEydS rf t
_ a=umif;tcsuf
topfrsm;/ wdkufyGJo¿mefopfrsm;jzifh ta[mif;rsm;ae&mwGif tpm;
xdk;jcif;r#om jzpfonf?
odk@apumrl u|efawmfwdk@. acwfumvjzpfaom "e&Sifvlwef;
pm;. acwfumvonf Todk@xl;jcm;aom vuQ%m&Sdayonf? ,if;rSm
vlwef;pm;&efbuf jzpfr_rsm;udk tvG,fwulodjrifEdkifaponf? vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;w&yfv;kH onf }uD;rm;aom &efbuf*%
kd ;f }uD; ESp*f %
kd ;f tjzpfvnf;
aumif;/ "e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;wnf;[laom wOD;ESifh
wOD; xdyw
f u
kd &f ifqikd af eonfh }uD;rm;aom vlwef;pm; ESp&f yftjzpfvnf;
aumif; ydkIydkI uGJjym;oGm;=uawmh.?
tv,facwf v,fu|efrsm;rS tapmqHk;òr@rsm;. vGwfvyfaom
òr@om;rsm; ay:xGuv
f monf? Tòr@om;rsm;rS "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;. ueOD;
tpdwftydkif;rsm; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmcJh=uonf?
tar&duwdkufudk &SmazGawG@&Sdjcif;ESifh tmz&duwdkuftm; auG@
ywfonfh yifv,fvrf;c&D;udk &SmazGawG@&Sdjcif;wdk@onf xGef;opfp "e&Sif
vlwef;pm;twGuf pm;usufopfzGifhvSpfay;vdkufonf? ta&S@tdEdN,ESifh
w±kwfjynfaps;uGufrsm;/ tar&duwdkuftm; udkvdkeDtjzpfoGwfoGif;r_/
udkvdkeDrsm;ESifh ukefoG,fr_/ zvS,fa&;enf;vrf;ESifh ukefpnfta&twGuf
a,bk,swdk;rsm;vmr_wdk@u ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;/ yifv,fc&D;oGm;vm
a&;ESihf pufrv
_ yk if ef;wd@k ukd rñuHpzl; wGe;f tm;ay;vdu
k o
f nf? Tod@k tm;jzifh
òyusysufpD;aeaom ya'o&mZfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;rS awmfvSefaom
tpdwftydkif;tm; vsifjrefpGm jzpfay:wdk;yGm;apvdkufonf?
tjyifvl 0ifcGifhr&onfh vufr_vkyfief;tzGJ@rsm;u pufr_xkwf
vkyaf &;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyx
f m;aom ya'o&mZfpufrv
_ yk if ef;12 pepfonf
aps;uGufopfrsm;. }uD;xGm;vmaom awmif;qdkr_rsm;udk ,cktcg quf
vufrjznfph rG ;f Edik af wmhay? ya'o&mZfpufrv
_ yk if ef;ae&mwGif pufrv
_ uf
r_ vkyfcif;pepfu tpm;xdk;0ifa&mufvmonf? vufr_ynmonfrsm;
onf pufrv
_ ufrx
_ w
k v
f yk af &;vkyaf eaom tv,ftvwf vlwef;pm;.
54

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

z,fxw
k jf cif;cHvu
kd &f onf? pkaygi;f xm;aom vufrt
_ zG@J trsK;d rsK;d t=um;&Sd
tvkyfcGJa0r_onf tvkyfcef;wckpD&Sd tvkyfcGJa0r_a&S@arSmufwGif uG,f
aysmufoGm;awmh.?
aps;uGufrsm; qufvufwdk;yGm;vmaepOfwGif awmif;qdkcsufrsm;
uvnf; jrifhwufvmaeonf? pufr_vufr_vkyfcif;uyifv#if jznfhwif;
EdkifpGrf;r&Sdawmhay? xdktcg a&aEG;aiG@ESifh pufud&d,mwdk@u pufr_xkwf
vkyfa&;udk awmfvSefajymif;vJapvdkufonf? pufr_vufr_ vkyfcif;ae&m
wGif t}uD;pm; acwfrpD ufrv
_ yk if ef;u ae&m ,lvu
kd o
f nf? pufrv
_ ufr_
vkyfief;&Sif tv,ftvwf vlwef;pm;ae&mwGif pufr_wyfrawmfwck
vk;H udk acgi;f aqmifo/l pufrv
_ yk if ef; oef;ºu,foal X;}uD;rsm; jzpf=uaom
acwfopf"e&Sifvlwef;pm;u ae&m,lvdkufay+yD?
acwfrpD ufrv
_ yk if ef;}uD;u urBmah ps;uGuu
f kd wnfaxmifvu
kd .
f ?
,if;odk@ wnfaxmifEdkif&ef tar&duwdkufudk awG@&Sdjcif;u vrf;cif;ay;
vdkuf.? Taps;uGufu ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;/ yifv,fc&D;oGm;vma&;
ESifh ukef;vrf;qufoG,fa&;wdk@udk }uD;rm;pGm jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmaponf?
Twdk;wufr_u pufr_vkyfief;wdk;csJ@a&;tay: wzefwkH@jyefvdkuf.? pufr_
vkyif ef;/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;/ yifv,fc&D;oGm;vma&;ESihf rD;&xm;vrf;
rsm; cs@J xiG v
f monfh tcsK;d tpm;twdik ;f "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;vnf; }uD;xGm;
vmonf? "e&Sifwdk@. t&if;tESD;vnf; wdk;yGm;vmum tv,facwfu
ºuif;usefaecJhonfh vlwef;pm;rSefor#udk aemufuG,fodk@ z,fxkwfypf
vdkufonf?
xdk@a=umifh acwfopf"e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk,fYyifv#if &Snfvsm;
aom jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ jzpfpOf. &v'fjzpfa=umif; xkwfvkyfa&;enf;emESifh
zvS,rf _ enf;emwd@k wiG f awmfveS af &;woDwwef;}uD;. &v'fjzpfa=umif;
udk u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrif&ayonf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ ajcvSrf;wdkif;wGif ‚ESifhavsmf
nDaom Tvlwef;pm;. EdkifiHa&;wufvSrf;r_ vdkufygvmcJhonf? ya'
o&mZf}uD;pd;k r_ atmufwiG f ‚onf tzdEydS cf v
H w
l ef;pm;jzpfc.
hJ ? tv,f
55

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f
·

acwfbt
kH zG@J wGif vufeufwyfqifxm;aom ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfa&; tpnf;
t±Hk; jzpfcJhonf? ,if;rSwzef tcsKd@ae&mwGif trSDtcdkuif;aom òr@jy
orRwEdkifiH (tDwvDESifh *smr%DjynfrSmuJhodk@) tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tcsKd@
ae&mwGirf l bk&ifEh ikd if u
H kd tcGeq
f ufo&aom “wwd,tv$m” (jyifopf
jynfrmS uJo
h @kd ) tjzpfvnf;aumif; zG@J pnf;cJ=h uonf? xdak emuf pufrv
_ ufr_
vkycf if;umvwGif ‚onf ya'o&mZfwydik ;f Edik if H od@k r[kwf oufO;D qHyikd f
bk&ifhEdkifiHtwGuf r–;rsKd;rwfEG,ftv$mudk &ifqdkifqef@usifaom tiftm;
jzpfcJhonf? ‚onf a,bk,sbk&ifhEdkifiH}uD;rsm;. tajccHtkwfjrpfvnf;
jzpfco
hJ nf? aemufq;kH wGif acwfopfpufrv
_ yk if ef;}uD;ESihf urBmah ps;uGuu
f kd
wnfaxmifvdkufonfh tcsdefrSpI "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf acwfopfudk,f
pm;vS,fpepf EdkifiHawmfY EdkifiHa&;pdk;rdk;r_udk wOD;wnf;ydkif odrf;,lvdkuf
onf? acwfopfEdkifiHawmftm%monf "e&Sifvlwef; pm;w&yfvHk;.
wlnaD omta&;udprP sm;udk pDrcH ef@caGJ om aumfrwDwckr#om jzpfayonf?
ordik ;f t& "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf tvGeaf wmfveS af om tcef;rS
yg0if ujycJhay.?

·

ya'o&mZfajr&Sirf sm;ESihf ocifrsm;xHrS a'oud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;ESihf
“wwd,tv$m” . Edik if aH &;tcGit
hf a&; r&&Srd u
D wnf;uyif jyifopfjynfrS xGe;f
opfpòr@rsm;onf “bHt
k zG@J” trnfuk d ,lc=h Juonf? a,bk,sajym&aomf t*Fvefjynfuk d
"e&Sif vlwef;pm; pD;yGm;a&;jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_. pHwikd ;f jynf/ jyifopfjynf udk "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;
Edik if aH &; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_. pHwikd ;f jynftjzpfxm;onf? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f mom
yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
TtrnfrSm ya'o&mZfajr&Sifrsm;xHrS olwdk@. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;
tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;udk 0,f,l+yD;onfhaemuf odk@r[kwf vk,l+yD;onfah emuf
tDwvDjynfEiS hf jyifopfjynfw@kd &òdS r@om;rsm;u ‚wd@k . òr@jybHt
k zG@J tpnf;rsm;udk
ac:a0:=uonft
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f
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56

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

tay:pD;&aeaom ae&mwdkif;wGif "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf ya'
o&mZfqefaom/ tz}uD;pdk;aom/ aus;vufqefaom/ qufqHa&; tm;
vH;k udk tqH;k owfypfvu
kd o
f nf? “obm0t&Sio
f cifrsm;” u wkyaf ESmif
xm;onfh ya'o&mZf taESmiftzG@J trsK;d rsK;d udk t=uifemuif;rJph mG jzwf
awmufypfvdkufonf? ajAmifusaom udk,fusKd;&Smr_/ !‡mwmaxmuf
xm;jcif;r&Sdaom “vufiif;aiGay;acsr_” wdk@rSwyg; vlvlcsif;qufqHa&;
wGif rnfonfht&mudkrS rxm;&Sdawmhay? bmoma&;xufoefr_/ vlpGrf;
aumif;pdww
f ufºur_/ evAde;f wH;k pdwu
f ;l ,Ofr_ [laom jrifjh rwfonfh pdwf
t[kefwdk@onf udk,fusKd;wGufcsufr_wnf;[laom a&at;xJwGif epf
ðryfomG ;awmh.? vly*k Kd~ vf. *k%o
f u
d mQ udk zvS,af &;wefz;kd tjzpf ajymif;
vJypfvu
kd o
f nf? ra&rwGuf Edik o
f nf/h zsuo
f rd ;f Ir&Edik o
f nf/h cGiðhf ycsujf zifh
&&Sdxm;onfh vGwfvyfr_rsm;ae&mwGif wckwnf;aom/ pOf;vJaom
vGwfvyfr_ (0g) vGwfvyfpGmukefoG,fr_jzifh tpm;xdk;vdkufonf? wcGef;
wnf;qdk&aomf bmoma&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;vSnfhpm;r_ rsufESmzHk;pGyfxm;aom
aoG;pkyfjc,fvS,fr_ae&mwGif ajAmifusaom/ t&SufrJhaom/ wdkuf±dkufjzpf
aom/ &ufpufaom aoG;pkyrf j_ zifh "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u tpm;xd;k vdu
k o
f nf?
,ckxufwikd f odumQ &So
d nf[k ,lqcJah om/ jrifrh m;pGm wefz;kd xm;
aom tvkyrf eS o
f r#. *k%t
f &Sed t
f 0grsm;udk "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u y,fzsuf
vdkufay+yD? q&m0ef/ a&S@ae/ bkef;}uD;/ uAsmq&m/ 0dZ…mynm&Sifwdk@udk
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;. tcpm;vkyfom;rsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJypfvdkufonf?
"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf rdom;pk. pdwu
f ;l ,OfrsuEf mS zH;k udk z,f&mS ;
ypfvdkufum rdom;pkqufqHa&;udk tojymqufqHa&;oufouftjzpf
av#mhcsypfvdkufonf?
azmufjyefa&;*dk%f;rsm;u vGefpGm tr$ef;wifxm;onfh tv,f
acwfu &ufpufaom tpGrf;jyr_rsm;udk ysif;&dzG,f&m taumif;qHk;aom
t&mrsm;tjzpf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u jznfhpGufzGifhcscJhonf? vlom;. ðyr_
v_y&f mS ;r_onf tb,fr# pGr;f aqmifEikd o
f nfukd "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u OD;pGm
jyocJhonf? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf tD*spfjynfu yd&rpfocsKõif;}uD;rsm;/
57

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

a&mracwfa&oG,fwHav#muf}uD;rsm;/ *dk;opfbk&m;ausmif;rsm;xuf om
vGefxl;uJvSonfh tHh=ozG,f&mrsm;udk pGrf;aqmifcJh.? twdwfumv
vlrsK;d tvdu
k f ajymif;a&$@r}_ u;D rsm;/ u±l;qdwf bmoma&;ppfyrJG sm;tm;vH;k ESihf
vHk;0rwlaom c&D;a0;xGufcGmjcif;rsm;udkvnf; pGrf;aqmifcJhonf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf xkwfvkyfa&;ud&d,mudk tqufrjywf
awmfveS f ajymif;vJr/_ ‚aemuf xkwv
f yk af &;qufqrH w
_ @kd ukd tqufrjywf
awmfveS f ajymif;vJrr_ vkyb
f J rwnfwEhH ikd af y? Tod@k jzifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;.
qufqHa&;wckvHk;udkvnf; awmfvSefajymif;vJypfvdkufonf? qef@usif
buftm;jzifh xkwv
f yk af &;enf;ema[mif;rsm;udk rajymif;rvJbJ xde;f odr;f
xm;a&;rSm tapmydkif;pufr_ vlwef;pm;tm;vHk; wnf&Sda&;twGuf a&S;
OD;pGm&Sd&rnfh ta=umif;tcsufjzpfonf? xkwfvkyfa&; t+rJrjywfajymif;
vJ j cif ; / vl r _ q uf q H a &;tm;vH k ; tquf r jywf r+id r f r ouf j zpf j cif ; /
xm0pOfra&&mjcif;ESihf v_y&f mS ;jcif;wd@k onf tjcm;acwfumv tm;vH;k ESihf
"e&Sifacwfumvwdk@ rwlonfhtcsufyifwnf;? cdkif+rJaeaom/ t±dk;pGJae
aom qufqHa&;tm;vHk;/ ‚ESifhwygwnf;jzpfonfh a&S;usaom =unf
!dkav;pm;zG,f&m tpGJtvrf;rsm;/ tjrifrsm;onf zsufodrf;jcif; cHvu
kd f
&av+yD? topfay:xGuv
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ukefoGm;awmh.? tpdkiftcJtm;vHk;onf avxJwGif a=uysufoGm;um
rGejf rwfaom t&mtm;vH;k onfvnf; ,kwn
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hH ek =f uav+y?D tqH;k wGiu
f m;
vlw@kd onf rdrw
d @kd . wu,fb
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d @kd t=um;&Sd tjyeftvSef
qufqHa&;rsm;udk wnf+idrfpGmjzifh rvGJraoG &ifqdkifvm&awmhonf?
rdrdtxGufypPnf;rsm;twGuf aps;uGufudk tqufrjywfwdk;cs@J &ef
vdktyfaoma=umifh "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf urBmhtESH@ ajy;v$m;ae&onf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf rnfonfhae&mYrqdk tdk;tdrfxlaxmif=u&rnf/
rnfonfhae&mYrqdk tajcpkduf=u&rnf/ rnfonfhae&mESifhrqdk quf
oG,f=u&rnfjzpf.?
"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf urBmah ps;uGuu
f kd zGiv
hf pS v
f u
kd jf cif;jzifh wdik ;f
jynfwdkif;&Sd xkwfvkyfa&;ESifh oHk;pGJa&;udk urBmhvuQ%m aqmifaponf?
58

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

pufrv
_ yk if ef;. ajcz0g;atmufrS trsK;d om;a&;tajccHukd "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u
z,fxkwfvdkufonfhtwGuf azmufjyefa&;*dk%f;rsm;onf t}uD;tus,f
rcHr&yfEikd f jzpf=uonf? =umjrifph mG u wnfaxmifcahJ om trsK;d om;pufr_
vkyfief;tm;vHk;onf zsufqD;jcif;cHvdkuf&.? ae@pOfESifhtr#vnf; zsufqD;
jcif;cHae&.? ‚wdk@.ae&mwGif ,Ofaus;aom trsKd;om;rsm;twGuf
aoa&;&Sifa&;jy\em jzpfvmonfh pufr_vkyfief;opfrsm;u wd;k 0ifvm
onf? Tpufr_vkyfief;rsm;onf jynfwGif;ukef=urf;rsm;udkom oHk;pGJjcif;
r[kwfawmhbJ ta0;uGmqHk;aom e,fy,frsm;rS ,laqmifvmonfh
uke=f urf;udyk g oH;k pGo
J nf? puf±rkH x
S w
k v
f yk v
f u
kd af om txGuyf pPn;f rsm;udk
vnf; rdrjd ynfwiG ;f rSmomru urBmtES@H tjym;wGif oH;k pGaJ e=uay+yD? rdrw
d @kd
wdik ;f jynfrS txGuyf pPn;f rsm;jzifh jznfw
h if;aeusjzpfonfh a[mif;EGr;f aom
vdt
k yfrr_ sm;ae&mwGif a0;uGmaomwdik ;f jynf/ uGjJ ym;aom &moDOwk&o
dS nfh
ae&mrsm;rS txGuyf pPn;f rsm;jzifh jznfw
h if;ay;&aom vdt
k yfro
_ pfrsm;u
tpm;xdk;vdkufonf? a[mif;EGrf;ae+yDjzpfaom a'ocsif; uif;uGmaer_/
trsKd;om;csif; uif;uGmaer_/ rdrdbmomzlvHkr_wdk@.ae&mwGif trsKd;om;
rsm; wOD;ESifhwOD; tbufbufrS qufoG,fae&r_/ tjyeftvSef rSDcdkae&
r_jzifh tpm;xdk;vdkufonf? ±kyf0wˆKxkwfvkyfa&;Yomru todynm
xkwfvkyfa&;wGifvnf; Ttwdkif;yifjzpfonf? trsK;d om;w&yfp.
D tod
ynmzefw;D r_rsm;onf trsm;ydik yf pPn;f jzpfvmonf? trsK;d om;wzufowf
usjcif;ESihf trsKd;om;tjrifusOf;ajrmif;jcif;wdk@onf ydkIydkI rjzpfEdkifawmh
ay? ta&twGuf rsm;jym;vSaom trsKd;om;ESifh a'oqdkif&mpmay,Of
aus;r_rS urBmhpmay,Ofaus;r_wck ay:xGef;vmayonf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf xkwfvkyfa&;ud&d,mtm;vHk;udk vsifjref
pGmwdk;wuf aumif;rGefapjcif;/ qufoG,fa&;enf;emrsm;udkvnf; tvGef@
tvGef vG,fulapjcif;wdk@u t±dkif;pdkif;qHk;aom trsKd;om;rsm;tygt0if
trsKd;om;tm;vHk;udkyif ,Ofaus;vm&ef qGJoGif;,lvdkufayonf? "e&Sif
vlwef;pm;. aps;aygaom ukepf nfrsm;onf w±kww
f w
H ikd ;f }uD;tm;vH;k udk
òzcGJzsufqD;ypfaom tajrmuf}uD;rsm; jzpf=u+yD; EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;tm;
59

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

cg;cg;oD;oD;rke;f wD;onfh vl±ikd ;f rsm;udk tusyu
f ikd u
f m vufeufcs aponf?
trsK;d om;tm;vH;k uG,af ysmufroGm;&ef t&if;&Six
f w
k v
f w
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udk vufc&H rnf[k "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u tusyu
f ikd v
f u
kd o
f nf? trsK;d om;
rsm;twGi;f od@k olw@kd .,Ofaus;r_qo
kd nfukd twif;t"rR oGwo
f iG ;f vdu
k f
onf? qdkvdkonfrSm ‚wdk@ udk,fwdkifudk "e&Sifjzpfvmaponf? wcGef;
wnf;ajym&v#if "e&SifyHkpHtwdkif; urBmwckudk zefwD;vdkufjcif;yifwnf;?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf aus;vufrsm;udk òr@rsm;.pdk;rdk;r_atmuf
wGif xm;&Sdonf? òr@}uD;jy}uD;rsm;pGmudk wnfaxmifcJhonf? aus;vuf
vlO;D a&ESihf E_id ;f pmv#if òr@aevlO;D a&udk tvGet
f rif; ydrk w
kd ;kd yGm;vmapum
vlOD;a&tawmfrsm;rsm;udkvnf; xdkif;r_dif;aom aus;vufb0rS u,fwif
vdu
k o
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kd mapouJo
h @kd yif ±dik ;f pdik ;f aom wdik ;f
jynfEiS hf wpdww
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tay: rSDcdkvmaponf? v,form;wdkif;jynfrsm;u "e&Sifwdkif;jynfrsm;
tay:od@k vnf;aumif;/ ta&S@wikd ;f u taemufwikd ;f tay:od@k vnf;aumif;
rSDcdkvmaponf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf jyef@usJvsuf&SdaomvlOD;a&/ xkwfvkyfa&;
y&dabm*ESihf ydik q
f ikd rf w
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k ydI
k zsuo
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¹ywfodyfvmaponf? xkwfvkyfa&;y&dabm*udk pkpnf;vmaponf? OpPm
"ersm;udk vltenf;pk. vufxw
J iG f pkyakH &muf&v
dS maponf? Tod@k ðyvkyf
r_EiS t
hf wl rvGrJ aoG vdu
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onfh jynfe,frsm;onf wckwnf;aomtpdk;&/ wckwnf;aomOya'
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e,fedrdwf/ wckwnf;aomtaumuftcGefwdk@&Sdonf h wck w nf ; aom
wdkif;jynftjzpf aygif;pnf;vmawmhonf?
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ukefvGefcJhaom rsKd;quftm;vHk;u zefwD;cJhor#. pkpkaygif;xufyif ydrk kd
60

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

rsm;jym;aom/ ydrk }kd u;D rm;aom xkwv
f yk af &;tiftm;pkrsm;udk zefw;D cJah yonf?
‚wd@k rmS obm0tiftm;udk vlw@kd ucsKyu
f ikd jf cif;/ pufud&,
d mxkwv
f yk jf cif;/
pufr_vkyfief;ESifh v,f,mvkyfief;wGif "mwkaA'toHk;ðyjcif;/ rD;oabFm
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jcif;/ urBmhwdkuf}uD;rsm;udk xGef,ufpdkufysKd;a&;twGuf ckwfxGifypfjcif;/
jrpfrsm;rS wl;ajrmif;oG,f,ljcif;/ ref;r_wfvdkufonfhyrm vlOD;a&tvHk;
t&if;udk qGJaqmifac:,lvdkufjcif;wdk@jzpfonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m
tvkyfxJwGif Todk@aom xkwfvkyfa&; tiftm;pkrsm; udef;atmif;ae
onfudk tapmydkif;&mpkESpfrsm;uqdkv#if awG;yifawG;awmEdkif=uygrnf
avm?
od@k jzpfI u|eaf wmfw@kd awG@&&dS onfrmS "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm; ay:xGuf
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y&dabm*ESihf zvS,af &;enf;vrf; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_. wpHw
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kd rf ad om arSmq
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61

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

yif jzpfae.? ESpq
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f ikd rf q
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onfh ordik ;f omv#ijf zpfonf? "e&Siv
f @l tzG@J tpnf; wckv;kH . wnf&rdS u
_ kd
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avmufay+yD? Tusyw
f nf;r_uyfrsm;wGif xkwv
f yk +f yD;aom txGuyf pPn;f
trsm;ydik ;f omv#irf u ,cifu &S+d y;D aom xkwv
f yk af &;tiftm;pkrsm;yifv#if
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,cifacwftcgtm;vH;k uqdv
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f yk f
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wGif&Sdaom xkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkrsm;onf "e&Sifydkifqdkifr_ ta=umif;
tcsufrsm; wdk;yGm;r_udk qufvuftvkyftau|; rðyawmhay? qef@usif
buftm;jzifh xkwv
f yk af &;tiftm;pkrsm;onf tqrwef tm;}u;D vmum
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62

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

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tm; avsmhenf;oGm;apjcif;om jzpfonf?
"e&Siv
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63

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64

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

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16
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65

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66

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17
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67

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68

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vSef aomvlwef;pm;ESifh yl;aygif;vm=uonf? xdk@a=umifh tapmydkif;um
vwGif r–;rsKd;rwfEG,f wpdwfwydkif;onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;bufodk@ ul;
ajymif;vmonfhtwdkif; ,cktcg "e&Sifwpdwfwydkif; txl;ojzifh ordkif;
v_y&f mS ;r_ wckv;kH udk oabmw&m;a&;t& odjrifaomtqifx
h d jr‡iw
hf ifchJ
+yDjzpfonfh "e&SiftawG;tac:&Sif wpdwfwydkif;onf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;
bufodk@ ul;ajymif;vm=uayonf?
,ae@ "e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifae=uaom vlwef;
pm;tm;vHk;wGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;omv#if wu,fwrf; awmfvSefaom
vlwef;pm;jzpf.? acwfopfpufr_vkyfief; a&S@arSmufwGif tjcm;aom vl
wef;pm;rsm;onf a=uðyef;um aemufqHk;Y uG,faysmufoGm;=uonf?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;onf acwfopfpufrv
_ yk if ef;rS rv$rJ a&Smifom ay:xGuf
vmonfh udk,fydkif&v'f jzpfayawmh.?
tv,ftvwf atmufv$mvlwef;pm;21 jzpf=uaom tvkyf±Hk
ydik &f iS u
f av;/ qdik &f iS u
f av;/ vufry_ nmonf/ v,form; ponfw@kd onf
tv,ftvwf vlwef;pm; tpdwftydkif;rsm;tjzpf rdrdwdk@b0 wnfwHhr_
ysufokOf;roGm;ap&eftvdk@iSm "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usifwdkufcdkuf=u
onf? xd@k a=umifh olw@kd onf awmfveS af &;orm;rsm; r[kw=f ubJ or±d;k
us orm;rsm; jzpf=u.? xdrk #ru olw@kd onf azmufjyefayonf? tb,f
a=umifhqdkaomf &xm;bD;udk aemufjyefvSnfh&ef óu;pm;=uaoma=umifh
jzpfonf? olwdk@onf ñuHóuufI awmfvSefa&;orm;jzpfvmygrl Todk@
jzpf&jcif;onf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; wyfz@JG xo
J @kd ul;ajymif;tHq
h q
J J tajctae
a=umifo
h m jzpfonf? od@k jzifh olw@kd onf rsuaf rSmuf tusK;d pD;yGm;udk umuG,f
jcif; r[kwfbJ olwdk@. tem*wftusKd;pD;yGm;udk umuG,fjcif;omjzpf.?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;&yfwnfcsufudk cH,l&eftwGuf olwdk@onf rdrdwdk@.
ud,
k yf ikd &f yfwnfcsuu
f kd pGe@f y,fvu
dk jf cif;om jzpf.?
vl @ tzG J @ tpnf ; a[mif ; . atmuf w ef ; tusqH k ; tv$ m rsm;rS
pGef@ypfvdkufaom/ rwufºuaom/ aqG;ajr@aeaom t&mrsm;jzpfonfh
“tEW&m,f&adS om vlwef;pm;” vlrt
_ r_u
d o
f ±du
k 22f rsm;onf ae&mtcsK@d wiG f
69

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

ypPn;f rJah wmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_twGi;f od@k yg0ifaumif; yg0ifvm=uayvdrrhf nf?
od@k apumrl olw@kd . b0ta=umif;tcsurf sm;t& olw@kd onf azmufjyef
aom vky}f uHzsuq
f ;D r_rsm;. t0,fc&H olrsm; tjzpfo@kd tvGet
f rif; wdr;f
!Gwfvsuf&Sd.?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. b0ta=umif;tcsufrsm;xJwGif vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;a[mif;u ta=umif;tcsufrsm;onf acsr_ef;jcif;cH&+yD; jzpfonf?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;wGif ydik q
f ikd rf r_ &Sad y? olEiS o
hf .
l ZeD;/ om;orD;wd@k qufqH
a&;onf "e&Sirf o
d m;pk qufqaH &;rsm;ESihf rnfo@kd r# wlncD surf &Sad y? t*F
vefESifh jyifopfwGifjzpfap/ tar&duefESifh *smr%DwGifjzpfap twlwl
yifjzpfaom acwfopfpufr_vkyfief;tvkyfESifh acwfopft&if;tESD;.
xrf;yd;k wd@k u ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;. trsK;d om;vuQ%m t&dyt
f a&mif rSef
or#ukd y,fzsuv
f u
kd af v+yD? w&m;Oya'/ ud,
k u
f siw
hf &m;/ bmoma&;wd@k
onf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;twGufqdk&aomf "e&SiftusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;udk um
uG,fxm;onfh "e&Sifwzufowftjrifrsm;rSwyg; tjcm;r[kwfay?
tay:pD;&&SdcJh=uaom ,cifh,cifu vlwef;pm;tm;vHk;onf
vl@tzG@J tpnf;wckv;kH udk olw@kd tydik pf ;D xm;+yD;jzpfaom ta=umif;tcsuf
rsm;twdik ;f emcHapjcif;jzifh rdrw
d @kd &&Scd +hJ yD;jzpfaom tqifah e&mudk ckid rf m&ef
óu;pm;cJh=uonf? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf rdrdwdk@. ,ciftydkif&,lr_
enf;emudk zsufodrf;ypfjcif;/ Tokd@jzifh ,ciftykdif&,lr_enf;emrSefor#ukd
zsuo
f rd ;f ypfjcif;wk@d rw
S yg; vl@tzG@J tpnf;. xkwf vkyaf &;tiftm;pkrsm;
tay: rv$rf;rdk;Edkifay? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;wGif xdef;odrf;umuG,fxm;&ef
rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd [
f I
l bmr#r&S/d ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;. vkyif ef;aqmifwmrSm ,cif
u wnf&cdS haJ om yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_tm; umuG,fxm;r_ESifh tmrcHxm;r_
tm;vHk;udk zsufodrf;ypfa&;yifjzpfonf?
twd w f u mvu ord k i f ; v_ y f & S m ;r_ t m;vH k ; onf vl e nf ; pk .
v_y&f mS ;r_ od@k r[kwf vlenf;pk. tusK;d pD;yGm;twGuf v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;jzpf.?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_onf trsm;wumhtrsm;pk}uD;. tusKd;
pD;yGm;twGuf trsm;wumh trsm;pk}uD;. udk,fydkiftod&Sdaom23 trSD
70

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

tcd kuif;aom v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfonf? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf u|efawmf
wd k @ rsuf a rS m uf v l @ tzG J @ tpnf ; . ted r f h q H k ; tv$ m jzpf o nf h t avsmuf
t&m&St
d &mcH vl@tzG@J tpnf;. xdyq
f ;kH ydik ;f vl@tv$mwckv;kH udk azmufcGJ
rypfbJ ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf xºurvmEdkif/ rm;rm;rwfrwf &yfwnf
rvmEdkifay?
tu,fI tESpfom&tm;jzifh r[kwfbJ o¿meft&qdkv#if
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usifaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. wdkufyGJonf
yxrwGif wdkif;jynftvdkuf wdkufyGJjzpfonf? trSefyif wdkif;jynfwdkif;rS
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf rddrdwdkif;jynf&Sd "e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh OD;pGmyxr
pm&if;&Sif;&rnf?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;vmr_. a,bk,stusq;kH aom
tqifhrsm;udk azmfjy&mwGif rsufarSmufvl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;&Sd tenf;
ESifhtrsm; rxif&Sm;aom jynfwGif;ppfyGJonf twdtvif;awmfvSefa&;
txd ayguu
f o
JG mG ;um ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;u "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;udk t=urf;
zuf òzcsvdkuf+yD; ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;. pdk;rdk;r_twGuf tajccHtkwfjrpf
csay;vdkufonfudk u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrif&onf?
u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrifcJhonfhtwdkif; ,ae@txdwnf&Sdaeaom
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm;vHk;onf zdESdyfolESifh tzdESdyfcHvlwef;pm;rsm;t=um;
&efbufjzpfr_tay:wGif tajcpdkufxm;ay.? odk@&mwGif vlwef;pm;
w&yfudk zdESdyfEdkifzkd@qdkaomf xdkvlwef;pm;tm; wpHkw&maomta=umif;
tcsuf/ tenf;qHk;tm;jzifh ‚tm; u|efyrm oufqdk;&Snfaponfh t
a=umif;tcsufudk tmrcH&ayrnf? v,fu|efacwf umvwkef;u v,f
u|efonf bHktzGJ@0ifjzpfatmif wufvSrf;ovdkyif ya'o&mZfoufOD;
qHydkif. zdESdyfr_atmufwGif usa&mufcJhaom "e&Sifaygufponfvnf;
"e&Siftjzpf wufvSrf;cJhonf? qef@usifbuftm;jzifh acwfopftvkyf
orm;rsm;rSmrl pufr_vkyfief;wdk;wufvmr_ESifhtwl jrifhwufvm&rnfh
tpm; rdrv
d w
l ef;pm; b0wnf&rdS _ ta=umif;tcsurf sm;. atmufo@kd yif
ydkIydkI usqif;oGm;awmh.? tvkyform;onf rGJjymusoljzpfvmonf?
71

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

rGJjymusr_onf vlOD;a&ESifh "eOpPmxufyif ydkrdkvsifjrefpGm jzpfay:wdk;yGm;
vmonf? Tonfu "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk tkyfpdk;
xm;ol vlwef;pm;tjzpf qufvufwnf&&dS efEiS hf rdrv
d w
l ef;pm; wnf&rdS _
ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udk vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;tay: xdef;csKyfxm;aom
w&m;tjzpf tusyu
f ikd &f ef roifah wmfa=umif;udk &Si;f vif;pGm azmfjyvdu
k f
onf? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf tkyfpdk;ae&ef roifhawmfawmhay? tb,f
a=umifhqdkaomf ol.aus;u|efudk aus;u|efa&csdeft& wnf&Sdr_udkyifv#if
tmrcHcsuf ray;Edik af oma=umifjh zpf.? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf aus;u|e.
f
tau|;tarG;udk cH&rnft
h pm; aus;u|eu
f ykd if "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u au|;arG;
ae&aomtajcod@k qdu
k af &muf roGm;atmifvnf; rwwfEikd af oma=umifh
jzpfonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf T"e&Sifvlwef;pm; tkyfpdk;r_atmufwGif
qufvufraeEdik af wmhay? wenf;qdak omf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm; wnf&rdS o
_ nf
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh qufvufroifhawmfawmhay?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; wnf&Sdr_ESifh pdk;rdk;r_. t&if;cHta=umif;rSm
t&if;tESD; jzpfwnfvmjcif;ESifh wdk;yGm;vmjcif;24 wdk@jzpfonf? t&if;
tESD; wnf&Sdjcif;. ta=umif;tcsurf mS tcpm;tvkyjf zpfonf? tcpm;
tvk y f o nf tvk y f o rm; tcsif ; csif ; òyif q d k i f r _ t ay:wG i f vH k ; 0wnf
aeay.? acwfopfpufr_vkyfief; a&S@odk@wufvSrf;vmr_udk &nf&G,fcsuf
r&SdbJ ,laqmifvmolrSm "e&Sifvlwef;pm;jzpf.? ‚wufvSrf;r_onf
òyif q d k i f r _ a =umif h oD ; jcm;uif ; uG m aeaom vk y f o m;rsm;.ae&mwG i f
tpnf;t±H;k rsm; zG@J pnf;jcif;a=umifh &&Sv
d monfh vkyo
f m;rsm;. awmfveS f
aomaygif;pnf;r_jzifh tpm;xdk;vdkufonf? xdk@a=umifh acwfopfpufr_
vkyfief; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmr_u "e&Sifvlwef;pm;. txGufypPnf;rsm;
xkwfvkyf&m tydkifpD;&m t&if;tjrpfukd csK;d zsuyf pfvu
kd o
f nf? xd@k a=umifh
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onf OD;pGmtm;jzifh rdrd.ocsKõif;tm; wl;olrsm;udk
xkwfvkyfvdkuf.? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;. usqHk;r_ESifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;.
atmifyGJonf xyfwlxyfr# ra&Smifv$JEdkifawmhay?
72

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

tcef ; (2)
ypPnf;rJhrsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfrsm;;yGyGefjrLepf
j rLepfr sm;
uGejf rLepfrsm;onf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;w&yfv;kH tay: rnfo@kd o
abmxm; ygoenf;?
uGefjrLepfrsm;onf tjcm;tvkyform; vlwef;pm;ygwDrsm;udk
qef@usifum zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh oD;jcm;ygwDw&yf r[kwfay?
olw@kd wiG f ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;w&yfv;kH . tusK;d pD;yGm;ESihf oD;jcm;
jzpfaom/ uif;uGmaom rnfonfhtusKd;pD;yGm;r# r&Sday?
olwdk@onf ypPnf;rJhv_yf&Sm;r_udkyHkazmf&ef/ yHkoGif;&ef rnfonfh
udk,fydkif*dk%f;*%qefaom25 rlrsm;udkr# rwifjy=uay?
uGefjrLepfrsm;onf tjcm;aomtvkyform; vlwef;pm;ygwD
26
rsm; ESifh uGJjym;jcm;em;onfrSm atmufygtcsufrsm;wGifom jzpfonf?
1? wdik ;f jynftoD;oD;&Sd ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;. wdik ;f jynftvku
d f wdu
k yf rJG sm;
wGif uGefjrLepfrsm;onf vlrsKd;a&;ESifh uif;&Sif;aom ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;
w&yfv;kH . wlnaD omtusL;d pD;yGm;rsm;udk !¸ejf y a&S@wef;wifay;onf?
2? tvk y f o rm;vl w ef ; pm;u jzwf a usmf & rnf h "e&S i f v l w ef ; pm;ud k
qef@usiaf om wdkufyGJjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ tqifhtoD;oD;wGif uGefjrLepfrsm;
onf v_y&f mS ;r_wckv;kH . tusK;d pD;yGm;udk ae&mwdik ;f wGif tpOfojzifh ud,
k f
pm;ðyayonf?
xdk@a=umifh uGefjrLepfrsm;onf wzufwGif vufawG@t& wdkif;
jynfwikd ;f . tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm; ygwrD sm;xJwiG f a&S@wef;ta&mufq;kH /
tjywfom;qHk; tydkif;jzpf+yD; ‚u tjcm;ygwDtm;vHk;udk a&S@odk@ wGef;
wifay;onf? tjcm;wzufwGif oabmw&m;t& ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;
v_yf&Sm;r_ csDwuf&mvrf;a=umif;/ ta=umif;tcsufrsm;ESifh tqHk;owf
a,bk,s tusK;d oufa&mufrr_ sm;udk &Si;f vif;pGm em;vnf&mwGif ypPn;f
rJhxk}uD;xuf uGefjrLepfrsm;onf omvGefr_&Sdonf?
73

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

uGefjrLepfrsm;. vwfwavm&nf&G,fcsufonf tjcm;aom
ypPnf;rJhygwDrsm;uJhodk@yif ypPnf;rJhrsm;tm; vlwef;pm;w&yftjzpf zGJ@wnf
a&;/ "e&Sipf ;kd rd;k r_uòkd zcsa&;/ Edik if aH &;tm%mudk ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;u odr;f
,la&;wdk@jzpf.?
uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmw&m;a&;&m ed*;kH csKyfcsurf sm;onf avm
u}uD;udk ðyjyifrnfqdkonfh xdkxdkTTyk*~dKvfrsm;u wDxGifcJhaom odk@r
[kwf &SmazGawG@&cdS ahJ om t,ltqrsm; od@k r[kwf rlrsm;tay:wGif tvsO;f
tajcrcHay?
olwdk@onf wnf&Sdaeaom vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrSvnf;aumif;/
u|eaf wmf wd@k a&S@arSmufwiG f jzpfymG ;aeaom ordik ;f v_y&f mS ;r_rv
S nf;aumif;
ay:xGuv
f monfh wu,fq
h ufqaH &;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI a,bk,sazmfjyjcif;
r#om jzpfonf? wnf&adS eaom ydik q
f ikd rf q
_ ufqaH &;rsm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f ypfjcif;
onf uGejf rLepf0g'. xl;jcm;aom vuQ%mw&yf tvsOf;r[kwfay?
ordik ;f qdik &f m ta=umif;tcsurf sm; ajymif;vJra_ =umifh twdwu
f
ydik q
f ikd rf _ qufqaH &; tm;vH;k onf tqufrjywfordik ;f qdik &f m ajymif;vJr_
jzpfcJhonf?
Oyrm jyif o pf a wmf v S e f a &; 27 onf ya'o&mZf y d k i f q d k i f r _ u d k
zsufodrf;um "e&Sifydkifqdkifr_jzifh tpm;xdk;cJhonf?
uGefjrLepf0g'. xl;jcm;aomvuQ%mrSm a,bk,sydkifqdkifr_udk
zsufodrf;jcif;r[kwfbJ "e&Sifydkifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;ypfjcif;jzpf.? odk@aomf
acwfopf"e&Sif vlwef;pm;. yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf o
_ nf vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpf
r_EiS hf tenf;pku trsm;pkukd aoG;pkyrf t
_ ay:wGif28 tajcðyxm;onfh xkwf
vkyfr_ESifh txGufypPnf; tydkifpD;r_pepf. aemufqHk;ESifh tjynfhpHkqHk;aom
azmfjycsufjzpfonf?
Tt"dym` ,ft& uGejf rLepfrsm;. oabmw&m;udk pmwa=umif;
wnf;jzifh csKyfvdkufv#if yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;a&;yifjzpf.?
u|eaf wmfw@kd uGejf rLepfrsm;udk wOD;csi;f vGwv
f yfr/_ ðyrlvy_ &f mS ;r_/
trSDtcdkuif;r_tm;vHk;. tajccHjzpfaom rdrd.udk,fydkiftvkyfjzifh &&Sd
74

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

vmonfh wOD;csif; OpPm"eydkifqdkifcGifhudk zsufodrf;ypfvdkolrsm;[k ±_wfcs
tjypfwif=uonf?
cufcufccJ jJ zifh&&Sdaom/ rdrdudk,fydkiftvkyfjzifh&&Sdaom/ rdrd udk,f
wdkif&SmazGcJhaom OpPm"eqdkyguvm;! "e&Sifydkifqdkifr_. a&S@ajy; jzpfaom
vufr_ynmonfuav;ESifh v,form;uav;. ydkifqdkifr_o¿mefudk
f ikd rf u
_ kd zsuo
f rd ;f ae
oifw@kd ajymqdak eygoavm? u|eaf wmfw@kd onf Tydik q
&ef rvdyk g? pufrv
_ yk if ef; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_onf }u;D rm;aom twdik ;f twmjzifh
Tydik q
f ikd rf u
_ kd zsuq
f ;D ypfcahJ v+y?D ae@pOfvnf; zsuq
f ;D ypfaeqJ jzpfayonf?
od@k r[kwf acwfopf"e&Sif yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf u
_ kd qdv
k ykd goavm?
29
od@k aomf tcpm;tvkyf onf tvkyv
f yk o
f t
l wGuf ydik q
f ikd rf u
_ kd
zefw;D ay;ygoavm? pd;k pOf;r# rzefw;D yg? tcpm;tvkyo
f nf t&if;tES;D
(0g) tcpm;tvkyftm; aoG;pkyfaom ydkifqdkifr_udk zefwD;ay;.? topf
wzef aoG;pkyf&eftwGuf tcpm;tvkyftopfudk &&Sdaprnfh ta=umif;
tcsufr&Sdv#if ‚ydkifqdkifr_onf wdk;yGm;rvmEdkifay? TuJhodk@aom
vuf&ydS ikd q
f ikd rf o
_ nf t&if;tES;D ESihf tcpm;tvky.
f &efbufjzpfr_ tay:
wGif tajcðyxm;.? T&efbufjzpfr_. bufESpfbufpvHk;udk ppfaq;
=unfh±_=uygpdk@?
t&if;&Siw
f a,muf jzpf&eftvd@k iSm xkwv
f yk af &;wGif yk*Kd~ vfouf
tqifhae&mvnf
e&m
ouft& omru vlr_a&;tqif
; &Sd&ayrnf? t&if;tESD;
qdo
k nfum; pkaygif;xkwfvkyfxm;onfh txGufypPnf;jzpfay.? vl@tzGJ@
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75

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

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awmh.?
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77

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78

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

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jcif;yif jzpfayonf?
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79

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

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80

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81

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vdk=uolrsm;jzpfonf[k ±_wfcs=ujyefonf?
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pm;tjzpfo@kd jr‡iw
hf if&rnf? "e&Sirf sm;ajym=uonfh t"dym` ,ft& r[kwf
w&yf
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tjzpfzGJ@wnf&rnf jzpfayonf?
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmr_a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ vGwf
vyf p G m ul ; oef ; a&mif ; 0,f a &;a=umif h v nf ; aumif ; / urB m h a ps;uG u f
a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ xkwfvkyfa&;enf;emESifhwuG ‚ESifhavsmfnDaom
b0ta=umif;tcsufrsm; wlnDvmaoma=umifhvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;om;
jcm;em;csurf sm;ESihf jynforl sm;tcsi;f csi;f &efbufjzpfrr_ sm;onf ae@pOfEiS hf
tr# ydkIydkI uG,faysmufoGm;aeonf?
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; pd;k rd;k r_onf Tod@k aom uG,af ysmufomG ;r_ukd
ydkrdkvsifjrefapvdrfhrnf? tenf;qHk;ajym&aomf ,Ofaus;aom xdyfwef;
wdik ;f jynfrsm;. pkaygi;f v_y&f mS ;r_onf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; vGwaf jrmufa&;
twGuf a&S;OD;ta=umif;tcsufrsm;teuf wckjzpfonf?
vlwOD;u wOD;tay: aoG;pkyfjc,fvS,fr_ tqHk;owfoGm;onf
ESifhtr# trsKd;om;w&yfu tjcm;trsKd;om;tay: aoG;pkyfjc,fvS,fr_
onfvnf; tqHk;owfoGm;vdrfhrnf? trsKd;om;twGif;&Sd vlwef;pm;
&efbufjzpfr_ uG,faysmufoGm;onfESifhtwl trsKd;om;w&yfu wjcm;
trsK;d om;w&yftay: &efvrkd ek ;f wD;r_ onfvnf; tqH;k owfomG ;vdrrhf nf?
bmoma&;/ tbd"rRma&;ESifh a,bk,stm;jzifh t,ltq&yf
wnfcsufrSaeI uGefjrLepf0g'tay: pGJcsufwifr_rsm;rSmrl av;av;euf
euf ppfaq;=unfh±_&efyif rvdkay?
82

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

vl . tawG ; tac:/ tjrif / t,l t qrsm;/ wcG e f ; wnf ; ES i f h
ajym&v#if vl.todonf ol.±kyfb0wnf&Sdr_ ta=umif;tcsufrsm;/
ol.vlr_qufqHa&;rsm;ESifh ol.vlr_a&;b0twGif;&Sd ajymif;vJr_wdkif;
ESifhtwl ajymif;vJoGm;onfudk eufeufeJeJpOf;pm;&ef vdkygao;oavm?
todynmxkwfvkyfr_onf ±kyf0wˆKxkwfvkyfa&; ajymif;vJonfh
tcsKd;tpm;twdkif;vdkufI ‚.vuQ%m ajymif;vJoGm;onf qdkonf
xuf tawG;tac:ordkif;u rnfonfudkrsm; oufaojyygao;oenf;?
acwfumvwdik ;f . pd;k rd;k aeaom tawG;tac:onf xdak cwfumv&Sd tkypf ;kd
olvlwef;pm;. tawG;tac:r#om tpOfjzpfcJhonf?
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;udk awmfvSefypfaom tawG;tac:rsm;
ta=umif;udk ajym&mwGif tawG;tac:opf. tpdwftydkif;rsm;onf
vl@tzG@J tpnf;a[mif;twGi;f wGif zG@J wnfco
hJ nf[al om tcsuu
f kd vnf;
aumif;/ b0wnf&Sdr_ta=umif;tcsufa[mif;rsm;udk zsufodrf;vdkuf
onfESifhwygwnf; tawG;tac:a[mif;rsm;. òyuGJr_onf vdkufygvm
onf[laom tcsufudkvnf;aumif; azmfjy=ujcif;r#om jzpfonf?
a&S;acwfurBm a=uðyef;vkqJqJwGif a&S;acwfbmoma&;rsm;udk
c&pf,mefbmomu tEdkif,lvdkufonf? 18 &mpkESpfwGif qifjcifjcif;
tawG;tac:. xdk;ESufr_a=umifh c&pf,mefbmom usqHk;oGm;aomtcg
wGif ya'o&mZfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf xdkpOfu awmfvSefaom "e&Sifvl
wef;pm;ESifh taotvJwdkufyGJqifcJhonf? bmoma&;vGwfvyfr_ESifh
vGwv
f yfpmG ,H=k unfrq
_ ikd &f m tawG;tac:wd@k onf tod^m%fe,fy,fY
vGwfvyfpGmòyifqdkifr_. pdk;rdk;r_udk azmfjyjcif;omv#if jzpfayonf?
“bmoma&;/ udk,fusifhw&m;/ tbd"rRm35 ESifh w&m; Oya'
qd k i f & m tawG ; tac:wd k @ onf ord k i f ; jzpf a y:wd k ; yG m ;r_ w av#muf w G i f
ðyjyifajymif;vJco
hJ nfrmS oHo,&Spd &mrvdak wmhay? od@k aomf bmoma&;/
udk,fusifhw&m;/ tbd"rRm/ EdkifiHa&;0dZ…mynmESifh w&m;Oya'wdk@onf
Tod@k tqufrjywf ajymif;vJrt
_ wGi;f Y tpOfojzifh wnfwv
hH mcJo
h nf”
[lI ajym=uayvdrfhrnf?
83

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

“xd k @ tjyif vl @ tzG J @ tpnf ; tqif h t m;vH k ; wG i f wl n D a om
vGwfvyfa&;/ w&m;r#wr_ponfh xm0&trSefw&m;rsm; &Sd=uao;onf?
od@k aomf uGejf rLepf0g'onf xm0&trSew
f &m;rsm;/ bmoma&;ESihf ud,
k u
f sihf
w&m;tm;vHk;udk tkwfjrpfopfay:wGif wnfaqmufrnfhtpm; zsuf
odr;f ypfonf? xd@k a=umifh uGejf rLepf0g'onf twdwu
f mv ordik ;f qdik &f m
tawG@tñuHtm;vH;k ESihf qef@usiðf yrlaeonf” [lI ajym=uayvdrrhf nf?
TpGyfpGJcsufonf rnfonftajcxd qdkufa&mufoGm;ygoenf;?
vGefcJhaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;ordkif;tm;vHk;onf rwlaomacwfumvwGif
rwlaom o¿mefaqmifonfh vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfr_rsm;jzifh jzpfay:
wdk;yGm;cJh.?
od@k aomf ‚wd@k onfrnfo@kd aom o¿mefaqmifapumrl vGecf hJ
aom acwfrsm;tm;vH;k wGif wlncD suw
f ck&o
dS nf? ‚um; vl@tzG@J tpnf;
tpdwftydkif;wcku tjcm;tpdwftydkif;wckudk aoG;pkyfjc,fvS,fjcif;
jzpf.? odk@jzpfI vGefcJhaomacwfrsm;&Sd vlr_a&;todonf azmfjycsuf
rnfo@kd yif uGjJ ym;jcm;em;apumrl wpHw
k &m wlno
D nfo
h ¿mefrsm;/ od@k
r[kwf a,bk,stawG;tac:rsm;twGif;wGif v_yf&Sm;=uonfrSm rxl;
qef;ay? TtawG;ac:rsm;onf vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfrr_ sm; vH;k vH;k uG,f
aysmufoGm;rSomv#if vHk;0uG,faysmufoGm;ayvdrfhrnf?
uGefjrLepfawmfvSefa&;onf tpOftvmydkifqdkifr_ qufqHa&;
rsm;ES i f h tjywf o m;qH k ; tquf j zwf v k d u f j cif ; jzpf o nf ? uG e f j rLepf
awmfveS af &; jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_wiG f tpOftvmtawG;tac:rsm;ESihf tjywf
om;qHk; tqufjzwfjcif;yg0ifonfrSm tHh=op&mr&Sday?
odk@aomf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u uGefjrLepf0g'tay: uef@uGufcsuf
rsm;ta=umif; TwGif&yfvdkuf=uygpdk@?
txufwGif u|efawmfwdk@awG@&SdcJhonfhtwdkif; tvkyform;vl
wef;pm; qifEaJ$ om awmfveS af &;. yxrajcvSr;f rSm ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;
udk tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm; tqifhae&modk@ jr‡ifhwif&ef/ 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGw
J Gif
tEdkif&&efyif jzpfayonf?
84

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ypP n f ; rJ h v l w ef ; pm;onf ‚.Ed k i f i H a &;pd k ; rd k ; r_ u d k toH k ; ðyI
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;xHrS t&if;tESD;tm;vHk;udk wqifh+yD;wqifh odrf;,l
&efjzpf+yD; EdkifiHawmfvufxJwGif qdkvdkonfrSm tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;tjzpf
pnf;±Hk;xm;aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. vufxJwGif xkwfvkyfa&; ud&d
,mtm;vH;k udk A[drk S pkpnf;csKyfuikd x
f m;&ef jzpfonf? xd@k jyif xkwv
f yk af &;
tiftm;pk pkpkaygif;udk vsifjrefEdkifor# vsifjrefpGm wdk;yGm;ap&ef jzpfay
onf?
trSeyf iftpydik ;f Y ydik q
f ikd rf t
_ cGit
hf a&;rsm;ESihf "e&Six
f w
k v
f yk af &;
ta=umif ; tcsuf r sm;tay: tm%mjzif h pG u f z uf r _ e nf ; vrf ; rS w yg;
txufygvyk if ef;onf rxda&mufEikd af y? xd@k a=umifh pD;yGm;a&;t& rjynfph kH
rcdkifrm[k xifrSwf&aom Taqmif&Gufcsufrsm;onf v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;Y
rdrdbmomrdrd omvGef}uD;xGm;vm+yD; vlr_a&;tm%ma[mif;udk quf
f yk af &; enf;em
vufwu
kd cf u
kd &f ef vdt
k yfvmayonf36? TonfrmS xkwv
udk vHk;0awmfvSef ajymif;vJypfa&;twGuf ra&Smifv$JEdkifonfh enf;vrf;
jzpfonf?
trSefyif rwlaomwdkif;jynfrsm;wGif Tvkkyfaqmifcsufrsm;onf
uGJjym;jcm;em;=uvdrfhrnf?
odk@apumrl a&S@wef;ta&mufqHk; wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif atmufyg
wdk@onf a,bk,stm;jzifh toHk;ðyEdkif=uayvdrfhrnf?
1? ajr,mydkifqdkifr_udk zsufodrf;ypfjcif;ESifh ajrqDctm;vHk;udk
trsm;qdkif&m udpPrsm;twGuf toHk;ðya&;37?
2? }uD;av;aom qlñuHerd jhf rifh od@k r[kwf tqifch jJG cm;aom tjrwf
awmfcGefaumufcHa&;?
3? tarGqufcHr_ tcGifhta&;tm;vHk; zsufodrf;ypfa&;?
4? jynfyodk@ xGufoGm;olrsm;ESifh olykeftm;vHk;. ypPnf;OpPmudk
odrf;,la&;?
5? Edik if aH wmft&if;tES;D xnf0h ifxm;om vH;k 0vuf0g;}uD; tkyf
;aom trsKd ; om;b%f j zif h Ed k i f i H a wmf v uf x J w G i f acs;aiG u d k A[d k r S
85

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

pkpnf;csKyfudkifxm;a&;?
6? EdkifiHawmfvufxJwGif qufoG,fa&;ESifh o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;
ud&d,mrsm;udk A[dkrS pkpnf;csKyfudkifxm;a&;?
7? Edik if aH wmfyikd f puf±rkH sm;ESihf xkwv
f yk af &;ud&,
d mrsm;udk wd;k cs@J
a&;/ ajr±dkif;rsm;udk xGef,ufpdkufysKd;a&;/ xdk@jyif wlnDaom pDrHudef;t&
ajrqDv$mudk taxGaxGaumif;rGefatmif ðyjyifa&;?
8? tvkyu
f kd tm;vH;k vkyzf @kd nDwn
l rD #wm0ef&o
dS nf/ xkwv
f yk af &;
wyfrawmfrsm;wnfaxmifa&;/ txl;ojzifh v,f,mvkyfief;twGuf
wnfaxmifa&;?
9? v,f,mvkyif ef;udk pufrv
_ yk if ef;ESihf aygi;f pyfa&;/ wjynfv;kH
wGif vlO;D a&ydrk rkd #wpGm jzef@cjJG cif;tm;jzif38h òr@ES iS hf awmt=um; jcm;em;r_
udk wjznf;jznf; zsufodrf;a&;?
10? uav;oli,ftm;vH;k udk jynfo@l ausmif;rsm;wGif tcrJyh nm
oif=um;a&;39/ vuf&o
dS ¿mefjzifh &Sad eaom uav;rsm;. puf±t
kH vkyu
f kd
40
zsuo
f rd ;f ypfa&;/ ynma&;udk pufrv
_ yk if ef; xkwv
f yk af &; ESihf aygi;f pyfay;
a&; ponfwdk@jzpfonf?
jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_twGif;wGif vlwef;pm;jcm;em;r_rsm; uG,faysmuf
oGm;aomtcgEiS hf xkwv
f yk af &;tm;vH;k udk wrsK;d om;vH;k . us,jf yef@aom
tpnf;t±H;k rsm; vufxw
J iG f pkpnf;xm;vdu
k af omtcg trsm;qdik &f m tm
%monf ,if;. EdkifiHa&;vuQ%m aysmufuG,foGm;vdrfhrnf? EdkifiHa&;
tm%m. yifudk,ft"dy`m,frSm vlwef;pm;w&yfu tjcm;vlwef;pm;
tay: zdESdyfa&;twGuf pnf;±Hk;xm;onfhtm%m41 omv#if jzpf.?
tu,fI ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usifonfh
wdu
k yf w
JG iG f vlwef;pm;w&yftjzpf tajctae wGe;f aqmfrt
_ & rvGrJ aoG
zG@J pnf;&v#iaf omfvnf;aumif;/ tu,fI awmfveS af &;enf;jzifh rdru
d ,
kd f
ud k tk y f p d k ; ol v l w ef ; pm;jzpf a tmif v k y f u m xk w f v k y f a &; ta=umif ;
tcsufa[mif;rsm;udk t=urf;zuf zsufodrf;vdkufv#ifaomfvnf; aumif;
Tt=umif;tcsurf sm;ESit
hf wl a,bk,s vlwef;pm;&efbuf jzpfrr_ sm;ESihf
86

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

vlwef;pm;rsm; wnf&Sda&;twGuf ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udkvnf; zsuf
odr;f &ma&mufayonf? od@k jzifh vlwef;pm;w&yftjzpf rdrd ud,
k yf ikd f pd;k rd;k r_ukd
zsufodrf;&m a&mufayvdrfhrnf?
vlwef;pm;rsm;ESihf vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfrr_ sm;&So
d nfh a[mif;EGr;f
aom "e&Siv
f @l tzG@J tpnf;ae&mwGif wOD;pD. vGwv
f yfpmG jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_
onf tm;vH;k vGwv
f yfpmG jzpfay:wd;k yGm;a&;twGuf ta=umif;tcsujf zpf
aom tpnf;t±Hk;wckudk u|efawmfwdk@ &&Sdayvdrfhrnf?

87

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

tcef ; (3)
qdk&S,fvpfESifh uGefjrLepfpmay
1? azmufjyefaom qdk&S,fvpf0g'
(u) ya'o&mZf q d k & S , f v pf 0 g'
jyifopfjynfESifh t*FvefjynfrS rif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf olwdk@.
ordkif;qdkif&mtqifhae&ma=umifh acwfopf"e&Sif vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk qef@
usifaom vuffqifhurf;pmwrf;rsm; a&;om;vm&onf? 1830 ckESpf
Zlvdkifv jyifopfawmfvSefa&;twGif;ESifh t*Fvdyfðyjyifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
twGi;f wGif Trif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf rke;f wD;zG,&f maumif;onfh topf
ay:xGufvmolrsm;udk xyfrHt±_H;ay;vdkuf&.? xdkrSpI av;eufaom
EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJonf rnfodk@r#rjzpfEdkifawmhay? pmaywdkufyGJ wckwnf;
omv#if jzpfEdkifp&m&Sdonf? odk@aomf pmaye,fy,fwGifyifv#if jyefvnf
ysKd;axmifa&;umv· . "mwfjym;a[mif;rsm;onf rjzpfEdkifawmhay?
pmemr_ukd &&S&d eftwGuf rif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf rdrw
d @kd u,
kd u
f sK;d udyk if
*±krpdkufav[efaqmif&if; aoG;pkyfcHtvkyform;vlwef;pm;oufouf.
tusK;d pD;yGm;twGuq
f +kd y;D "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;tay: pGcJ suw
f ifvm=uonf? od@k jzifh
rif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf rdrd w
d @kd . t&Sio
f cifopfta=umif; oa&mfpmrsm;
a&;om;um vufpm;acs=uonf? tEW&m,fusa&mufawmhrnf[laom
a=umufrufzG,&f m a[mude;f rsm;udk t&Sio
f cif. em;od@k uyfum wD;wd;k
· 1660 ckESpfrS 1689 ckESpftxd t*Fvefjynf. jyefvnfysKd;axmif
a&;umvudk qdv
k jkd cif;r[kwb
f J 1814 ckEpS rf S 1830 ckEpS t
f xd jyifopfjynf jyefvnf
ysKd;axmifa&;umvudk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? (1888 ckESpf t*Fvdyf bmom
yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
88

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ajymqd=k uonf?
Todk@tm;jzifh ya'o&mZf qdk&S,fvpf0g' ay:xGufvmonf?
romaw;oD c sif ; w0uf / oa&mf p mw0uf / twd w f . yJ h w if o H w 0uf /
tem*wf. +cdrf;ajcmufr_w0uf jzpfonf? wcgw&HwGif "e&Sifvlwef;
pm;udk cg;oD;aom/ jyif;xefaom/ xdrdaoma0zefcsufrsm;jzifh toJcdkuf
atmif xd;k ESuw
f u
kd cf u
kd =f u.? od@k aomf acwfopf ordik ;f csw
D uf&mudk vH;k 0
odem;vnfEdkifpGrf; r&Sdjcif;a=umifh tpOft+rJ&,fp&m jzpfaeonf?
rif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf rdrw
d @kd bufo@kd jynforl sm;tm; odr;f oGi;f
,l&ef ypPnf;rJholawmif;pm; vG,ftdwfudk olwdk@a&S@wGif tvHxlxm;=u
onf? od@k aomf r=umc% olw@kd aemufo@kd vlrsm;vdu
k yf gomG ;&if; olw@kd .
aemufausmrS ya'o&mZfwq
H yd af [mif;}u;D udk awG@jrifomG ;=uojzifh toH
us,favmifpGm &,farmajymifvSmif+yD; pGef@cGmoGm;=uawmh.?
TZmwfyGJwGif jyifopfvuf*sDwrpf0g'Drsm;42 rS tpdwftydkif;
wckEiS hf ,ef;t*Fvef43 wd@k yg0ifujycJ=h uonf?
ya'o&mZfrsm;u olwdk@. aoG;pkyfr_enf;emonf "e&SifaoG;pkyf
r_EiS hf rwlaom tjcm;wrsK;d jzpfa=umif; !¸ejf y&mwGif olw@kd onf vH;k 0rwl
aom tajctaeatmufwiG f aoG;pkycf ahJ =umif;ESihf ‚aoG;pkyrf o
_ nf ,ck
tcg acwfukefae+yDjzpfa=umif;udk arhavsmhae=uav+yD? olwdk@. tkyfpdk;r_
atmufwGif acwfopfypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; b,fwkef;urS r&SdchJyg[k azmfjy
&mwGif acwfopf"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf olw@kd . vl@tzG@J tpnf; o¿mefrS
rkcsay:xGufvmaom &v'fjzpfa=umif;udk olwdk@ arhavsmhxm;=u.?
odk@&mwGif olwdk@a0zefcsuf. azmufjyefa&;vuQ%mudk tenf;
i,fr# zH;k uG,f rxm;ay? "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm; pd;k rd;k r_atmufwiG f vl@tzG@J tpnf;
pepfa[mif;udk tjrpfrS vSefypfrnfh vlwef;pm;w&yfonf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;
aeay+yD? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usifaom olwdk@. t"dupGyfpGJcsufrSm
Tr#omwnf;?
olw@kd onf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;udk zefw;D vdu
k jf cif;xuf awmfveS f
aom ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; zefw;D vdu
k rf E_ iS hf ywfoufI "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;tay:
89

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

tjypfzdk@=uonf?
xdk@a=umifh EdkifiHa&; vufawG@wGifrl olwdk@onf tvkyform;
vlwef;pm;udk qef@usifonfh t=urf;zufr_ rSefor#wGif vufwGJyg0if=u
onf? ae@pOfb0wGirf l [dw[
f ef}uD;vSaom pmyd'k rf sm;&Sad evifu
h pm;
44
pufr_vkyfief;wnf;[laom opfyifrS aºuusvmaom a&$opfaomhoD;
rsm;udk 'l;axmufaumuf,&l ef enf;enf;rS rysuu
f u
G =f uay? uwd opPm/
arwWm/ *k%foduQmwdk@udk odk;arG;/ o=um;/ csuft&uf· a&mif;0,fa&;
twGuf vJvS,fypfvdkuf=uonf?
c&pf,mefbkef;}uD;onf ajr&SifESifh tpOfvufwGJaeonfhtwdkif;
c&pf,mefbek ;f }uD; qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf ya'o&mZfq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'ESihf vuf
wGJvdkufonf?
c&pf , mef c sKyf w nf ; a&;0g'tm; qd k & S , f v pf t vS j c,f a y;&ef
avmuf vG , f u l a omt&mr&S d a y? c&pf , mef b momonf yk * ~ v d u
ydik q
f ikd rf /_ tdraf xmifðyr_EiS hf Edik if aH wmfw@kd ukd qef@usiu
f m tmabmiftm&if;
oefoefEiS hf a[majymcJo
h nf r[kwyf gavm?‚wd@k tpm; 'geðyr_EiS hf qif;
qif;&J&Jaer_/ tdrfaxmifrðya&;ESifh tvdkqEN csKyfwnf;a&;/ omoemh
0efxrf;b0ESifh c&pf,mefbk&m;ausmif;wdk@udk a[majymcJhonf r[kwfyg
avm? c&pf,mefqdk&S,fvpf0g' qdkonfum; rif;nDrif;om;. tylrD;t
ay:odk@ bkef;awmf}uD;u csD;jr‡ifhoGef;avmif;ay;vdkufonfh "rRa&pifom
·

Tpma=umif;rSm *smr%Djynfukd t"duxm;onf? xdw
k ikd ;f jynf&dS ajrykid ,
f m
ydik rf if;nDrif;om;ESihf ajr&Si}f u;D rsm;wGif olw@kd twGuf b¾mpd;k rsm; xGe,
f ufaom
ajruGuf }uD;rsm;&So
d nf? olw@kd onf o=um;vkyif ef;ESihf tmvl;rS t&ufcsujf cif;udk
t}uD;tus,v
f yk =f uonf? ydrdk ºkd u,f0aom +Adwo
d # rif;nDrif;om;tv$monf
‚tqifo
h @kd ra&mufaomfjim;vnf; usqif;vmaom oD;pm;cudk axrdatmif/
tenf;ESit
hf rsm; [efjytpkpyf ukr%
` rD sm;wGif emrnfpm&if;wifxm;zd@k odem;
vnf=uonf? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f mom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su?f )
90

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

wnf;?
(c) "e&S i f a yguf p qd k & S , f v pf 0 g'
ya'o&mZfrif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;u òzcsvu
kd f
onfh wckwnf;aom vlwef;pm;r[kwfay? acwfopf"e&Sif vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;ywf0ef;usiw
f iG f b0ta=umif;tcsurf sm; qd;k 0g;vmum a=uðyef;
oGm;onfh wckwnf;aom vlwef;pm;vnf; r[kwfay? tv,facwf
òr@om;rsm;ESifh v,form;uav;wdk@onf acwfopf"e&Sifvlwef;pm;.
a&S@awmfajy;rsm; jzpfcJh=uonf? pufr_vkyfief;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
tenf;i,fom xGe;f um;aom wdik ;f jynfrsm;Y ‚vlwef;pm; ESp&f yfpvH;k
onf xGef;opfp"e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh twl,SOfvsuf oufqdk;&SnfaeqJ
jzpfayonf?
acwfopf,Ofaus;r_ tjynfht0wdk;yGm;vmaom wdkif;jynfrsm;
wGif topfjzpfaom "e&Sifaygufp vlwef;pm;w&yf zGJ@wnfvmonf?
‚onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;t=um;wGif rwnfr+idrf
jzpf+y;D "e&Siv
f @l tzG@J tpnf;. jznfph u
G f xm;aom tydik ;f tjzpf xyfcgwvJvJ
topfjzpfay:aeonf? odk@apumrl òyifqdkifr_a=umifh Tvlwef;pm;xJwGif
yg0ifolwOD;csif;wdk@rSm ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; wyfzGJ@xJodk@ tqufrjywf
wGe;f yd@k jcif; cH&onf? xd@k jyif acwfopfpufrv
_ yk if ef; wd;k yGm;vmr_EiS hf twl
olw@kd onf acwfopfv@l tzG@J tpnf;. trScD u
kd if;aom tpdwt
f ydik ;f tjzpf
rS vHk;0uG,faysmufoGm;rnfh tcsdefumvonf eD;uyfvm+yDjzpf a=umif;
olwdk@udk pufr_vkyfief;/ v,f,mvkyfief;ESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
rsm;wGif t}uD;tuJrsm;/ =uyfrwfolrsm;/ tcpm;tr_xrf;rsm;u tpm;
xdk;vdrfhrnfjzpfa=umif;udkyif odjrif=uonf? wdkif;jynfvlOD;a&wGif v,f
orm;OD;a&u xuf0ufausmaf usm&f adS om jyifopfjynfuo
hJ @kd wdik ;f jynfrsm;Y
"rRwmyif "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usifum ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;bufodk@
ygvm=uaom pma&;q&mrsm;onf "e&Sifpdpkd;rdk;r_udk a0zef=u&mwGif
91

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

v,form;ESihf "e&Siaf ygupf aywHukd toH;k ;ðyI tvkyo
f rm; vlwef;pm;.
ta&;udk Ttv,ftvwf vlwefpm;rsm; &yfwnfcsufjzifh umuG,f
ay;cJh=uonf? odk@jzifh "e&Sifaygufpqdk&S,fvpf0g' ay:xGufvmcJhonf?
qpfprf eG 'f o
D nf jyifopfjynfrmS omru t*FvefjynfwiG v
f nf; T*d%
k ;f udk
a&S@aqmifa&S@&Guf ðycJhonf?
Tqdk&S,fvpf0g'*dk%f;onf acwfopfxkwfvkyfa&; ta=umif;
tcsufrsm;twGif;&Sd yËdyuQrsm;udk ajymifajrmufpGm cGJjcm;pdwfjzmEdkifpGrf;
&Sdonf? ‚u abm*aA'q&mrsm;. vdrfvnfvSnfhzsm;aom to
em;cHcsurf sm;udk zGichf sco
hJ nf? pufu&d ,
d mESiw
hf uG tvkycf aGJ 0r_w@kd a=umifh
twd'kuQa&mufr_rsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ vltenf;i,f. vufwGif;wGif
t&if;tES;D ESihf ajr,mpkpnf;vmr_uv
kd nf;aumif;/ xkwv
f yk af &; ydv
k #rH E_ iS hf
uyfqdkufr_udkvnf;aumif; rjiif;Ekdifatmifoufao jyvdkufonf? "e&Sif
aygupf ESihf v,form;wd@k . rvGrJ aoGysupf ;D &r_uv
kd nf;aumif;/ ypPn;f rJv
h l
wef;pm;. qif;&J'u
k u
Q v
kd nf;aumif;/ xkwv
f yk af &;rif;rJrh u
_ v
kd nf;aumif;/
"eOpPmcGJa0r_. tvGeftrif; rnDr#r_udkvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;om;tcsif;
csif; jzpfyGm;aom pufr_vkyfief; tjrpfðzwfppfyGJudkvnf;aumif;/ usifh0wf
aESmifóu;a[mif;rsm;/ rdom;pk qufqHa&;a[mif;rsm;/ vlrsKd;a[mif;rsm;
a=uðyef;oGm;jcif;udkvnf;aumif; !¸efjyvdkufonf?
rnfodk@yifjzpfap ‚. tðyoabm &nf&G,fcsufrsm;t& T
qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'o¿mefonf xkwv
f yk af &; y&dabm*a[mif;ESihf zvS,af &;
enf;vrf;a[mif;udk jyefvnfysKd;axmifa&;/ ‚ESifhtwl ydkifqdkifr_qufqH
a&;a[mif;rsm;ESihf vl@tzG@J t pnf; a[mif; jyefvnfysK;d axmif&ef jzpfonf?
odk@wnf;r[kwf acwfopfxkwfvkyfa&;y&dabm*ESifh zvS,fa&;enf;vrf;
wdk@u rkcszsufqD;ypfrnfjzpfaom azmufcGJzsufqD;ypfvdkuf+yDjzpfaom
ydkifqdkifr_qufqHa&;a[mif;rsm;twGif; ‚wdk@udk uef@owfxm;&ef &nf
&G,.
f ? rnfo@kd yifjzpfygap Tenf;ESprf sK;d pvH;k onf azmufjyefonfh pdwu
f ;l
,Ofr_jzpfonf?
pufrv
_ yk if ef;wGif yl;aygi;f xm;aom vufrt
_ zG@J zG@J pnf;a&;/ v,f
92

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

,mvkyfief;wGif tz}uD;pdk;aom qufqHr_xlaxmifa&;/ Tum; ‚.
ed*Hk;csKyfcsufrsm; yifwnf;?
aemufq
f ;kH wGif rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd vSnphf m;aeaom ,pfr;l aeonfh tusK;d
quf tm;vH;k udk racsyEdik af om ordik ;f tcsut
f vufrsm;u z,f&mS ; ypf
vdu
k af omtcgY Tqd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'o¿mefonf oem;zG,&f m Zmwford ;f
oGm;awmh.?
(*) *smref odk@r[kwf “ppfrSefaom” qdk&S,fvpf0g'
jyifopfjynf&dS qd&k ,
S v
f pfEiS hf uGejf rLepfpmayonf tm%m&"e&Sif
vlwef;pm;. zdtm;atmufwiG f ay:xGe;f vm+yD; "e&Sit
f m%mtm; qef@
usifaomwdkufyGJudk azmfjyvkdufonf? ‚pmayonf *smr%DjynfwGif
"e&Sifvlwef;pm;ESifh ya'o&mZfoufOD;qHydkifwdk@. ,SOfòyifr_ pwifump
tcsed Yf a&mufvmonf?
*smref tbd " rR m q&mrsm;/ tbd " rR m q&mwyd k i f ; rsm;ES i f h
pum;vHk; vSvSóuufolrsm;
sm;onf ‚pmayudk tirf;r& qkyfudkif=u
onf? Tpmta&;tom;rsm; jyifopfjynfrS *smr%Djynfodk@ ul;ajymif;
0ifa&mufvmjcif;ESifhtwl jyifopfvlr_a&; ta=umif;tcsufrsm; vdkuf
ygrvmjcif;udu
k m; olw@kd arhavsmah e=uonf? Tjyifopfpmayonf *smref
vlra_ &;tajctaersm;ESihf xdawG@vu
kd af omtcgY vwfwavm vufawG@
t"dy`m,ftm;vHk; aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;um pmayo¿mefoufouf jzpfomG ;
45
. ? Tod@k tm;jzifh yxrt}urd f jyifopfawmfveS af &;. awmif;qdck surf sm;
onf 18 &mpkESpf *smreftbd"rRmq&mrsm;twGufqdk&aomf a,bk,s
tm;jzifh “vufawG@usK;d a=umif;qDavsmrf ”_ awmif;qdck surf sm;xuf rydak y?
olw@kd rsupf x
d w
J iG f awmfveS af om jyifopf"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;. qENuakd zmfjy
vdkufjcif;onf qENoufoufw&m;rsm;/ a,bk ,stm;jzifh ppfrSefonfh
vlom;qEN jzpf&rnfh qENw&m;rsm;om jzpfay.?
*smrefpmayorm;rsm;
pmayorm;rsm;.
pmayorm;rsm; vkyfief;aqmifwmrSm opfvGifaom
93

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

jyifopftawG;tac:rsm;udk rdrw
d @kd . acwfa[mif;tbd"rRm ,H=k unfcsujf zifh
pnf;0g;udkufatmif vkyfa&;omjzpfonf? odk@r[kwfv#ifvnf; rdrdwdk@.
udk,fydkiftbd"rRmtjrifudk rpGef@y,fbJ jyifopftawG;tac:rsm;udk &,l
a&;jzpfonf?
T&,la&;onf wdkif;wyg;bmomudk bmomjyefonfhenf;jzifh
tydkifpD;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf?
c&pf,mefbkef;}uD;rsm;onf uufovpf&[EWmrsm;. tcsnf;ESD;
b0 ta=umif;rsm;udk a&S;rdpm> 'dÏEd ikd if .
H a&S;a[mif;usr;f *efrsm; tay:wGif
rnfodk@a&;om;cJhonfudk trsm;od=uonf? *smrefpmayorm;rs
pmayorm;rsm; onf
TjzpfpOfudk jyifopfavmuDpmayESifhywfoufI uajymif;ujyef vkyf
vdu
k o
f nf? olw@kd onf jyifopfpmrl&if;atmufwiG f olw@kd . tbd"rRmqdik &f m
r[kwrf [wfrsm;udk a&;xnfah y;onf? Oyrm tojym. pD;yGm;a&; vkyf
aqmifcsurf sm;qdik &f m jyifopfa0zefcsuaf tmuf wGif “vlom;csi;f aoG;uGrJ ”_
[kvnf;aumif;/ "e&SiEf ikd if aH wmftay: jyifopfa0zefcsuaf tmufwiG f “a,
bk,scjJG cm;csuu
f kd òzcsvu
kd jf cif;” [kvnf;aumif; tawmrowf a&;om;
cJh=uonf?
ordkif;qdkif&m jyifopfa0zefcsufrsm;xJwGif Ttbd"rRm pmydk'f
rsm;udk rdwfqufay;&if; “v_yf&Sm;r_tbd"rRm”/ “ppfrSefaomqdk&S,fvpf
0g'”/ “*smrefqdk&S,fvpf0g' 0dZ…mynm”/ “qdk&S,fvpf0g'. tbd"rRm
tajccH” ponfjzifh olwdk@ emrnfay;vdkuf=uonf?
odk@jzifh jyifopfqdk&S,fvpfESifh uGefjrLepfpmayonf vHk;0±kyfysuf
qif;ysuf jzpfoGm;onf? *smrefrsm;vufwGif;wGif vlwef;pm;w&yfu
tjcm;vlwef;pm;w&yfESifh wdkufyGJqifa&;udk azmfxkwfjcif; &yfqdkif;oGm;
uwnf;u *smrefw@kd onf “jyifopf wzufowfusr”_ tay: atmifEikd f
vdu
k +f yD[k ,H=k unfc.
hJ ? ppfreS af om vdt
k yfcsurf sm;udk ud,
k pf m;rðybJ trSef
w&m;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk udk,fpm;ðyonf[k ,Hk=unfcJhonf? ypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;twGufr[kwfbJ vl@obm0tusKd;pD;yGm;/
rnfonfv
h w
l ef;pm;ESirhf S roufqikd af om/ wu,fwrf;r&Sad om/ roJruGJ
94

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

wnf&Sdaeaom/ tbd"rRm pdwful;,Ofe,fy,fwGifom&Sdaom a,bk,s
vlom;. tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf jzpfonf[k ,Hk=unfcJhonf?
olwdk@. ausmif;om;i,favhusifhcef;udkyif av;eufwnf=unf
pGm oabmxm;um TuvdrfcsKHenf;jzifh tnHhpm;ukefypPnf;udk csD;usL;
axmremðyaom T*smrefq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'onf rdr.
d ynm&Sad ,mifa,mif
rodem;rvnfr_udk wjznf;jznf;qHk;±_H;oGm;awmhonf?
*smref txl;ojzifh y&yf&mS ;"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;. ya'o&mZfrif;nD
rif;om;ESihf oufO;D qHyikd b
f &k ifpepfukd qef@usiaf omwdu
k yf JG wenf;qdak omf
vpfb&,fv_yf&Sm;r_onf ydkrdkonf;oefvmcJh.?
Tod@k tm;jzifh “ppfreS af om” qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;
r_rsm;udk qdk&S,fvpfawmif;qdkcsufrsm;jzifh xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkif&ef[laom
umv&S n f = umpG m awmif h w ae&onh f tcG i f h t vrf ; ud k &&S d v d k u f . ?
vpfb&,f0g'/ ud,
k pf m;vS,pf epftpd;k &/ "e&Siòf yifqikd rf /_ "e&Sipf me,fZif;
vGwv
f yfr/_ "e&SiOf ya'ðyr_/ "e&Siv
f w
G v
f yfrE_ iS hf wef;wla&;wd@k ukd qef@usif
+yD; tpOftvmtwdik ;f used q
f &J efEiS hf T"e&Sif v_y&f mS ;r_tm;jzifh bmudrk S
tjrwf&=urnf r[kwfbJ tm;vHk;qHk;±_H;zdk@om&Sdonf[k vlxkrsm;tm;
a[majym&eftcGifhtvrf;udk &&SdoGm;onf? jyifopfa0zefa&;onf acwf
opf"e&Sif vl@tzGJ@tpnf;.wnf&Sdr_/ ‚ESifhavsmfnDaom pD;yGm;a&;t
a=umif;tcsufrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;zGJ@pnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;wdk@udk óuwifwGufq
cJha=umif;/ azmfjyyg tcsufrsm; &&Sda&;onf *smr%Djynf&Sd r+yD;jywfao;
aomwdu
k yf .
JG &nf&,
G cf sujf zpfa=umif;wd@k ukd jyifopfa0zefa&;. rdu
k rf aJ om
yJhwifoHjzpfonfh *smrefqdk&S,fvpf0g'onf wu,fhtcsdefaumif;wGifrS
arhavsmhxm;cJh=uonf?
*smrefoufOD;qHydkiftpdk;&rsm;ESifh ‚wdk@. aemufvdkufbkef;}uD;
rsm;/ ygarmuQrsm;/ aus;vufajr&Sif}uD;rsm;ESSifh AsL±dku&ufrsm;udk +cdrf;
ajcmufaeonfh "e&Sifvlwef;pm;tm; qef@usifaom pmajcmuf±kyftjzpf
*smrefqdk&S,fvpf0g'u toHk;awmfcHvdkufonf?
*smrefqdk&S,fvpf0g'qdkonfrSm xdkpOfu *smreftvkyform;
95

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

xºur_rsm;udk txufygtpdk;&rsm;u =umyGwf/ usnfqefrsm;jzifh ESdyfuGyf
jcif;[laom aq;cg;aemuf wGif wdkufau|;onfh oum&nfjzpfonf?
T “ppfreS af om” qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf *smref"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;udk
wdkufcdkuf&ef vufeuftjzpf tpdk;&rsm;udk tvkyftau|;ðyonfh wcsdef
wnf;rSmyif azmufjyefaom tusdK;pD;yGm;jzpfonfh *smref evAdef;wHk;
rsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udkvnf; wdkuf±dkufudk,fpm;ðy.? *smr%DjynfwGif 16
&mpkEpS .
f tarGtESpjf zpfaom xdrk pS I o¿meftrsK;d rsK;d jzifh xyfrt
H quf
rjywf ay:xGufvmaom "e&Sifaygufp vlwef;pm;onf wnf&Sdaeaom
t&mrsm;. wu,fhvlr_a&;tajccH jzpfayonf?
Tvlwef;pm;udk xdef;odrf;jcif;onf *smr%DjynfwGif wnf&Sd
aeaom t&mrsm;udk xde;f odr;f xm;jcif;yif jzpfonf? "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;.
pufr_vkyfief;pdk;rdk;r_ESifh EdkifiHa&;pdk;rdk;r_onf wzufwGif t&if;tESD; pkpnf;
vmjcif;/ tjcm;wzufwGif awmfvSefaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; ay:xGuf
vmjcif;jzifh T"e&Siaf ygupf vlwef;pm;tm; rkcszsuq
f ;D ypf&ef +cdr;f ajcmuf
vsu&f o
dS nf? “ppfreS af om” qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'onf iSuEf pS af umifukd cJwvH;k
wnf;jzifh ypfvu
kd af yonf? ‚onf a&m*guyfq;kd yrm ys@H E@HS omG ; av+yD?
pum;vSyef;yGifhrsm; xdk;xm;aom/ csnfheJ@aompdwfcHpm;r_ ESif;
aygurf sm;jzifh jynfv
h #aH eaom/ taumiftxnfrahJ om/ awG;awmr_ yihu
f l
r#i0f wf±EHk iS hf *smrefq&kd ,
S v
f pfrsm;onf olw@kd . oem;p&m t±d;k ay: ta&
wif “xm0&trSefw&m;rsm;” tay: v$rf;ðcHvdkufjcif;jzifh olwdk@. ukef
ypPn;f rsm;udk Tod@k aom y&dowftwGi;f tH=h oavmufatmif ta&mif;
oGufvSaponf?
*smrefqdk&S,fvpf0g' twGufqdkaomf olwdk@onf "e&Sifaygufp
evAde;f wH;k wd@k . avvH;k xGm;aom ud,
k pf m;vS,jf zpfaeyHu
k kd ydI
k ydI
k tod
trSwfðyvmonf?
‚u *smref t rsKd ; om;onf pH x m;avmuf a omtrsKd ; om;
*smrefwwfa,mifum;uav;onf pHjyvljzpfonf[k a=unmvdu
k o
f nf?
TpHjyvl. qdk;oGrf;,kwfnHhr_tm;vHk;udk ‚. uG,f0Sufxm;aom jrifh
96

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

rm;onfh qd&k ,
S v
f pft"dym` ,f zGiq
hf akd y;vdu
k jf cif;jzifh ‚. wu,fh vuQ%m
ESifh qef@usib
f uf jzpfomG ;aponf? ‚onf uGejf rLepf0g'. “=urf;ñuwf
aomzsuq
f ;D a&;” wdr;f !Gwrf u
_ kd wdu
k ±f u
kd q
f ef@usio
f nftxd vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf JG
tm;vHk;txufwGif&Sda=umif;/ bufrvdkufa=umif; a=unmonftxd
wzufpeG ;f od@k a&mufomG ;cJo
h nf? c|i;f csuw
f csK@d rt
S y *smr%Djynf wGif (1847
ckESpf) u jzef@a0aom trnfcHqdk&S,fvpfESifh uGefjrLepfpmtkyfpmwrf;
tm;vH;k onf T,kwn
f t
hH m;enf;aompmay· e,fy,fwiG f yg0if avonf?
2? or
m;
f &kd ,
S v
f pf0g'
orm;
m;±k±k;d us od@k r[kwf "e&Siq
"e&Sifvlwef;pm; wpdwfwydkif;uqdkv#if "e&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;
qufvuf wnf&Sd&eftwGuf vlr_a&;epfemcsufrsm;udk ukpm;vdk=uonf?
abm*aA'orm;rsm;/ u±k%m&Sifrsm;/ vlvlcsif;pmemol rsm;/
tvkyform;vlwef;pm;. tajctaeudk ðyjyifvo
kd rl sm;/ o'<ga=u;pnf;±k;H
olrsm;/ wd&p>mef!O‡ f;yef;r_ umuG,af &;toif;0ifrsm;/ rl;,pfaomufpm;r_
qef@usio
f rl sm;ESihftao;pm;ðyjyifa&;orm;rsK;d pHo
k nf Ttydik ;f xJwiG f yg0if
onf? xdk@jyif Tqdk&S,fvpf0g'o¿mefonf jynfhpHkaompepfrsm;tjzpf
ðyvkyf+yD;jzpfonf?
u|ef a wmf w d k @ onf ya&muf ' G e f ; . qif ; &J j cif ; tbd " rR m ud k
‚o¿mef. Oyrmwcktjzpf ay;&ayrnf?
"e&Sifqdk&S,fvpfrsm;onf acwfopfvlr_a&; ta=umif;tcsuf.
omvGefcsuftm;vHk;udk tvdk&Sd=uaomfvnf; ‚rS rvGJraoG ay:xGuf
·

1848 ckEpS f awmfveS af &;rkew
f ikd ;f onf Todrzf si;f aom wdr;f !Gwrf w
_ ck
vH;k udk wdu
k x
f w
k yf pfvu
kd o
f nf? qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'udk qufvuf+y;D rawmufwacguv
f yk v
f kd
aom ‚. Zmwfaqmiforl sm;. tvdq
k ENukd ukpm;ypfvu
kd o
f nf? Twdr;f !Gwrf .
_
t"du ud,
k pf m;vS,Ef iS h f pHwifavmufaom vlpm;rsK;d rSm [m;- um;vf- *&Gef jzpfonf?
(1890 ckEpS f *smrefbmomyHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
97

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

vmonfhwdkufyrGJ sm;ESifh tEW&m,frsm;udkum; tvdkr&Sday? awmfvSefaom
tpdwftydkif;ESifh a=uðyef;aeonfh tpdwftydkif;rsm; ryg&Sdaom vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;. wnf&adS eqJ tajctaeudk tvd&k =dS uonf? olw@kd onf ypPn;f rJh
vlwef;pm;r&Sb
d J "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;udk tvd&k o
dS nf? "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;onf
‚pd;k rd;k aom urBmrsK;d udk taumif;qH;k urBmtjzpf "rRwmtwdik ;f xifrw
S f
=uonf ? "e&S i f q d k & S , f v pf 0 g'onf TES p f v d k z G , f & m t,l t qud k
tenf;ESihf trsm;jynfph akH om pepftrsK;d rsK;d tjzpfo@kd jzpfay:wd;k yGm;ay;vdu
k f
onf? Todk@aom pepfudkvkyfaqmif&eftwGuf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk
tvkd&Sd=uonf? Todk@tm;jzifh vlr_a&; a*s±kpvifòr@awmfopfodk@ qdkuf
qdkufòrufòruf csDwufoGm;&efjzpf.? wu,fwrf; olwdk@ tvkd&SdonfrSm
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;tay: rkef;wD;onfh tawG;
tac:tm;vHk;udk pGef@y,fypfI wnf&Sdaeaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;abmift
wGif;wGif qufvufae&efom jzpfonf?
Tqdk&S,fvpf0g'. pepfusr_enf;yg;aomfvnf; ydkrdkvufawG@
usaom tjcm;o¿mefonf EdkifiHa&;ðyjyifr_ oufoufr[kwfbJ b0
wnf&adS &; ±ky0f wˆK ta=umif;tcsurf sm; pD;yGm;a&;qufqrH r_ sm;wGif ajymif;
vJr_uomv#if tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;twGuf wpHw
k &m tusK;d &Sv
d rd rhf nf[k
jyoonf? Todk@tm;jzifh tvkyform;vlwef;pm;tm; awmfvSefa&;
v_yf&Sm;r_wdkif;udk txiftjrifao;vmatmif óu;pm;onf? odk@apumrl
Tqd&k ,
S v
f pf0g' o¿mefu b0wnf&adS &; ±ky0f wˆKta=umif; tcsurf sm;
ajymif;vJro
_ nf awmfveS af &;wckjzifh "e&Six
f w
k v
f yk af &; qufqrH r_ sm;udk
zsufodrf;jcif; tvsOf;r[kwfbJ TqufqHa&;rsm; qufvufwnf&Sdr_
tay: tajccHonfh tkyfcsKyfa&;ðyjyifr_rsm;tjzpfom em;vnf=uonf?
xd@k a=umifh t&if;tES;D ESihf tvky46f t=um;&Sd qufqaH &;rsm;udk rnfo@kd r#
rxdcu
kd af paom "e&Sit
f pd;k &twGuf tukef tusoufom&efEiS hf tkycf sKyrf _
vkyif ef; vG,ful&ef ðyjyifr_rsm;om trsm;qHk; jzpfEdkifayonf?
"e&Siq
f &kd ,
S v
f pf0g'. jynfph akH om azmfjycsurf mS rde@f ceG ;f a¹c&mwGif
ay:vGifvsuf&Sdonf?
98

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm; tusK;d twGuf vGwv
f yfpmG ukeo
f ,
G af &;/
tvkyform;vlwef;pm; tusKd;twGuf umuG,fr_ taumuftcGefrsm;/
tvkyform;vlwef;pm; tusKd;twGuf tusOf;axmifðyjyifa&;47 / T
onfwdk@um; "e&Sifqdk&S,fvpf0g'. aemufqHk;pum;ESifh wckwnf;aom
av;eufonfh t"dy`m,fzGifhcsufjzpf.?
"e&Sifonf "e&Sifjzpf&onfrSm tvkyform;vlwef;pm; tusLd;
twGufjzpfonf[laom pmydk'fjzifh "e&Sifqdk&S,fvpf0g'udk ed*Hk;csKyfvdkuf
ayownf;?
3? a0zefa&; pdwu
f ;l ,Ofq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'ESihf uGejf rLepf0g'
}uD;rm;aom acwfopfawmfvSefa&;wdkif;wGif abmbufzfESifh
tjcm;pma&;q&mrsm;. a&;om;csurf sm;uJo
h @kd aom ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;.
awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk azmfxkwfonfh pmayrsm;tm; Tae&mwGif u|ef
awmfwdk@ rudk;um;awmhyg?
ya'o&mZfv@l tzG@J tpnf;udk òzcsvu
kd I
f wavmuvH;k v_yv
f y_ f
&G&GjzpfaecsdefwGif xdkpOfu ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. rzGH@òz;ao;aom tajc
taea=umifv
h nf;aumif;/ usa&muftq
hH q
J J "e&Siaf cwfumv wckwnf;
uomv#if xkwv
f yk af y;Edik af om/ xkwv
f yk &f efvakd o;aom/ ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;
pm;vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf pD;yGm;a&; ta=umif;tcsurf sm; r&Sad o;aom
a=umifhvnf;aumif; ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u rdrd&nfrSef;csufrsm;twGuf
yxrt}udrf wdkuf±kdufóu;yrf;r_rsm;onf rvGJra&SmifombJ qHk;±_H;oGm;
cJh&onf? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. Ttapmydkif;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh wGJvsuf
ygvmaom awmfvSefa&;pmayonf rvGJraoGazmufjyefaom vuQ
%maqmifayonf? ‚pmayu tus,ftjyef@ csKyfwnf;a&;0g'ESifh
vlr_wef;wla&;yHk=urf;udk oGwfoGif;ay;onf?
pdef@-qdkifrGef/ zdk;&D;,m;/ tdk0ifESifh tjcm;olrsm;. qdk&S,fvpfESifh
uGefjrLepfp epf rsm;[lI avsmfuefpGm rSnfhac:xm;onfh pepfrsm;onf
99

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

txufwiG f azmfjycJo
h nfh ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;ESihf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;t=um;
wdu
k yf JG rzG@H òz;ao;aom tapmydik ;f umvu ay:xGuv
f mcJo
h nf? (tcef;
1/ "e&Sifrsm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm;wGif =unfhyg?)
Tpepfrsm;udk pwifawG@&Sdolrsm;onf trSefyif vlwef;pm;
&efbufjzpfr_ESifhwuG v$rf;rdk;aeaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf; o¿meftwGif;&Sd
òyusaeaom tpdwftydkif;rsm;. ðyrlv_yf&Sm;r_udk awG@jrif=uonf? odk@
aomf Eke,fao;aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf rnfonfhordkif;qdkif&m
pGrf;aqmifr_/ odk@r[kwf rnfonfh trSDtcdkuif;aom EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rS
r&Sdaomvlwef;pm; jzpfonf[k olwdk@jrif=uonf?
vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfr_ wdk;yGm;jcif;onf pufr_vkyfief;wdk;yGm;r_
ESifhtwl vdkufygvmonfhtwdkif; rsufarSmufpD;yGm;a&; tajctaewGif
ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm; vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf ±ky0f wˆKta=umif;tcsurf sm;udk
olw@kd rawG@&EdS ikd af o;ay? xd@k a=umifh olw@kd onf Tta=umif;tcsurf sm;udk
zefwD;vmEdkifp&m&Sdonfh opfvGifaom vlr_a&;0dZ…mynm/ opfvGifaom
vlr_a&;w&m;rsm;udk vdkufvH&SmazG =uawmhonf?
ordkif;qdkif&m ðyr_v_yf&Sm;r_udk wOD;csif;wDxGifaom ðyr_v_yf&Sm;
r_jzifv
h nf;aumif;/ ordik ;f uzefw;D aom vGwaf jrmufa&;ta=umif;tcsuf
rsm;udk pdwful;,Of ta=umif;tcsufrsm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ wpwp
tm;jzifh tvkdtavsmufjzpfay:vmaom ypPnf;rJhrsm;. vlwef;pm;tzGJ@
tpnf;ae&mwGif TwDxGifolrsm;u txl;}uHqxm;aom vlr_tpnf;
t±kH;wckjzifhvnf;aumif; tpm;xdk;&efjzpfonf? olwdk@ tjrift&qdkygrl
tem*wfordkif;onf olwdk@. vlr_a&;pDrHudef;rsm;udk 0g'jzef@csd&efESifh
vufawG@vkyfaqmif&efom jzpfayonf?
ol w d k @ . pD r H u d e f ; rsm;a&;qG J & mwG i f t"d u tm;jzif h 'k u Q t cH
pm;&qH;k aom vlwef;pm;jzpfonfh tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;. tusK;d pD;yGm;
udk *±kðy=uonf? olwdk@ tjrift& ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf 'kuQtcHpm;
&qHk;aom vlwef;pm;w&yfr#om jzpf .?
vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ rzGH@òz;aom tajctaeESifhwuG olwdk@.
100

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

udk,fydkifywf0ef;usifrsm;u Todk@aom qdk&S,fvpfrsm;tm; olwdk@udk,f
olwdk@ vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfr_ tm;vHk;. txufwGif uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif;
&yfwnfvsuf&Sdonf[k ,lqaponf? olwdk@onf taumif;qHk;aom
tajctaewGif a&muf&Sdaeolrsm; tygt0if vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0ifwdkif;.
tajctaeudkyif aumif;atmifðyjyifvkd=uonf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@onf
vlwef;pm;cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;udk arwWm&yfcHavh
&Sd=uonf? xdkr#ru tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;udk OD;pm;ay;+yD; arwWm&yfcH
avh&=dS uonf? olw@kd . pepfukd em;vnfonfEiS w
hf òyifeuf taumif;qH;k
jzpfEikd af om vl@tzG@J tpnf; tajctaewGif taumif;qH;k jzpfEikd o
f nfh pDrH
udef;rsm; jzpfonfudk vltrsm;u em;rvnfbJ &SdEdkifygrnfavm?
xdk@a=umifh olwdk@onf EdkifiHa&;ðyr_v_yf&Sm;r_rSefor# txl;ojzifh
awmfveS af &; ðyr_vy_ &f mS ;r_reS o
f r#ukd y,fcs=uonf? olw@kd . &nfreS ;f csuf
udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;jzifh &&Sdvdk=u.? rkcsqHk;±_H;&rnfjzpfaom vuf
awG@prf;oyfr_uav;rsm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ pHjyvkyfjyjcif;tm;jzifhvnf;
aumif; vlr_a&;bmomw&m;opfudk vrf;zGifhay;&ef óu;pm;=uonf?
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; tvGefrzGH@òz;ao;aom tajctaeESifh rdrd
tqifhae&mtay: pdwful;,Of,lqaepOfwGif vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taxGaxG
jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;twGuf OD;pGmawmifhwcsufESifh vdkufavsmonfh
Tod@k aom tem*wf vl@tzG@J tpnf;. pdwu
f ;l ,Ofyu
kH m;csyu
f kd a&;jc,fchJ
=uayonf?
odk@apumrl Tqdk&S,fvpfESifh uGefjrLepfta&;tom;rsm;wGif
a0zefonfh tpdwftydkif;vnf; yg&Sdayonf? ‚wdk@onf wnf&Sdaeaom
vl@tzG@J tpnf;. rlreS o
f r#ukd xd;k ESuw
f u
kd cf u
kd =f uonf? xd@k a=umifh Tta&;
tom;rsm;wGif tvkyform;vlwef;pm;. tod^m%fyGifhvif;a&;twGuf
tzdk;xdkufwefqHk;aom tcsuftvufrsm;jzifh jynfhv#Haeonf? òr@ESifh
awmt=um;jcm;em;r_48 rdom;pkpepf/ yk*~vdu wOD;csif;rsm;twGuf
pufrv
_ yk if ef;rsm; vkyu
f ikd jf cif;ESihf tcpm;tvkypf epfw@kd ukd zsuo
f rd ;f ypfa&;/
vl r _ o if h j rwf r _ u d k a=unma&;/ Ed k i f i H a wmf v k y f i ef ; aqmif w mrsm;ud k
101

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

xkwfvkyfa&;pDrHcef@cGJr_ oufouftjzpf ajymif;vJypfa&;/ TvufawG@
aqmif&Guf&ef wifjycsuf49 tm;vHk;onf xdktcsdefu ay:xGufvmcgp
jzpfaom vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfr_ uG,af ysmufa&;udo
k mv#if !¸ejf yonf?
,if;vlwef;pm; &efbufjzpfr_rsm;udk olwdk@. pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;wGif
tapmqH;k aom/ rjywfom;aom/ rwdusaom o¿mefrsm;jzifo
h m tod
trSwfðyxm;onf? xdk@a=umifhTwifjycsufrsm;onf pdwful;,Ofouf
ouf vuQ%mom aqmifayonf?
a0zefa&; pdwu
f ;l ,Ofq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'ESihf uGejf rLepf0g'. t"dym` ,fonf
ordik ;f jzpfay:wd;k yGm;r_EiS hf zDvmjzpfaeonf? acwfopfvw
l ef;pm;wdu
k yf JG jzpfay:
wdk;yGm;vmum wdusaom o¿mefaqmifvmonfESifhtr# vlwef;pm;
wdu
k yf rJG S uif;uGmaom vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf u
JG kd xd;k ESuaf om Tpdwu
f ;l ,Of
&yfwnfcsuo
f nf ‚. vufawG@t"dym` ,fEiS hf oabmw&m;cdik v
f rkH _ tm;
vHk; qHk;yg;oGm;awmhonf? xdk@a=umifh Tpepfrsm;udk pwifolrsm;onf
bufaygif;rsm;pGmwGif awmfvSefa&;qefapumrl olwdk@. wynfhwyef;
rsm;onf tpOft+rJyif azmufjyefaom *dk%f;*%rsm; zGJ@avh&Sd=uonf?
olwdk@onf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. wdk;wufaeaom ordkif;jzpfxGef;r_udk
qef@usifbufðyum rdrdwdk@q&mrsm;. rlvtjrifrsm;udk taoqkyfudkif
xm;=uonf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@onf vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJudk qkwfqdkif;
oGm;atmif/ vlwef;pm;&efbufjzpfr_udk ajy+idrf;oGm;atmif tpOfwpdu
k f
óu;pm;=uonf? olwdk@onf vufawG@prf;oyfr_rSwqifh rdrdwdk@. pdwful;
,Of v l @ tzG J @ tpnf ; xl a xmif a &;/ oD ; jcm; “zmvef p wm&d p f ” rsm;/
“jynfwGif;udkvdkeDrsm;” wnfaxmifa&;/ a*s±kpvif òr@awmfopfuav;
“ti,fpm;tDum&D,m”· wnfaxmifa&;udk tdyfrufruf ae=uqJjzpf.?
· zmvefpwm&dp?f csm;vf zk;d &D;,m;.pDru
H ed ;f wGiyf g&adS omqk&d ,
S v
f pf
udv
k ekd rD sm;jzpf onf? tDum&D,mmrSm umbufu ol.pdwu
f ;l ,Of a'oudk
ay;xm;aomemrnfjzpfonf/ aemufyikd ;f Y ol. tar&duefueG jf rLepf udv
k ekd u
D kd
Temrnfay;cJo
h nf? (1888 ckEpS f t*Fvyd b
f mom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f
.rSwcf su)f
jynfwiG ;f udv
k ekd rD sm;rSm td0k if u ol.pHjyuGejf rLepftzG@J rsm;udk ac:a0:jcif;
102

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

Todk@ avxJwGif wdkuftdrfrsm;aqmufa&;twGuf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;.
ESv;kH om;ESihf aiGtw
d u
f kd rvGrJ a&Smifom toem;cHvm&ay.? olw@kd onf
txufwiG f azmfjyxm;onfh azmufjyefaom orm;±d;k usq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'rD sm;
tjzpfo@kd wjznf;jznf; av#mus oGm;awmhonf? ‚wd@k EiS hf rwlonfrmS um;
ydkrdkpepfwusynm&Sdqefr_ESifh rdrdwdk@. vlr_a&;0dZ…mynm. wefcdk;t&Sdef
t0gtay: t,lonf;r_ESifh pGJvrf;}uD;pGm ,Hk=unfr_omjzpf.?
xd@k a=umifyh ifv#if olw@kd onf tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;. Edik if aH &;
v_y&f mS ;r_reS o
f r#ukd cg;cg;oD;oD; qef@usiaf e=ujcif; jzpfonf? xdo
k @kd aom
v_y&f mS ;r_rmS bmomw&m;opftay: rsuu
f ef;vdk r,H=k unfr_ &Srd o
S mv#if
jzpfEdkifonf[k olwdk@u ,lq=uonf?
t*F v ef j ynf & S d td k 0 if 0 g'D r sm;onf csm;wpf p f v _ y f & S m ;r_50 ud k
qef@usifum jyifopfjynf&Sd zdk;&D;,m;0g'Drsm;onf ðyjyifa&;0g'Drsm;·· udk
qef@usi=f uonf?

jzpfonf? zmvefpwm&dpfrSm zdk&D;,m; pDrHxm;onfh jynfol@eef;awmfrsm;.
trnfjzpfonf? tDum&D,mmrSm umbufo±kyaf zmfxm;aom uGejf rLepftaqmuf
ttHrk sm;&So
d nfh pdwu
f ;l ,Of qef;us,af om e,fajrtrnf jzpfonf? (1890 ckEpS f
*smrefbmom yHEk ydS jf cif; twGuf tde*f ,f. rSwcf su)f
··

1843 ckEpS rf S 1850 ckEpS t
f xd yJ&pfòr@wiG f xkwaf 0cJah om &DazmfrD
owif;pm. bufawmfom;rsm;udk qdv
k o
kd nf? (t,f'w
D m)
103

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

tcef ; (4)
wnf&Sdaeaom qef@usifbufygwD toD;oD;tay:
uGefjrLepfrsm;. oabmxm;
t*Fvefjynf&Sd csm;wpfpf0g'Drsm;ESifh ajrmuftar&duwdkuf&Sd ajr
,mðyjyifa&;orm;rsm;uJhodk@aom wnf&Sdaeaom tvkyform; vlwef;
pm;ygwrD sm;51ESihf uGejf rLepfw@kd . qufqaH &;rsm;udk tcef; (2) wGif &Si;f jy
cJh+yD;jzpfonf?
uGejf rLepfrsm;onf avmavmq,f &nf&,
G cf su&f &Sad &;ESihf tvkyf
orm;vlwef;pm;. vwfwavm tusKd;pD;yGm; taumiftxnfazmfa&;
twGuf wdu
k yf 0JG if=uonf? od@k aomf rsuaf rSmufvy_ &f mS ;r_wiG f olw@kd onf
xdv
k y_ &f mS ;r_. tem*wfuv
kd nf; ud,
k pf m;ðyum *±kpu
kd =f uonf? jyifopf
jynfwGif orm;±dk;usESifh &,f'Du,f "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk qef@usif&mY
uGefjrLepfrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpf 'Drdku&ufrsm;· ESifh yl;aygif;=uonf?
·

‚ygwu
D kd ygvrD efvw
$ af wmfwiG f vD'±l;±dv
k if/ pmaya&;&mwGif vl0b
D vef@/
D @kd u ud,
ae@pOfowif;pm e,fy,fwiG f &Dazmfrw
k pf m;ðyonf? qd&k ,
S v
f pf'rD u
kd a&pD
emrnfEiS w
hf uG ‚udk wDxiG o
f rl sm;qdo
k nfrmS 'Dru
kd &ufwpf od@k r[kwf &Dywfyvpf
uifygwx
D rJ S tenf;ESit
hf rsm; qd&k ,
S v
f pf taoG;ta&mifyg&adS om tpdwt
f ydik ;f
wckudk qdkvdkonf? (1888 ckESpf t*Fvdyfbmom yHkESdyfjcif;twGuf tdef*,f.
rSwcf su?f )
jyifopfjynfwiG f xdt
k csed u
f qd&k ,
S v
f pf'rD u
kd &ufwpfygw[
D k rdrb
d mom
ac:wGiaf om ygwu
D kd Edik if aH &;b0wGif vD'±l;±kv
d ifu ud,
k pf m;ðyonf? pmaya&;&mwGif
vl0b
D vef@u ud,
k pf m;ðyonf? Tod@k tm;jzifh ,ae@ *smrefq&kd ,
S 'f rD u
kd a&pDEiS hf rd;k ESihf
ajr}uD;yrm uGmjcm;vS.? (1890 ckEpS f *smrefbmom yHEk ydS jf cif;twGuf tde*f ,f.
rSwcf su)f
104

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

od@k apumrl awmfveS af &;}uD;rS tpOftvm qif;oufvmaom pmyd'k rf sm;/
pdwful;,Of r_rsm;ESifhywfoufI a0zef&ef tcGifhta&;udk rpGef@v$wfay?
qGpfZmvefjynfwGif olwdk@onf &,f'Du,frsm;udk axmufcH
=uonf? ‚ygww
D iG f jyifopfypkH H 'Dru
dk a&pDq&kd ,
S v
f pfrsm;u wpdww
f ydik ;f /
&,f'u
D ,f "e&Sirf sm;u wpdww
f ydik ;f &efbufjzpfaeaom tydik ;f rsm; yg0if
aeonfudk rsufjcnf rjywfay?
ydv
k efjynfwiG f ajr,mawmfveS af &;udk trsK;d om; vGwaf jrmufa&;
twGuf t"duta=umif;tcsut
f jzpf awmif;qdak om 1846 ckEpS f u&m
aumòr@yek fuefxºur_ukd v_@H aqmfcahJ om ygwt
D m; uGejf rLepfrsm;u axmuf
cH=uonf?
*smr%DjynfwGif "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u awmfvSefa&;vrf;a=umif;
twdik ;f ðyrlonfEiS t
hf r# uGejf rLepfygwo
D nf ‚wd@k EiS t
hf wlwuG oufO;D
qHyikd b
f &k if/ ya'o &mZfajr,mydik q
f ikd rf E_ iS hf "e&Siaf ygupf vlwef;pm;· wd@k ukd
qef@usifwdkufyGJ0if=uonf?
od@k aomf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;ESihf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;t=um; &efbuf
twdu
k t
f cHjzpfrE_ iS hf ywfoufI jzpfEikd o
f nfh &Si;f vif;jywfom;aomtodudk
tvkyform; vlwef;pm;twGif;odk@ oGwfoGif;ay;&ef uGefjrLepfrsm;onf
c%mwmr#yif r&yfem;cJah y? Tod@k tm;jzifh "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;pd;k rd;k r_u rvGJ
raoGaqmif=uOf;vmrnfh vlra_ &;ESihf Edik if aH &;ta=umif;tcsurf sm;udk ‚
tm; qef@usifonfhvufeuftjzpf *smreftvkyform;rsm;u csufcsif;
toH;k csEikd af p&efjzpf.? *smr%DjynfwiG f azmufjyefaom vlwef;pm;rsm;udk
òzcs+yD ; onf h a emuf "e&S i f v l w ef ; pm;tm; qef @ usif o nf h wd k u f y G J u d k
csufcsif;pwifEdkifa&; jzpfay.?
uGefjrLepfrsm;onf t"dutm;jzifh *smr%Djynfudk tm±Hkpdkuf=u
*smrefbmomrl&if;wGif uvde;f bm*s,&f q
D akd om pum;vH;k jzpfonf?
rmhupf Ef iS hf tde*f ,fw@kd onf òr@ae"e&Siaf ygupf vlwef;pm;. azmufjyefaom tpdwf
tydik ;f rsm;udk azmfjy&mwGif Tpum;vH;k udk toH;k ðyonf? (t,f'w
D m)
·

105

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

onf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf ‚wdkif;jynfonf Oa&my,Ofaus;r_.
ydkrdka&S@wef;a&mufaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;atmufwGif 17 &mpk t*F
vefjynfESifh 18 &mpk jyifopfjynf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;wdk@xuf ydkrdkjzpfay:
wdk;yGm;vmonfh ypPnf;rhJvlwef;pm;jzifh qifE$J&rnfh "e&SifawmfvSefa&;
tóuumvodk@ a&muf&Sdaeaoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdk@jyif *smr%Djynf
"e&SifawmfvSefa&;onf csufcsif;vdkufygvmrnfh ypPnf;rJhawmfvSefa&;.
a&S@awmfajy; jzpfaoma=umifhwnf;?
twdck sKyfvu
kd yf grl uGejf rLepfrsm;onf wnf&adS eaom vlra_ &;ESihf
EdkifiHa&;pepfudk OD;wnfqef@usifonfh awmfvSefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rSefor#udk
ae&mwdkif;Y axmufcH=uayonf?
xdktcsdefu v_yf&Sm;r_. jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tqifh rnfodk@yif&Sdap
v_yf&Sm;r_ tm;vHk;wGif uGefjrLepfrsm;onf ydkifqdkifr_jy\emudk xdyfwef;
jy\emtjzpf a&S@wef;wifxm;ayonf?
ed*;kH csKyftm;jzifh uGejf rLepfrsm;onf wdik ;f jynftm;vH;k &Sd 'Dru
kd a&pD
ygwDrsm;ESifh nD!Gwfa&;/ oabmwlnDcsuf&,la&;udk ae&mwumY óu;
yrf;=u.?
uGejf rLepfrsm;onf rdrw
d @kd .tjrifEiS hf &nf&,
G cf surf sm;udk zH;k uG,f
xdr0f u
S x
f m;&ef rke;f wD;&G&H mS =uonf? wnf&adS eaom vlra_ &;tajc tae52
tm;vHk;udk t=urf;zufaomenf;jzifh òzcszsufqD;ypfEdkifrSom rdrdwdk@.
&nfrSef;csufudk &&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf[k ajAmiftwdtvif; a=unmonf?
uGejf rLepfawmfveS af &;udk tkypf ;kd aomvlwef;pm;rsm;u xdwfvef@+y;D a=umuf
'l;wkefae=uygap/ ypPnf;rJhrsm;twGufum; olwdk@udk wkyfaESmifxm;aom
aESmifóu;rsm;rSty qHk;±_H;p&m[lIr&Sd? olwdk@pdk;ydkif&rnfum; wurBmvHk;
yifwnf;? ?
wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm; aoG;pnf;=uavmh!53

106

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

aemufqufwJG

bmomjyeftzG@J . rSwcf suf
TpmtkyfrSm 1949 ckESpf EdkifiHjcm;bmom xkwfa0a&;Xme
armfpudkrS xkwfa0cJhaom t*Fvdyfbmomjyefpmrludk tajccHxm;um
topfwzef bmomjyefxm;jcif; jzpfonf? ‚pmrlrSm 1888 ckESpfwGif
q,fjrL&,frdk;. bmomjyefqdkcsufudk z&uf'&pf- tdef*,fudk,fwdkif
wnf;jzwfxm;aom t*Fvdyfbmom pmrljzpf.?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dk0g'jzef@csda&;Xme bmomjyeftzGJ@
onf bmomjyefpmrlukd wnf;jzwf&mwGif *smrefbmompmrl&if;rS wdu
k f
±d k u f b momjyef x m;onf h ±k & S m ;bmomyH k E S d y f j cif ; (rmh u f p f / td e f * ,f
usrf ; aygif ; pH k / 'k w d , yH k E S d y f j cif ; / twG J 4/ armf p ud k 1955 ck E S p f ) ES i f h
w±kwb
f momyHEk ydS jf cif; (rmhupf /f tde*f ,f vufa&G;pifusr;f twGJ 1/ yDuif;
1975 ckESpf) wdk@udk taxmuftultjzpf udk;um;!‡dE_dif;cJhygonf?
TpmtkyfwGif azmfjyxm;aom pmrsufESmatmufajc&Sd t,f'D
wm. rSwcf surf sm;rSm 1949 ckEpS x
f w
k f t*Fvyd b
f momjyefpmtkyf t,f'D
wm. rSwfcsufrsm;jzpfonf? pmtkyfaemufqufwGJwGif azmfjyxm;onfh
*smrefbmom pmrl&if; ESifhrwlaom pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh pmydk'frsm;/ ordkif;
qdik &f m tcsut
f vufrsm;ESihf trnft!¸e;f rsm;rSm bmomjyeftzG@J rS a&;
om;xm;csufrsm; jzpfonf?
“uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf; onf 0dZ…menf;us uGefjrLepf
107

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

0g'. }uD;rm;aomvkyif ef;pOf pmwrf;jzpfay.? AD tdik f vDeifu ‘Tpmtkyf
i,fonf usr;f aygi;f pHw
k ckv;kH wr# wefz;kd &Sad yonf? ,Ofaus;aomurBm&Sd
pnf;±Hk;r_&Sdonfh wdkufyGJ 0ifypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; w&yfvHk;onf ,ae@wdkif
‚.pdwf"mwfay:wGif &Sifoef v_yf&Sm;aeayonf’ [k a&;om;cJhonf?
“um;vfrmhufpfESifh z&uf'&pftdef*,fwdk@u uGefjrLepftzGJ@csKyf.
vkyif ef;pOftjzpf uGejf rLepfygwaD =unmpmwrf; udk a&;om;cJ=h u+yD; 1848
ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif pmrsufESm 23 rsufESmyg&Sdaom pmtkyfi,ftjzpf
t*Fvefjynf vef'efòr@wGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0vdkufonf? 1848 ckESpf rwfvrS
Zlvikd v
f twGi;f *smreftrsK;d om; Edik if aH &;cdv
k o
H_ rl sm;. Edik if aH &;aºu;a=umf
oHjzpfaom *smref- vef'ef owif;pm
pmwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjycJh.? ‚ESpf
rSmyif pmrsufESm 30 yg&Sdaom pmtkyfi,ftjzpf xyfrHxkwfa0cJhonf?
yxrt}udrfxkwfa0&mwGif yg&Sdaeonfh yHkESdyfpmvHk; trSm;tcsKd@ESifh pm
tjzwftawmufrsm;udk jyifqifcJhonf? ‚pmrludk aemifwGif rmhufpfESifh
tdef*,fwdk@. oabmwlcGihfðycsufjzifh xkwfa0rnfh yHkESdyfjcif;rsm;twGuf
tajccHtjzpfxm;&Sdonf? 1848 ckESpfwGif a=unmpmwrf;udk Oa&my
bmomrsm; (jyifopf/ ydv
k ef/ tDwvD/ 'wfcs/f zvrf;rpfEiS hf qG'D ifbmom)
jzifh bmomjyefq=kd uonf? 1848 ckEpS f yHEk ydS jf cif;rsm;wGif a=unmpmwrf;
a&;om;ol. trnfrsm;udk azmfjyrxm;ay? olw@kd .trnfukd 1850 ckEpS w
f iG f
yxrqH;k azmfjycJo
h nfrmS t*Fvefjynf csm;wpfpv
f y_ &f mS ;r_. aºu;a=umfoH
&uf&yD wfyvpfuif *sme,fwiG f yg&o
dS nfh t*Fvyd b
f momjyefwiG f jzpfonf?
ed'gef;udk ‚*sme,f. t,f'Dwm a*smh- *sLvD,ef[mae u a&;om;
cJhonf?
“1872 ckEpS w
f iG f rmhupf Ef iS hf tde*f ,fw@kd u tenf;i,fjyifqifum
olwdk@ ESpfOD;a&;om;xm;aom ed'gef;rsm;ESifhtwl a=unmpmwrf; udk
*smrefbmomjzifh topfwzef yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhayonf? ‚onf 1883
ckEpS rf S 1890 ckEpS t
f xd xkwf a0cJah om *smrefbmom yHEk ydS jf cif;rsm;twdik ;f
uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;[l aom acgif;pOfjzifh ay:xGufvmcJh.?
“1883 ckEpS f um;vf rmhupf f uG,v
f eG +f yD;onfah emuf tde*f ,f.
108

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ppfaq;wnf;jzwfr_jzifh t}udrfrsm;pGm xkwfa0cJhonf? 1888 ckESpfwGif
q,fjrL&,frdk; bmomjyefaom t*Fvdyfbmom yHkESdyfjcif;udk tdef*,fu
ppfaq;um ed'ge;f ESihf rSwcf surf sm; a&;om;cJo
h nf? 1890 ckEpS w
f iG f tde*f ,f.
ed'gef;topfjzifh *smrefbmomyHkESdyfjcif; xGufay:vmcJhonf? aemufqHk;
yHEk ydS jf cif;wGiv
f nf; tde*f ,fu rSwcf sut
f csK@d a&;om;onf? 1885 ckEpS w
f iG f
qd k & S , f v pf *sme,f Y rmh u f p f . orD ; jzpf o l avmf & m- vmzwf u
bmomjyefaom jyifopfbmomjzifh a=unmpmwrf;udk yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJ&h m
‚bmomjyefudk tdef*,fu ppfaq;cJh.? tdef*,fonf 1892 ckESpfwGif
xkwfa0cJhaom ydkvefbmomyHkESdyfjcif;ESifh 1893 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0cJhaom
tDwvDbmom yHEk ydS jf cif;rsm;twGuf ed'ge;f rsm; a&;om;xm;cJah yonf”? (rmhupf /f
tde*f ,f usr;f aygi;f pH/k 'kw,
d yHEk ydS jf cif;/ twG-J 4/ armfpud/k 1955 ckEpS /f ±k&mS ;bm
om pmrsufESm 573)
,ckxkwfa0aom “uGefjrLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;” Armbm
omjyefwiG f bmompum;csi;f uGjJ ym;jcm;em;r_/ vGecf ahJ om ESpaf ygi;f 100
ausmfu ordkif;a=umif;tajctaersm;tay: em;vnfcsuf rjynfhpHkr_
wd@k a=umifh tcuftcJrsm; &Sad eygonf? xd@k a=umifh pmzwfol &Jabmfrsm;u
a0zefcsufESifh xifjrifcsufrsm; ay;=uapvdkayonf?

109

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

&S i f ; vif ; csuf

1?

&uf&Dywfyvpfuiiff (teDa&mif orRw*dk%f;om;) onf csm;
wpfpf v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifolrsm;. tywfpOf*sme,f jzpfonf?
‚*sme,fudk a*smh [mae u 1850 ckEpS f/ ZGev
f rS Ed0k ifbmv
txd yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf? 1850 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmvxkwf *sme,f
trSwf 21 rS 24 wGif uGefjrLepfygw
gwDD a=unmpmwrf; yxr
% DjynfuGefjrL
qHk;aom t*Fvdyfbmomjyefqdkcsufudk *smr
*smr%
epfygwD. a=unmpmwrf; [laom trnfjzifhxkwfa0cJh.?
(ESm- 18)

2?

qdk&S,fvpf*sme,
e,ffonf tifwmae&Sife,f jyifopfXmepdwf.
aºu;a=umfoH tywfpOf*sme,f jzpfonf? e,l;a,mufòr@Y 1871
ck E S p f / atmuf w d k b mvrS 1873 ck E S p f / arvtxd jyif o pf
bmomjzifh xkwaf 0cJo
h nf? ‚*sme,fonf tifwmae&Sief ,f.
ajrmuftar&duwdu
k f zuf'a&;&Si;f twGi;f &Sd "e&SiEf iS hf "e&Sif
aygupf tpdwt
f ydik ;f rsm;udk axmufccH .
hJ ? 1872 ckEpS /f pufwif
bmv [dwf*fòr@wGif usif;yaom uGef*&ufaemufydkif;wGif tif
wmae&Sife,fESifh tquftoG,f jzwfcJhonf? uGefjrLepf
ygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk ‚*sme,fwGif 1872 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D
vESihf azazmf0g&v
D wGif ykEH ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf?
(ESm- 18)

110

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

3?

udv
k akd um (acgif;avmif;) ±k&Sm; jynfa[mif;wGif tvkyform;
vlwef;pm; wyfOD;ygwD ray:aygufrDtcsdefu 'Drdkua&pDawmf
vSeaf &;orm;rsm;. aºu;a=umfoH owif;pm. trnfjf zpfonf?
1857 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f rSp+yD; vef'efòr@EiS *hf seD AD mòr@rsm;wGif xkwaf 0
um ±k&Sm;jynfxJodk@ jzef@csdcJhonf? xif&Sm;aom acwfa[mif;
±k&mS ;pma&;q&m [mZifonf ‚owif;pmxkwaf 0aom ‘vGwf
vyfonfh ±k&mS ;pmyHEk ydS w
f u
kd ’f udk pwif wnfaxmif olwOD;jzpfchJ
onf?
(ESm- 21)

4?

*wfcs;D em;
em;onf ,ckqAkd ,
D uf,el ,
D H vDeif*&ufòr@ (acwfa[mif;
yDx±k*d &ufòr@) taemufawmifbuf&dS t&yfa'otrnf jzpf.?
1881 ckEpS /f rwfv 13 &uf ae@wiG f 'kw,
d ajrmuf tvufZif;
'g; Zmbk&if vky}f uHowfjzwfc&H +yD;aemuf wwd,ajrmuf
tvufZif;'g; Zmbk&ifrmS vky}f uH owfjzwfc&H rnfukd a=umuf
&GH@ojzifh ykef;atmif;aeaomae&mudk &nf!¸ef;jcif;jzpfonf?
(ESm- 22)

5?

atmhAf&SDemm;; onf vlxkudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfaom aus;vuftzGJ@
tpnf;[k t"dym` ,f&.? a&S;OD;bHt
k zG@J vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tapm
ydik ;f umv tqifrh sm;wGif &So
d nfh v,form; ajr,m bHyk ikd q
f ikd rf _
pepfjzpfonf? Tpepfonf rwlaomo¿mef trsKd;rsKd;jzifh
±k&Sm;jynfa[mif;tygt0if tcsKd@wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif ESpfq,f&m
pkESpftxd &SdcJo
h nf?
(ESm- 23)

6?

udv
k ;kH òr@ uGejf rLepftr_ppfaq;jcif; (1852 ckEpS f/ atmufwb
kd mv
4 &ufae@rS Edk0ifbmv 12 &ufae@xd) rSm y&yf&Sm;tpdk;&u
vky}f uHzefw;D cJah om tr_wckjzpfonf? ‚tpdk;&onf rmhufpf/
tdef*,fwdk@u acgif;aqmifum uGefjrLepfygwD a=unm pm
111

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

wrf; udk rdrv
d yk if ef; pOf tjzpfxm;&Sad om ypPn;f rJh vlwef;pm;.
yxr EdkifiHwumhuGefjrLepf tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfonfh uGefjrLepf
toif;csKyf (1847- 52) tzG@J 0if 11 a,mufukd zrf; qD;cJo
h nf?
olw@kd tm; ‘Edik if aH wmf opPmazmufr’_ [laom pGcJ sujf zifh w&m;
cGiw
f if ppfaq;cJo
h nf? twkta,mif pm&Guf pmwrf; oufao
rsm;jzifh w&m;±Hk;u uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf tzGJ@0if 7 OD;udk 3
ESprf S 6 ESpt
f xd axmif'%fay;cJ.
h ? rmhupf Ef iS hf tde*f ,fw@kd onf
T tr_ppfaq;jcif;ESifh y&yf&Sm;ykvdyfrsm;u EdkifiHwumh tvkyf
orm;v_yf&Sm;r_udk qef@usifaom aumufuspfr_rsm;udk tukef
tpifziG chf swu
kd cf u
kd cf o
hJ nf?
(ESm- 27)
7?

1887 ckEpS f/ qGrq
f ;D òr@wGif usi;f yaom tvkyo
f rm;or*~ uGef
*&ufYOuUÏjzpfol 'AvsL ADAif ajym=um;cJah om rde@f ceG ;f udk ud;k um;
xm;jcif; jzpfonf? ADAif. rde@f ceG ;f udk 1887 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv
17 &ufae@xw
k f uGerf eG ;f 0D;vf *sme,fwiG f xnfh oGi;f azmfjycJo
h nf?
(ESm- 29)

8?

0l;'f[m;vfEiS hf uvm
zv
zvififonf e,l;a,mufòr@wGif 1870 ckESpf
uvmzv
rS 1876 ckESpftxd "e&Sifvlwef;pm; trsKd;orD;tcGifhta&;
awmif;qdkolrsm;u xkwfa0aom tar&duef*sme,f trnfjzpf
onf? 1871 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 30 &ufae@xw
k f ‚*sme,fwiG f
uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk jzwfawmufI azmfjycJhonf?
(ESm- 29)

9?

uGef*&ufydkvef rS m 1814- 1815 ckESpf AD,memuGef*&uf
qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;t& ydv
k efb&k ifEh ikd if [
H al om w&m;0iftrnfjzifh
±k&mS ;jynfa[mif;od@k ay;xm;&aom ydkvefjynf. wpdwfwydkif;
jzpfonf?
(ESm- 44)

112

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

10?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ydkvefudkcsKyfxdef;aom umuG,fr_
taumufceG pf epf usio
hf ;kH &ef awmif;qdv
k u
kd jf cif;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 45)

11?

tv,facwfqdkonfrSm a&S;acwf/ tv,facwf/ acwfopfwdk@
teuf wckudkqdkvdkayonf? tv,facwfonf c&pfouU&mZf
1000 ckESpfrS 1400 ckESpftwGif; umvydkif;jzpf.? acwfopf
qdkonfrSm acwfumvydkif;jcm;r_. t"dy`m,fudk qdkvdkjcif;jzpf+yD;
14 &mpkaemufyikd ;f Oa&mywdu
k w
f iG f ya'o&mZfv,fu|epf epfukd
wGe;f vSeaf om awmfveS af &;rsm;ESit
hf wl t&if;&Sipf ;D yGm;a&;pepf
ay:xGef;vmaomumvrS ,ae@xd umvydkif;wckvHk;udk qdkvdk
onf?
(ESm- 53)

12?

ya'o&mZf pufr_vkyfief;qdkonfrSm zGH@òz;aomt&if;&Sifpepf
pufr_vkyfief; r[kwf/ vufr_trsm;ydkif;ESifh pufud&d,m wpdwf
wydik ;f yg0ifaom xkwv
f yk af &;udk qdv
k o
kd nf?
(ESm- 54)

13?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “qufqHa&;rsm;” [k yg&Sdonf?
aemufydkif; pmrsufESmrsm;wGifvnf; Ttwdkif;awG@&Sd&onf?
(ESm- 62)

14?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “trsK;d orD;rsm;ESihf uav;rsm;” [k
yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 64)

15?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “aiG a cs;pm;ol u av;rsm;” [k
yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 65)

16?

*smrefbmompmrl&if;wGif“tvkyform;rsm;onf "e&Sifxkwf
113

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

vkyfa&; ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udkomru xkwfvkyfa&;ud&d,m
rsm;udkvnf; xdk;ESufwdkufcdkuf=uonf” [k yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 65)
17?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “tvkyform;or*~rsm;” [laom
pum;vHk; ryg&Sday?
(ESm- 67)

18?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “twdtvif;ykefuefr_rsm;” [k
yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 67)

19?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “olwdk@udk,fydkifynma&;” [k yg&Sd
onf?
(ESm- 68)

20?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “rsm;jym;vSaom ynma&; tpdwf
tydik ;f rsm;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 68)

21?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “tv,f t vwf t v$ m ” [k
yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 69)

22?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “ avvG i f h a eaom ypP n f ; rJ h r sm;”
[kyg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 69)

23?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “udk,fydkiftod&Sdaom” [laom
pum;vHk; ryg&Sday?
(ESm- 70)

24?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “wOD ; csif ; yk * ~ d K vf r sm;vuf w G i f
OpPm"epkyHkaejcif;/ t&if;tESD; jzpfwnfvmjcif;ESifh wdk;yGm; vm
jcif;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 72)

114

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

25?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “xl;jcm;aom” [k yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 73)

26?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ypPnf;rJhygwDrsm;” [k yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 73)

27?

jyifopfawmfvSefa&; qdkonfrSm 1789 ckESpf 1794 ckESpftxd
jzpfyGm;aom jyifopf "e&SifawmfvSefa&;udk qdkvdkonf? ‚
awmfveS af &;onf ya'o&mZfoufO;D qHyikd pf epfukd acsre_ ;f ypfum
jyifopfjynfwiG f t&if;&Sipf epf wd;k yGm;a&;twGuf vrf;zGiahf y;cJ.
h ?
odk@aomf jyifopf"e&Sif}uD;rsm;onf awmfvSefa&;. toD;tyGifh
rsm;udk tydkifpD;+yD; tm%m odrf;,l vdkuf=uonf?
(ESm- 74)

28?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “wOD;uwOD;udk aoG;pkyfr_ tay:
wGi”f [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 74)

29?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ypPnf;rJhrsm;. tvkyf” yg xyfrH
jznfhpGuf azmfjyxm;onf?
(ESm- 75)

30?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “tv,f t vwf v l w ef ; pm;”
qdak om pum;vH;k ryg&adS y?
(ESm- 78)

31?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ynma&;” [k yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 79)

32?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ydik q
f ikd rf q
_ ufqaH &;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 79)
115

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

33?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “tvkyform;rsm;wGif tzwdkif;
jynfr&S”d [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 82)

34?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “trsK;d om;. acgi;f aqmifvw
l ef;pm;”
qdkaom pum;vHk;tpm; “trsKd;om;qdkif&m vlwef;pm;” [k
yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 82)

35?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “tbd"rRm” pum;vH;k tjyif “Edik if aH &;”
[laom pum; vH;k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 83)

36?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “vlr_a&;tm%ma[mif;udk quf
vufwdkufcdkuf&ef vdktyfvmayonf” [laom pmydk'f ryg&Sday?
Tae&mwGif vlr_a&;rSm vl@tzGJ@tpnf; [kvnf; t"dy`m,f
&ayonf?
(ESm- 85)

37?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ajr,mydkifqdkifr_udk tydkifpD;jcif;ESifh
ajrqDcrsm;udk Edik if aH wmf toH;k p&dwo
f @kd tyfEjHS cif;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 85)
*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “wjynfvHk;wGif vlOD;a&ydkrdkr#wpGm
jzef@cGJjcif;tm;jzifh” [laom pmydk'fryg&Sday?
(ESm- 86)

38?
39?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “uav;oli,ftm;vHk;udk vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;u ynmoif=um;a&;ESifh tcrJhynmoif=um;r_” [k
yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 86)

40?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “±ky0f wˆKxkwv
f yk af &;” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 86)
*smrefbmompmrl&if;wGi“f t=urf;zufr”_ [k yg&o
dS nf?(ESm- 86)

41?
116

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

42?

jyifopfvuf*sDwrpf (w&m;0if) 0g'Drsm;
sm;onf 1792 ckESpfwGif
òzcscv
H u
kd &f aom ajr&Si}f u;D rsm;ESihf txufwef;pm; bke;f }u;D rsm;.
tusK;d pD;yGm;udk ud,
k pf m;ðyonfh abmfbeG f rif;qufukd axmufc=H u
olrsm; jzpf=uonf? 1830 ckEpS w
f iG f ‚ rif;qufukd 'kw,
d t}udrf
wGe;f vSe+f yD;onfah emufwiG f olw@kd onf ygwzD @JG pnf;cJ.
h ? b¾m&Sif
rif;nDrif;om;ESihf "e&Si}f uD;vlwef;pm;udk a'guw
f ikd t
f jzpf xm;&Sd
aom atmfvD,Gefrif;qufudk qef@usif&mwGif ‚0g'D wpdwf
wydik ;f onf vlra_ &;jy\emrsm;wGif r=umc%vdrv
f nf 0g'jzef@
=uonf? olw@kd onf "e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;aoG;pkyrf r_ S vkyo
f m; rsm;udk
umuG,folrsm; jzpfav[ef aqmif=uonf?
(ESm- 89)

43?

,ef;t*Fvef (EkysKad omt*Fvefjynf) onf t*Fvefjynf wd&k yD gwD
(,ck uGefqmaA;wpfygwD) ESifh ywfoufaom EdkifiHa&;orm;/
pmayorm; tkypf jk zpf+yD; 1840 ckEpS f tapmydik ;f wGif zG@J pnf;cJo
h nf?
"e&Siv
f w
l ef;pm;. pD;yGm;a&;/ Edik if aH &;tiftm; }uD;xGm;vmr_w@kd
tay: ajr,m rif;nDrif;om;rsm;. rausrcsr;f jzpfru
_ kd ‚wd@k u
xif[yfjy=uonf? ‚tpkonf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;tay:
=oZm&Sd&efESifh "e&Sifqef@usifa&;wdkufyw
GJ Gif tvkyform;vlwef;
pm;udk toHk;cs&eftwGuf vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;aom enf;rsm;udk
usifhoHk;=uonf?
(ESm- 89)

44?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “pufrv
_ yk if ef;wnf;[laom opfyifrS
aºuusvmaom” [lonhfpmydk'f ryg&Sday?
(ESm-90)

45?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif ‚pma=umif;ESifhqufvsuf “ppfrSef
aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ vlom;wdk@.
tESpfom&udk taumiftxnfazmfa&;ESifh ywfoufIvnf;
aumif; t"dy`m,fr&Sdaom awG;awmr_rsm;tjzpf rv$JraoG ay:
117

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

vm& awmhonf” [laom pma=umif;yg&Sdonf? 1872 ckESpf/
1883 ESihf 1890 ckEpS f yHEk ydS jf cif;rsm;wGif Tpma=umif;udk “vlom;
wdk@. tESpfom&udk taumiftxnfazmfa&;ESifh ywfoufI
t"dy`m,fr&Sdaom awG;awmr_rsm;tjzpf rvGJraoG ay:vm&
awmhonf” [k a&;om;xm;onf?
(ESSm- 93)
46?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “tcpm;tvkyf” [k yg&Sdonf?
(ESm- 98)

47?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “ðyjyifa&;” [laom pum;vHk;
ryg&adS y?
(ESm- 99)

48?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “awmESifh òr@.qef@usifbufjzpfr_”
[k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 101)

49?

*smref b mom pmrl & if ; wG i f “tem*wf vl @ tzG J @ tpnf ; ES i f h
ywfoufaom olwdk@. tðyoabm wifjycsufrsm;” [k yg&Sd
onf?
(ESm- 102)

50?

csm;wpf p f v _ y f & S m ;r_ (t*F v d y f p um;vH k ; csmwmrS v monf ?
tkycf sKyaf &;tm%mydik rf sm;u pmjzifh a&;om;um ay;tyfvu
kd o
f nfh
tcGifhta&;rsm;[k t"d y ` m ,f & onf ? 1837 ck E S p f r S 1847
ckESpftwGif;wGif Oya'ðyjyif&ef awmif;qdkaom v_yf&Sm;r_wGif
yg0iforl sm;. awmif;qdck sujf zpfonfh “jynfo@l csmwm” pum;vH;k
rS qif;oufvmonf? Tv_y&f mS ;r_wiG f yg0iforl sm;udk csm;wpfpf
[kvnf;aumif; / ‚0g'udk csm;wpfpf0g'[kvnf;aumif; ac:
a0:onf) rSm Edik if w
H umh tvkyf orm;v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f wGif yxr
qH;k t}udrf ypPn;f rJv
h w
l ef;pm;. vlxv
k uQ%m aqmifaom

118

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

awmfvSefonfh EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfonf? ‚v_yf&Sm;r_onf
1830 ckESpf tv,fydkif;ESifh 1840 ckESpf tukefumvtwGif;
t*FvefjynfwGif jzpfay:cJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;. qdk;0g;vS
aom pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeESifh 1832 ckESpf ygvDrefpepf ðyjyif
a&;tay: rauseyfr_ (‚ygvrD ef ðyjyifa&;onf "e&Sif vlwef;
pm;udkom tcGihfta&; ydkrdkay;cJhonf) a=umifh jzpf vmonf?
csm; wpfpfv_yf&Sm;r_. yxr uGef*&ufudk 1839 ckESpf azazmf
0g&DvwGif ðyvkyfcJh.? rmhufpfESifh tdef*,fwdk@onf csm;wpfpf
v_yf&Sm;r_. vuf0J*dk%f; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk 'Drdkua&pD awmif;
qdkcsufrsm;ESifh qdk&S,fvpf0g'ta&; wdkufyGJudk aygif;pyfay;&ef
!¸efjycJhayonf? csm;wpfpfv_yf&Sm;r_onf t*Fvefjynf vl@tzGJ@
tpnf; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tay: tawmftwef *,uf±kdufr_udk
jzpfaponf? tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;onf rwwfomojzifh trsKd;
orD;ESifh vli,frsm;. tvkyfcsdefudk 10 em&Dodk@ av#mhcsonfh
Oya'udk 1847 ckEpS w
f iG f jyÏmef;ay;cJ&h onf? Tpmtkyf pmrsuf
ESm 78 yxrtyd'k w
f iG f ‚tcsuu
f kd azmfjyxm;onf?
(ESm- 103)
51?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “vlwef;pm;” qdkaom pum;vHk;
rygbJ “tvkyform;ygwDrsm;” [k a&;om;xm;onf?
(ESm- 104)

52?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “wnf&Sdaeaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
pepfwckv;kH ” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 106)

53?

*smrefbmom pmrl&if;wGif “wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm;
aoG;pnf; =uavmh!” [k yg&o
dS nf?
(ESm- 106)
119

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

trnf t !¸ e f ;
umbuf

*&G e f

(tufwed ef D umbuf/ 1788- 1856) jyifopf pdwu
f ;l
,OfuGefjrKepf0g'D wOD;jzpfonf? “tDum&D,mc&D;pOf”
trnf&dS pmtkyu
f kd a&;om;cJh oljzpfonf?
(ESm- 31)
(um;vf-oD,dk'dk *&Gef/ 1817- 1887) *smref"e&Sif
aygufp pma&;q&mjzpfonf? 1840 ckESpf tv,fydkif;
wGif “ppfreS af om” qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'udk t"duud,
k pf m;ðy
ol wOD; jzpfonf?
(ESm- 97)

pd e f @ -qk d i f r G e f

([ife&Duavmh'f pde@f - qdik rf eG /f 1760- 1825) jyifopf
jynf pdwu
f ;l ,Of qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'udk a&S@aqmifol wOD;jzpf
onf? rmhupf 0f g' ray:aygurf D umvY ‚onf "e&Sif
tbd"rRm/ "e&Siv
f rl a_ &;ESihf t&if;&Sif pepfukd a0zefum
urBmwGif t&if;&Sifqdk&S,fvpfpepf xlaxmifa&;udk
tdyrf uf˜rufco
hJ nf? ‚onf t&if;&Sipf epf. tESpo
f m
&udkem;rvnf/ qdk&S,fvpf0g' vrf;a=umif;udkvnf;
rawG@jrifcJhay?
(ESm- 99)

qpf p f r G e f ' D

(*sif- csm;vf qdkifrGef'D 'D qpfpfrGef'D/ 1773- 1842)
qGpfZmvefjynfrS abm*aA'ynm&Sif wOD;jzpfonf?
"e&Siaf ygupf tjrifjzifh t&if; &Sipf epfukd a0zefco
hJ l jzpf
onf?
(ESm- 92)

Zql ; vpf c sf

(bJ & mtD A ef a emh z f e m; Zql ; vpf c sf / 1849- 1919)

120

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

±k&Sm;jynfwGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; wyfOD;ygwD r&Sdao;
rD u mvY ay:ayguf v maom ea&mh'fepf (jynfol@)
v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f xif&mS ;aom trsK;d orD;wOD;jzpf.? 1883
ckESpf qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;wGif rmhufpf0g'
avhvmjyef@yGm;a&; “tvkyform; vGwfajrmufa&;”
trnf&adS om ygwt
D pkukd wnfaxmif&mY yg0ifaqmif
&Gucf o
hJ nf? rmhupf Ef iS hf tde*f ,fw@kd u olrxHo@kd oabm
w&m;a&;&m jy\emESifh ywfoufaom pmrsm;a&;ydk@cJh
onf? ‚onf tdef*,fa&;om;aom pdwful;,OfESifh
0dZm… enf;us qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'udk ±k&mS ;bmom jyefqkd cJo
h nf?
1900 ckEpS f ygwrD v
S #K@d 0u
S x
f w
k af 0aom oabmw&m;a&;
owif;pm “tpfu&m;” (rD;yGm;) ESihf “Zm;&m;” (t±k%fO;D )
wd@k . t,f'w
D mtzG@J 0if wOD;jzpfco
hJ nf? ±k&mS ;jynfq&kd ,
S f
'Drdku&ufwpf tvkyform;ygwD 'kwd,uGef*&ufwGif
vDeifacgi;f aqmifaom aAmf&ADS pfEiS hf vDeif0g'. qef@usif
bufjzpfaom rif&SDApf[lI oabmw&m;a&;&m uGJvGJ
&mY Zql;vpfcsfonf rif&SDApftpk. acgif;aqmifwOD;
jzpfonf? yxr urBmppfyGJ umvY qdk&S,fa&SmfAif0g'
("e&Sit
f rsK;d om;a&;0g') bufwiG f &yfwnfcu
hJ m r[m
atmufwb
kd m qd&k ,
S v
f pfawmfveS af &;udk raxmufco
H l
jzpfomG ;onf?
(ESm- 29)
'g0if

(csm;vf a&mbwf 'g0if/ 1809- 1882) ZD0aA'qdik &f m
aygufyGm;r_ESifh wdk;yGm;r_o¿mefrsm;udk pwifawG@&Sdol
t*Fvdyf"e&Sifvlwef;pm; 0dZ…mynm&Sif}uD; jzpfonf?
‚u ouf&o
dS wW0gEiS hf opfyifrsm;onf tqufrjywf
jzpfay: wdk;yGm;ajymif;vJaea=umif;/ o¿mefopfrsm;
121

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

jzpfay:aea=umif;/ vlrsm;onf vl0rH S wpwp ajymif;vJ
oufqif;vma=umif;rsm;udk racsyEdkifaom taxmuf
txm;rsm;jzifh &Sif;vif; jyocJhonf? urBmavmuESifh
vlom;rsm;udk rnfonfeh wfb&k m;urS rzefqif;a=umif;
azmfjyum bmoma&;oif=um;csuf tm;vHk;udk acsycJh
.? od@k aomf 'g0ifonf rdr.
d 0dZm… ynmudk obm0e,f
y,fwGifom uef@owfxm;&Sd+yD; vl@tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfay:
wdk;yGm;vmr_udk tjynfht0&Sif;vif;rjyEdkifcJhay? rmhufpf/
tde*f ,fw@kd onf 'g0if. oabmw&m;udk tEk yËdavm
r ordkif;±kyf0g'tjrifjzifh jynfhpHkatmif jzpfay: wdk;yGm;
vdu
k o
f nf?
(ESm- 32)
'ef a w

(t,fvD*,f&D 'efaw/ 1265- 1321) tDwvDvlrsKd;
uAsmq&mESifh tDwvDpmay. u¾opfudk pwifzGifh
vSpv
f u
kd o
f l jzpfonf? v,f u|ef pepfuek q
f ;kH awmhrnfh
acwf u mvY ajymif a jrmuf a om ta&;tom;jzif h
uAsm&Snf}uD;rsm;udk oDukH;a&;om;cJhonf? 'efaw.
uAsmrsm;onf urBmh pmayordkif;wGif *EW0ifpmayrsm;
jzpfvmcJhonf?
(ESm- 49)

yvuf u aemh z f (*&D*dk &DAvefwDEdk;Apf yvufuaemhzf/ 1856- 1918)
±k&mS ;jynfwiG f rmhupf 0f g'udk pwifjzef@jzL;ol/ 0g'jzef@cso
d El iS hf
±kyf0g'tbd"rRmynm&Sif wOD;jzpfonf? 1903 ckESpf
±k&mS ;jynf qd&k ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpf tvkyo
f rm;ygw.
D 'kw,
d
uGef*&uf +yD;onfhaemufrSpI vDeif0g'ESifh qef@usif
bufjzpfaom rif&SDApftacsmif0g'udk &yfwnfol jzpf
oGm;onf?
(ESm- 29)
122

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ya&muf ' G e f ;

(yD&m *sKd;Zuf ya&muf'Gef;/ 1809- 1865) jynfopf
pma&;q&m odrfzsif;aomabm*aA'/ vlr_a&;ynm
&SifESifh "e&Sifaygufp oabmw&m;a&;q&m wOD;jzpf
onf? rmhupf 0f g'ESihf qef@usib
f uf rif;rJ0h g'udk pwifwD
xGio
f l wOD;jzpfonf?
(ESm- 97)

zk d ; &D ; ,m;

(csm;vf zd;k &D;,m;/ 1772- 1837) jyifopfjynf pdwu
f ;l
,Ofq&kd ,
S v
f pf0g'udk a&S@aqmifol wOD;jzpfonf? ‚onf
t=urf;zufawmfveS af &;udk qef@usifum rdrd. tawG;
tac:rsm;udk +idrf;csrf;pGm 0g'jzef@csdjcif;jzifh tem*wfqdk
&S,fvpf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk pnf;±Hk;Edkifonf[k pdwful;
,Of ,lqonf?
(ESm- 99)

rk d ;

(q,fjrL&,f rdk;/ 1830- 1912) rmhufpfa&;om;aom
t&if;usrf;ESifh uGefjrL epfygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk t*F
vdyfbmomodk@ bmomjyefqdkcJhol jzpfonf? rmhufpf/
tde*f ,fw@kd . rdwaf qGwOD;jzpfonf?
(ESm- 34 )

vmaq;

(zm'Deef vmaq;/ 1825- 1864) *smref"e&Siaf ygupf
qdk&S,fvpf0g'DESifh EdkifiHwumhtvkyform; v_yf&Sm;r_
twGif;&Sd vuf,mtacsmif0g' wrsKd;jzpfaom “vm
aq;0g'” udk wDxiG cf o
hJ jl zpf.? ‚onf *smr%Djynfv;kH
qdkif&m tvkyform;tzGJ@. OuUÏjzpfcJhonf? ‚onf
tvkyo
f rm; vlwef;pm; v_y&f mS ;r_ukd +ird ;f csr;f aom ygvD
ref vGwfawmfYom uef@owfxm;&Sdonf? Oya'wGif;
pnf;±Hk;a&;/ jynfvHk;u|wf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcGifh/
tvkyform; xkwfvkyfa&;tzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;aomvrf;
a=umif;jzifh axmufyahH =u; aiGrsm;ay;aom Edik if H awmf
123

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

wnf a xmif a &;/ Tod k @ tm;jzif h “vG w f v yf a om
jynfoltm;vHk;. EdkifiHawmf” [laom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
opf jzpfEdkifonf[k vmaq; 0g'Drsm;u ,lq=uonf?
‚wd@k u v,form; vlwef;pm;udk azmuf jyeforl sm;[k
oabmxm;onf? vmaq;. Edik if aH &;ESihf oabmw&m;
k mvkyif ef;pO
a&;&m trSm;rsm;udk rmhufpf. *do
pOff a0zef
csuf ESifh vDeif. Edik if aH wmfEiS h f awmfveS af &; usr;f rsm;wGif
acsywdu
k cf u
kd x
f m;onf?
(ESm- 28 )
0uf w vif ; (0D v f [ rf 0uf w vif ; / 1808- 1871) *smref v uf
r_ynmonf jzpfonf? *smrefpdwful;,Of wef;wla&;
0g'jzpfaom uGefjrLepf0g'. ay:vGifxif&Sm;qHk;aom
ud,
k pf m;vS,jf zpfonf? ‚onf zd;k &D;,m; (txufwiG f
azmfjy+yD;) .=oZmt&Sdefoufa&mufr_udk cHcJh&onf?
( ESm - 31)
[mZif

124

(tvufZif;'g; tDAefE;kd Apf [mZif/ 1812- 1870) acwf
a[mif; ±k&Sm;jynfwGif xif&Sm;aom 'Drdkua&pDawmf
vSefa&;orm;/ ±kyf0g'tbd"rRmq&m/ pma&;q&mESifh
owif;pmq&mjzpfonf? wdk;wufaom t,ltqrsm;
udk pGJudkifum Zmbk&ifpepfudk qef@usifojzifh tzrf;cH
e,fESifcHcJh&onf? ±k&Sm; jynfwGif ±kyf0g'usrf;rsm;udk
a&;om;ðypkcJhonf? ±k&Sm;jynf 'Drdkua&pD awmfvSefa&;
k akd um (acgif;
orm;rsm;. aºu;a=umfoHjzpfaom udv
avmif;) owif;pmudkyHkESdyfonfh pmyHkEdSyfwdkufudk jynfy
wGif wnfaxmifcJhol wOD;jzpfonf? [mZifonf 'Drdk
ua&pD0g'rS cGJcGmum vpfb&,f0g'bufodk@ ,drf;,dkif
oGm;cJh&mrS 1860 ckESpfrsm;wGif awmfvSefaom 'Drdk

uGejf rLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;

ua&pD0g'twGuf &yfwnf oljzpfvma=umif; vDeif.
[mZiftm;owd&jcif; aqmif ; yg;wG i f a&;om;xm;
onf?
(ESm- 29)
tk d 0 if

(a&mbwf tdk0if/ 1771- 1858) pdwful;,Of qdk&S,f
vpf0g'udk a&S@aqmifol t*Fvefjynf paumhwvefjynf
e,frS pufrv
_ yk if ef;&Si}f uD; wOD;jzpfonf? ‚ydik f puf±Hk
wG i f tvk y f c sd e f a v#mh c say;jcif ; / uav;rsm;twG u f
ausmif;rsm; zGiahf y;jcif;/ uav;xde;f Xme zGiv
hf pS af y;jcif;
rsm; ðycJo
h nf? xd@k jyif TtawG@ tñurH S pdwu
f ;l ,Of uGef
jrLepfpepf yHpk u
H kd a&;om;ðypkc.
hJ ? ‚u vl@tzG@J tpnf;.
qif;&J'kuQrsm;onf t&if;&Sifpepfa=umifh[k rjrifbJ
vlrsm;. rodem;rvnfr_a=umifh jzpfonfqdkum vl@
tzGJ@tpnf;. yËdyuQrsm;udk todynmjzef@jzL;ay;jcif;
tm;jzifh uG,af ysmufomG ;rnf[k ,lqcJ.
h ? t=urf;zuf
awmfveS af &;udk r,H=k unfoEl iS hf tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;
. ordik ;f qdik &f mtcef;udk em;rvnfol jzpfonf? ‚.
oabmw&m;rsm;onf pdef@-qdkifrGef/ zdk;&D;,m;wdk@uJh
odk@yif 0dZ…menf;usqdk&S,fvpf0g'/ uGefjrLepf0g' ray:
aygufrDumv. ordkif;qdkif&mjzpfpOfwGif yg0ifcJhay.?
(ESm- 99)

125

rmhufpf/ tdef*,f

1973 ckESpf rwfv 5 &ufae@wGif pwif bm
omjyefI 1976 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif wnf;jzwfonf?
1977 ck E S p f puf w if b mv 20 &uf ae@wG i f
'k w d , t}ud r f pwif yH k E S d y f u m 'D Z if b mvwG i f
yH k E S d y f + yD ; pD ; onf ?
2008 ck E S p f / azazmf 0 g&D v 1 &uf a e@wG i f
uG e f j rLepf y gwD a=unmpmwrf ; ES p f 160 ajrmuf
txd r f ; trS w f t jzpf Armjynf u G e f j rLepf y gwD A[k d
0g'jzef @ csd a &;XmerS wwd , t}ud r f yk H E S d y f x k w f a 0onf ?

126

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