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" Alexander Solzhenitsyn ZIONISM IN THE AGE OF THE DICTATORS - A REAPPRAISAL
BY Lenni BRENNER !room Helm, "ent #$reat%ritain& and 'auren(e Hill, Westport, !onn., )*+,.text arranged and edited by %. /. Sean CHAPTER 1: ZIONISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM PRIOR TO THE HOLOCAUST CHAPTER 2: BLUT UND BODEN (BLOOD AND SOIL) : THE ROOTS OF ZIONIST RACISM CHAPTER 3: GERMAN ZIONISM AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE REPUBLIC CHAPTER !: ZIONISM AND ITALIAN FASCISM" 1#22-1#33 CHAPTER $: GERMAN ZIONISM OFFERS TO COLLABORATE ITH NAZISM EIMAR
CHAPTER %: THE &E ISH ANTI-NAZI BOYCOTT AND THE ZIONIST-NAZI TRADE AGREEMENT ABBRE'IATIONS: () en* +, *+-./en) GLOSSARY OF &E ISH AND ZIONIST ORGANISATIONS: () en* +, *+-./en)
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A7 0e(*e07 (0e -+//i))e* )+ *i7-+;e0in< 32 0e(*in< )1i7 3++4" )1e -+n7e>.en-e7 +, Zi+ni7) i*e+5+<2 *e7e0;e 7).*2 (n* e?8+7.0e@ T1() i7 61() i7 ())e/8)e* 1e0e@ A7 (n .n(3(71e* (n)iZi+ni7)" I -5e(052 -+n-5.*e )1() Zi+ni7/ i7 61+552 in-+00e-)C 3.) )1() i7 /2 -+n-5.7i+n *0(6n ,0+/ )1e e;i*en-e@ T1e -+n-5.7i+n7 (0e" in 71+0)" /2 +6n@ A7 ,+0 )1e 8e07.(7i;ene77 +, )1e (0<./en)7 .7e* in (00i;in< () )1e/" 0e(*e07 (0e in;i)e* )+ 9.*<e ,+0 )1e/7e5;e7@ DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER 1 ZIONISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM PRIOR TO THE HOLOCAUST 0rom the 0ren(h /evolution to the unifi(ation of $ermany and 1taly it appeared that the future foretold the (ontinuing eman(ipation of 2ewry in the wa3e of the further development of (apitalism and its liberal and modernist values. .ven the /ussian pogroms of the )++4s (ould be seen as the last gasp of a dying feudal past, rather than a harbinger of things to (ome. 5et by )+*6, when 7heodor Herzl published his Jewish State, su(h an optimisti( s(enario (ould no longer be realisti(ally envisioned. 1n )+*8 he personally had seen the 9arisian mob howling for the death of :reyfus. 7hat same year he heard the wild (heers of middle(lass ;ienna as they greeted the antiSemiti( "arl 'ueger after he had swept the ele(tion for burgomeister. %orn amidst a wave of defeats for the 2ews, not only in ba(3ward /ussia, but in the very (entres of industrial .urope, modern <ionism=s pretensions were the noblest (on(eivable> the redemption of the downtrodden 2ewish people in their own land. %ut from the very beginning the movement represented the (onvi(tion of a portion of the 2ewish middle (lass that the future belonged to the 2ewhaters, that antiSemitism was inevitable, and natural. 0irmly (onvin(ed that antiSemitism (ould not be beaten, the new World <ionist ?rganisation never fought it. A((ommodation to antiSemitism - and pragmati( utilisation of it for the purpose of obtaining a 2ewish state - be(ame the (entral stratagems of the movement, and it remained loyal to its earliest (on(eptions down to and through the Holo(aust. 1n 2une l+*8, in his very first entry in his new <ionist :iary, Herzl laid down this fixed axiom of <ionism> 1n 9aris, as 1 have said, 1 a(hieved a freer attitude toward antiSemitism, whi(h 1 now began to understand histori(ally and to pardon. Above all, 1 re(ognized the emptiness and futility of trying to =(ombat= antiSemitism. )1n the severest sense, Herzl was a man of his time and (lass@ a monar(hist who believed the best ruler =un bon tyran=. A- His Jewish State baldly pro(laimed> =Bor are the presentday nations really fit for demo(ra(y, and 1 believe they will be(ome ever less fit for it... 1 have no faith in the politi(al virtue of our people, be(ause we are no better than the rest of modern man. ,His universal pessimism (aused him to misCudge totally the politi(al environment of latenineteenth(entury Western .urope. 1n parti(ular, Herzl misunderstood the :reyfus (ase .
7he se(re(y of the trial, an d :reyfus=s soldierly insisten(e on his inno(en(e, (onvin(ed many that an inCusti(e was done. 7he (ase aroused a huge surge of $entile support. "ings dis(ussed it and feared for the sanity of 0ran(e@ 2ews in remote hamlets in the 9ripet Dar(hes prayed for .mile <ola. 7he intelle(tuals of 0ran(e rallied to :reyfus=s side. 7he so(ialist movement brought over the wor3ing people. 7he right wing of 0ren(h so(iety was dis(redited, the army stained, the !hur(h disestablished. AntiSemitism in 0ran(e was driven into isolation lasting until Hitler=s (onEuest. 5et Herzl, the most famous Cournalist in ;ienna, did nothing to mobilise even one demonstration on behalf of :reyfus. When he dis(ussed the matter, it was always as a horrible example and never as a rallying (ause. 1n )+** the out(ry (ompelled a retrial. A (ourt martial affirmed the (aptain=s guilt, 8 to A, but found extenuating (ir(umstan(es and redu(ed his senten(e to ten years. %ut Herzl saw only defeat and depre(iated the signifi(an(e of the vast $entile sympathy for the 2ewish vi(tim. 1f a dumb beast were tortured in publi(, would not the (rowd send up a (ry of indignationF 7his is the meaning of the pro:reyfus sentiment in non0ren(h (ountries, if indeed it is as widespread as many 2ews estimate ... 7o put it in a nutshell, we might say that the inCusti(e (ommitted against :reyfus is so great that we forget that we are dealing with a 2ew ... is anyone presumptuous enough to (laim that of any seven people two, or even one, favor the 2ewsF ... :reyfus represents a bastion that has been and still is a point of struggle. Gnless we are de(eived, that bastion is lostH I7he 0ren(h government understood realities better than Herzl and a(ted to head off further agitation by redu(ing the balan(e of the senten(e. $iven the su((ess of the struggle for :reyfus, 0ren(h 2ewry - right and left - saw <ionism as irrelevant. Herzl savaged them in his Diary> =7hey see3 prote(tion from the So(ialists and the destroyers of the present (ivil order ... 7ruly they are not 2ews any more. 7o be sure, they are no 0ren(hmen either. 7hey will probably be(ome the leaders of .uropean anar(hism.= 8Herzl=s first opportunity to develop his own pragmati( strategy of nonresistan(e to antiSemitism, (oupled with emigration of a portion of the 2ews to a 2ewish stateinthema3ing, (ame with "arl 'ueger=s su((ess in ;ienna. 7he demagogue=s vi(tory there was the first maCor triumph of the new wave of spe(ifi(ally antiSemiti( parties in .urope, but the Habsburgs strenuously opposed the new mayorele(t. Some + per (ent of their generals were 2ews. 2ews were (onspi(uous as regime loyalists amidst the sea of irredentist nationalities tearing the AustroHungarian .mpire apart. AntiSemitism (ould only (ause problems for the already wea3 dynasty. 7wi(e the .mperor refused to (onfirm 'ueger in offi(e. Herzl was one of the few 2ews in ;ienna who favoured (onfirmation. /ather than attempting to organise opposition to the !hristian So(ial demagogue, he met the 9rime Dinister, !ount !asimir %adeni, on , Bovember )+*8 and told him =boldly= to a((ommodate 'ueger> 1 thin3 that 'ueger=s ele(tion as Dayor must be a((epted. 1f you fail to do it the first time, then you will not be able to (onfirm on any subseEuent o((asion, and if you fail to a((ede the third time the dragoons will have to ride. 7he !ount smiled> =SoH= - with a goguenard #s(offing&expression. 61t was poverty in the Habsburgs= $ali(ia, as well as dis(rimination in /ussia, that was driving 2ews into ;ienna and further into Western .urope and Ameri(a. 7hey brought anti-
Semitism with them in their luggage. 7he new immigrants be(ame a =problem= to the rulers of the host so(ieties, and to the already established lo(al 2ewries, who feared the rise of native antiSemitism. Herzl had a readymade answer to the immigrant wave that he thought would please both the upper (lass of the indigenous 2ews and the ruling (lass of Western (apitalism> he would oblige them by ta3ing the poor 2ews off their hands. He wrote to %adeni> =What 1 propose is ... not in any sense the emigration of all the 2ews ... 7hrough the door whi(h 1 am trying to push open for the poor masses of 2ews a !hristian statesman who rightly seizes the idea, will step forward into worldhistory.= JHis first efforts at diverting the wind of opposition to 2ewish immigration into <ionism=s sails utterly failed, but that did not prevent him from trying again. 1n )*4A the %ritish 9arliament debated an Aliens .x(lusion %ill aimed at the migrants, and Herzl travelled to 'ondon to testify on the %ill. /ather than pass it, he argued, the %ritish government should support <ionism. He met 'ord /oths(hild but, in Spite of all his publi( tal3 about the reCuvenation of 2ewry, he dispensed with su(h (ant in private (onversation, telling /oths(hild that he =would in(identally be one of those wi(3ed persons to whom .nglish 2ews might well ere(t a monument be(ause 1 saved them from an influx of .ast .uropean 2ews, and also perhaps from antiSemitism=. +1n his autobiography, Trial and Error, written in )*I*, !haim Weizmann - then the first 9resident of the new 1sraeli state - loo3ed ba(3 at the (ontroversy over the Aliens %ill. An immigrant to %ritain himself, the brilliant young (hemist was already, in )*4A, one of the leading intelle(tuals of the new <ionist movement. He had met Sir William .vans $ordon, author of the anti2ewish legislation@ even with hindsight, with the Holo(aust fresh in his mind, the then 9resident of 1srael still insisted that> our people were rather hard on him #.vans $ordon& . 7he Aliens %ill in .ngland, and the movement whi(h grew up around it were natural phenomena ... Whenever the Euantity of 2ews in any (ountry rea(hes the saturation point, that (ountry rea(ts against them ... 7he fa(t that the a(tual number of 2ews in .ngland, and even their proportion to the total population, was smaller than in other (ountries was irrelevant@ the determining fa(tor in this matter is not the solubility of the 2ews, but the solvent power of the (ountry ... this (annot be loo3ed upon as antiSemitism in the ordinary or vulgar sense of that word@ it is a universal so(ial and e(onomi( (on(omitant of 2ewish immigration, and we (annot sha3e it off ... though my views on immigration naturally were in sharp (onfli(t with his, we dis(ussed these problems in a Euite obCe(tive and even friendly way. *0or all his tal3 about sharp (onfli(t with .vans $ordon, there is no sign that Weizmann ever tried to mobilise the publi( against him. What did Weizmann say to him in their =friendly= dis(ussionF Beither (hose to tell us, but we (an legitimately surmise> as with the master Herzl, so with his dis(iple Weizmann. We (an reasonably (onCe(ture that the avowed devotee of pragmati( a((ommodation as3ed the antiSemite for his support of <ionism. Bever on(e, then or in the future, did Weizmann ever try to rally the 2ewish masses against antiSemitism. AT(4in< )1e &e67 (6(2 ,0+/ )1e Re;+5.)i+n(02 P(0)ie7A
Herzl had originally hoped to (onvin(e the Sultan of 7ur3ey to grant him 9alestine as an autonomous statelet in return for the World <ionist ?rganisation W<?- ta3ing up the 7ur3ish .mpire=s foreign debts. 1t soon be(ame Euite apparent that his hopes were unreal. Abdul Hamid 3new well enough that autonomy always led to independen(e, and he was determined to hold on to the rest of his empire. 7he W<? had no army, it (ould never seize the (ountry on its own. 1ts only (han(e lay in getting a .uropean power to pressure the Sultan on <ionism=s behalf. A <ionist (olony would then be under the power=s prote(tion and the <ionists would be its agents within the de(omposing ?ttoman realm. 0or the rest of his life Herzl wor3ed towards this goal, and he turned, first, to $ermany. ?f (ourse, the "aiser was far from a Bazi@ he never dreamt of 3illing 2ews, and he permitted them (omplete e(onomi( freedom, but nevertheless he froze them totally out of the offi(er (orps and foreign offi(e and there was severe dis(rimination throughout the (ivil servi(e. %y the end of the )+*4s "aiser Wilhelm be(ame seriously (on(erned about the ever growing so(ialist movement, and <ionism attra(ted him as he was (onvin(ed the 2ews were behind his enemies. He naively believed that =the So(ial :emo(rati( elements will stream into 9alestine=. )4- He gave Herzl an audien(e in !onstantinople on )* ?(tober )+*+. At this meeting the <ionist leader as3ed for his personal intervention with the Sultan and the formation of a (hartered (ompany under $erman prote(tion. A sphere of influen(e in 9alestine had attra(tions enough, but Herzl had grasped that he had another bait that he (ould dangle before potential rightwing patrons> =1 explained that we were ta3ing the 2ews away from the revolutionary parties.= ))1n spite of the "aiser=s deep interest in getting rid of the 2ews, nothing (ould be done through %erlin. His diplomats always 3new the Sultan would never agree to the s(heme. 1n addition, the $erman 0oreign Dinister was not as foolish as his master. He 3new $ermany=s 2ews would never voluntarily leave their homeland. Herzl loo3ed elsewhere, even turning to the tsarist regime for support. 1n /ussia <ionism had first been tolerated@ emigration was what was wanted. 0or a time Sergei <ubatov, (hief of the Dos(ow dete(tive bureau, had developed a strategy of se(retly dividing the 7sar=s opponents %e(ause of their double oppression, the 2ewish wor3ers had produ(ed /ussia=s first mass so(ialist organisation, the $eneral 2ewish Wor3ers 'eague, the Bund. <ubatov instru(ted his 2ewish agents to mobilise groups of the new Poale Zion Wor3ers of <ion- to oppose the revolutionaries. )A- <ionism is not a monolithi( movement, and almost from the beginning the W<? has been divided into offi(ially re(ognised fa(tions. 0or a list of the <ionist and 2ewish organisations found herein, see pp. ixxii.- %ut when elements within the <ionist ran3s responded to the pressures of the repressive regime and the rising dis(ontent, and began to (on(ern themselves about 2ewish rights in /ussia, the <ionist ban3 - the 2ewish !olonial 7rust - was banned. 7his brought Herzl to St 9etersburg for meetings with !ount Sergei Witte, the 0inan(e Dinister, and ;ya(heslav von 9levhe, the Dinister of the 1nterior. 1t was von 9levhe who had organised the first pogrom in twenty years, at "ishenev in %essarabia on .aster )*4,. 0ortyfive people died and over a thousand were inCured@ "ishenev produ(ed dread and rage among 2ews. Herzl=s parley with the murderous von 9levhe was opposed even by most <ionists. He went
to 9etersburg to get the !olonial 7rust reopened, to as3 that 2ewish taxes be used to subsidise emigration and for inter(ession with the 7ur3s. As a sweetener for his 2ewish (riti(s, he pleaded, not for the abolition of the 9ale of Settlement, the western provin(es where the 2ews were (onfined, but for its enlargement =to demonstrate (learly the humane (hara(ter of these steps=, he suggested. ),- =7his would,, he urged, =put an end to (ertain agitation.= )I- ;on 9levhe met him on + August and again on ), August. 7he events are 3nown from Herzl=s Diary. ;on 9levhe explained his (on(ern about the new dire(tion he saw <ionism ta3ing> 'ately the situation has grown even worse be(ause the 2ews have been Coining the revolutionary parties. We used to be sympatheti( to your <ionist movement, as long as it wor3ed toward emigration. 5ou do not have to Custify the movement to me. Vous prêchez a un con erti #5ou are prea(hing to a (onvert& . %ut ever sin(e the Dins3 (onferen(e we have noti(ed un changement des gros bonnets # a (hange of bigwigs& . 7here is less tal3 now of 9alestinian <ionism than there is about (ulture, organisation and 2ewish nationalism. 7his does not suit us. )8Herzl did get the !olonial 7rust reopened and a letter of endorsement for <ionism from von 9levhe, but the support was given solely on the proviso that the movement (onfine itself to emigration and avoid ta3ing up national rights inside /ussia. 1n return Herzl sent von 9levhe a (opy of a letter to 'ord /oths(hild suggesting that> =1t would substantially (ontribute to the further improvement of the situation if the pro2ewish papers stopped using su(h an odious tone toward /ussia. We ought to try to wor3 toward that end in the near future.= )6- Herzl then spo3e publi(ly, in /ussia, against attempts to organise so(ialist groupings within /ussian <ionism> 1n 9alestine ... our land, su(h a party would vitalise our politi(al life - and then 1 shall determine my own attitude toward it. 5ou do me an inCusti(e if you say that 1 am opposed to progressive so(ial ideas. %ut, now, in our present (ondition, it is too soon to deal with su(h matters. 7hey are extraneous. <ionism demands (omplete, not partial involvement. )J%a(3 in the West, Herzl went even further in his (ollaboration with tsarism. 7hat summer, during the World <ionist !ongress in %asle, he had a se(ret meeting with !haim <hitlovs3y, then a leading figure in the So(ial /evolutionary 9arty. World <ionist !ongresses are held every two years, in odd years@ the )*4, !ongress was the sixth.- 'ater <hitlovs3y wrote of this extraordinary (onversation. 7he <ionist told him that> 1 have Cust (ome from 9levhe. 1 have his positive, binding promise that in )8 years, at the maximum, he will effe(tuate for us a (harter for 9alestine. %ut this is tied to one (ondition> the 2ewish revolutionaries shall (ease their struggle against the /ussian government. 1f in )8 years from the time of the agreement 9levhe does not effe(tuate the (harter, they be(ome free again to do what they (onsider ne(essary. )+Baturally <hitlovs3y s(ornfully reCe(ted the proposition. 7he 2ewish revolutionaries were not about to (all off the struggle for elementary human rights in return for a vague promise of a <ionist state in the distant future. 7he /ussian naturally had a few (hoi(e words to say
about the founder of the W<?> #He& was, in general, too =loyal, to the ruling authorities - as is proper for a diplomat who has to deal with the powersthatbe - for him ever to be interested in revolutionists and involve them in his (al(ulations ... He made the Courney, of (ourse, not in order to inter(ede for the people of 1srael and to awa3en (ompassion for us in 9levhe=s heart. He traveled as a politi(ian who does not (on(ern himself with sentiments, but interests ... Herzl=s =politi(s= is built on pure diploma(y, whi(h seriously believes that the politi(al history of humanity is made by a few people, a few leaders, and that what they arrange among themselves be(omes the (ontent of politi(al history. )*Was there any Custifi(ation for Herzl=s meetings with von 9levheF 7here (an be only one opinion. .ven Weizmann was later to write that =the step was not only humiliating, but utterly pointless ... unreality (ould go no further=. A4- 7he 7sar had not the slightest influen(e with the 7ur3s, who saw him as their enemy. At the same time, in l*4,, Herzl a((epted an even more surreal proposition from %ritain for a <ionist (olony in the "enya Highlands as a substitute for 9alestine. /ussian <ionists began to obCe(t to these bizarre dis(ussions, and they threatened to leave the W<?, if =Gganda= was even (onsidered. Herzl had a vision of himself as a 2ewish !e(il /hodes@ it hardly mattered to him where his (olony was to be situated, but to most /ussian <ionists the movement was an extension of their bibli(al heritage and Afri(a meant nothing to them. A deranged /ussian <ionist tried to assassinate Herzl=s lieutenant, Dax Bordau, and only Herzl=s premature death prevented an internal (ollapse of the movement. However, dire(t (onta(ts with tsarism did not stop with Herzl. %y l*4+ the ran3s were willing to allow Herzl=s su((essor, :avid Wolffsohn, to meet the 9rime Dinister, 9iotr Stolypin, and 0oreign Dinister Alexandr 1zvols3y, over renewed harassment of the !olonial 7rust ban3. 1zvols3y Eui(3ly (ame to terms on the minimal reEuest and indeed had a friendly dis(ussion with the W<?=s leader> =1 might almost say that 1 made a <ionist of him,= wrote Wolffsohn triumphantly. A)- %ut, needless to say, Wolffsohn=s visit led to no (hanges in /ussia=s anti2ewish legislation. T1e Fi07) +05* (0
<ionism=s egregious diplomati( re(ord in the prewar period did not stop the W<? from trying to ta3e advantage of the deba(le of the 0irst World War. Dost <ionists were pro$erman out of aversion to tsarism as the most antiSemiti( of the (ontending for(es . 7he W<?=s headEuarters in %erlin tried to get $ermany and 7ur3ey to support <ionism in 9alestine as a propaganda ploy to rally world 2ewry to their side. ?thers saw that 7ur3ey was wea3 and (ertain to be dismembered in the war. 7hey argued that, if they ba(3ed the Allies, <ionism might be set up in 9alestine as a reward. 7o these, it hardly mattered that the 2ews of /ussia, that is the maCority of world 2ewry, stood to gain nothing by the vi(tory of their oppressor and his foreign allies. Weizmann, domi(iled in 'ondon, sought to win over the %ritish politi(ians. He had already made (onta(t with Arthur %alfour, who, as 9rime Dinister, had spo3en against 2ewish immigration, in )*48. Weizmann 3new the full extent of %alfour=s antisemitism, as he had unburdened himself of his philosophy to the
<ionist on & A :e(ember )*)I. 1n a private letter, Weizmann wrote> =He told me how he had on(e had a long tal3 with !osima Wagner at %ayreuth and that he shared many of her antiSemiti( postulates.= AAWhile Weizmann intrigued with the politi(ians in 'ondon, ;ladimir 2abotins3y had obtained tsarist support for a volunteer 2ewish 'egion to help %ritain ta3e 9alestine. 7here were thousands of young 2ews in %ritain, still /ussian (itizens, who were threatened with deportation to tsarist /ussia by Herbert Samuel, the 2ewish Home Se(retary, if they did not =volunteer= for the %ritish Army. 7hey were not intimidated@ they would fight neither for the 7sar nor his ally, and the government ba(3ed down. 7he legion idea was a way out for the embarrassed Allies. 7he 7ur3s helped ma3e the s(heme into a reality by expelling all /ussian 2ews from 9alestine as enemy aliens. 7hey were also unwilling to fight dire(tly for tsarism, but their <ionism led them to follow 2abotins3y=s (othin3er 5osef 7rumpeldor into a <ion Dule !orps with the %ritish at $allipoli. 'ater 2abotins3y proudly boasted of how the Dule !orps - and the aid of the antiSemites in 9etersburg - helped him to obtain his goal> it was that =don3ey battalion= from Alexandria, ridi(uled by all the wits in 1srael, whi(h opened before me the doors of the government offi(es of Whitehall. 7he Dinister of 0oreign Affairs in St 9etersburg wrote about it to !ount %en3endoff, the /ussian Ambassador in 'ondon@ the /ussian .mbassy forwarded reports on it to the %ritish 0oreign ?ffi(e@ the (hief !ounsellor of the .mbassy, the late !onstantine Babo3ov, who afterward su((eeded the Ambassador, arranged for the meetings with %ritish ministers. A,T1e B(5,+.0 De-5(0()i+n (n* )1e Fi<1) (<(in7) B+571e;i7/ 7he end of the war saw both 2ewry and <ionism in a totally new world. 7he W<?=s manoeuvres had finally paid off - for <ionism, but. not for 2ewry. 7he %alfour :e(laration was the pri(e that 'ondon was prepared to pay to have Ameri(an 2ewry use its influen(e to bring the Gnited States into the war, and to 3eep /ussian 2ewry loyal to the Allies. %ut although the de(laration gave <ionism the military and politi(al ba(3ing of the %ritish .mpire, it had not the slightest effe(t on the (ourse of events in the former 7sarist .mpire, the heartland of 2ewry. %olshevism, an ideology prin(ipally opposed to <ionism, had seized power in 9etersburg and was being (hallenged by White $uard tsarists and G3rainian, 9olish and %alti( for(es finan(ed by %ritain, the Gnited States, 0ran(e and 2apan. 7he (ounterrevolution (onsisted of many elements whi(h had a long tradition of antiSemitism and pogroms. 7his (ontinued, and even developed further, during the (ivil war and at least 64,444 2ews were 3illed by the anti%olshevi3 for(es. Although the %alfour :e(laration gave <ionism the lu3ewarm support of the ba(3ers of the White $uardist pogromists, it did nothing to (urb the pogroms. 7he de(laration was, at best, a vague pledge to allow the W<? to try to build a national home in 9alestine. 7he (ontent of that (ommitment was as yet (ompletely undefined. 7he W<?=s leaders understood that the %ritish government saw the (rushing of the %olshevi3s as its top priority, and that they had to be on their best behaviour, not merely in terms of insignifi(ant 9alestine, but in their a(tivities in the volatile .ast .uropean arena.
Western historians (all the %olshevi3 revolution the /ussian /evolution, but the %olshevi3s themselves regarded it as triggering a worldwide revolt. So also did the (apitalists of %ritain, 0ran(e and Ameri(a, who saw the !ommunist su((ess galvanising the left wing of their own wor3ing (lasses. 'i3e all so(ial orders that (annot admit the fa(t that the masses have Custifi(ation to revolt, they sought to explain the upheavals, to themselves as well as the people, in terms of a (onspira(y - of the 2ews. ?n + 0ebruary )*A4, Winston !hur(hill, then the Se(retary for War, told readers of the !llustrated Sunday "erald about =7rots3y ... #and& ... his s(hemes of a worldwide (ommunisti( state under 2ewish domination=. However, !hur(hill had his (hosen 2ewish opponents of %olshevism - the <ionists. He wrote hotly of =the fury with whi(h 7rots3y has atta(3ed the <ionists generally, and :r Weizmann in parti(ular,. =7rots3y,= !hur(hill de(lared, was =dire(tly thwarted and hindered by this new ideal ... 7he struggle whi(h is now beginning between the <ionist and %olshevi3 2ews is little less than a struggle for the soul of the 2ewish people.= AI7he %ritish strategy of using both antiSemites and <ionists against =7rots3y= rested ultimately on <ionism=s willingness to (ooperate with %ritain in spite of the %ritish involvement with the White /ussian pogromists 7he W<? did not want pogroms in .astern .urope, but it did nothing to mobilise world 2ewry on behalf of the 2ews beleaguered there. Weizmann=s statements at the time, as well as his memoirs, tell us how they saw the situation. He appeared at the ;ersailles !onferen(e on A, 0ebruary )*)*. ?n(e again he enun(iated the traditional line on 2ewry shared by both antiSemites and <ionists. 1t was not the 2ews who really had problems, it was the 2ews who were the problem> 2ewry and 2udaism were in a frightfully wea3ened (ondition, presenting, to themselves and to the nations, a problem very diffi(ult of solution. 7here was, 1 said, no hope at all of su(h a solution - sin(e the 2ewish problem revolved fundamentally round the homelessness of the 2ewish people - without the (reation of a Bational Home. A87he 2ews, of (ourse, presented no real problem - neither to the nations nor to =themselves= but Weizmann had a solution to the nonexistent =problem=. ?n(e again <ionism offered itself to the assembled (apitalist powers as an antirevolutionary movement. <ionism would =transform 2ewish energy into a (onstru(tive for(e instead of its being dissipated in destru(tive tenden(ies=. A6- .ven in his later years Weizmann (ould still only see the 2ewish tragedy during the /ussian /evolution through the <ionist end of the teles(ope> %etween the %alfour :e(laration and the a((ession of the %olshevi3s to power, /ussian 2ewry had subs(ribed the then enormous sum of ,4 million rubles for an agri(ultural ban3 in 9alestine@ but this, with mu(h else, had now to be written off ... 9olish 2ewry ... was still suffering so mu(h in the separate /usso9olish War, that it was in(apable of ma3ing any appre(iable (ontribution to the tas3s whi(h lay ahead of us. AJWeizmann saw <ionism as wea3 in all respe(ts with only a toehold in 9alestine. .astern .urope was =a tragedy whi(h the <ionist movement was at the moment powerless to
relieve=. A+- ?thers were not so torpid. 7he %ritish trade unions organised an embargo of arms shipments to the Whites. 0ren(h !ommunists staged a mutiny in the 0ren(h %la(3 Sea fleet. And, of (ourse, it was the /ed Army that tried to prote(t the 2ews against their White murderers. %ut the W<? never Gsed its influen(e, either in the Anglo2ewish (ommunity or in the seats of power, to ba(3 up the militant unionists. Weizmann (ompletely shared the anti!ommunist mentality of his %ritish patrons. He never (hanged his opinion on the period. .ven in Trial and Error, he still sounded li3e a high 7ory writing of =a time when the horrors of the %olshevi3 revolution were fresh in everyone=s mind= my emphasis-. A*T1e Min+0i)2 T0e()ie7 () )1e 'e07(i55e7 Pe(-e C+n,e0en-e /ussia was out of (ontrol, but the Allies and their lo(al (lients still dominated the rest of .astern .urope@ now that the W<? had been (onverted by the %alfour :e(laration into an offi(ial ;oi(e of 1srael, it (ould no longer remain ta(iturn about the fate of the huge 2ewish (ommunities there. 1t had to a(t as their spo3esman. What it wanted was for the 2ews to be re(ognised as a nation with autonomy for its separate s(hools and language institutions, as well as for the 2ewish sabbath to be re(ognised as their day of rest. Sin(e relian(e on imperialism was the ba(3bone of <ionist strategy, the #omite des Delegations Jui es essentially the W<? in tandem with the Ameri(an 2ewish !ommittee - presented a memorandum on national autonomy to the ;ersailles !onferen(e. All the new su((essor states to the fallen empires, but neither $ermany nor /ussia, were to be (ompelled to sign minorityrights treaties as a pre(ondition of diplomati( re(ognition. At first the idea was ta3en up by the Allies, who realised that minority rights were essential if the tangled national (hauvinists of .astern .urope were not to tear ea(h other to pie(es and pave the way for a %olshevi3 ta3eover. ?ne by one the 9oles, the Hungarians and the /omanians signed, but their signatures were meaningless. 7he rapidly growing !hristian middle (lasses in these (ountries saw the 2ews as their entren(hed (ompetitors and were determined to dislodge them. 7he 9ole who signed their treaty was the (ountry=s most notorious antiSemite, the Hungarians de(lared their treaty day a day of national mourning and the /omanians refused to sign until the (lauses guaranteeing sabbath rights and 2ewish s(hools were deleted from their treaty. 7here never was the slightest (han(e of su((ess for the utopian plan. %alfour soon realised what problems the treaties would (reate for the Allies in .astern .urope. ?n AA ?(tober, he told the 'eague of Bations that the a((using states would be assuming a than3less duty if they attempted to enfor(e the treaty obligations. He then argued that sin(e the treaties pre(eded the 'eague, it should not obligate itself to enfor(e them. ,4- 7he assembled lawyers then a((epted legal responsibility for the treaties, but provided no enfor(ement ma(hinery. 2ews (ould not be bothered to use the meaningless treaties. ?nly three (olle(tive petitions were ever sent in. 1n the )*A4s Hungary was found to have a numerus clausus in its universities. 1n )*,, the still wea3 Hitler felt (ompelled to honour the $erman9olish Dinority !onvention, whi(h was the only su(h treaty appli(able to $ermany, and )4,444 2ews in Gpper Silesia retained all (ivil rights until treaty term in 2uly )*,J. ,)- /omania
was found guilty of revo3ing 2ewish (itizen rights in )*,J. Su(h petty legalisti( vi(tories (hanged nothing in the long run. 7he only way the 2ews (ould have had any su((ess in fighting for their rights in .astern .urope was in allian(e with the wor3ing(lass movements whi(h, in all these (ountries, saw antiSemitism for what it was> an ideologi(al razor in the hands of their own (apitalist enemies. %ut although so(ial revolution meant eEuality for the 2ews as 2ews, it also meant the expropriation of the 2ewish middle (lass as (apitalists. 7hat was una((eptable to the lo(al affiliates of the W<?, who were largely middle (lass in (omposition with virtually no wor3ing(lass following. 7he world <ionist movement, always (on(erned for %ritish ruling(lass opinion, never pushed its lo(al groupings in the dire(tion of the left, although the radi(als were the only mass for(e on the ground that was prepared to defend the 2ews. 1nstead, the W<? leaders (on(luded that they la(3ed the strength to struggle simultaneously for 2ewish rights in the :iaspora and build the new <ion= and by the )*A4s they abandoned all preten(e of a(tion on behalf of :iaspora 2ewry in situ, leaving their lo(al affiliates - and the 2ewish (ommunities in these (ountries - to fend for themselves. T1e Zi+ni7) A55i(n-e 6i)1 An)iSe/i)i7/ in E(7)e0n E.0+8e Dost of the 2ews in .astern .urope did not see the %olshevi3s as the ogres that !hur(hill and Weizmann believed them to be. Gnder 'enin the %olshevi3s not only gave the 2ews (omplete eEuality, but they even set up s(hools and, ultimately, (ourts in 5iddish@ however, they were absolutely opposed to <ionism and all ideologi(al nationalism. 7he %olshevi3s taught that the revolution reEuired the unity of the wor3ers of all nations against the (apitalists. 7he nationalists separated =their= wor3ers from their (lass fellows. %olshevism spe(ifi(ally opposed <ionism as pro%ritish and as fundamentally antiArab. 7he lo(al <ionist leadership was therefore for(ed to turn to the nationalists as possible allies. 1n the G3raine that meant Simon 9etliura=s $ada !oun(il-, whi(h, li3e the <ionists, re(ruited on stri(tly ethni( lines> no /ussians, no 9oles and no 2ews. Ukrainia 7he $ada was based on village s(hooltea(hers and other language enthusiasts, steeped in the =glorious= history of the G3raine - that is %ogdan <inovy !hmielni(3i=s seventeenth(entury !ossa(3 revolt against 9oland, during whi(h the enraged peasantry massa(red )44,444 2ews whom they saw as middlemen wor3ing for the 9olish Pans nobles-. Bationalist ideology reinfor(ed the =!hrist3iller= venom whi(h was poured into the illiterate rural masses by the old regime. antiSemiti( outbrea3s were inevitable in su(h an ideologi(al (limate, but the <ionists were ta3en in by promises of national autonomy, and rushed into the /ada. 1n 2anuary )*)* Abraham /evus3y of the 9oale <ion too3 offi(e as 9etliura=s Dinister for 2ewish Affairs. ,A- Deir $rossmann of the G3rainian <ionist .xe(utive went abroad to rally 2ewish support for the anti%olshevi3 regime. ,,7he inevitable pogroms started with the first G3rainian defeat at the hands of the /ed Army in 2anuary )*)*, and /evus3y was (ompelled to resign within a month when 9etliura did nothing to stop the atro(ities. 1n many respe(ts the 9etliura episode destroyed the mass
base of <ionism amongst Soviet 2ews. !hur(hill lost his gamble> 7rots3y, not Weizmann and not /evus3y, was to win the soul of the 2ewish masses. Lithuania 'ithuanian <ionist involvement with the antiSemites was li3ewise a failure, although, fortunately, 'ithuania did not generate signifi(ant pogroms. 7he nationalists there were in an extremely wea3 position. Bot only did they fa(e a threat from !ommunism, they also had to struggle against 9oland in a dispute over the territory around ;ilna. 7hey felt (ompelled to wor3 with the <ionists, as they needed the support of the (onsiderable 2ewish minority in ;ilna, and they also overestimated <ionist influen(e with the Allied powers whose diplomati( assent was a reEuirement if they were ever to gain the (ity. 1n :e(ember )*)+ three <ionists entered the provisional government o f An tan as Smetona and Augustinas ;oldemaras. 2a(ob Wigods3i be(ame Dinister for 2ewish Affairs, B. /a(hmilovit(h be(ame ;i(eDinister for 7rade and Shimshon /osenbaum was appointed ;i(eDinister for 0oreign Affairs. 7he bait again was autonomy. 2ews would be given proportional representation in government, full rights for 5iddish, and a 2ewish Bational !oun(il would be given the right of (ompulsory taxation of all 2ews for religious and (ultural affairs. Bonpayment of tax would only be allowed for (onverts. Dax Soloveit(hi3, who su((eeded Wigods3i at the 2ewish Dinistry, enthused that ='ithuania is the (reative sour(e of the future forms of 2ewish living=. ,I%y April )*AA the 'ithuanian government felt it (ould begin to move against the 2ews. 7he ;ilna !orridor was definitely lost to 9oland and the 9olish Army stood between !ommunism and the 'ithuanian border. Smetona=s first move was to refuse to guarantee the institutions of autonomy in the (onstitution. Soloveit(hi3 resigned in protest, and went to Coin the W<? .xe(utive in 'ondon. 7he lo(al <ionists tried to deal with the problem by forming an ele(toral blo( with the 9olish, $erman and /ussian minorities. 7his little extra mus(le made the government slow its pa(e, and /osenbaum was given the 2ewish Dinistry by .rnestas $alvanaus3as, the new 9rime Dinister. %y )*A, the onslaught began again with parliamentary spee(hes in 5iddish being forbidden. %y 2une )*AI the 2ewish Dinistry was abolished@ by 2uly 5iddish store signs were outlawed@ in September the poli(e s(attered the Bational !oun(il, and /osenbaum and /a(hmilovit(h moved to 9alestine. %y )*A6 Smetona had set up a semi0as(ist regime whi(h lasted until the Se(ond World War ta3eover by Stalin. 1n later days ;oldemaras and $alvanaus3as openly assumed the role of Bazi agents in 'ithuanian politi(s. Zi+ni7) A--+//+*()i+n 6i)1 An)iSe/i)i7/ 7he essentials of <ionist do(trine on antiSemitism were laid down well before the Holo(aust> antiSemitism was inevitable and (ould not be fought@ the solution was the emigration of unwanted 2ews to a 2ewish stateinthema3ing. 7he inability of the <ionist movement to ta3e 9alestine militarily (ompelled it to loo3 for imperial patronage, whi(h it expe(ted to be motivated by antiSemitism to some degree. <ionists additionally saw
revolutionary Darxism as an assimilationist enemy whi(h persuaded them to ally against it with their fellow separatists of the antiSemiti( rightwing nationalist movements in .astern .urope. Herzl and his su((essors were proven (orre(t. 1t was an antiSemite, %alfour, who enabled <ionism to entren(h itself in 9alestine. Although 1srael was ultimately established through armed revolt against %ritain, if it had not been for the presen(e of the %ritish Army during the early years of the Dandate, the 9alestinians would not have had the slightest problem pushing <ionism out. %ut we are vi(tims here of a sleightofhand tri(3. %alfour did give <ionism its toehold in 9alestine, but did the %ritish Dandate prote(t the 2ews against their enemies in .uropeF AntiSemitism (ould always be fought. 1t was not only fought, it was defeated in 0ran(e, /ussia and the G3raine without any help from the World <ionist ?rganisation. Had the people of those (ountries followed the di(tates of the <ionists, the antiSemites would never have been defeated. 7he poli(ies of the early W<? were (ontinued, in all essentials, by !haim Weizmann, the main leader of the organisation during the Hitler epo(h. 7hose elements in the W<? who wanted to ma3e a stand against Bazism in the )*,4s always found their main internal enemy in the 9resident of their own movement. Bahum $oldmann, himself to be(ome a postHolo(aust 9resident of the W<?, later des(ribed in a spee(h the fier(e arguments on the subCe(t between Weizmann and rabbi Stephen Wise, a leading figure in Ameri(an <ionism> 1 remember very violent dis(ussions between him and Weizmann, who was a very great leader in his own right, but who reCe(ted every interest in other things. He did ta3e an interest in saving $erman 2ews in the period of the first years of Bazism but World 2ewish !ongress, fight for 2ewish rights, not that he denied their need, but he (ould not spare the time from his <ionist wor3. Stephen Wise argued with him =but it is part and par(el of the same problem. 1f you lose the 2ewish :iaspora you will not have a 9alestine and you (an only deal with the totality of 2ewish life. ,8Su(h was <ionism, and su(h its leading figure, when Adolf Hitler strode on to the stage of history.
). Darvin 'owenthal ed.-, The Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, p. 6. A. :esmond Stewart, Theodor "erzl& p. )I). ,. 'udwig 'ewisohn ed.-, Theodor "erzl' ( Portrait, pp. A*,I. I. !bid), pp. A)*A4.
8. /aphael 9atai ed.-, The #omplete Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, vol. 11, pp. 6JA,. 6. 'owenthal, Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, p. J). J. !bid), p. )44. +. !bid), p. ,66. *. !haim Weizmann, Trial and Error, pp. *4). )4. :avid 5israeli, =$ermany and <ionism== *ermany and the +iddle East& ,-./,0.0 7el Aviv Gniversity, )*J8-, p. )IA. )). 9atai, #omplete Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, vol. 111, p. JA*. )A. $eorge $apon, The Story o% +y 1i%e, p. *I. ),. 9atai, #omplete Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, vol. 1;, p. )8 A). )I. !bid. )8. !bid), p. )8A8. )6. !bid), p. )8,+. )J. Amos .lon, "erzl, pp. ,+)A. )+. Samuel 9ortnoy ed.-, Vladimir +edem The 1i%e and Soul o% a 1egendary Jewish Socialist, pp. A*8+. )*. !bid. A4. Weizmann, Trial and Error, p. +A. A). .mil !ohen, Da id 2ol%%sohn, p. )*6. AA. Deyer Weisgal ed.-, The 1etters and Papers o% #haim 2eizmann& 1etters, vol. ;11 p. +). After the Holo(aust Weizmann (ould not reveal the antiSemitism of <ionism=s great patron. He (hanged the re(ord in 7rial and .rror> =Dr %alfour mentioned that, two years before, he had been in %ayreuth, and that he had tal3ed with 0rau !osima Wagner, the widow of the (omposer, who had raised the subCe(t of the 2ews. 1 interrupted Dr %alfour ...= p. )8,-. A,. ;ladimir 2abotins3y, The Story o% the Jewish 1egion, p. JI. AI. Winston !hur(hill, =<ionism versus %olshevism=, !llustrated Sunday "erald +
0ebruary )*A4-, p. 8. A8 Weizmann, Trial and Error, p. AI,. A6 'eonard Stein, The Bal%our Declaration, p. ,I+. AJ. Weizmann, Trial and Error, pp. AI4). A+. !bid), p. AIA. A*. !bid., p. A)+. ,4. 2a(ob /obinson et al., 2ere the +inority Treaties a 3ailure4, pp. J*+4. ,). 2a(ob /obinson, (nd the #roo5ed shall be made Straight, p. JA. ,A. =Abraham /evus3y=, Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. )I, (ol. ),I. ,,. =Deir $rossmann=, Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. J, (ol. *,+. ,I. Samuel $ringauz, =2ewish Bational Autonomy in 'ithuania )*)+)*A8-=, Jewish Social Studies 2uly )*8A-, p. A,J. ,8. Bahum $oldmann, =:r Stephen S. Wise=, ( *ala6y o% (merican Zionist $ishonim, pp. )J)+. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER 2 BLUT UND BODEN (BLOOD AND SOIL) : THE ROOTS OF ZIONIST RACISM 1t was antiSemitism - alone - that generated <ionism. Herzl (ould not ground his movement in anything positively 2ewish. Although he sought the support of the rabbis, he personally was not devout. He had no spe(ial (on(ern for 9alestine, the an(ient homeland @ he was Euite eager to a((ept the "enya Highlands, at least on a temporary basis. He had no interest in Hebrew @ he saw his 2ewish state as a linguisti( Switzerland. He had to thin3 of ra(e, for it was in the air @ the 7eutoni( antiSemites were tal3ing of the 2ews as a ra(e, but he soon dis(arded the do(trine, and gave a paradoxi(al dis(ussion with 1srael <angwill, one of his earliest adherents, as the instan(e for his reCe(tion. He portrayed the Anglo2ewish writer as > of the longnosed Begro type, with wooly deepbla(3 hair... He maintains, however, the ra(ial point of view - something 1 (an=t a((ept, for 1 have merely to loo3 at him and at myself. All 1 say is > we are an histori(al unit, one nation with anthropologi(al diversities. )Gn(on(erned with religion, he even proposed that an atheist, the then worldfamous author, Dax Bordau, should su((eed him as the W<?=s 9resident. Again, the dis(iple was less
liberal than the master. Bordau was married to a !hristian, and was afraid that his wife would be resented by the ?rthodox among the ran3s. A- He was already married when he (onverted to <ionism and, despite his own $entile wife, he soon be(ame a (onfirmed 2ewish ra(ist. ?n A) :e(ember )*4, he gave an interview to .duard :rumont=s rabid antiSemiti( newspaper, 1a 1ibre Parole, in whi(h he said that <ionism wasn=t a Euestion of religion, but ex(lusively of ra(e, and there is no one with whom 1 am in greater agreement on this point than D. :rumont=. ,Although only one national bran(h of the W<? the :ut(h 0ederation in )*),- ever went to the trouble of trying formally to ex(lude 2ews living in mixed marriages, (osmopolitan <ionism died an early death with Herzl in )*4I.I 7he W<? as su(h never had to ta3e a position against mixed marriage @ those who believed in it rarely thought to Coin the obviously unsympatheti( <ionists. 7he movement in .astern .urope, its mass base, shared the spontaneous fol3religious preCudi(es of the ?rthodox (ommunities around them. Although the an(ient 2ews had seen proselytising and marriages to $entiles as adding to their strength, latter pressure from the !atholi( !hur(h (aused the rabbis to begin to see (onverts as a =troublesome it(h= and they abandoned proselytising. With the (enturies, selfsegregation be(ame the hallmar3 of the 2ews. 1n time the masses (ame to see mixed marriage as treason to ?rthodoxy. Although in the West some 2ews modified the religion and formed =/eform= se(ts and others abandoned the $od of their forefathers, the traffi( was essentially away from 2udaism. 0ew Coined the 2ewish world either by (onversion or marriage. 1f Western <ionism developed in a more se(ular atmosphere than that of .astern .urope, the bul3 of its members still saw mixed marriage as leading 2ews away from the (ommunity rather than bringing new additions to it. 7he $erman university graduates, who too3 over the <ionist movement after Herzl=s death, developed the modernistra(ist ideology of 2ewish separatism. 7hey had been powerfully influen(ed by their pan$ermani( fellow students of the 2ander ogel wandering birds or free spirits- who dominated the $erman (ampuses before )*)I. 7hese (hauvinists reCe(ted the 2ews as not being of $ermani( Blut @ therefore they (ould never be part of the $erman vol3 and were thoroughly alien to the 7eutoni( Boden or soil. All 2ewish students were (ompelled to grapple with these (on(epts whi(h surrounded them. A few moved left and Coined the So(ial :emo(rats. 7o them this was Cust more bourgeois nationalism and was to be fought as su(h. Dost remained (onventionally 7aisertreu, stout nationalists who insisted that a thousand years on the $erman boden had made them into =$ermans of the Dosai( persuasion=. %ut a portion of the 2ewish students adopted the wandervogel ideology whole and simply translated it into <ionist terminology. 7hey agreed with the antiSemites on several 3ey points > the 2ews were not part of the $erman vol3 and, of (ourse, 2ews and $ermans should not mix sexually, not for the traditional religious reasons, but for the sa3e of their own uniEue blut. Bot being of 7eutoni( Blut, they perfor(e had to have their own Boden > 9alestine. At first glan(e it would appear strange that middle(lass 2ewish students should be so influen(ed by antiSemiti( thought, espe(ially as at the same time, so(ialism, with its assimilationist attitudes towards the 2ews, was gaining (onsiderable support in the so(iety around them. However, so(ialism appealed primarily to the wor3ers, not to the middle
(lass. 1n their environment (hauvinism predominated @ although intelle(tually they repudiated their (onne(tion with the $erman people, in fa(t they never eman(ipated themselves from the $erman (apitalist (lass, and throughout the 0irst World War the $erman <ionists passionately supported their own government. 0or all their grandiose intelle(tual pretensions, their oel5isch <ionism was simply an imitation of $erman nationalist ideology. 7hus the young philosopher Dartin %uber was able to (ombine <ionism with ardent $erman patriotism during the 0irst World War. 1n his boo3 Drei $eden ueber das Judentum, published in )*)), %uber spo3e of a youth who > senses in this immortality of the generations a (ommunity of blood, whi(h he feels to be the ante(edents of his 1, its perseveran(e in the infinite past. 7o that is added the dis(overy, promoted by this awareness, that blood is a deep rooted nurturing for(e within individual man @ that the deepest layers of our being are determined by blood @ that our innermost thin3ing and our will are (olored by it. Bow he finds that the world around him is the world of imprints and influen(es, whereas blood is the realm of a substan(e (apable of being imprinted and influen(ed, a substan(e absorbing and assimilating all into its own form Whoever, fa(ed with the (hoi(e between environment and substan(e, de(ides for substan(e will hen(eforth have to be a 2ew truly from within, to live as a 2ew with all the (ontradi(tion, all the tragedy, and all the future promise of his blood. 87he 2ews had been in .urope for millenniums, far longer than, say, the Dagyars. Bo one would dream of referring to the Hungarians as Asiati(s, yet, to %uber, the 2ews of .urope were still Asians and presumably always would be. 5ou (ould get the 2ew out of 9alestine, but you (ould never get 9alestine out of the 2ew. 1n )*)6 he wrote that the 2ew > was driven out of his land and dispersed throughout the lands of the ?((ident yet, despite all this, he has remained an ?riental ?ne (an dete(t all this in the most assimilated 2ew, if one 3nows how to gain a((ess to his soul... the immortal 2ewish unitary drive - this will (ome into being only after the (ontinuity of life in 9alestine... ?n(e it (omes into (onta(t with its maternal soil, it will on(e more be(ome (reative. 6However, %uber=s oel5isch <ionism, with its assorted strands of mysti(al enthusiasm, was too spiritual to appeal to a wide following. What was needed was a popular <ionist version of the so(ial:arwinism whi(h had swept the bourgeois intelle(tual world in the wa3e of .urope=s imperial (onEuests in Afri(a and the .ast. 7he <ionist version of this notion was developed by the Austrian anthropologist 1gnatz <olls(han. 7o him the se(ret value of 2udaism was that it had, albeit inadvertently, wor3ed to produ(e a wonder of wonders > a nation of pure blood, not tainted by diseases of ex(ess or immorality, of a highly developed sense of family purity, and of deeply rooted virtuous habits would develop an ex(eptional intelle(tual a(tivity. 0urthermore, the prohibition against mixed marriage provided that these highest ethni(al treasures should not be lost, through the admixture of less (arefully bred ra(es... there resulted that natural sele(tion whi(h has no parallel in the history of the human ra(e... 1f a ra(e that is so highly gifted were to have the opportunity of again developing its original power, nothing (ould eEual it as far as (ultural value is (on(erned. J-
.ven Albert .instein subs(ribed to the <ionist ra(e (on(eptions and in so doing he reinfor(ed ra(ism, lending it the prestige of his reputation. His own (ontributions to the dis(ussion sound suitably profound, but they are based on the same nonsense. Bations with a ra(ial differen(e appear to have instin(ts whi(h wor3 against their fusion. 7he assimilation of the 2ews to the .uropean nations... (ould not eradi(ate the feeling of la(3 of 3inship between them and those among whom they lived. 1n the last resort, the instin(tive feeling of la(3 of 3inship is referable to the law of the (onservation of energy. 0or this reason it (annot be eradi(ated by any amount of well meant pressure. +%uber, <olls(han and .instein were but three among the (lassi( <ionists who pontifi(ated learnedly on ra(e purity. %ut for sheer fanati(ism few (ould mat(h the Ameri(an Dauri(e Samuel. A well3nown writer in his day - later, in the )*I4s, he was to wor3 with Weizmann on the latter=s autobiography - Samuel addressed the Ameri(an publi( in )*AJ in his !& the Jew. He denoun(ed with horror a town whi(h he readily (on(eded that he only 3new by repute - and that the eviden(e would ma3e us thin3 was the freeliving artists= (olony at 7aos, Bew Dexi(o > there (ame together into this small pla(e, representatives of the Afri(an Begro, the Ameri(an and !hinese Dongol, the Semite and the Aryan... free intermarriage had set in... Why does this pi(ture, part a(tual, part fan(iful, fill me with a strange loathing, suggest the obs(ene, the obs(urely beastly F... Why then does that village whi(h my fan(y (onCures up (all to mind a heap of reptiles breeding uglily in a bu(3et F *ET+ 3e ( G++* Zi+ni7) +ne /.7) 3e S+/e61() +, (n An)iSe/i)eE Although Blut was a re(urrent theme in preHolo(aust <ionist literature, it was not as (entral to its message as Boden. As long as Ameri(a, s shores remained open, .urope=s 2ews as3ed > if antiSemitism (ould not be fought on its home ground, why should they not Cust follow the (rowd to Ameri(a F 7he <ionist response was doublebarrelled > antiSemitism would a((ompany the 2ews wherever they went and, what was more, it was the 2ews who had (reated antiSemitism by their own (hara(teristi(s. 7he root (ause of antiSemitism, <ionists insisted, was the 2ews= exile existen(e. 2ews lived parasiti(ally off their =hosts=. 7here were virtually no 2ewish peasants in the :iaspora. 7he 2ews lived in (ities, they were alienated from manual labour or, more bluntly, they shunned it and preo((upied themselves with intelle(tual or (ommer(ial (on(erns. At best, their (laims of patriotism were hollow as they wandered eternally from (ountry to (ountry. And when they fan(ied themselves as so(ialists and internationalists, in reality they were still no more than the middlemen of the revolution, fighting =other people=s battles=. 7hese tenets (ombined were 3nown as shelilat ha8galut the Begation of the :iaspora-, and were held by the entire spe(trum of <ionists who varied only on matters of detail. 7hey were argued vigorously in the <ionist press, where the distin(tive Euality of many arti(les was their hostility to the entire 2ewish people. Anyone reading these pie(es without 3nowing their sour(e would have automati(ally assumed that they (ame from the antiSemiti( press. 7he 2eltanschauung of the youth organisation "ashomer "atzair 5oung Wat(hmen-, originally (omposed in )*)J, but republished again as late as )*,6, was typi(al of these
effusions > 7he 2ew is a (ari(ature of a normal, natural human being, both physi(ally and spiritually. As an individual in so(iety he revolts and throws off the harness of so(ial obligations, 3nows no order nor dis(ipline. )4Similarly, in )*,8 an Ameri(an, %en 0rommer, a writer for the ultraright <ionist/evisionists, (ould de(lare of no less than )6 million of his fellow 2ews that > 7he fa(t is undeniable that the 2ews (olle(tively are unhealthy and neuroti(. 7hose professional 2ews who, wounded to the Eui(3, indignantly deny this truth are the greatest enemies of their ra(e, for they thereby lead them to sear(h for false solutions, or at most palliatives. ))7his style of 2ewish selfhatred permeated a great deal of <ionist writing. 1n )*,I 5ehez3el "aufman, then famous as a s(holar of bibli(al history at 2erusalem=s Hebrew Gniversity and himself a <ionist, though an opponent of the bizarre theory of the Begation of the :iaspora, aroused furious (ontroversy by (ulling the Hebrew literature for yet worse examples. 1n Hebrew the ranters (ould really atta(3 their fellow 2ews without fear of being a((used of providing ammunition for the 2ewhaters. "aufman=s "urban "ane%esh Holo(aust of the Soul- (ited three of the (lassi( <ionist thin3ers. 0or Di(ah 5osef %erdi(hevs3y the 2ews were =not a nation, not a people, not human=. 7o 5osef !haim %renner they were nothing more than =$ypsies, filthy dogs, inhuman, wounded, dogs=. 7o A.:. $ordon his people were no better than =parasites, people fundamentally useless.= )ABaturally Dauri(e Samuel had to apply his fine hand to (on(o(ting libels against his fellow 2ews. 1n )*AI, in his wor3 9ou *entiles, he fabri(ated a 2ewry driven by its own sinister demiurge to oppose the !hristian so(ial order > We 2ews, we the destroyers, will remain the destroyers forever. B?7H1B$ that you will do will meet our needs and demands. We will forever destroy be(ause we need a world of our own, a $odworld, whi(h is not your nature to build... those of us who fail to understand that truth will always be found in allian(e with your rebellious fa(tions, until disillusionment (omes, the wret(hed fate whi(h s(attered us through your midst has thrust this unwel(ome role upon us. ),'abour <ionism produ(ed its own uniEue brand of 2ewish selfhatred. 1n spite of its name and pretensions, 'abour <ionism was never able to win over any signifi(ant se(tion of the 2ewish wor3ing (lass in any (ountry (f the :iaspora. 1ts members had a selfdefeating argument > they (laimed that the 2ewish wor3ers were in =marginal= industries, su(h as the needle trades, whi(h were unessential to the e(onomy of the =host=, nations, and therefore the 2ewish wor3ers would always be marginal to the wor3ing(lass movement in the (ountries of their abode. 2ewish wor3ers, it was (laimed, (ould only wage a =healthy= (lass struggle in their own land. Baturally poor 2ews showed little interest in a so(alled labour movement that did not tell them to put their all into fighting in the immediate present for better (onditions, but rather to (on(ern themselves about faroff 9alestine. 9aradoxi(ally, 'abour <ionism=s primary appeal was to those young middle(lass 2ews who sought to brea3 with their (lass origins, but were not prepared to go over to the wor3ers of the
(ountry of their habitation. 'abour <ionism be(ame a 3ind of (ounter(ulture se(t, denoun(ing 2ewish Darxists for their internationalism, and the 2ewish middle (lass as parasiti( exploiters of the =host=, nations. 1n effe(t they translated traditional antiSemitism into 5iddish > the 2ews were in the wrong (ountries in the wrong o((upations and had the wrong politi(s. 1t too3 the Holo(aust to bring these 2eremiahs to their senses. ?nly then did they appre(iate the (ommon voi(e in their own message and the Bazis= anti2ewish propaganda. 1n Dar(h )*IA !haim $reenberg, then the editor of Bew 5or3=s 'abour <ionist organ, Jewish 3rontier, painfully admitted that, indeed, there had been > a time when it used to be fashionable for <ionist spea3ers in(luding the writer- to de(lare from the platform that =7o be a good <ionist one must be somewhat of an antiSemite=. 7o this day 'abor <ionist (ir(les are under the influen(e of the idea that the /eturn to <ion involved a pro(ess of purifi(ation from our e(onomi( un(leanliness. Whosoever doesn=t engage in so(alled =produ(tive= manual labor is believed to be a sinner against 1srael and against man3ind. )IAG0i7) )+ )1e Mi557 +, N(=i P0+8(<(n*(A 1f, without further fa(ts, anyone were told that the early <ionists were ra(ists, it would be automati( to assume this to be a part of the (olonialist aspe(ts of <ionism in 9alestine. 1n reality this is not so @ Blut <ionism would have evolved even if 9alestine were to have been (ompletely empty. .nthusiasm for Blut und Boden were part of <ionism before the first modern <ionist ever left .urope. /a(e <ionism was a (urious offshoot of ra(ial antiSemitism. 7rue, these <ionists argued, the 2ews were a pure ra(e, (ertainly purer than, say, the $ermans who, as even the pan$ermani(s (on(eded, had a huge admixture of Slavi( blood. %ut to these <ionists, even their ra(ial purity (ould not over(ome the one flaw in 2ewish existen(e > they did not have their own 2ewish Boden. 1f the 7eutoni( ra(ists (ould see themselves as uebermenschen supermen-, these Hebrew ra(ists did not see the 2ews in that light @ rather, it was the reverse. 7hey believed that be(ause they la(3ed their own boden the 2ews were untermens(hen and therefore, for their =hosts=, little more than lee(hes > the world pest. 1f one believes in the validity of ra(ial ex(lusiveness, it is diffi(ult to obCe(t to anyone else=s ra(ism. 1f one believes further that it is impossible for any people to be healthy ex(ept in their own homeland, then one (annot obCe(t to anyone else ex(luding =aliens= from their territory. 1n fa(t the average <ionist never thought of himself as leaving (ivilised .urope for the wilds of 9alestine. 1n life it is obvious that <ionist blut und boden provided an ex(ellent rationale for not fighting antiSemitism on its home ground. 1t was not the fault of the antiSemites, it was be(ause of the 2ews= own misfortune of being in exile. 7he <ionists (ould tearfully argue that the loss of 9alestine was the root (ause of antiSemitism and the regaining of 9alestine was the only solution to the 2ewish Euestion. .verything else (ould only be palliative or futile. Walter 'aEueur, the doyen of <ionist historians, has as3ed in his boo3, ( "istory o% Zionism, if <ionist insisten(e on the naturalness of antiSemitism was not Cust =grist to the mill of Bazi propaganda=. )8- 1t (ertainly was. 'aEueur=s Euestion (an best be answered
with another Euestion > is it diffi(ult to understand the gullible reader of a Bazi newspaper, who (on(luded that what was said by the Bazis, and agreed to by the <ionists - 2ews - had to be right F 7here would be worse > any 2ewish movement that prattled on about the naturalness of antiSemitism would, Cust as =naturally=, see3 to (ome to terms with the Bazis when they (ame to power.
). Darvin 'owenthal ed.-, The Diaries o% Theodor "erzl, p. J+. A. Amos .lon, "erzl, p. A88. ,. :esmond Stewart, Theodor "erzl, p. ,AA. I. 7he W<? is stru(tured by national states, and ele(tions are held on a national basis for the World <ionist !ongress @ the various ideologi(al tenden(ies whi(h are worldwide in their stru(ture, run in the various national ele(tions for delegates. 8. Dartin %uber, :n Judaism, pp. )8)*. 6. !bid), pp. J8J. J. 1gnatz <olls(han, Jewish ;uestions )*)I- pp. )J)+. +. Solomon $oldman, #risis and Decision )*,+-, p. ))6. *. Dauri(e Samuel, !& the Jew, pp. AII6. )4. =?ur Shomer "Weltans(hauung",= "ashomer "atzair :e(ember )*,6-, p. A6. )). %en 0rommer, =7he Signifi(an(e of a 2ewish State=, Jewish #all Shanghai, Day )*,8-, p. )4. )A. 5ehez3el "aufman, =Hurban Hanefesh > A :is(ussion of <ionism and AntiSemitism=, !ssues Winter )*6J-, p. )46. ),. Dauri(e Samuel, 9ou *entiles, p. )88. )I. !haim $reenberg, =7he Dyth of 2ewish 9arasitism=, Jewish 3rontiers Dar(h )*IA-, p. A4. )8. Walter 'aEueur, ( "istory o% Zionism, p. 844. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER 3
GERMAN ZIONISM AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE
$erman 2ewry was deeply loyal to the Weimar /epubli( whi(h had put an end to the dis(riminations of the Wilhelmine era. $ermany=s 2ews, 4.* per (ent of the populationwere generally prosperous> 64 per (ent were businessmen or professionals@ the rest artisans, (ler3s, students, with only insubstantial numbers of industrial wor3ers. Dost were for liberal (apitalism, with 6I per (ent voting for the Deutsche Demo5ratische Partei ::9-. About A+ per (ent voted for the moderate Sozialdemo5ratische Partei Deutschlands S9:-. ?nly I per (ent voted for the 7ommunistische Partei Deutschlands "9:-, and the rest were s(attered rightists. Weimar loo3ed safe to all of them as they saw the Bazi vote drop from 6.8 per (ent in )*AI to a mere A.6 per (ent in ) *A+. Bone thought horror lay ahead. Gntil the late )*A4s Hitler had wasted his time trying to re(ruit the wor3ing (lass into his Bational So(ialist $erman Wor3ers= 9arty, but few were interested> Hitler had been for the war, they had finally revolted against it@ Hitler was against stri3es, they were good trade unionists. When the :epression finally brought him a mass following it was the peasants, not the wor3ers, who poured into his movement. Weimar had (hanged nothing for them@ AJ per (ent still tilled less than one he(tare A.IJ) a(res-, another A6 per (ent wor3ed less than 8 he(tares )A.8 a(res-. 1n debt to the ban3s even before the (risis, these rural !hristians were easily persuaded to fo(us on the 2ews who, for (enturies, had been identified with pawnbro3ing and usury. 7he !hristian professional (lass, already steeped in sabre and beer vol3ism from their university days, and the small shop3eepers, resenting the superior (ompetition from the large 2ewish department stores, were the next to brea3 away from the (oalition that had ruled Weimar from its in(eption and Coin the Bazis. 0rom a tiny A.6 per (ent in )*A+ the Bazi vote soared to )+., per (ent in the ele(tions of )I September )*,4. /eligious 2ewry turned to its traditional defen(e organisation, the #entral erein, the !entral Asso(iation of $erman !itizens of the 2ewish 0aith@ now, for the first time, the departmentstore owners, who had be(ome a prime target for the attentions of the Bazi brownshirts, began to (ontribute to the !;=s efforts. 7he !;=s elderly leadership (ould not understand the (ollapse of (apitalism. 7hey were simply stunned when their party, the ::9, suddenly Ca(33nifed and turned itself into the moderately antiSemiti( Staatspartei. However, younger members of the !; pushed aside the old leadership and were able to get the !; to use the departmentstore money to subsidise the S:9=s antiBazi propaganda. After the ::9=s betrayal, the S9: pi(3ed up approximately 64 per (ent of the 2ewish vote. ?nly + per (ent went !ommunist, and they re(eived no !; largess for the stated grounds that they were militantly against $od@ the real (on(ern was that they were eEually militant against the !;=s finan(ial angles. .a(h $erman 2ewish asso(iation saw Hitler=s as(ent through its own spe(ial mirror. 7he young !; fun(tionaries saw that the S9:=s wor3ing(lass base stayed loyal to it and that 2ews (ontinued to be integrated into the party at every level. What they did not realise was that the S9: was in(apable of defeating Hitler. %efore the 0irst World War the S9: had been the largest so(ialist party in the world, the pride of the So(ialist 1nternational. %ut it was no more than reformist and throughout the Weimar /epubli( it failed to establish the firm so(ialist base whi(h would have allowed the $erman wor3ing (lass to resist the Bazis. 7he onset of the :epression found their own Hermann Duller as !han(ellor. Soon their
rightwing (oalition partners de(ided the wor3ers would have to bear the weight of the (risis and repla(ed him with Heinri(h %runing of the !atholi( <entrumspartei. 7he =hunger (han(ellor=, raised taxes on the lu(3y ones with Cobs to pay eversmaller benefits to the in(reasing millions of unemployed. 7he S9: leaders 3new this was sui(ide but =tolerated, %runing, fearing he would bring Hitler into his (oalition if they turned away from him. 7herefore they did not fight against the (uts in the dole. %runing had nothing to offer the desperate middle (lass and more of them put on brown shirts. 7he S:9=s ran3s, 2ews and non2ews ali3e, passively stood by and wat(hed as their party su((umbed. 7he !ommunist "9: also defeated itself. 'enin=s %olshevism had degenerated into Stalin=s =7hird 9eriod= ultraleftism, and /osa 'uxemburg=s Sparta5usbund into .rnst 7haelmann=s $ote 3ront. 7o these se(tarians everyone else was a 0as(ist. 7he Sozialdemo5raten were now 8Sozial 3aschisten8 and no unity was possible with them. 1n )*,4 the two wor3ing(lass parties (ombined outpolled Hitler ,J.6 per (ent to )+., per (ent. He (ould have been stopped@ it was their failure to unite on a militant programme of Coint physi(al defen(e against the brownshirts and in defen(e against the government=s onslaught against the standard of living of the masses that let Hitler (ome to power. Sin(e the Se(ond World War Western s(holars have tended to see the "9: =betraying= the S9: through Stalin=s fanati(ism. 1n the Stalinist (amp the roles are reversed@ the S9: is blamed for leaning on a bro3en reed li3e %runing. %ut both parties must share the responsibility for the deba(le. AI) i7 Ri<1)" )1e0e,+0e" )1() T1e2 71+.5* Fi<1) (<(in7) U7A 1f the S9: and the "9: must bear their full measure of guilt for Hitler=s triumph, so too must the <ionistis(he Vereinigung %uer Deutschland the <ionist 0ederation of $ermany-. Although (onventional wisdom has always assumed that the <ionists, with their dire view of antiSemitism, warned the 2ews of the Bazi mena(e, this is in fa(t not true. 1n )*6*, 2oa(him 9rinz, the former 9resident of the Ameri(an 2ewish !ongress - in his youth a fireeating <ionist rabbi in %erlin - still insisted that> Sin(e the assassination of Walther /athenau in )*AA, there was no doubt in our minds that the $erman development would be toward an antiSemiti( totalitarian regime. When Hitler began to arouse, and as he put it =awa3en= the $erman nation to ra(ial (ons(iousness and ra(ial superiority, we had no doubt that this man would sooner or later be(ome the leader of the $erman nation. )5et a diligent sear(h of the pages of the Juedische $undschau, the wee3ly organ of the <;f:, will not reveal su(h prophe(ies. When a 2ew was 3illed and several hundred 2ewish stores looted in a Bovember )*A, hunger riot in %erlin, "urt %lumenfeld, the Se(retary later 9resident- of the <;f:, (ons(iously played down the in(ident> 7here would be a very (heap and effe(tive 3ind of rea(tion, and we ... de(isively reCe(t it. ?ne (ould in(ite deep anxiety among $erman 2ewry. ?ne (ould use the ex(itement to enlist the va(illating. ?ne (ould represent 9alestine and <ionism as a refuge for the homeless. We do not wish to do that . We do not wish to (arry off by
demagoguery those who have stood apart from 2ewish life out of indifferen(e. %ut we wish to ma3e (lear to them through #our& sin(ere (onvi(tion where the basi( error of 2ewish galuth #exile& existen(e lies. We wish to awa3en their national selfawareness. We wish ... through patient and earnest edu(ational wor3 #to& prepare them to parti(ipate in the upbuilding of 9alestine. A7he historian Stephen 9oppel, (ertainly no enemy of the <;f:, (ategori(ally states in his boo3, Zionism in *ermany ,-0<,0.., that after )*A, the $undschau =did not begin to ta3e systemati(, detailed noti(e of anti2ewish agitation and violen(e until )*,)= ,- 0ar from warning and defending the 2ews, prominent <ionists opposed antiBazi a(tivity. 1t had been the $erman <ionists who had most fully elaborated the ideology of the W<? before )*)I and in the )*A4s they developed the argument to its logi(al (on(lusion> 2udaism in the :iaspora was hopeless. 7here was no possible defen(e against antiSemitism and there was no purpose in trying to develop 2ewish (ultural and (ommunity institutions in $ermany. 7he <;f: turned away from the so(iety in whi(h they lived. 7here were only two <ionist tas3s> instilling nationalist (ons(iousness in as many 2ews as would listen and training youths for o((upations useful in the e(onomi( development of 9alestine. Anything else was useless and palliative. 1n )*A8 the most vehement protagonist of total abstentionism, 2a(ob "latz3in, the (oeditor of the massive Encyclopedia Judaica, laid down the full impli(ations of the <ionist approa(h to antiSemitism. 1f we do not admit the rightfulness of antisemitism, we deny the rightfulness of our own nationalism. 1f our people is deserving and willing to live its own national life, then it is an alien body thrust into the nations among whom it lives, an alien body that insists on its own distin(tive identity, redu(ing the domain of their life. 1t is right, therefore, that they should fight against us for their national integrity 1nstead of establishing so(ieties for defense against the antisemites, who want to redu(e our rights, we should establish so(ieties for defense against our friends who desire to defend our rights. I$erman <ionism was distin(tive in the W<?, in that the <;f: leaders opposed ta3ing any part in lo(al politi(s. 7o %lumenfeld, $renzubers(hreitung overstepping the borders- was the dreaded sin. %lumenfeld (ompletely a((epted the antiSemiti( line that $ermany belonged to the Aryan ra(e and that for a 2ew to hold an offi(e in the land of his birth was nothing more than an intrusion into the affairs of another vol3. 1n theory the <;f: insisted that every single one of its members should eventually emigrate to 9alestine, but of (ourse this was (ompletely unrealisti(. Some A,444 settlers went from $ermany to 9alestine between )+*J and )*,,, but many of these were /ussians stranded there after the revolution. 1n )*,4 the <;f: had *,48* paidup members, but the dues were nominal and in no way a sign of deep (ommitment . 0or all %lumenfeld=s enthusiasm, <ionism was not an important element in the Weimar /epubli(. When the warning signs of the Bazi surge appeared in the 2une )*,4 ele(tions in Saxony, where they obtained )I.I per (ent of the vote, the %erlin 2ewish (ommunity put pressure on
the <;f: to Coin a /ei(hstag .le(tion !ommittee in (onCun(tion with the !; and other assimilationists. %ut the <;f:,s adheren(e was stri(tly nominal@ the assimilationists (omplained that the <ionists put barely any time or money into it, and it dissolved immediately after the ele(tion. A /unds(hau arti(le by Siegfried Doses, later %lumenfeld=s su((essor as head of the federation, demonstrated the <ionists, indifferen(e to the (onstru(tion of a strenuous defen(e> We have always believed the defense against antiSemitism to be a tas3 whi(h (on(erns all 2ews and have (learly stated the methods of whi(h we approve and those whi(h we (onsider irrelevant or ineffe(tive. %ut it is true that the defense against antiSemitism is not our main tas3, it does not (on(ern us to the same extent and is not of the same importan(e for us as is the wor3 for 9alestine and, in a somewhat different sense, the wor3 of the 2ewish (ommunities. 8.ven after the ele(tion in September )*,4 the <ionists argued against the notion of (reating an effe(tive front against the Bazis. A.W. /om insisted in the $undschau that any defen(e (ould only be a waste of time. 7o him =7he most important lesson we have learned from this ele(tion is that it is mu(h more important to strengthen the 2ewish (ommunity in $ermany from within than to (ondu(t an external fight.= 67he <;f: leaders (ould never effe(tively unite with the assimilationists on defen(e wor3. 7hey were total abstentionists politi(ally, and they were vol3ists@ they did not believe in the !;=s fundamental premiss that the 2ews were $ermans. 7heir (on(ern was that the 2ews should emphasise their 2ewishness. 7hey reasoned that if 2ews started to (onsider themselves a separate national minority, and stopped interfering in "Aryan" affairs, it would be possible to get the antiSemites to tolerate them on a basis of a "dignified" (oexisten(e. 7he assimilationists would have none of this@ to them the <ionist position was Cust an e(ho of the Bazi line. 7here is no doubt that the assimilationists were (orre(t. %ut even if the <ionists had (onvin(ed every 2ew to support their stan(e, it would not have helped. Hitler did not (are what the 2ews thought of themselves@ he wanted them out of $ermany and, preferably, dead. 7he <ionist solution was no solution. 7here was nothing the 2ews (ould have done to mollify antiSemitism. ?nly the defeat of Bazism (ould have helped the 2ews, and that (ould only have happened if they had united with the antiBazi wor3ing (lass on a programme of militant resistan(e. %ut this was anathema to the <;f: leadership who, in )*,A, when Hitler was gaining strength by the day, (hose to organise anti!ommunist meetings to warn 2ewish youth against =red assimilation=. JT1e Zi+ni7) Min+0i)ie7 As Hitler rose to power, minorities within the <;f: in(reasingly ignored %lumenfeld=s stri(tures against politi(al a(tion and either wor3ed with the !; or loo3ed to the other politi(al elements for their salvation. $eorg "ares3i, a ban3er, had long been in disagreement with %lumenfeld over the <;f: 9resident=s basi( indifferen(e to intemal 2ewish (ommunity politi(s, and in )*)* he had established a Juedische Vol5spartei to run in the %erlin 2ewish (ommunity ele(tions on a programme with greater emphasis on 2ewish s(hooling. 1n )*,4 "ares3i surfa(ed in the larger $erman politi(al arena as a (andidate for the /ei(hstag on the !atholi( !entre ti(3et he lost- and an =?rganisation of 2ewish !entre
9arty ;oters= was set up by his (othin3ers. 7he spe(ta(le amused a So(ial :emo(rati( wag> 7he homeless 2ewish bourgeoisie has in great part sought shelter with the !enter 9arty - !hrist and the first 9ope were 2ews, so why notF Wret(hed individuals who do violen(e to their ideas and purposes out of anxiety over =So(ialist expropriation=. What Hitler is to the !hristians, the !enter 9arty is to the 2ews. +%ismar3=s 7ultur5amp% against the !atholi( !hur(h had made the $erman !atholi( hierar(hy very distrustful of antiSemitism@ they feared it would pave the way for further atta(3s on the !atholi( minority as well. 1n addition, individual bishops, mindful that 2esus was a 2ew and that therefore ra(ial antiSemitism was in(ompatible with !hristianity, had even refused (ommunion to Bazi members. %ut there had always been antiSemites among the leaders of the !entre, and after the )*A* 'ateran a((ord with Dussolini there was growing pressure from the ;ati(an for a !entreBazi a((ommodation in the name of a fight against !ommunism. However, "ares3i (ould not see the dire(tion in whi(h (lass interest was pushing the !atholi( upper (lass, and he (ompletely misCudged 0ranz von 9apen, who too3 over as a !entre !han(ellor after %runing. "ares3i reassured his ri(h 2ewish friends that =the 9apen government has written the prote(tion of the 2ews on the flag=. *- 1n reality von 9apen had always been an antiSemite and in the end, after he had lost the (han(ellorship, he was part of the (amarilla that (onvin(ed 9resident Hindenburg to summon Hitler to power. ?n the <ionist left the $erman bran(h of the 9oale <ion ba(3ed the in(ompetent leadership of the S9:. %efore )*)I the S9: refused to asso(iate with <ionism, whi(h it saw as separating the 2ews from other wor3ers, and only those elements on the far right of the S9: that supported $erman imperialism in Afri(a patronised the 'abour <ionists, whom they saw as fellow so(ialist(olonisers. 7he So(ialist 1nternational only established friendly relations with 9oale <ion during and after the 0irst World War, when the leftwing anti(olonialist for(es Coined the !ommunist 1nternational. 7he 'abour <ionists Coined the S9: with one (entral purpose> to gain support for <ionism. As long as the leaders of the S9: had good things to say about <ionism, they, in turn, replied with similar endearments. %y )*,) the 'abour <ionist leaders in 9alestine began to envision a vi(torious Hitler, but they had no alternative stratagems for the S9: and there is no re(ord of the 9oale <ion leaders in 9alestine ever publi(ly Euarrelling with their erstwhile (omrades in the S9: leadership. AGe0/(n7 +, )1e M+7(i- F(i)1 (0e (n Un*e7i0(35e" De/+0(5i=in< P1en+/en(A 7he basi( <ionist attitude toward the Bazis was that nothing (ould really be done to stop them, but they felt obliged to do something. 7he Encyclopaedia o% Zionism and !srael tells us, very vaguely, that the $erman <ionists tried to persuade !han(ellor %runing to issue a strong de(laration against Bazi anti Semitism by =stressing the influen(e of <ionists upon the governments of various nations=. %runing never replied, =nor were the <ionists su((essful in their attempts to obtain governmental support of emigration to 9alestine as a (onstru(tive outlet for internal pressure=. )4Any su(h statement from %runing would have been meaningless, unless he had been prepared to (rush the Bazis. Any announ(ement that the government was aiding 2ews to
leave would have been (ounterprodu(tive in en(ouraging the Bazis to in(rease their efforts in the (ertainty that the regime was wea3ening in its defen(e of 2ewish rights. However, %runing did nothing be(ause the <ionists were bluffing that they had any influen(e upon =the governments of various nations,, espe(ially %ritain. Weizmann, the prestigious s(ientist and 9resident of the W<?, who was well (onne(ted in 'ondon, did next to nothing for $erman 2ewry. He had never li3ed them, nor did he have any sympathy for their defen(e efforts against antiSemitism. As early as )+ Dar(h )*)A he had a(tually been brazen enough to tell a %erlin audien(e that =ea(h (ountry (an absorb only a limited number of 2ews, if she doesn=t want disorders in her stoma(h. $ermany already has too many 2ews.=)) 1n his (hat with %alfour, in )*)I, he went further, telling him that =we too are in agreement with the (ultural antiSemites, in so far as we believed that $ermans of the Dosai( faith are an undesirable, demoralizing phenomena=. )A- He visited $ermany several times in the last years of Weimar. His friends there told him that they did not even want 2ews elsewhere to demonstrate on their behalf. /ather, he should get %ritish !onservatives to let it be 3nown that Hitler would dis(redit himself with them by antiSemiti( a(tions. Weizmann approa(hed /obert %oothby, a !onservative D9, who told him that Euite fran3ly most 7ories saw Hitler as saving $ermany from !ommunism and were far less (on(erned about his antiSemitism. ),- %y 2anuary )*,A Weizmann (on(luded that emigration of some of $ermany=s 2ews lay ahead. Although he had lost the support of the World <ionist !ongress in )*,), had stepped down as 9resident of the organisation and was thus unburdened by offi(e, he did nothing further to mobilise the world or 2ewry against Hitler. 1n $ermany itself the <;f: never tried to bring the 2ews out into the streets, but the $undschau felt free to threaten that the 2ews would (ome out - in Bew 5or3. 1n reality, not one demonstration against Hitler was organised in Ameri(a by the <ionists before he (ame to power. /abbi Wise, leader of the Ameri(an 2ewish !ongress, did get together with the assimilationists of the Ameri(an 2ewish !ommittee to as3 the leaders of $erman 2ewry how they (ould help. 7he $erman 2ewish bourgeoisie merely than3ed them for the gesture and assured the Ameri(ans that they would be (onta(ted if things got worse. Wise wanted to try for a statement from 9resident Hoover but even that was too radi(al for the Ameri(an 2ewish !ommittee, and Wise dropped the matter. Wise and Bahum $oldmann did organise a World 2ewish !onferen(e in $eneva in the summer of )*,A, but $oldmann, extremely (ommitted, was unwilling to wor3 with assimilationists. )I- <ionism was a minority movement in 2ewry at that time@ the (onferen(e did little more than prea(h to the (onverted, and only a minority of the (onverted at that, sin(e neither Weizmann nor Bahum So3olow, who had su((eeded him as 9resident of the W<?, attended. Bothing (ame of the meeting and indeed neither Wise nor $oldmann appre(iated the full seriousness of the situation. $oldmann, always a believer in the influen(e of the $reat 9owers, told the l*,A <;f: (onvention that %ritain and 0ran(e, and /ussia, would never let Hitler (ome to power. )8- Stephen Wise retreated even further into that world where perhaps things would not be =as bad as we dreaded=. ?n hearing of Hitler=s (oming to power, he felt the only real danger lay in Hitler=s failing to 3eep his other promises. 7hen =he may finally de(ide that he must yield to his fellow Bazis in the matter of antiSemitism=. )6-
ALi3e0(5i7/ i7 )1e Ene/2C I) i7 (57+ )1e Ene/2 ,+0 N(=i7/A $iven that the $erman <ionists agreed with two fundamental elements in Bazi ideology that the 2ews would never be part of the $erman vol3 and, therefore, they did not belong on $erman soil - it was inevitable that some <ionists would believe an a((ommodation possible. 1f Wise (ould delude himself that Hitler was the moderate in the Bazis, ran3s, why (ould not others tal3 themselves into believing that there were elements in the BS:A9 who might restrain HitlerF Stephen 9oppel has tou(hed on this debate within the <;f:> Some <ionists thought that there might be respe(table and moderate elements within the Bazi movement who would serve to restrain it from within ... 7hese elements might serve as suitable negotiating partners for rea(hing some 3ind of $erman2ewish a((ommodation. 7here was serious division over this possibility, with Welts(h #editor of the $undschau &, for example, arguing in its behalf and %lumenfeld sharply opposing it. )JBor was /obert Welts(h alone. $ustav "roCan3er, an editor at the Judischer Verlag, the oldest <ionist publishing house in .urope, also saw the two movements= (ommon roots in vol3ist irrationalism, and drew the (on(lusion that <ionists should loo3 positively at the nationalist aspe(ts of Bazism. A benign approa(h toward their fellow vol3ists, he naively reasoned, would perhaps bring forth an eEuivalent benevolen(e toward <ionism on the part of the Bazis. )+- As far as "roCan3er and many other <ionists were (on(erned, demo(ra(y=s day was over. Harry Sa(her, a %riton, one of the leaders of the W<? in the period, explained "roCan3er=s theories in a review of "roCan3er=s boo3, Zum Problem des =euen Deutschen =ationalismus> 0or <ionists, 'iberalism is the enemy@ it is also the enemy for Bazism@ ergo, <ionism should have mu(h sympathy and understanding for Bazism, of whi(h antiSemitism is probably a fleeting a((ident. )*Bo <ionist wanted Hitler to (ome to power, no <ionist voted for him and neither Welts(h nor "roCan3er (ollaborated with the Bazis prior to ,4 2anuary )*,,. !ollaboration only emerged later. %ut these notions were the logi(al result of de(ades of <ionist Custifi(ation for antiSemitism and failure to resist it. 1t (annot be argued in their defen(e that the <ionist leaders did not 3now what was going to happen when Hitler (ame to power. He had said more than enough to guarantee that, at the very least, the 2ews would be redu(ed to se(ond(lass (itizenship. 1n addition, they 3new that Hitler was an admirer of Dussolini and that ten years of 0as(ism in 1taly had meant terror, torture and di(tatorship. %ut in their hostility to liberalism and its (ommitment to 2ewish assimilation, and as opponents of 2ews utilising their full demo(rati( rights within the parliamentary system, the 0as(ist aspe(t of Bazism never unduly disturbed the leaders of the <;f:. 1t never o((urred to these se(tarians that they had a duty to demo(ra(y to mobilise in its defen(e. 7he grave impli(ations of another 0as(ist regime, this time with an avowed anti2ewish position, in the very heart of .urope, (ompletely eluded them. :ante has false diviners wal3ing ba(3wards, their fa(es reversed on their ne(3s, tears pouring from their eyes. 0or ever. So it is for all who misunderstood Hitler.
). Herbert Strauss ed.-, *egenwart !m $uc5blic5 Heidelberg, )*J4-, p. A,). A. Stephen 9oppel, Zionism in *ermany ,-0<,0.., p. ))*. ,. !bid. I. 2a(ob Agus, The +eaning o% Jewish "istory, vol. 11, p. IA8. 8. Dargaret .delheimDuehsam, =/ea(tions of the 2ewish 9ress to the Bazi !hallenge=, 1eo Baec5 !nstitute 9ear Boo5, vol. ; )*64-, p. ,)A. 6. !bid), p. ,)I. J. :onald Biewy3, The Jews in 2eimar *ermany, p. ,4. +. :onald Biewy3, Socialist& (ntiSemite and Jew, p. A),. *. 'eonard %a3er, Days o% Sorrow and Pain, p. A4*. )4. .liazer 'ivneh, =$ermany> /elations with <ionism and 1srael=, Encyclopaedia o% Zionism and !srael, vol. 1, p. ,+8. )). %enyamin Datuvo, =7he <ionist Wish and the Bazi :eed=, !ssues Winter )*66KJ-, p. *. )A. !haim Weizmann to Ahad Ha=am, in 'eonard Stein ed.-, The 1etters and Papers o% #haim 2eizmann& 1etters, vol. ;11, p. +). ),. Shlomo Shafir, =Ameri(an 2ewish 'eaders and the .merging Bazi 7hreat )*A+)*,,-=, (merican Jewish (rchi es Bovember )*J*-, p. )JA. )I. !bid., p. )J8. )8. Walter 'aEueur, "istory o% Zionism, p. I**. )6. Shafir, =Ameri(an 2ewish 'eaders and the .merging Bazi 7hreat=, p. )+). )J. 9oppel, Zionism in *ermany, p. )6). )+. Herbert Strauss, Jewish $eactions to the $ise o% (ntiSemitism in *ermany, p. ),. )*. Harry Sa(her, review of $ustav "roCan3er, <um 9roblem des Beuen :euts(hen Bationalismus, Jewish $e iew 'ondon, September )*,A-, p. )4I. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER !
ZIONISM AND ITALIAN FASCISM" 1#22-1#33 7he World <ionist ?rganisation=s attitude toward 1talian 0as(ism was determined by one (riterion> 1taly=s position on <ionism. When Dussolini was hostile to them, Weizmann was (riti(al of him@ but when he be(ame pro-<ionist, the <ionist leadership enthusiasti(ally supported him. ?n the day Hitler (ame to power they were already friends with the first 0as(ist leader. As a revolutionary, Dussolini had always wor3ed with 2ews in the 1talian So(ialist 9arty, and it was not until he abandoned the left that he first began to e(ho the anti-Semiti( ideas of the northern .uropean right-wing. 0our days after the %olshevi3s too3 power, he announ(ed that their vi(tory was a result of a plot between the =Synagogue=, that is, =!eorbaum= 'enin-, =%ronstein= 7rots3y-, and the $erman Army.# )-& %y )*)* he has !ommunism explained> the 2ewish ban3ers --=/ots(hild=, =Wamberg=, =S(hyff= and =$uggenheim=-- were behind the !ommunist 2ews.# A-& %ut Dussolini was not so antiSemiti( as to ex(lude 2ews from his new party and there were five among the founders of the 0as(ist movement. Bor was anti-Semitism important to his ideology@ in fa(t it was not well re(eived by his followers. Anti-Semitism in 1taly had always been identified in the publi( mind with !atholi( obs(urantism. 1t was the !hur(h whi(h had for(ed the 2ews into the ghettos and 1talian nationalists had always supported the 2ews against the 9opes, whom they saw as opponents of a united 1taly. 1n )+I+ the walls of the /oman ghetto were destroyed by the revolutionary /oman /epubli(. With their defeat the ghetto was restored, but the final vi(tory of the nationalist "ingdom of 1taly in )+J4 brought an end to dis(rimination against the 2ews. 7he !hur(h blamed the 2ews for the nationalist vi(tory, and the offi(ial 2esuit organ, !ivilta !attoli(a, (ontinued to insist that they had only been defeated by =(onspira(ies with the 2ews #that& were formed by Dazzini, $aribaldi, !avour, 0arini and :e 9retis=. # ,-& %ut this (leri(al ranting against the heroes of 1talian nationalism merely dis(redited anti-Semitism, parti(ularly among the anti-(leri(al youth of the nationalist petty bourgeoisie. Sin(e the essen(e of 0as(ism was the mobilisation of the middle (lass against Darxism, Dussolini listened (arefully to his followers= obCe(tions> what was the point of denoun(ing !ommunism as a 2ewish (onspira(y, if the 2ews themselves were not unpopularF AT0.e &e67 1(;e ne;e0 F+.<1) (<(in7) Y+.A As with many another, Dussolini originally (ombined anti-Semitism with pro-<ionism, and his 9opolo d=ltalia (ontinued to favour <ionism until )*)*, when he (on(luded that <ionism was merely a (at=s-paw for the %ritish and he began to refer to the lo(al <ionist movement as =so-(alled 1talians=. # I-& All 1talian politi(ians shared this suspi(ion of <ionism, in(luding two 0oreign Dinisters of 2ewish des(ent --Sidney Sonnino and !arlo S(hanzar. 7he 1talian line on 9alestine was that 9rotestant %ritain had no real standing in the (ountry as there were no native 9rotestants there. What they wanted in 9alestine was an international =Holy 'and=. 1n agreeing with the position of the pre-0as(ist governments on 9alestine and <ionism, Dussolini was primarily motivated by imperial rivalry with %ritain and by hostility to any politi(al grouping in 1taly having a loyalty to an international
movement. Dussolini=s Dar(h on /ome of ?(tober )*AA worried the 1talian <ionist 0ederation. 7hey had no love for the pre(eding 0a(ta government, given its anti-<ionism, but the 0as(isti were no better on that s(ore, and Dussolini had made (lear his own anti-Semitism. However, their (on(erns about anti-Semitism were lifted immediately@ the new govemment hastened to inform Angelo Sa(erdoti, the (hief rabbi of /ome and an a(tive <ionist, that they would not support anti-Semitism either at home or abroad. 7he <ionists then obtained an audien(e with Dussolini on A4 :e(ember )*AA. 7hey assured the :u(e of their loyalty. /uth %ondy, a <ionist writer on 1talian 2ewry, relates> =7he delegation, on its part, argued that 1talian 2ews would always remain loyal to their native land and (ould help establish relations with the 'evant through the 2ewish (ommunities there.= # 8-& Dussolini bluntly told them that he still saw <ionism as a tool of the %ritish, but their pledge of loyalty softened his hostility somewhat and he agreed to meet !haim Weizmann, the 9resident of the W<?, who attended on , 2anuary )*A,. Weizmann=s autobiography is deliberately vague, and often misleading, on his relations with the 1talian, but fortunately it is possible to learn something of the meeting from the report given at the time to the %ritish .mbassy in /ome. 7his explains how Weizmann tried to deal with the obCe(tion that <ionism wore %ritain=s livery> =:r Weizmann, whilst denying that this was in any way the (ase, said that, even if it were so, 1taly stood to gain as mu(h as $reat %ritain by a wea3ening of Doslem power.= # 6-& 7his answer (annot have inspired too mu(h (onfiden(e in Dussolini, but he was pleased when Weizmann as3ed permission to name an 1talian <ionist to the (ommission running their settlement in 9alestine. Weizmann 3new the 1talian publi( would see this as 0as(ist toleration for the W<?, whi(h would ma3e it easier for <ionism amongst wary 2ews, frightened at the thought of (oming into (onfli(t with the new regime. Dussolini saw it the other way around@ by su(h a (heap gesture he would win support both at home and abroad from the 2ewish (ommunity. 7he meeting produ(ed no (hange in 1talian poli(y toward <ionism or the %ritish, and the 1talians (ontinued to obstru(t <ionist efforts by harassing ta(ti(s on the 'eague of Bations Dandate !ommission. Weizmann never, then or later, mobilised opposition to what Dussolini did to 1talians, but he had to say something about a regime that a(tively opposed <ionism. He spo3e out, in Ameri(a, on A6 Dar(h )*A,>
7oday there is a tremendous politi(al wave, 3nown as 0as(ism, whi(h is sweeping over 1taly. As an 1talian movement it is no business of ours --it is the business of the 1talian $overnment. %ut this wave is now brea3ing against the little 2ewish (ommunity, and the little (ommunity, whi(h never asserted itself, is today suffering from anti-Semitism.# J-&
1talian poli(y toward <ionism only (hanged in the mid-)*A4s, when their (onsuls in 9alestine (on(luded that <ionism was there to stay and that %ritain would only leave the (ountry if and when the <ionists got their own state. Weizmann was invited ba(3 to /ome for another (onferen(e on )J September )*A6. Dussolini was more than (ordial@ he offered to help the <ionists build up their e(onomy and the 0as(ist press began printing favourable arti(les on 9alestinian <ionism.
<ionist leaders began to visit /ome. Bahum So3olow, then the !hairman of the <ionist .xe(utive and later, in )*,)-,,, the 9resident of the W<?, appeared on A6 ?(tober )*AJ. Di(hael 'edeen, a spe(ialist on 0as(ism and the 2ewish Euestion, has des(ribed the politi(al out(ome of the So3olow-Dussolini tal3s>
With this last meeting Dussolini be(ame lionised by <ionism. So3olow not only praised the 1talian as a human being but announ(ed his firm belief that 0as(ism was immune from antiSemiti( pre(on(eptions. He went even further> in the past there might have been un(ertainty about the true nature of 0as(ism, but now, =we begin to understand its true nature ... true 2ews have never fought against you=. 7hese words, tantamount to a <ionist endorsement of the 0as(ist regime, were e(hoed in 2ewish periodi(als all over the world. 1n this period, whi(h saw a new legal relationship established between the 2ewish (ommunity and the 0as(ist state, expressions of loyalty and affe(tion for 0as(ism poured out of the 2ewish (enters of 1taly.# +-&
Bot all <ionists were pleased with So3olow=s remar3s. 7he 'abour <ionists were loosely affiliated to the underground 1talian So(ialist 9arty via the So(ialist 1nternational and they (omplained, but the 1talian <ionists were overCoyed. 9rosperous and extremely religious, these (onservatives saw Dussolini as their support against Darxism and its (on(omitant assimilation. 1n )*AJ rabbi Sa(erdoti gave an interview to the Cournalist $uido %edarida>
9rofessor Sa(erdoti is persuaded that many of the fundamental prin(iples of the 0as(ist :o(trine su(h as> the observan(e of the laws of the state, respe(t of traditions, the prin(iple of authority, exaltation of religious values, a desire for the moral and physi(al (leanliness of family and the individual, the struggle for an in(rease of produ(tion, and therefore a struggle against Dalthusianism, are no more or less than 2ewish prin(iples.# *-&
7he ideologi(al leader of 1talian <ionism was the lawyer Alfonso 9a(ifi(i. An extremely pious man, he ensured that the 1talian <ionists were to be(ome the most religious bran(h of the world movement. 1n )*,A another interviewer told of how 9a(ifi(i also>
expressed to me his (onvi(tion that the new (onditions would bring about a revival of 1talian 2ewry. 1ndeed, he (laimed to have evolved a philosophy of 2udaism a3in to the spiritual 7endenz of 0as(ism long before this had be(ome the rule of life in 1talian polity.# )4-&
E7)(35i71/en) +, Re5()i+n7 3e)6een M.77+5ini (n* Hi)5e0 1f the <ionists at least hesitated until Dussolini warmed to them before they responded, Hitler had no su(h inhibitions. 0rom the beginning of the 0as(ist ta3e-over, Hitler used Dussolini=s example as proof that a terror di(tatorship (ould overthrow a wea3 bourgeois demo(ra(y and then set about smashing the wor3ers= movements. After he (ame to power he a(3nowledged his debt to Dussolini in a dis(ussion with the 1talian ambassador in Dar(h )*,,. =5our .x(ellen(y 3nows how great an admiration 1 have for Dussolini, whom 1 (onsider the spiritual head of my ==movement" as well, sin(e if he had not su((eeded in assuming power in 1taly, Bational So(ialism would not have had the slightest (han(e in $ermany.# ))-& Hitler had two (avils with 0as(ism> Dussolini savagely oppressed the $ermans in the south 7yrol whi(h the 1talians had won at ;ersailles, and he wel(omed 2ews into the 0as(ist
9arty. %ut Hitler saw, Euite (orre(tly, that what the two of them wanted was so similar that, eventually, they would (ome together. He insisted that a Euarrel with the 1talians over the 7yrolians would only serve the 2ews@ therefore, unli3e most $erman rightists, he was always willing to abandon the 7yrolians.# lA-& 0urthermore, in spite of the fa(t that he had no 3nowledge of Dussolini=s earlier anti-Semiti( remar3s, in )*A6, in +ein 7amp%, Hitler de(lared that in his heart of hearts the 1talian was an anti-Semite.
7he struggle that 0AS!1S7 17A'5 is waging, though perhaps in the last analysis un(ons(iously whi(h 1 personally do not believe-, against the three main weapons of the 2ews is the best indi(ation that, even though indire(tly, the poison fangs of this supra-state power are being torn out. 7he prohibition on Dasoni( se(ret so(ieties, the perse(ution of the supra-national press, as well as the (ontinued demolition of international Darxism, and, (onversely, the steady reinfor(ement of the 0as(ist state (on(eption, will in the (ourse of the years (ause the 1talian government to serve the interests of the 1talian people more and more, without regard for the hissing of the 2ewish world hydra.# ),-&
%ut if Hitler was pro-Dussolini, it did not follow that Dussolini would be pro-Bazi. 7hroughout the )*A4s the :u(e 3ept repeating his famous =0as(ism is not an arti(le for export=. !ertainly after the failure of the %eer Hall puts(h and the Bazis= meagre 6.8 per (ent in the )*AI ele(tions, Hitler represented nothing. 1t reEuired the :epression and Hitler=s sudden ele(toral su((ess, before Dussolini began to ta3e serious noti(e of his $erman (ounterpart. Bow he began to tal3 of .urope going 0as(ist within ten years, and his press began to report favourably about Bazism. %ut at the same time he repudiated Hitler=s Bordi( ra(ism and anti-Semitism. !ompletely disoriented by his philo-Semitism, the <ionists hoped that Dussolini would be a moderating influen(e on Hitler when he (ame to power.# )I-& 1n ?(tober )*,A, on the tenth anniversary of the Dar(h on /ome, 9a(ifi(i rhapsodised about the differen(es between the real 0as(ism in /ome and its ersatz in %erlin. He saw>
radi(al differen(es between the true and authenti( 0as(ism --1talian 0as(ism, that is-- and the pseudo-0as(ist movements in other (ountries whi(h ... are often using the most rea(tionary phobias, and espe(ially the blind, unbridled hatred of the 2ews, as a means of diverting the masses from their real problems, from the real (auses of their misery, and from the real (ulprits.# )8-&
'ater, after the Holo(aust, in his autobiography Trial and Error, Weizmann lamely tried to establish an anti-0as(ist re(ord for the 1talian <ionists> =7he <ionists, and the 2ews generally, though they did not give loud expression to their views on the subCe(t, were 3nown to be =anti-0as(ist=.# )6-& $iven Dussolini=s anti-<ionism in the early years of his 0as(ist (areer, as well as his anti-Semiti( (omments, <ionists hardly favoured him in )*AA. %ut, as we have seen, they pledged their loyalty to the new power on(e Dussolini assured them that he was not anti-Semiti(. 1n the first years of the regime, the <ionists 3new he resented their international affiliations, but that did not b ring them to an ti0as(ism and, (ertainly after the statements in )*AJ by So3olow and Sa(erdoti, the <ionists (ould only be thought of as Dussolini=s good friends.
). Deir Di(haelis, +ussolini and the Jews, p. )A.
A. !bid), p. ),. ,. :aniel !arpi, =7he !atholi( !hur(h and 1talian 2ewry under the 0as(ist=, 9ad Vashem Studies vol. 1;, p. IIn. I. Di(haelis, +ussolini and the Jews, p. )I. 8. /uth %ondy, The Emissary' ( 1i%e o% Enzo Sereni, p. I8. 6. :aniel !arpi, =Weizmann=s 9ohti(al A(tivities in 1taly from )*A, to )*,I=, Zionism 7el Aviv, )*J8-, p. AA8. J. !haim Weizmann, =/elief and /e(onstru(tion=, (merican (ddresses )*A,-, p. I*. +. Di(hael 'edeen, =1talian 2ews and 0as(ism=, Judaism Summer )*6*-, p. A+6. *. $uido %edarida, =7he 2ews under Dussolini=, $e%le6 ?(tober )*AJ-, p.8+. )4. 9aul$oodman, =2udaism under the 0as(ist /egime=, Views April )*,A-, p. I6. )). !arpi, =Weizmann=s 9oliti(al A(tivities in 1taly=, p. A,+. )A. Adolf Hitler, +ein 7amp%, p. 6A+. ),. !bid., p. 6,J. )I. Di(ha(lis, +ussolini and the Jews, p. I*. )8. 1bid., p. A*. )6. Weizmann, Trial and Error, p. ,6+. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER $ GERMAN ZIONISM OFFERS TO COLLABORATE ITH NAZISM
Werner Senator, a leading $erman <ionist, on(e remar3ed that <ionism, for all its world 2ewish nationalism, always politi(ally assimilates to the (ountries within whi(h it operates. Bo better proof of his remar3 exists than the politi(al adaptation of the <;f: to the theories and poli(ies of the new Bazi regime. %elieving that the ideologi(al similarities between the two movements --their (ontempt for liberalism, their (ommon vol3ish ra(ism and, of (ourse, their mutual (onvi(tion that $ermany (ould never be the homeland of its 2ews--(ould indu(e the Bazis to support them, the <;f: soli(ited the patronage of Adolf Hitler, not on(e but repeatedly, after l*,,. 7he goal of the <;f: be(ame an =orderly retreat=, that is, Bazi ba(3ing for emigration of at
least the younger generation of 2ews to 9alestine, and they immediately sought (onta(t with elements in the Bazi apparatus whom they thought would be interested in su(h an arrangement on the basis of a vol3ish appre(iation of <ionism. "urt 7u(hler, a member of the <;f: .xe(utive, persuaded %aron 'eopold 1tz .dler von Dildenstein of the SS to write a pro-<ionist pie(e for the Bazi press. 7he %aron agreed on the (ondition that he visited 9alestine first, and two months after Hitler (ame to power the two men and their wives went to 9alestine@ von Dildenstein stayed there for six months before he returned to write his arti(les.# )-& !onta(t with a (entral figure in the new government (ame in Dar(h )*,,, when Hermann $oering summoned the leaders of the maCor 2ewish organisations. 1n early Dar(h, 2ulius Strei(her, the editor of :er Steurmer, had de(lared that, as of ) April, all 2ewish stores and professionals would be boy(otted@ however, this (ampaign ran into an immediate snag. Hitler=s (apitalist ba(3ers were extremely worried by the announ(ement by rabbi Wise of a planned (ounter-demonstration to be held in Bew 5or3 on AJ Dar(h, if the Bazis went ahead with their boy(ott. 2ews were prominent throughout the retail trade both in Ameri(an and .urope and, fearing retaliation against their own (ompanies, Hitler=s wealthy patrons urged him to (all off the a(tion. %ut the Bazis (ould hardly do that without losing fa(e, and they de(ided to use $erman 2ewry to head off Wise@ thus Hermann $oering (alled in the 2ewish leaders. $erman <ionism=s influen(e in Weimar did not merit its leaders= parti(ipation, but be(ause they (on(eived themselves as the only natural negotiating partner with the Bazis, they se(ured a late invitation. Dartin /osenbluth, a leading <ionist, later told of the in(ident in his post-war autobiography, $o 0orth and Serve. 0our 2ews saw $oering> 2ulius %rodnitz for the !;, Heinri(h Stahl for the %erlin 2ewish (ommunity, Dax Baumann, a pro-Bazi fanati( from the ;erband nationaldeuts(her 2uden ;n2-, and %lumenfeld for the <ionists. $oering laun(hed into a tirade> the foreign press was lying about atro(ities against 2ews@ unless the lies stopped, he (ould not vou(h for the safety of $erman 2ewry. Dost important, the Bew 5or3 rally had to be (alled off> =:r Wise is one of our most dangerous and uns(rupulous enemies.=# A-& A delegation was to go to 'ondon to (onta(t world 2ewry. 7he assimilationists de(lined, (laiming that as $ermans they had no influen(e with foreign 2ews. 7his was false, but they hardly wanted to assist in their own destru(tion. ?nly %lumenfeld volunteered, but insisted he be allowed to spea3 truthfully about the Bazi treatment of 2ews. $oering did not (are what was said to get the rally (alled off@ perhaps a des(ription of the grim situation might ma3e foreign 2ews halt for fear of provo3ing worse. He did not (are who went or what arguments were used as long as the deputation agreed to =report regularly to the $erman embassy=.# ,-& 7he <;f: finally sent Dartin /osenbluth and /i(hard 'i(htheim. 0earing ex(lusive responsibility for the out(ome of their strange mission, they prevailed upon the !; to let them ta3e along :r 'udwig 7ietz. Although not a <ionist personally, the wealthy businessman was =a good friend of ours=.# I-& 7he trio arrived in 'ondon on AJ Dar(h and immediately met forty 2ewish leaders at a meeting (haired by Bahum So3olow, then 9resident of the W<?. 7hey later met a battery of %ritish offi(ials. 7he delegates saw two
tas3s before them> to use the severity of the situation to promote 9alestine as =the logi(al pla(e of refuge=, and to head off all anti-Bazi efforts abroad. 7hey (alled Wise in Bew 5or3. /osenbluth des(ribed the in(ident thus in his memoirs>
Dindful of $oering=s (harges... we (onveyed the message... $etting the (rypti( rest of our message a(ross to him was somewhat more diffi(ult, sin(e it was ne(essary to spea3 in obs(ure terms in order to (onfound any possible monitors. SubseEuent events proved we had made (lear our hidden plea, and that :r Wise had understood we wanted him to stand firm and under no (ir(umstan(es (an(el the meeting.# 8-&
7here is no eviden(e that any effort was made to signal Wise to this effe(t. 7hrough the resear(h of an 1sraeli s(holar, Shaul .sh, it is now 3nown that the deputation tried to head off demonstrations in Bew 5or3 and 9alestine. A((ording to .sh, later that evening they sent (ables>
not in their own name, but in the name of the <ionist .xe(utive in 'ondon. 7he telegrams reEuested that the re(ipients immediately dispat(h to the !han(ellery of the 7hird /ei(h de(larations to the effe(t that they do not (ondone an organised anti-$erman boy(ott... the <ionist .xe(utive in 'ondon learned of this several hours later, they sent another (able to 2erusalem to delay the dispat(h of an offi(ial de(laration to Hitler.# 6-&
'ater, in his own autobiography, !hallenging 5ears, Stephen Wise mentioned re(eiving their (able, but he did not re(ord any (rypti( message from the delegation.# J-& 1t is reasonable to assume that he would have re(orded it, if he had thought any su(h attempt was made. 1n reality, Wise repeatedly raged at the <;f: in the following years for persistently opposing every attempt by foreign 2ews to struggle against the Hitler regime. 7he 'ondon pro(eedings were typi(al of all further <;f: behaviour. 1n )*,J, after leaving %erlin for Ameri(a, rabbi 2oa(him 9rinz wrote of his experien(es in $ermany and alluded to a memorandum whi(h, it is now 3nown, was sent to the Bazi 9arty by the <;f: on A) 2une )*,,. 9rinz=s arti(le (andidly des(ribes the <ionist mood in the first months of )*,,>
.veryone in $ermany 3new that only the <ionists (ould responsibly represent the 2ews in dealings with the Bazi government. We all felt sure that one day the government would arrange a round table (onferen(e with the 2ews, at whi(h --after the riots and atro(ities of the revolution had passed-- the new status of $erman 2ewry (ould be (onsidered. 7he government announ(ed very solemnly that there was no (ountry in the world whi(h tried to solve the 2ewish problem as seriously as did $ermany. Solution of the 2ewish EuestionF 1t was our <ionist dreamH We never denied the existen(e of the 2ewish EuestionH :issimilationF 1t was our own appealH... 1n a statement notable for its pride and dignity, we (alled for a (onferen(e.# +-&
7he do(ument remained buded until )*6A, when it was finally printed, in $erman, in 1srael. =9ride= and =dignity= are words open to interpretation but, it is safe to say, there was not one word that (ould be so (onstrued today. 7his extraordinary memorandum demands extensive Euotation. 7he Bazis were as3ed, very politely>
Day we therefore be permitted to present our views, whi(h, in our opinion, ma3e possible a solution in 3eeping with the prin(iples of the new $erman State of Bational Awa3ening and whi(h at the same time might signify for 2ews a new ordering of the (onditions of their existen(e... <ionism has no illusions about the diffi(ulty of the 2ewish (ondition, whi(h (onsists above all in an abnormal o((upational pattern and in the fault of an intelle(tual and moral posture not rooted in one=s own tradition...
... an answer to the 2ewish Euestion truly satisfying to the national state (an be brought about only with the (ollaboration of the 2ewish movement that aims at a so(ial, (ultural, and moral renewal of 2ewry... a rebirth of national life, su(h as is o((urring in $erman life through adhesion to !hristian and national values, must also ta3e pla(e in the 2ewish national group. 0or the 2ew, too, origin, religion, (ommunity of fate and group (ons(iousness must be of de(isive signifi(an(e in the shaping of his life... ?n the foundation of the new state, whi(h has established the prin(iple of ra(e, we wish so to fit our (ommunity into the total stru(ture so that for us too, in the sphere assigned to us, fruitful a(tivity for the 0athedand is possible... ?ur a(3nowledgement of 2ewish nationality provides for a (lear and sin(ere relationship to the $erman people and its national and ra(ial realities. 9re(isely be(ause we do not wish to falsify these fundamentals, be(ause we, too, are against mixed marriage and are for maintaining the purity of the 2ewish group... ... fidelity to their own 3ind and their own (ulture gives 2ews the inner strength that prevents insult to the respe(t for the national sentiments and the imponderables of $erman nationality@ and rootedness in one=s own spirituality prote(ts the 2ew from be(oming the rootless (riti( of the national foundations of $erman essen(e. 7he national distan(ing whi(h the state desires would thus be brought about easily as the result of an organi( development. 7hus, a self-(ons(ious 2ewry here des(ribed, in whose name we spea3, (an find a pla(e in the stru(ture of the $erman state, be(ause it is inwardly unembarrassed, free from the resentment whi(h assimilated 2ews must feel at the determination that they belong to 2ewry, to the 2ewish ra(e and past. We believe in the possibility of an honest relationship of loyalty between a group (ons(ious 2ewry and the $erman state... 0or its pra(ti(al aims, <ionism hopes to be able to win the (ollaboration even of a government fundamentally hostile to 2ews, be(ause in dealing with the 2ewish Euestion no sentimentalities are involved but a real problem whose solution interests all peoples, and at the present moment espe(ially the $erman people. 7he realisation of <ionism (ould only be hurt by resentment of 2ews abroad against the $erman development. %oy(ott propaganda --su(h as is (urrently being (arried on against $ermany in many ways-- is in essen(e un-<ionist, be(ause <ionism wants not to do battle but to (onvin(e and to build... ?ur observations, presented herewith, rest on the (onvi(tion that, in solving the 2ewish problem a((ording to its own lights, the $erman $overnment will have full understanding for a (andid and (lear 2ewish posture that harmonizes with the interests of the state.# *-&
7his do(ument, a treason to the 2ews of $ermany, was written in standard <ionist (li(hes> =abnormal o((upational pattern=, =rootless intelle(tuals greatly in need of moral regeneration=, et(. 1n it the $erman <ionists offered (al(ulated (ollaboration between <ionism and Bazism, hallowed by the goal of a 2ewish state> we shall wage no battle against thee, only against those that would resist thee. ?bsessed with their strange mission, the <;f:=s leaders lost all sense of international 2ewish perspe(tive and even tried to get the W<? to (all off its World !ongress, s(heduled for August )*,,. 7hey sent their world leadership a letter> =1t will have to express sharp protests,, their lives (ould be at sta3e at a time when =our legal existen(e has enabled us to organise thousands and to transfer large sums of money to 9alestine=.# )4-& 7he !ongress did ta3e pla(e as we shall see, but the <;f: had nothing to worry about as the Bazis (hose to use the o((asion to announ(e that they had made a deal with world <ionism.
ASee4in< i)7 +6n N()i+n(5 I*e(5i7/ in )1e N(=i S8i0i)A 7he 2ewish publi( 3new nothing about von Dildenstein=s Courney to 9alestine in the (ompany of a member of the <ionist .xe(utive, nor about /osenbluth and 'i(htheim=s trip to 'ondon@ nor did they 3now about the memorandum, nor the reEuest to (all off the <ionist !ongress. However, they (ould not miss what was appearing in the /unds(hau, where assimilationalist $erman 2ewry was roundly atta(3ed. 7he !; (omplained bitterly of <ionist =siegesfanfaren= as the /unds(hau rushed to (ondemn the guilty 2ews.# ))-& 7he editor, /obert Welts(h, too3 the o((asion of the ) April boy(ott to assail the 2ews of $ermany in an editorial> =Wear the 5ellow %adge with 9ride=>
At times of (risis throughout its history, the 2ewish people has fa(ed the Euestion of its own guilt. ?ur most important prayer says, =We were expelled from our (ountry be(ause of our sins=... 2ewry bears a great guilt be(ause it failed to heed 7heodor Herzl=s (all... %e(ause the 2ews did not display their 2ewishness with pride, be(ause they wanted to shir3 the 2ewish Euestion, they must share the blame for the degradation of 2ewry.# )A-&
.ven as the Bazis were in the pro(ess of throwing the left into (on(entration (amps, Welts(h atta(3ed the left-wing 2ewish Cournalists>
1f today the Bational So(ialist and $erman patrioti( newspapers freEuently refer to the type of the 2ewish s(ribbler and the so-(alled 2ewish press... it must be pointed out... Gpright 2ews have always been indignant at the raillery and the (ari(ature dire(ted by 2ewish buffoons against 2ews to the same extent, or even a greater extent, than they aimed them at $ermans and others.# ),-&
Although the left-wing press had been under atta(3 from the day the Bazis (ame to power, the 2ewish newspapers were still legal. Baturally they were (ensored@ if a Cournal printed something untoward, it would be (losed down, temporarily at least. However, the Bazis did not for(e the <ionists to denoun(e their fellow 2ews. After the Holo(aust Welts(h was Euite (ontrite about the editorial, saying that he should have told the 2ews to flee for their lives, but he never (laimed that the Bazis made him write the pie(e. Welts(h was not a 0as(ist, but he was too mu(h the <ionist se(tarian to have really thought through his ideas about the world at large. As were most of the leaders of the <;f:, he was Euite (onvin(ed that =egotisti(al liberalism= and parliamentary demo(ra(y were dead at least in $ermany. 1nternationally, they were still for the %ritish in 9alestine, but the /unds(hau=s (orrespondent in 1taly, "urt "orni(3er, was Euite openly pro-0as(ist.# )I-& 7he <;f:=s leaders be(ame (onvin(ed that 0as(ism was the wave of the future, (ertainly in !entral .urope, and within that framewor3 they (ounterposed the =good= 0as(ism of Dussolini to the =ex(esses= of Hitlerism, whi(h they thought would diminish, with their assistan(e, as time went by. /a(ism was now triumphant and the <;f: ran with the winner. 7he tal3 of blut began to ta3e hold with a statement by %lumenfeld in April )*,, that the 2ews had previously been mas3ing their natural blood-san(tioned apartness from the real $ermans, but it rea(hed Wagnerian proportions in the I August /unds(hau with a long essay, =/asse als "ulturfa3tor=, whi(h pondered on the intelle(tual impli(ations for 2ews of the Bazi vi(tory. 1t argued that 2ews should not merely a((ept silently the di(tates of their new masters@ they,
too, had to realise that ra(e separation was wholly to the good> We who live here as a =foreign ra(e= have to respe(t ra(ial (ons(iousness and the ra(ial interest of the $erman people absolutely. 7his however does not pre(lude a pea(eful living together of people of different ra(ial membership. 7he smaller the possibility of an undesirable mixture, so mu(h less is there need for =ra(ial prote(tion=... 7here are differentiations that in the last analysis have their root in an(estry. ?nly rationalist newspapers who have lost feeling for the deeper reasons and profundities of the soul, and for the origins of (ommunal (ons(iousness, (ould put aside an(estry as simply in the realm of =natural history=. 1n the past, the paper (ontinued, it had been hard to get 2ews to have an obCe(tive evaluation of ra(ism. %ut now was the time, indeed past time, for a bit of =Euiet evaluation=> =/a(e is undoubtedly a very important, yes, de(isive momentum. ?ut of "blood and soil" really is determined the being of a people and their a(hievements.= 2ews would have to ma3e good for =the last generations when 2ewish ra(ial (ons(iousness was largely negle(ted. 7he arti(le warned against =bagatellised= ra(e, and also against the !;, who were beginning to abandon their traditional assimilationist ideology in the wa3e of the disaster, but =without (hanging basi(ally=. !hallenging the ra(ist bona fides of their rivals was not enough. 7o prove that the =2ewish /enaissan(e Dovement= had always been ra(ist, the /unds(hau reprinted two pre-)*)I arti(les under the title =;oi(es of the %lood=. =:as singende %lut= by Stefan <weig and ='ied des %lutes= by Hugo Salus rhapsodised about how =the modern 2ew... re(ognizes his 2ewishness... through an inner experien(e whi(h tea(hes him the spe(ial language of his blood in a mysti(al manner=. %ut although these mimi(s of the Bazis were (onfirmed ra(ists, they were not (hauvinists. 7hey did not thin3 they were ra(ially superior to the Arabs. 7he <ionists were even going to uplift their benighted Semiti( (ousins. 7heir vol3ism was only a warped answer to their own =personality problem=, as they put it> it allowed them to re(on(ile themselves to the existen(e of anti-Semitism in $ermany without fighting it. 7hey hastened to reassure their readers that many modern nations and states were ra(ially mixed and yet the ra(es (ould live in harmony. 2ews were warned> now that they were to be(ome ra(ists, they should not be(ome (hauvinists> =above ra(e is humanity=.# )8-& Although ra(ism permeated through the <;f:=s literature, foreign 2ewish observers always saw 2oa(him 9rinz as its most strident propagandist. A So(ial :emo(rati( voter before )*,,, 9rinz be(ame rabidly vol3ist in the first years of the 7hird /ei(h. Some of the violent hostility towards 2ews in his boo3 Wir 2uden (ould have been inserted dire(tly into the Bazis= own propaganda. 7o 9rinz the 2ew was made up of =mispla(ement, of Eueerness, of exhibitionism, inferiority, arrogan(e, self-de(eit, sophisti(ated love of truth, hate, si(3ly, patriotism and rootless (osmopolitanism... a psy(hopathologi(al arsenal of rare abundan(e=. # )6-& 9rinz was deeply (ontemptuous of the rational and liberal traditions whi(h had been the
(ommon basis of all progressive thought sin(e the Ameri(an /evolution. 0or him the harm that liberalism had done was (ompensated for only by the fa(t that it was dying>
9arliament and demo(ra(y are in(reasingly shattered. 7he exaggerated harmful emphasis on the value of the individual is re(ognised to be mista3en@ the (on(ept and reality of the nation and the vol3 is gaining, to our happiness, more and more ground.# )J-&
9rinz believed that an a((ommodation between Bazis and 2ews was possible, but only on the basis of a <ionist-Bazi a((ord> =A state whi(h is (onstru(ted on the prin(iple of the purity of nation and ra(e (an only have respe(t for those 2ews who see themselves in the same way. # )+-& After he (ame to the Gnited States 9rinz realised that nothing he had been saying in $ermany sounded rational in a demo(rati( (ontext and he abandoned his bizarre notions, further proof that the $erman <ionists had simply adapted ideologi(ally to Bazism.# )*-& %ut perhaps the best illustration of the <ionists= Bazifi(ation was the (urious statement by one of the /unds(hau=s editors, Arnold <weig, made in his 1nsulted and .xiled, naturally written abroad and published in )*,J>
of all the newspapers published in $erman, the most independent, the most (ourageous, and the ablest was the 2udis(he /unds(hau, the offi(ial organ of the <ionist Gnion of $ermany. Although it sometimes went too far in its approval of the Bationalist State see3ing its own national idealism in the Bazi spirit-, there, nevertheless, issued from it a stream of energy, tranEuility, warmth, and (onfiden(e of whi(h the $erman 2ews and 2ewry the world over stood in urgent need.# A4-&
AT1e E?-5.7i;e C+n)0+5 +, Ge0/(n &e6i71 Li,eA Bot even the Buremberg 'aws of )8 September )*,8 (hallenged the basi( $erman <ionist belief in an ultimate modus vivendi with the Bazis. 7he He!halutz 9ioneer- !entre, in (harge of training youth for the 3ibbutz move ment, (on(luded that the promulgation of laws ma3ing mixed marriage a (rime was a suitable o((asion for a new approa(h to the regime. 7he 9ioneers (ame up with a plan for the emigration of the entire 2ewish (ommunity over a period of )8-A8 years. Abraham Dargaliot, a s(holar at 1srael=s 5ad ;ashem Holo(aust 1nstitute, has explained the thin3ing at the !entre in that fateful year>
7he He!halutz leaders assumed that this underlying goal would prove so alluring to the $erman authorities that they would agree to extend aid towards further emigration abroad by liberalizing the laws governing the transfer of foreign (urren(y abroad, by providing opportunities for vo(ational training and by =politi(al means=.# A)-&
7he /unds(hau published ex(erpts from a spee(h in whi(h Hitler announ(ed that his government still hoped to find a basis for =a better attitude towards the 2ews=.# AA-& 7he paper published a statement by A.1. %randt, the head of the Bazis= press asso(iation, whi(h informed a doubtlessly somewhat surprised world that the laws were>
both benefi(ial and regenerative for 2udaism as well. %y giving the 2ewish minority an opportunity to lead its own life and assuring governmental support for this independent existen(e, $ermany is helping 2udaism to strengthen its national (hara(ter and is ma3ing a (ontribution towards improving relations between the two peoples.# A,-&
7he goal of the <;f: be(ame =national autonomy=. 7hey wanted Hitler to give 2ews the
right to an e(onomi( existen(e, prote(tion from atta(3s on their honour, and training to prepare them for migration. 7he <;f: be(ame absorbed in trying to utilise the segregated 2ewish institutions to develop a 2ewish national spirit. 7he tighter the Bazis turned the s(rew on the 2ews, the more (onvin(ed they be(ame that a deal with the Bazis was possible. After all, they reasoned, the more the Bazis ex(luded the 2ews from every aspe(t of $erman life, the more they would have need of <ionism to help them get rid of the 2ews. %y )8 2anuary )*,6 the 9alestine 9ost had to ma3e the startling report that> =A bold demand that the $erman <ionist 0ederation be given re(ognition by the government as the only instrument for the ex(lusive (ontrol of $erman 2ewish life was made by the exe(utive of that body in a pro(lamation today.=# AI-& $erman <ionist hopes for an arrangement faded only in the fa(e of the ever-mounting intimidation and terror. .ven then there was no sign of any attempts at anti-Bazi a(tivity on the part of the <;f: leaders. 7hroughout the entire pre-war period there was only a tiny <ionist involvement in the anti-Bazi underground. Although the He!halutz and Hashomer youth movements tal3ed so(ialism, the Bazis were not (on(erned. 5e(hiel $reenberg of Hashomer admitted in )*,+ that =our so(ialism was (onsidered merely a philosophy for export=.# A8-& %ut almost from the beginning of the di(tatorship the underground "9:, always loo3ing for new re(ruits, sent some of their 2ewish (adre into the youth movements and, a((ording to Arnold 9au(3er--now the editor of 'ondon=s 'eo %ae(3 1nstitute 5ear %oo3-- some <ionist youth be(ame involved with the resistan(e at least to the extent of some illegal postering in the early years of the regime.# A6-& How mu(h of this was due to the influen(e of the !ommunist infiltrators, and how mu(h was spontaneous is impossible to estimate. However, the <ionist bureau(ra(y vigorously atta(3ed the "9:.# AJ-& As in 1taly, so in $ermany> the <ionist leadership sought the support of the regime for <ionism and resisted !ommunism@ in neither (ountry (ould it be thought of as part of the anti0as(ist resistan(e. 7he interrelationship between the <;f: and the W<? will be des(ribed below. Suffi(e to say for now, that the W<? leaders approved of the general line of their $erman affiliate. However, within the ran3s of the world movement there were many who refused to remain silent while their $erman bran(h not only a((epted se(ond-(lass (itizenship as no more than the 2ews had a right to expe(t but, even worse, denoun(ed foreign 2ews for boy(otting $ermany. %oris Smolar, the (hief .uropean (orrespondent for the 2ewish 7elegraphi( Agen(y, the <ionist wire servi(e, spo3e for all these when he wrote angrily, in )*,8>
?ne (an understand that a 2ewish newspaper whi(h appears in $ermany may not be in a position fully to support the demands of World 2ewry with regard to the full restoration of 2ewish rights. 7his, however, doesn=t Custify any offi(ial organ to (ome out and pra(ti(ally agree to the anti-2ewish limitations whi(h exist in $ermany. 7his last is exa(tly what the 2udis(he /unds(hau has done.# A+-&
9rior to the Bazis, $erman <ionism was no more than an isolated bourgeois politi(al (ult. While the leftists were trying to fight the brownshirts in the streets, the <ionists were busy (olle(ting money for trees in 9alestine. Suddenly in )*,, this small group (on(eived of itself as properly anointed by history to negotiate se(retly with the Bazis, to oppose the vast mass of world 2ewry who wanted to resist Hitler, all in the hope of obtaining the support of the enemy of their people for the building of their state in 9alestine. Smolar and their other
<ionist (riti(s saw the <;f: as merely (owardly, but they were Euite wrong. Any surrender theory explains nothing of the pre-Hitler evolution of <ionist ra(ism, nor does it go far in explaining the W<?=s endorsement of their stan(e. 7he truth is sadder than (owardi(e. 7he plain fa(t is that $ermany=s <ionists did not see themselves as surrendering but, rather, as would-be partners in a most statesmanli3e pa(t. 7hey were wholly deluded. Bo 2ews triumphed over other 2ews in Bazi $ermany. Bo modus vivendi was ever even remotely possible between Hitler and the 2ews. ?n(e Hitler had triumphed inside $ermany, the position of the 2ews was hopeless@ all that was left for them was to go into exile and (ontinue the fight from there. Dany did, but the <ionists (ontinued to dream of winning the patronage of Adolf Hitler for themselves. 7hey did not fight Hitler before he (ame to power, when there was still a (han(e to beat him, not out of any degree of (owardi(e, but out of their deepest (onvi(tion, whi(h they had inherited from Herzl, that anti-Semitism (ould not be fought. $iven their failure to resist during Weimar, and given their ra(e theories, it was inevitable that they would end up as the ideologi(al Ca(3als of Bazism.
# )-&. 2a(ob %oas, =A Bazi 7ravels to 9alestine=, "istory Today 'ondon, 2anuary )*+4-, p. ,,. # A-&. Dartin /osenbluth, *o 3orth and Ser e, p. A8,. # ,-&. !bid., p. A8I. # I-&. !bid., p. A88. # 8-&. !bid., p. A8+. # 6-&. 5israel $utman in debate-, Jewish $esistance during the "olocaust, p. ))6. # J-&. Stephen Wise, #hallenging 9ears, p. AI+. # +-&. 2oa(him 9rinz, =<ionism under the Bazi $overnment=, 9oung Zionist 'ondon, Bovember )*,J-, p. )+. # *-&. 'u(y :awidowi(z ed.-, ( "olocaust $eader, pp. )84-8. # )4-&. /uth %ondy, The Emissary' ( 1i%e o% Enzo Sereni, pp. ))+-)*. # ))-&. 2a(ob %oas, The Jews o% *ermany' Sel%>Perception in the =azi Era as $e%lected in the *erman Jewish Press ,0..>,0.-, 9h: thesis, Gniversity of !alifornia, /iverside )*JJ-, p. ),8. # )A-&. :awidowi(z, ( "olocaust$eader, p. )I+. # ),-&. !bid., p.)I*.
# )I-&. Deir Di(haelis, +ussolini and the Jews, p. )AA. # )8-&. =/asse als "ulturfa3tor=, Judische $undschau I August )*,,-, p. ,*A. # )6-&. "oppel 9inson, =7he 2ewish Spirit in Bazi $ermany=, +enorah Journal Autumn )*,6-, p. A,8. # )J-&. Gri :avis, !srael' ?to pia !ncorporated, p. )+. # )+-&. %enyamin Datuvo, =7he <ionist Wish and the Bazi :eed=, !ssues Winter )*66KJ-, p. )A. # )*-&. Author=s interview with 2oa(him 9rinz + 0ebruary )*+)-. # A4-&. Arnold <weig, !nsulted and E6iled 'ondon, )*,J-, p. A,A. # A)-&. Abraham Dargaliot, =7he /ea(tion of the 2ewish 9ubli(= in *ermany to the =uremberg 1aws&5ad ;ashem Studies, vol. L11, p. +*. # AA-&. !bid., p. +8. # A,-&. !bid., p. +6. # AI-&. =$erman <ionists See3 /e(ognition=, PalestinePost )8 2anuary )*,6-, p. ). # A8-&. 5e(hiel $reenberg, =Hashomer Hatzair in .urope=, "ashomer "atzair Bovember )*,J-, p. ),. # A6-&. Author=s interview with Arnold 9au(3er, A+ ?(tober )*+4. # AJ-&. $iora 2osephthal, The $esponsible (ttitude, p. ++. # A+-&. %oris Smolar, =<ionist ?vertures to Bazism=, Jewish Daily Bulletin + Dar(h )*,8-, p. A. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD CHAPTER % THE &E ISH ANTI-NAZI BOYCOTT AND THE ZIONIST-NAZI TRADE AGREEMENT 1t was only the in(ompeten(e of his foes that allowed Hitler to (ome to power, and the new !han(ellor still had to prove to his (apitalist patrons that he (ould handle the responsibilities of running $ermany. His position was by no means (ompletely se(ure> the wor3ers were still against him, and the industrialists still had to be shown that he (ould get the e(onomy moving. Abroad the (apitalists wavered between relief that he had (rushed the
!ommunists and fear that he would eventually start another war. 0oreign opinion was now (ru(ial> $ermany was dependent on the world mar3et, and Hitler=s antiSemitism be(ame a problem. 7he 2ews were powerful in the emporiums of the world, parti(ularly in two of $ermany=s biggest mar3ets--.astern .urope and Ameri(a. $erman business interests were by no means (ertain about their loyalty to the new !han(ellor@ together with their friends in the army they might have to (urb him or even repla(e him, if they were themselves to suffer losses be(ause the 2ews and his other foreign foes united in a boy(ott of $erman exports. 7he regime=s own e(onomi( experts fran3ly dis(ussed their grave wea3ness and were extremely (on(erned that the Bew ?rder might not survive resolute opposition abroad. 7he 2ews moved very slowly but finally Bew 5or3=s 2ewish War ;eterans 2W;-, after (onsidering the (onseEuen(es for $erman 2ewry, announ(ed a trade boy(ott on )* Dar(h )*,, and organised a huge protest parade on the A,rd. 7he Dayor of Bew 5or3 too3 part and so did the !ommunists, whom the ex-servi(emen refused to allow into the demonstration until they too3 down their banners. Spurning the thousands of !ommunists in Bew 5or3=s 2ewish (ommunity doomed the tiny veteran group=s efforts. 9oliti(ally extremely naive, the veterans ignored the elementary fa(t that for a boy(ott to have even the slightest (han(e of su((ess, it must have the broadest possible organised unity behind it. Soon after the veterans= failure Abe !oralni3, a <ionist, and Samuel Gntermyer, a sympathiser who had donated the money for the new stadium at the Hebrew Gniversity in 2erusalem, put together what ultimately be(ame the Bon-Se(tarian Anti-Bazi 'eague. However, boy(ott pi(3eting was illegal and Gntermyer, a 7ammany lawyer, would not brea3 the law. ?f (ourse, without mass pi(3eting a boy(ott (annot be enfor(ed and those in the 2ewish (ommunity who were determined to impose a boy(ott turned next to rabbi Wise and the <ionist Ameri(an 2ewish !ongress A2!- to ta3e the lead. At first Wise opposed both demonstrations and a boy(ott, but by AJ Dar(h even he was willing to fill Dadison SEuare $arden for the rally that so disturbed $oering. A large assembly of politi(ians, (hur(hmen and trade union bureau(rats duly denoun(ed the tyrant in %erlin, but nothing was done to organise mass support. Wise, who had not mobilised the masses before Hitler (ame to power, was not the one to do it now. ?n the (ontrary, he wrote to a friend> =5ou (annot imagine what 1 am doing to resist the masses. 7hey want tremendous street s(enes.=# )-& He opposed a boy(ott, hoping that a few demonstrations, alone, would press /oosevelt into intervening. %ut the State :epartment saw Hitler as a battering ram against !ommunism, and the domesti( politi(ians, desperately wanting to end the :epression, (raved for $ermany as a mar3et. 7he result was that the :emo(rats did nothing either against Hitler or for the 2ews. As a :emo(rat himself, Wise (ontinued to hold out against a boy(ott but, while he was in .urope in August l*,,, (onsulting $erman 2ewish leaders and attending the W< !ongress, the more militant elements in the A2! managed to (all a boy(ott. %ut the A2! was still a thoroughly bourgeois organisation without experien(e in mass mobilisation and, li3e the Anti-Bazi 'eague, it timidly opposed pi(3eting. 1ts boy(ott dire(tor did nothing more strenuous than issue splendid statisti(s on how the Bazis= trade was being devastated by the boy(ott.# A-& 1t was not until its youth group finally rebelled and pi(3eted a department-store (hain in the autumn of )*,I that the A2! allowed its affiliates to pi(3et re(al(itrant mer(hants.
%oy(otts are almost never su((essful. Dost people thin3 they have done enough if they stop buying the goods, but a boy(ott (an only wor3 if there is a solid organisation prepared to disrupt trade seriously. 7he blame for the failure to build that movement lay with many> both 2ewish and non-2ewish. !ertainly the trade union leaders who pledged their opposition to Hitler, but did nothing to mobilise their ran3s were to a large measure responsible for the la(3 of a serious boy(ott (ampaign. !ertainly those 2ewish groups li3e the 2W;, the Anti-Bazi 'eague and the A2! were ineffe(tual, but there were those in the 2ewish (ommunity in Ameri(a and %ritain who spe(ifi(ally opposed the very notion of a boy(ott. 7he Ameri(an 2ewish !ommittee, the %=rnai %=rith Sons of the !ovenantfraternal order and the %oard of :eputies of %ritish 2ews refused to ba(3 the boy(ott. 7hey feared that if the 2ewish wor3ers, and others as well, too3 it into their heads to fight Hitler, perhaps they would stay in motion and (ome after their own ri(h (loser to home. 7hese worthies (onfined themselves to (harity efforts for $erman 2ewry and its refugees and prayed that Hitlerism would not spread. 7he Agudas 5israel Gnion of 1srael-, the politi(al arm of the most extreme wing of traditional ?rthodoxy, opposed the boy(ott on religious grounds as well as their so(ial (onservativism. 7hey (laimed that ever sin(e the an(ient 2ewish 3ingdom was destroyed by the /omans, the 7almud had forbidden 2ews to revolt against $entile authority in the :iaspora@ they interpreted the boy(ott as rebellion and therefore forbidden. However, of all of the a(tive 2ewish opponents of the boy(ott idea, the most important was the World <ionist ?rganisation W<?-. 1t not only bought $erman wares@ it sold them, and even sought out new (ustomers for Hitler and his industrialist ba(3ers.
T1e A88e(5 +, )1e B5++* I*e(
7he W<? saw Hitler=s vi(tory in mu(h the same way as its $erman affiliate, the <;f:> not primarily as a defeat for all 2ewry, but as positive proof of the ban3rupt(y of assimilationism and liberalism. 7heir own hour was at hand. <ionists began to sound li3e tent-revivalists> Hitler was history=s flail to drive the stiff-ne(3ed 2ews ba(3 to their own 3ind and their own land. A re(ent <ionist (onvert, the then world-famous popular biographer .mil 'udwig, was interviewed by a fellow <ionist on a visit to Ameri(a and expressed the general attitude of the <ionist movement> =Hitler will be forgotten in a few years, but he will have a beautiful monument in 9alestine. 5ou 3now=, and here the biographerhistorian seemed to assume the role of a patriar(hal 2ew - =the (oming of the Bazis was rather a wel(ome thing. So many of our $erman 2ews were hovering between two (oasts@ so many of them were riding the trea(herous (urrent between the S(ylla of assimilation and the !harybdis of a nodding a(Euaintan(e with 2ewish things. 7housands who seemed to be (ompletely lost to 2udaism were brought ba(3 to the fold by Hitler, and for that 1 am personally very grateful to him.=# ,-& 'udwig was a new(omer to the movement, but his views were in (omplete (on(ord with those of su(h veterans as the (elebrated !haim Ba(hman %iali3, thought of then as the poet laureate of <ion. %e(ause of his reputation, his statements were given wide (ir(ulation both by the <ionist movement and its left-wing enemies. 7he poet=s (on(ern had long been the brea3down of 2ewish unity resulting from the de(line of traditional religious faith, and now
he (ould not hide his happiness that Hitler had (ome Cust in time to save $erman 2ewry from its own destru(tion. Hitlerism, the poet feels, has rendered at least one servi(e in drawing no lines between the faithful 2ew and the apostate 2ew. Had Hitler ex(epted the baptized 2ews, there would have developed, %iali3 (ontended, the unedifying spe(ta(le of thousands of 2ews running to the baptismal fonts. Hitlerism has perhaps saved $erman 2ewry, whi(h was being assimilated into annihilation. At the same time, it has made the world so (ons(ious of the 2ewish problem, that they (an no longer ignore it.# I-& %iali3, li3e many other <ionists, thought of the 2ews as something of a super ra(e@ if only they would finally (ome to their senses and stop wasting themselves on an ungrateful humanity and started wor3ing in their own vineyard. 1ndeed it is Euite true that 2udaism, by penetrating into all the nations a(tually did undermine the remnants of that sort of idolatry... but perhaps the strongest for(es in this pro(ess were our =apostate= or =assimilated= 2ews of all types, who entered into the very body of !hristianity and stirred its very bowels, and went on slowly undermining the remnants of paganism as a result of their 2ewish volition and their 2ewish blood. 1, too, li3e Hitler, believe in the power of the blood idea. 7hese were the men-although often the names of great non-2ews are (al'ed in their stead-who smoothed the roads for the great movements of freedom all over the world> 7he /enaissan(e, 'iberalism, :emo(ra(y, So(ialism and !ommunism... Anti-Semites sometimes have (lear dis(ernment. 2ewish influen(e has indeed been very powerful in this (onne(tion@ we ought not to deny it.# 8-& However, by )*,I <ionism was a movement (laiming over a million members world-wide and not all of them a((epted the upside-down notion that Hitler really was a boon to the 2ews. Some, li3e the Ameri(an rabbi, Abraham 2a(obson, protested against this insane idea, whi(h was still Euite widespread even as late as )*,6> How many times have we heard the impious wish uttered in despair over the apathy of Ameri(an 2ews to <ionism, that a Hitler des(end upon themF 7hen they would realize the need for 9alestineH #6-& Fi07) De(5in<7 6i)1 )1e N(=i7 !ertainly the W<? was Euite prepared to try and use the Bazis for their own purposes. 7he first overtures to the Bazis were made independently in )*,, by one Sam !ohen, the owner of Ha Bote=a 'td, a 7el Aviv (itrus export firm. .ven under !han(ellor %runing the $erman government had put a flight tax on (apital leaving the (ountry and !ohen had proposed that <ionist emigres be allowed to avoid the tax by pur(hasing goods in $ermany whi(h would later be turned ba(3 into (ash after sale in 9alestine. %runing had no interest in the idea, but in )*,, !ohen, on his own, presented the plan again. 7he Bazis were already worried about the effe(t even the spontaneous and lamentably organised boy(ott was having on their balan(e of trade, and Heinri(h Wolff, the $erman !onsul in 2erusalem, Eui(3ly grasped Cust how useful !ohen=s proposition (ould be. He wrote to his ministry> =1n
this way it might be possible to wage a su((essful (ampaign against the 2ewish boy(ott of $ermany. 1t might be possible to ma3e a brea(h in the wall.=# J-& 7he 2ews, he argued, would be put in a Euandary. 0urther boy(ott would be seen as imposing problems on emigrants see3ing to find new homes for themselves in 9alestine or elsewhere. %e(ause of his lo(ation, Wolff was one of the first $ermans to per(eive the growing importan(e of 9alestine in the 2ewish eEuation, and in 2une he wrote again to %erlin> Whereas in April and Day the 5ishuv was waiting boy(ott instru(tions from the Gnited States, it now seems that the situation has been transformed. 1t is 9alestine whi(h now gives the instru(tions... 1t is important to brea3 the boy(ott first and foremost in 9alestine, and the effe(t will inevitably be felt on the main front, in the Gnited States. # +-& 1n early Day )*,, the Bazis signed an agreement with !ohen for one million /ei(hmar3s MI44,444- of 2ewish wealth to be shipped to 9alestine in the form of farm ma(hinery. At this point the W<? intervened. 7he :epression had badly affe(ted donations and in Dar(h )*,, they had desperately (abled to their followers in Ameri(a pleading that if funds were not forth(oming immediately= they were heading for imminent finan(ial (ollapse. # *-& Bow Dena(hem Gssis(h3in, head of the 2ewish Bational 0und, got !ohen to arrange for the release of frozen 2B0 monies in $ermany via Ha Bote=a. 7he bait for the Bazis was that the (ash was needed to buy land for the 2ews whom Hitler would be pushing out. !ohen also assured Heinri(h Wolff that he would operate =behind the s(enes, at a forth(oming 2ewish (onferen(e in 'ondon to wea3en or defeat any boy(ott resolution=.# )4-& :r 0ritz /ei(hert, the $estapo=s agent in 9alestine, later wrote to his headEuarters reminding them of the affair> 7he 'ondon %oy(ott !onferen(e was torpedoed from 7el Aviv be(ause the head of the 7ransfer in 9alestine, in (lose (onta(t with the (onsulate in 2erusalem, sent (ables to 'ondon. ?ur main fun(tion here is to prevent, from 9alestine, the unifi(ation of world 2ewry on a basis hostile to $ermany... 1t is advisable to damage the politi(al and e(onomi( strength of 2ewry by sowing dissension in its ran3s.# ))-& Sam !ohen was soon superseded in these deli(ate negotiations by 'abour <ionist, !haim Arlosoroff, the 9oliti(al Se(retary of the 2ewish Agen(y, the W<?=s 9alestine (entre. Arlosoroff was 3eenly aware of the movement=s problems. 1n )*,A he had (on(luded that they had failed to attra(t enough immigrants to over(ome the Arabs= numbers and they were not drawing enough 2ewish (apital. Hitler in power would mean war within ten years. 7o survive in 9alestine and solve the 2ewish problem in that period meant swift and vigorous a(tion. Bow, he thought, he had the way for <ionism to solve its diffi(ulties> with %ritain=s agreement, they (ould get both the immigrants and the (apital needed through extending !ohen=s proCe(t. 1n an arti(le in the /unds(hau and elsewhere, he (oldly explained that this (ould only be done in (omplete (o-operation with %erlin> Baturally, $ermany (annot expose herself to the ris3 of upsetting her (urren(y and ex(hange balan(e in order to meet the 2ews, but a way out (an be found to adCust these
different interests... 1t would be worth while, leaving all sentimentalities out of the Euestion, to rea(h su(h an agreement with $ermany. 7he self-styled So(ialist-<ionist then proposed the ultimate allian(e, a deal between the <ionists, the Bazis, the 0as(ists and the %ritish .mpire, to organise the eva(uation of 2ewry from $ermany> 1t (ould also be possible to establish a (ompany, with the parti(ipation of the $erman State and other .uropean, primarily %ritish and 1talian interests, whi(h would slowly liEuidate the parti(ular properties by issuing letters of (redit... #and (reatingl... A guarantee fund. # )A-& He felt his idea was parti(ularly timely be(ause world opinion would support a =(onstru(tive treatment of the 2ewish Euestion in $ermany=.# ),-& "nowing the $erman 2ews would not want to put all their money in Hitler=s hands, he proposed that the %ritish should (hoose the fund=s manager. His (omrade 5itzha3 'ufban wrote later that =Arlosoroff suggested several names, and the !olonial Se(retary pi(3ed one of them=.#)I-& 1n early Day )*,,, Arlosoroff and the Bazis (ame to a preliminary understanding to extend !ohen=s arrangements. He visited %erlin again in 2une, and returned to 7el Aviv on )I 2une. 7wo nights later he was assassinated be(ause of his dealings with the Bazis. 7he 3illing will be dis(ussed below@ it is suffi(ient to say here that it did not slow down the W<?=s a((ommodation with the Bazis, and a <ionistBazi pa(t was announ(ed by the Bazis in time for the )+th <ionist !ongress in August in 9rague. T1e ZO &.7)i,ie7 )1e P(-) 6i)1 )1e N(=i7
Hitler=s shadow (ompletely dominated the 9rague !ongress. 7he W<?=s leaders 3new that the Bazis were interested in a deal and they determined to avoid offending $ermany by limiting dis(ussion of the situation there to the barest minimum.#)8-& 7he regime as su(h was not (ondemned. 7he 'eague of Bations was as3ed to help in the =fight for the re(overy of the rights of the 2ews in $ermany=, but the reEuest was buried in a lengthy dis(ussion of emigration and 9alestine.# )6-& Bo plan was proposed to put pressure on the world body, nor was any spe(ifi( a(tion (alled for on the 'eague=s part. 7he <ionist-Bazi pa(t be(ame publi( the day before a boy(ott resolution was to be debated, and it may be spe(ulated that the Bazis did this so as to dis(ourage endorsement of the boy(ott. 7he leader of the right-wing =/evisionists=, ;ladimir 2abotins3y, presented the boy(ott (ase, but there was no (han(e of his proposal getting a serious hearing. 7he %ritish had arrested several of his /evisionists for Arlosoroff=s murder and the prose(utor was putting eviden(e before the (ourt while the !ongress met. As the /evisionists had a history of violen(e against their <ionist rivals, most delegates were (onvin(ed of their (ompli(ity in the Arlosoroff affair. 7heir unsavoury reputation was enhan(ed when 2abotins3y=s own brownshirts a((ompanied him into the hall in full military formation, (ompelling the presidium to outlaw the uniforms for fear they would provo3e Arlosoroff=s 'abour (omrades into a dot. 2abotins3y=s support for the boy(ott, and his opposition to the pa(t, was dismissed as the raging of a terrorist opponent of the demo(rati(ally ele(ted moderate
leadership. His resolution was defeated by a vote of AI4 to I+. However, defeating 2abotins3y=s resolution did not ne(essarily mean that the delegates favoured a deal with Hitler and, when the Bazis announ(ed that they had signed an agreement with the <ionists allowing $erman 2ews to ship three million /ei(hmar3s= worth of 2ewish wealth to 9alestine in the form of $erman export goods, mu(h of the !ongress dismissed the statement as a propaganda stunt. When the truth be(ame (lear, pandemonium bro3e loose. 7he leadership had (ompletely mis(al(ulated and genuinely expe(ted the pa(t to be immensely popular. Bow, stunned by the hostile opposition, they tried to prote(t themselves by outright lying@ the 'abour leader, %erl 'o(3er, brazenly pro(laimed> =the exe(utive of the World <ionist ?rganisation had nothing to do with the negotiations whi(h led to an agreement with the $erman government=.# )J-& Bo one believed this (rude fabri(ation. Dany delegates, parti(ularly the Ameri(ans, were in favour of the boy(ott and voted against 2abotins3y, primarily be(ause they felt the W<? was too preo((upied with 9alestine to ta3e on additional (hores. Bow Stephen Wise presented the leadership with an ultimatum> explain =how to prevent $erman... propagandists from utilising the agreement=. His demand =was heatedly dis(ussed all day... by the 9oliti(al !ommittee=.# )+-& 1n the end the leaders did not dare ta3e offi(ial responsibility for the =Ha=avara= or 7ransfer Agreement, and pretended that it only bound $ermany and the formal signatory, the Anglo-9alestine %an3. %ut, sin(e the ban3 was their own ban3, they only su((eeded in ma3ing themselves loo3 ridi(ulous to friend and foe ali3e. 7he debate over the <ionist-Bazi pa(t (ontinued angrily unti) )*,8. 7he Ha=avara rapidly grew to be(ome a substantial ban3ing and trading house with ),J spe(ialists in its 2erusalem offi(e at the height of its a(tivities. 7he regulations were always (hanging in response to Bazi pressure, but in essen(e the agreement was always the same> $erman 2ews (ould put money into a ban3 inside $ermany, whi(h was then used to buy exports whi(h were sold outside $ermany, usually but not ex(lusively in 9alestine. When the @migr@s finally arrived in 9alestine, they would re(eive payment for the goods that they had previously pur(hased after they had finally been sold. 0is(al ingenuity extended Ha=avara=s operations in many dire(tions, but throughout its operation its attra(tion to $erman 2ews remained the same> it was the least painful way of shipping 2ewish wealth out of $ermany. However, the Bazis determined the rules, and they naturally got worse with time@ by )*,+ the average user was losing at least ,4 per (ent and even 84 per (ent of his money. Bevertheless, this was still three times, and eventually five times, better than the losses endured by 2ews whose money went to any other destination.# )*-& 7he top limit through the Ha=avara s(heme was 84,444 mar3s MA4,444 or NI,444- per emigrant, whi(h made the Ha=avara unattra(tive to the ri(hest 2ews. 7herefore only MI4,I)*,444 went to 9alestine via Ha=avara, whereas M684 million went to the Gnited States, M64 million to the Gnited "ingdom and other substantial sums elsewhere. 5et if, in terms of $erman 2ewry=s wealth, Ha=avara was by no means de(isive, it was (ru(ial to <ionism. Some 64 per (ent of all (apital invested in 9alestine between August )*,, and September )*,* was (hannelled through the agreement with the Bazis.A4 1n addition, the
%ritish set the annual 2ewish immigrant Euota, using the wea3 e(onomi( absorptive (apa(ity of the (ountry to limit their number@ however, =(apitalists= --those bringing in over N),444 M8,444--- were allowed in over Euota. 7he )6,8A* (apitalists were thus an additional sour(e of immigrants as well as an e(onomi( harvest for <ionism. 7heir (apital generated a boom, giving 9alestine a wholly artifi(ial prosperity in the midst of the worldwide :epression. At first the W<? tried to defend itself against the (harges of boy(ott-s(abbing and outright (ollaboration by insisting that the Ha=avara transfers did not really brea3 the boy(ott, sin(e $ermany did not re(eive foreign (urren(y for its goods as they were all pur(hased inside the (ountry for mar3s. However, %erlin soon demanded part payment for some of the (ommodities in foreign (urren(y and soon, too, the W<? started soli(iting new (ustomers for $ermany in .gypt, 'ebanon, Syria and 1raE. .ventually the <ionists began exporting oranges to %elgium and Holland using Bazi ships.# A)-& %y )*,6 the W<? began to sell Hitler=s goods in %ritain.# AA-& 7he W<? was not interested in fighting the Bazis, and every defen(e of the Ha=avara s(heme demonstrated that. Selig %rodets3y, one of the members of the <ionist .xe(utive and later, in )*,*, the 9resident of the %ritish %oard of :eputies, rebu3ed the world for s(orning them> !ongress had risen to a level to whi(h few 2ewish bodies (ould have risen. 1t was a very easy thing to use violent words, to organise meetings, to (all boy(otts, but it was a far more diffi(ult thing to spea3 (almly and use (ool reasoning. 1t was said that the de(isions (on(erning $ermany were too wea3. BoH Bon-2ews (ould afford to use strong words, but 2ews (ould not.# A,-& 1t was not the <ionists who were the traitors, it was everyone else that was out of step --or so at least Doshe %eilenson, a leading 'abour <ionist, would have had the world believe. 7his had not been his first effort at (ollaboration with 0as(ism. 1n )*AA he had been one of the delegation that pledged 1talian <ionism=s loyalty to Dussolini. Bow he tried to present a theoreti(al defen(e of the Bazi pa(t> after the $hetto walls had been overthrown, our main weapon for the defense of our lives and our rights was the protest... All our protests in the (ourse of de(ades did not su((eed in destroying the reign of perse(ution not only in the vast empire of the 7sars, but even in the relatively tiny /umania... 7he !ongress did not =betray=@ it triumphed. 1t was not =afraid=@ on the (ontrary, it had the (ourage to initiate a new 2ewish statesmanship... ;erily, the .ighteenth !ongress had the (ourage to destroy the assimilationist tradition whose (hief (hara(teristi( is a relian(e on others and appeals to others... 0or generations we fought by means of protests. Bow we have another weapon in our hand, a strong, trusty and sure weapon> the visa to 9alestine.# AI-& 7he great maCority of 2ews opposed the Ha=avara. 1t had no defenders outside the W<?, and trading with the Bazis was not popular with many inside its own ran3s. 9rotests started pouring in while the 9rague !ongress was still in session. 7he pa(t was extremely
unpopular in 9oland, where the 2ews feared that if there was no resistan(e to the antiSemitism next door, their own 2ew-haters would start demanding that the 9olish govemment imitate the $ermans. 1n Ameri(a and %ritain, ea(h with a more or less demo(rati( tradition, many <ionists, in(luding some of the leading names in the movement, opposed it. 7he prominent !leveland rabbi, Abba Hillel Silver, was one of the very first to (omplain, in August )*,,> Why the very idea of 9alestine 2ewry negotiating with Hitler about business instead of demanding Custi(e for the perse(uted 2ews of $ermany is unthin3able. ?ne might thin3 that the whole affair was a ban3rupt(y sale and that the 2ews of 9alestine were endeavouring to salvage a few bargains for themselves.# A8-& 'amentations were heard even at the far (orners of the earth. 7he Delboume Jewish 2ee5ly =ews protested> =they will ma3e us a laughing-sto(3 among the $ermans, who will be able to de(lare that when it (omes to a (onfli(t between 2ewish business and sentiment, business always wins=.# A6-& /abbi Wise retumed to the subCe(t on innumerable o((asions. 1n September )*,, he referred to Ha=avara as the snew golden (alf-the $olden ?range= and (ontinued> =1 thin3 1 spea3 the mind of 2ews everywhere when 1 say we hold in abhorren(e any 2ew, whether in or out of 9alestine, who underta3es to ma3e any (ommer(ial arrangements with the Bazi government for any reason whatever=.# AJ-& 1n a spee(h at a World 2ewish !onferen(e at $eneva in )*,I, Wise atta(3ed the 'abourites who had be(ome the dominant for(e in 9alestinian <ionism> ?ne leading 9alestinian put it over and over again at 9rague> 9alestine has prima(y. 7his (onferen(e must (learly state, that while 9alestine has prima(y over all other fa(tors in the eEuation, its prima(y (eases when it (omes into (onfli(t with a higher moral law.# A+-& Wise had identified the rot in the W<?> the land of 1srael had be(ome far more important than the needs of the people 1srael. 'abour <ionism had be(ome, in the fullest sense, a utopian (ult. 7hey saw a new 2ew in the old 2ewish land as the only way for a 2ewish nation to (ontinue to exist. 7he real 2ewish people, the millions of 2ews of the :iaspora, were no more than a reservoir from whi(h they would pi(3 young immigrants to build their state. 7he :iaspora, as su(h, was doomed> either the 2ews would be driven out, as in $ermany, or assimilated as in 0ran(e. With this strange perspe(tive that 2ewish survival stood or fell with them in 1srael, the <ionists were driven to see3 more from the Bazis to ma3e their vision into a reality. 1n late )*,, they tried to revive Arlosoroff=s full-s(ale liEuidation ban3. Weizmann let !ohen propose to the $erman 0oreign Dinistry that he, the former 9resident of the movement, now (hairman of its !entral %ureau for the Settlement of $erman 2ews, should (ome to %erlin to dis(uss the liEuidation s(heme, but the Bazis de(lined to extend him an invitation.# A*-& 7hey were always less interested in ma3ing a deal with the <ionists than the <ionists were to (ome to terms with them. 7he Bazis had a(hieved what they wanted, the <ionists had bro3en the boy(ott and showed no signs of resisting them@ for the moment that was enough. %ut not even that rebuff (ould throw Weizmann off (ourse. A year and a half later, on , 2uly )*,8, he wrote to Arthur /uppin, dire(tor of the !olonisation
:epartment in 9alestine, and one of the most devoted apostles of further intima(y with the Bazis> :r Doses, as 1 hear, made (onta(ts with the /ei(h Dinistry for Bational .(onomy, and, following a number of tal3s he had there, submitted a memorandum demanding that eventual additional exports to .ngland, if a(hieved at the reEuest of our friends in $ermany, be used in favor of the N),444 people.# ,4-& Weizmann went on to ma3e it (lear that the 9rague !ongress statement about the =fight= for $erman 2ewish rights was stri(tly lip-servi(e. He dis(ussed 9rague in the (ontext of the forth(oming )*,8 'u(erne !ongress> 1 3now very well that the !ongress in 'u(erne (an by-pass and ta3e no noti(e of the $emman 2ewish Euestion Cust as did the 9rague !ongress... 1 dare to doubt if anyone, espe(ially the $erman 2ews and the $erman <ionists, will gain advantage from the $erman 2ewish Euestion being treated in all thoroughness, moreover in a spe(ial report. 1t will not a(hieve a positive useful effe(t espe(ially today, in view of the readiness in the world to (ome to terms with $ermany. ?n the other hand, 1 believe it is very possible that su(h a report may be(ome dangerous to the omy positive thing we have in $ermany, the intensified <ionist movement... We, being a <ionist ?rganisation, should (on(em ourselves with the (onstru(tive solution of the $erman Euestion through the transfer of the 2ewish youth from $emmany to 9alestine, rather than with the Euestion of eEual rights of 2ews in $ermany.# ,)-& =!onstru(tive=, it will be re(alled, was always one of Weizmann=s favourite (li(hes@ after the 0irst World War he had assured the (apitalists at ;ersailles that <ionism was (onstru(tive, unli3e the behaviour of those 2ews who engaged in =destru(tive tenden(ies=. =!onstru(tive= thin3ing with regard to Hitler, so widespread in (apitalist (ir(les of the day, was extraordinary (oming from a 2ew, but of (ourse High <ionism was a world away from the ordinary 2ewish mentality. Weizmann=s friend, the $erman-born /uppin, was a good (ase in point. A ra(e improver, it was he who was in (harge of turning middle-(lass youths into =(onstru(tive= toilers on health-giving 2ewish boden. 1n )*,I his boo3, Jews in the +odern 2orld, openly expressed the a((ommodationist line of the <ionist movement. 1n it he told the 2ews, again, that it was their fault that things had o((urred in the way they had, and he admonished them that> Su(h an attempt at a pea(eful settlement of the problem would have been possible if... 2ews... had re(ognized that their pe(uliar position among the $ermans was bound to lead to (onfli(ts whi(h had their origin in the nature of man, and (ouldn=t be removed by arguments and reason. Had both sides realized that the present position was due not to bad will but to (ir(umstan(es, whi(h had arisen independently of the will of either side, it would have been unne(essary to attempt the solution of the 2ewish problem in an orgy of unbridled hatred. His =misunderstanding, theory developed logi(ally into his (on(luding> =;arious intermediate and partial solutions will be reEuired to rea(h a modus i endi)# ,A-& 'ewis Bamier, a former 9oliti(al Se(retary of the W<?, and a maCor historian of the
%ritish aristo(ra(y, had prefa(ed /uppin=s boo3. "nowledgeable <ionists, in(luding Bahum $oldmann, saw Bamier as an intense 2ewish anti-Semite.# ,,-& 1n his devotion to the gentry, he despised the 2ews as the epitomy of (apitalism, of vulgar =trade=. As might be expe(ted, his introdu(tion expressed his =understanding= of anti-Semitism --=not everyone who feels un(omfortable with regard to us must be (alled an anti-Semite, nor is there anything ne(essarily and inherently wi(3ed in anti-Semitism=.# ,I-& 1n fa(t the original draft was even stronger. Weizmann had read it and had to warn Bamier not to be so open in expressing their mutual toleration of Bazism> ?n p. 6 the lines =but what has happened et(.= mar3ed in pen(il seem to me dangerous, although 1 agree with your (on(lusion. %ut it=s a boo3 by /uppin and a prefa(e by you and it will be Euoted in $ermany and the =louts, will say, =the 2ews themselves thin3 that it will be all for the good, et(.= 1 would omit it if possible. # ,8-& Su(h were the minds of the leading figures of the <ionist movement in )*,8 as they trooped into their summer !ongress at 'u(erne. 9ubli(ly on re(ord as denying that the Ha=avara had anything to do with them, se(retly they were doing all they (ould to extend it. 1n every respe(t their thin3ing and their poli(ies were at odds with the immense maCority of the 2ews of the world. AT02in< )+ De0i;e )1e .)/+7) A*;(n)(<e ,0+/ i) in )1e Zi+ni7) Sen7eA 7he <ionist leadership still had to fa(e one last internal battle over the Ha=avara and their general stan(e toward the Bazis. 2abotins3y and his /evisionists had split off from the W<?, but a remnant of his followers --now (alled the Judenstaat Partei 2ewish State 9arty--- had stayed loyal to the W<? and still demanded repudiation of the 7ransfer. Several Cournalists des(ribed the short but fero(ious debate at the )*,8 !ongress. The #anadian Zionist reported that> A vote was ta3en and resulted in Dr $rossman=s motion #for a debate on whether the Anglo-9alestinian %an3 had (aused the arrest of pi(3eters who had protested the use of $erman (ement& being defeated. Whereupon there were loud derisive (ries of =Heil HitlerH= on the part of some of Dr $rossman=s supporters. 7his (aused pandemonium.# ,6-& 9aul Bovi(3, the editor of the Ameri(an !ommunist daily newspaper, the +orgen 3reiheit, related that the =Histadrut delegates answered in 3ind, shouting towards the 2udenstaat people> ==S(hus(hnigg agents" meaning agents of 1talo-Austrian 0as(ism-.=# ,J-& 7he .xe(utive=s poli(y toward Hitler had stout defenders at the !ongress. A theoreti(al defen(e was presented by Doshe Sherto3, who had su((eeded Arlosoroff as the organisation=s 9oliti(al Se(retary their eEuivalent to 0oreign Dinister-. 7he man who later be(ame the se(ond 9rime Dinister of 1srael sternly told the delegates, and the listening 2ewish world, that they Cust had to realise that> 7he 2ewish people had no greater hope for su((ess in the struggle for existen(e than through the upbuilding of .retz 1srael, and they must, therefore, be willing to draw
the (onseEuen(es. 7hey imitated the protests and boy(otts pra(tised by other peoples, but forgot that those measures were expressions of the for(e possessed by those peoples, whereas the <ionist movement had yet to (reate su(h a for(e for itself.# ,+-& %eyond the !ongress some of the most important propagandists of the W<?=s strategy were the shliachim or emissaries sent out worldwide by the 'abour <ionists in 9alestine. .nzo Sereni, another graduate of the a((ommodationist 1talian movement, had been the emissary in $ermany in )*,)-A, but he had done nothing to either mobilise the $erman 2ews or assist the S9: in their fight against the Bazis. Sereni was one of those who saw Hitler as a s(ourge driving 2ewry toward <ionism. He on(e informed Dax As(oli, an 1talian anti-0as(ist a(tivist, that =Hitler=s anti-Semitism might yet lead to the salvation of the 2ews=.,* At the 'u(eme !ongress he was the vigorous exponent of the prima(y of 9alestine> We have nothing to be ashamed of in the fa(t that we used the perse(ution of the 2ews in $ermany for the upbuilding of 9alestine. 7hat is how our sages and leaders of old have taught us... to ma3e use of the (atastrophes of the 2ewish population in the :iaspora for upbuilding.# I4-& %ut by far the best example of the leadership=s unwillingness to resist the Bazis was Weizmann=s statement> 7he only dignified and really effe(tive reply to all that is being infli(ted upon the 2ews of $ermany is the edifi(e ere(ted by our great and beautiful wor3 in the 'and of 1srael... Something is being (reated that will transform the woe we all suffer into songs and legends for our grand-(hildren.# I)-& 7he presidium manoeuvred to 3eep any serious dis(ussion of resistan(e off the !ongress floor, and Wise=s name was stru(3 from the spea3ers= list for fear that he would denoun(e Hitler. He threatened to wal3 out of the !ongress if he was not allowed to spea3 and, as the !ongress 3new they (ould not afford to have the most famous <ionist in Ameri(a wal3 out on su(h a (ontroversial issue, they finally gave way and let him spea3. He duly got up, said that he was opposed to Hitler --hardly a statement that would have attra(ted attention in most other (ompany-- and sat down. He and Abba Hillel Silver had never really done mu(h more than tal3 about boy(ott, and by )*,8 there was nothing in Ameri(a that remotely resembled an effe(tive boy(ott organisation. 1n pra(ti(e, they had no alternative programme for effe(tive resistan(e@ now, primarily fo(using on 9alestine as a refuge for $erman 2ewry, they (apitulated to Weizmann and endorsed the Ha=avara, and after the 'u(erne !ongress there were no longer any serious differen(es between them and the international movement. 1n the end the only offi(ial protest against Hitlerism made by the assembly was a half-day (an(ellation of one of their sessions, a meaningless gesture. Weizmann had little real diffi(ulty getting the !ongress formally to endorse the Ha=avara, but the opposition was able to (urb one of its a(tivities. A Ha=avara subsidiary, the Bear and Diddle .ast !ommer(ial !orporation B.D1!?-, had been set up to soli(it new (ustomers for $ermany throughout the Diddle .ast. 7he .gyptian <ionist 0ederation had threatened to expose the s(andal if the world organisation did not put a stop to it, and in the
interests of preserving the larger s(heme the leadership relu(tantly had to sa(rifi(e the B.D1!? operation. 7he (apitulation of the Ameri(ans did nothing to Euieten 2ewish opposition elsewhere. 9ress (riti(ism was immediate. 1ondon8s 2orld Jewry, then the best <ionist magazine in the .nglish language, ex(oriated their own World !ongress> =:r Weizmann went as far as to state that the only dignified reply the 2ews (ould give was a renewed effort for the upbuilding of 9alestine. How terrifying the pro(lamation of the !ongress 9resident must have sounded in the ears of Herren Hitler, Strei(her and $oebbelsH=# IA-& 7he unoffi(ial <ionist press in %ritain shared the growing publi( feeling that war with Hitler was inevitable, and it (ould not understand the total la(3 of serious dis(ussion of Bazism at the !ongress. 7he magazine=s (orrespondent des(ribed the meeting as strangely depressing> =We have an agenda more suitable for a board of dire(tors of a limited liability (ompany than for a national (on(lave with the national destiny in its hands.=# I,-& .ven the Jewish #hronicle, always the mouthpie(e of the 2ewish establishment, (omplained in the same vein> =the pro(eedings were almost as dull as a debate on the !olonial ?ffi(e in the House of !ommons on a 0riday morning=.# II-& 1t felt (ompelled to (ondemn the de(ision on the Ha=avara> 7he spe(ta(le is puzzling to the world, whose sympathy we bespea3 and disheartening to 2ews for whom the boy(ott is one of the few weapons to their hand and who now see themselves deserted by the Dovement whi(h they most have a right to (laim as an ally in their fight.# I8-& 1n Ameri(a the opposition to the Ha=avara was parti(ularly intense in the garment industry trade unions, with their hundreds of thousands of 2ewish wor3ers. Dost of the 2ewish labour leaders had always loo3ed upon <ionism with (ontempt. Dany of them were from /ussia and 3new about the fateful Herzl-9levhe meeting and how their old enemy <ubatov had ba(3ed the 9oale <ionists against the %und. As far as they were (on(erned the Ha=avara was Cust <ionism up to its old tri(3s, and in :e(ember )*,8 %aru(h !harney ;lade(3, the !hairman of the 2ewish 'abor !ommittee, and himself an ex-%undist from 9oland, debated %erl 'o(3er, the organisational head of the 9alestinian 9oale <ion, before an overflow (rowd in Bew 5or3. 'o(3er was (ompelled to ta3e a defensive position, insisting that the agreement was purely in the interest of the $erman 2ews. %esides, he argued, they would have brought the goods into the (ountry on their own if there were no treaty. Why, if it had not been for the pa(t, he maintained, the situation would have been far worse in this regard> =9alestine was presented by a %ait accompli... 7he 7ransfer agreement prevents the (ountry from being flooded with $erman mer(handise, sin(e goods (ome in only as there is need of them.=# I6-& ;lade(3 was not to be put off by 'o(3er=s obvious subterfuge, and he (ontinued the atta(3. 1n Bew 5or3 the lo(al 'abour <ionists were simultaneously supporting the boy(ott in the Gnited States while apologising for the Ha=avara in 9alestine, and the old %undist ridi(uled their attempt to run with the fox and hunt with the hounds>
5ou may argue from now till :oomsday, but this is double boo33eeping of the most flagrant sort. 7hat nobody should brea3 the boy(ott but the 2ews of 9alestineH And nobody deal with $ermany but the <ionist organisationH... 1t is my (ontention that the main purpose of the 7ransfer is not to res(ue the 2ews from $ermany but to strengthen various institutions in 9alestine... 9alestine thus be(omes the of fi(ial s(ab-agent against the boy(ott in the Bear .ast... When the news of the 7ransfer Agreement first (ame out... %erl 'o(3er said> =Bot a single <ionist agen(y has the slightest (onne(tion with the 7ransfer=... 0rom this 1 (an (on(lude in only one vein> 7he 7ransfer Agreement is a blot on the 2ews and on the world.# IJ-& 1f the maCority of 2ews did oppose the Ha=avara as treason, there was one at least who was willing to go on re(ord as (omplaining that Weizmann and his friends were not going far enough. $ustav "roCan3er, whose views on the Bazis were dis(ussed in !hapter ,, was now one of the leaders of the "itachdut :lei *ermania the $erman 1mmigrants Asso(iation in 9alestine-, and in )*,6 the asso(iation published his pamphlet, The Trans%er' ( Vital ;uestion o% the Zionist +o ement. 7o him <ionism was star3 (al(ulation, nothing more, and he was more than willing to draw the logi(al (on(lusions already inherent in the <ionist-Bazi pa(t. He (laimed to see Bazism and the opportunities it opened up for <ionism in the authenti( Herzlian manner> His survey of the situation was devoid of any futile grudge-bearing@ he per(eived two politi(al fa(tors --an organisation of the 2ewish people on the one side, and the (ountries (on(erned on the other. 7hey were to be partners in a pa(t. "roCan3er berated the leadership for not having the (ourage to formally endorse the Ha=avara ba(3 in )*,,. 7o him this was merely a (apitulation to what he (onsidered the =:iaspora mentality=. He wanted them to go mu(h further> 7he <ionist Dovement should have endeavoured... to influen(e the $erman $overnment to enter into a statesmanli3e treaty, a((epting the situation and trying to derive the utmost advantage from it in the <ionist sense. He insisted that the ne(essary next step was to help the Bazis brea3 the boy(ott in .urope itself through an extension of the Ha=avara. $ermany =might even be ready to (on(lude agreements--if we... prepared to extend the ==Ha=avara== system to other (ountries=.# I+-& %ut the W<? leadership needed no su(h (oa(hing from "rodan3er. He did not 3now that, se(retly, they had already de(ided to do Cust that and now, in Dar(h )*,6, Siegfried Doses=s negotiations had finally (reated the 1nternational 7rade and 1nvestment Agen(y 1B7/1A- ban3 in 'ondon to organise sales of $erman produ(ts dire(tly in %ritain itself. # I*-& 7he Bazis had to (ontent themselves with the satisfa(tion of the further demoralisation of the boy(ott for(es, as fear of 2ewish and general %ritish hostility to boy(ott--s(abbing made it impossible for 1B7/1A to go so far as to allow %ritish (urren(y to (ome dire(tly into $erman hands. 1nstead, the goods were bought in $ermany for mar3s and their value was (redited to 2ewish (apitalists needing the N),444 entry fee reEuired of over-Euota immigrants into 9alestine. <ionist-Bazi trade relations (ontinued to develop in other spheres as well. 1n )*,J A44,444 (rates of the =$olden ?ranges= were shipped to $ermany, and )KA million more to the 'ow !ountries under the swasti3a flag.# 84-& .ven after 7ristallnacht --)) Bovember )*,+, the terrible night of the bro3en glass, when the
Bazis finally unleashed the brownshirts to smash 2ewish stores-- the manager of Ha=avara 'td, Werner 0el(henfeld, (ontinued to offer redu(ed rates to would-be users of Bazi boats. His only (on(ern was to reassure the sEueamish that =(ompetition with %ritish vessels does not arise, as this transfer arrangement is valid for (itrus being shipped to :ut(h and %elgian ports, %ritish ports being expressly ex(luded=.# 8)-& 'What Matters in a Situation of this sort is a People's Moral Stance' ?f (ourse it was the Bazis who were the prime gainers from Ha=avara. Bot only did it help them push out a few extra 2ews, but it was of immense value abroad, providing the perfe(t rationale for all those who still wanted to (ontinue trading with the $ermans. 1n %ritain, Sir ?swald Dosley=s newspaper, the Blac5shirt, loved it> !an you beat thatH We are (utting off our nose to spite our fa(e and refuse to trade with $ermany in order to defend the poor 2ews. 7he 2ews themselves, in their own (ountry, are to (ontinue ma3ing profitable dealings with $ermany themselves. 0as(ists (an=t better (ounter the mali(ious propaganda to destroy friendly relations with $ermany than by using this fa(t.# 8A-& 7he final evaluation of the W<?=s role during the Holo(aust (annot be made until the other interrelationships between the <ionists and the Bazis are properly dealt with@ however, a preliminary appraisal of Ha=avara (an now be safely attempted. All ex(uses that it saved lives must be stri(tly ex(luded from serious (onsideration. Bo <ionist in the )*,4s thought that Hitler was going to try to exterminate the 2ews of either $ermany or .urope, and no one tried to defend Ha=avara during its operation in those terms. 7he ex(use was that it saved wealth, not lives. 1n fa(t, at the very best, it dire(tly helped a few thousand 2ews with money, by allowing them to enter 9alestine after the %ritish Euotas had been allo(ated and indire(tly it provided an opportunity for others by boosting the 9alestinian e(onomy. %ut every genuine opponent of Bazism understood that on(e Hitler had ta3en power and had $erman 2ewry in his (laws, the struggle against him (ould not possibly be (urbed by an over-(on(ern for their fate@ they were essentially prisoners of war. 7he battle still had to go on. Baturally no one wished those unfortunates any more grief than ne(essary, but to have brought the (ampaign against Bazism to a standstill out of (on(ern for the $erman 2ews would only have a((elerated Hitler=s further mar(h into .urope. While the W<? was busy saving the property, or, more properly, a pie(e of the property of the $erman 2ewish bourgeoisie, the =N),444 people=, thousands of $ermans --in(luding many 2ews-- were fighting in Spain, against Hitler=s own !ondor 'egion and 0ran(o=s 0as(ist army. 7he Ha=avara (ertainly assisted the Bazis in that it demoralised 2ews, some of whom were <ionists, by spreading the illusion that it was possible to (ome to some sort of modus i endi with Hitler. 1t also demoralised non-2ews to 3now that a world-wide 2ewish movement was prepared to (ome to terms with its enemy. !ertainly the Ha=avara removed the million-strong <ionist movement from the front line of anti-Bazi resistan(e. 7he W<? did not resist Hitler, but sought to (ollaborate with him and, as (an be seen in the proposals of Arlosoroff and Weizmann for a liEuidation ban3, only Bazi unwillingness to extend their lin3age prevented the development of an even greater degree of (o-operation. 7hose <ionists, as with 2orld Jewry, who tried to oppose Hitler, must also be severely faulted for their own failure to (reate an effe(tive 2ewish, or even <ionist, boy(ott ma(hine, but at
least they must be (redited with some moral stature in that they tried to do something to atta(3 the Bazis. %y (omparison Weizmann, Sherto3 and their (o-thin3ers lose our respe(t, even if we only set them against their <ionist (riti(s and ignore all other 2ewish opinion. At best, it (an be said of Weizmann and his il3 that they were the eEuivalent of Beville !hamberlain@ moral and politi(al failures. After the war and the Holo(aust, a (ontrite and remorseful Bahum $oldmann, mortified at his own shameless role during the Hitler epo(h, wrote of a dramati( meeting he had with the !ze(h 0oreign Dinister, .dvard %enes, in )*,8. $oldmann=s vivid a((ount of %enes=s warning to the 2ews says all that will ever need to be said on the Ha=avara and the abCe(t failure of the W<? to resist the Bazis> =:on=t you understand=, he shouted, =that by rea(ting with nothing but half-hearted gestures, by failing to arouse world publi( opinion and ta3e vigorous a(tion against the $ermans, the 2ews are endangering their future and their human rights all over the worldF=... 1 3new %enes was right... in this (ontext su((ess was irrelevant. What matters in a situation of this sort is a people=s moral stan(e, its readiness to fight ba(3 instead of helplessly allowing itself to be massa(red.# 8,-& N+)e7 # )-&. !arl ;oss, ='et Stephen Wise Spea3 for Himself=, Dimensions in (merican Jewry 0all )*6+-, p. ,J. # A-&. Doshe $ottlieb, The (nti>=azi Boycott +o ement in the (merican Jewish #ommunity8 ,0..>,0A,, 9h: thesis, %randeis Gniversity )*6J, p. )64. # ,-&. Deyer Steinglass, =.mil 'udwig before the 2udge=, American Jewish Times, April )*,6-, p. ,8. # I-& =9alestine and the 9ress=, Bew Palestine )) :e(ember )*,,-, p. J. # 8-&. !haim %iali3, =7he 9resent Hour=, 5oung Zionist B'ondon, Day )*,I-, p.6. # 6-&. Abraham 2a(obson, =7he 0undamentals of 2ewish Bationalism,= =ew Palestine , April )*,6-, p. ,. # J-&. :avid 5israeli, =7he 7hird /ei(h and the 7ransfer Agreement=, 2ournal o% #ontemporary "istory, vol. ;l )*J)-, p. ),). # +-&. 1bid. # *-&. =9alestine :rive to !ontinue=, 1srael 8s +essenger BShanghai, ) Day )*,,-, p. A. # )4-&. Werner %raatz, =$erman !ommer(ial 1nterests in 9alestine> <ionism and the %oy(ott of $erman $oods, )*,,-)*,I=, European Studies $e iew ?(tober )*J*-, p. 844. # ))-&. 5israeli, =7he 7hird /ei(h and the 7ransfer Agreement=, p. ),A.
# )A-&. =:r Arlosoroff=s 9lan=,2e wish Economic 3orum 'ondon, ) September )*,,-, 9- * # ),-&. !haim Arlosoroff, =What (an 9alestine offer to the $erman 2ewF=, 1abor Palestine 2une ).*,,-, p. *. # )I-&. 5itzha3 'ufban, =Arlosoroff=s 'ast 9eriod=, 'abor Palestine B2une )*,I-, p.6. # )8-&. =<ionist !ongress in 9rague=, <ionist $ecord South Afri(a, ) September )*,,-, p. 8. # )6-&. =7he )+th <ionist !ongress=, =ewJudaea 'ondon, September )*,,-, p. )*,. # )J-&. Jewish Daily Bulletin A* August )*,,-, p. I. # )+-&. =<ionist !ongress ;otes 1nEuiry !ommission for 9alestine 7errorist $roups=, 2ewish Daily Bulletin ) September )*,,-, p. I. # )*-&. Dar3 Wis(hnitzer, To Dwell in Sa%ety, p. A)A. # A4-&. :avid /osenthal, =!haim Arlosoroff I4 5ears 'ater=, 2ewish 3rontier August )*JI-, p. A,. # A)-&. =/efle(tions=, 9alestine Post B)I Bovember )*,+-, p. 6. # AA-&. 5ehuda %auer, +y Brother8s 7eeper& p. )A*. # A,-&. =2ustifi(ation of the <ionist !ongress=, <ionist $ecord South Afri(a, I ?(tober )*,,-, p. 8. # AI-&. Doshe %eilenson, =7he Bew 2ewish Statesmanship=, 'abor Palestine 0ebruary )*,I-, pp. +-)4. # A8-&. =Gntermyer, /abbi Silver :enoun(e :eals /eported Begotiated with $ermany=, 2ewish Daily Bulletin ,4 August )*,,-, p. I. # A6-&. =7he 9alestine ?range Agreement=, 2ewish 2ee5ly =ews Delbourne, )4 Bovember )*,,-, p. 8. # AJ-&. !laren(e Streit, ='eague Aid As3ed for $erman 2ews=, Bew 9or5 Times * September )*,,-, p.8. # A+-&. =:r Stephen Wise on 9oli(y of World 2ewry=, 2orld Jewry 'ondon, AI August )*,I-, p. ,*8. # A*-&. %raatz, =$erman !ommer(ial 1nterests in 9alestine=, p.84I.
# ,4-&. !haim Weizmann, =7o Arthur /uppin=, , 2uly )*,8, in %arnett 'itvinoff. ed.-, 7he 1etters and Papers o% #haim 2eizmann, 'etters, vo' L;1, p. I6I. # ,)-&. 1bid., pp. I68-6. # ,A-&. Arthur /uppin, The Jews in the +odern 2orld )*,I-, pp. A86-J. # ,,-&. Bahum $oldmann, (utobiography, p. ))A. # ,I-&. /uppin, 2ews in the +odern 2orld, p. xiii. # ,8-&. Weizmann, =7o 'ewis Bamier=, ) ?(tober )*,,, 1etters, vol. L;1, p. 8I. # ,6-&. =Bineteenth !ongress /eport=, !anadian Zionist BSeptember )*,8-, p. +. # ,J-&. 9aul Bovi(3, Zionism Today )*,6-, p. I. # ,+-&. =.xe(utive :efines its 9oli(ies in /eply to ?pposition=, =ew Palestine A4 September )*,8-, p. AI. # ,*-&. /uth %ondy, The Emissary' ( 1i%e o% Enzo Sereni, p. )I). # I4-&. Bovi(3, Zionism Today, p. 8. # I)-&. %arnett 'itvinoff, 2eizmann > 1ast o% the Patriarchs, p. )+A. # IA-&. ="iddush Hashem=, 2orld Jewry 6 September )*,8-, p. ). # I,-&. =Has !ongress a Dessage to :eliverF=, 2orld Jewry& ,4 August )*,8-, p. ). # II-&. =/efle(tions on the <ionist !ongress=, 2ewish #hronicle 'ondon, A4 September )*,8-, p. AI. # I8-&. =<ionists (lose their /an3s=, 2ewish #hronicle 'ondon, 6 September )*,8-, 9- * # I6-&. =:ebating the 1ssues of the 7ransfer=, #all o% 9outh 2anuary )*,6-, pp. ,-)A. # IJ-&. 1bid., pp. ,I. # I+-&. $ustav "roCan3er, The Trans%er' ( Vital ;uestion o% the Zionist +o e ment, pp. J-)4 and )8. # I*-&. %auer, +y Brother8s 7eeper, p. )A*. # 84-&. =/efle(tions=, 9alestine Post B)I Bovember )*,+-, p. 6.
# 8)-&. Werner 0el(henfeld, =!itrus on $erman Ships=, 9alestine Post B'etters- )J Bovember )*,+-, p. 6. # 8A-&. =%la(3shirts 9eeved at /ei(h-<ion 7rade=, 2ewish Daily Bulletin 6 0ebruary )*,8-, p.8. # 8,-&. $oldmann, (utobiography, p. )I+. A&C A/e0i-(n &e6i71 C+//i))ee -3+.0<e+i7 (77i/i5()i+ni7) +0<(ni7()i+n@ A&C A/e0i-(n &e6i71 C+n<0e77-Zi+ni7) +0<(ni7()i+n i*en)i,ie* 6i)1 0(33i S)e81en i7e@ AF A0/i( F0(9+6( (H+/e A0/2)-P+5i71 .n*e0<0+.n* (,,i5i()e* )+ )1e <+;e0n/en)ine?i5e@ BUF B0i)i71 Uni+n +, F(7-i7)7@ CID B0i)i71 C0i/in(5 In;e7)i<()i+n Di;i7i+n@ CPUSA C+//.ni7) P(0)2 +, USA@ C' Cen)0(5;e0ein (Cen)0(5 Uni+n +, Ge0/(n Ci)i=en7 +, )1e &e6i71 F(i)1)(77i/i5()i+ni7) *e,en-e +0<(ni7()i+n@ DDP De.)7-1e De/+40()i7-1e P(0)ei (Ge0/(n De/+-0()i- P(0)2)@ En*e47 N()i+n(5 De/+-0()7-(n)iSe/i)i- P+5i71 8(0)2@ HOG Hi)(-1*.) O5ei Ge0/(ni( (Ge0/(n I//i<0(n)7" A77+-i()i+n in P(5e7)ine)@ ILP In*e8en*en) L(3+.0 P(0)2-B0i)i71 7+-i(5i7) +0<(ni7()i+n@ INTRIA In)e0n()i+n(5 T0(*e (n* In;e7)/en) A<en-2 - Zi+ni7)+0<(ni7e* -+/8(n2 7e55in< Ge0/(n <++*7 in B0i)(in@ &FO &e6i71 Fi<1)in< O0<(ni7()i+n-.n*e0<0+.n* /+;e/en) in )1e (07(6 <1e))+@
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GLOSSARY OF &E ORGANISATIONS
ISH AND ZIONIST
A<.*(7 Yi70(e5 Uni+n +, I70(e5-(n (n)iZi+ni7) O0)1+*+? /+;e/en)@ A55i(n-e I70(e5i)e Uni;e07e55e F0en-1 &e6i71 81i5(n)10+82@ A/e0i-(n &e6i71 C+//i))ee Ri<1)6in< (77i/i5()i+ni7) <0+.8in<@ A/e0i-(n &e6i71 C+n<0e77 Zi+ni7)*+/in()e* +0<(ni7()i+n i*en)i,ie* 6i)1 0(33i S)e81en i7e@ A/e0i-(n &e6i71 &+in) Di7)0i3.)i+n C+//i))ee M(9+0 3+.0<e+i7 +;e07e(7 -1(0i)2@ An<5+P(5e7)ine B(n4 Zi+ni7) 3(n4 in P(5e7)ine@ Be)(0 Re;i7i+ni7) 2+.)1 +0<(ni7()i+n@ See Re;i7i+ni7)7@ BAn(i BA0i)1 S+n7 +, )1e C+;en(n) - -+n7e0;()i;e (77i/i5()i+ni7) ,0()e0n(5 +0*e0@ B+(0* +, De8.)ie7 +, B0i)i71 &e67 M(9+0 &e6i71 +0<(ni7()i+n in B0i)(in@ B0i) H(Bi02+ni/ Uni+n +, Te00+0i7)7 - Re;i7i+ni7) F(7-i7) +0<(ni7()i+n@ B0i)1 H(C1(2(5 Uni+n +, S+5*ie07@ B0i)1 H(71+/0i/ Uni+n +, B.n* Gene0(5 &e6i71 P+5(n*C (n)iZi+ni7)@ ()-1/en-Re;i7i+ni7) +0<(ni7()i+n in N(=i Ge0/(n2@
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Zi+ni7) O0<(ni7()i+n +, A/e0i-( E>.i;(5en) +, Gene0(5 Zi+ni7)7@ Zi+ni7)i7-1e 'e0eini<.n< ,*0 De.)7-15(n* Zi+ni7) Fe*e0()i+n +, Ge0/(n2@ 7he (opyright O- belongs to the author. 1t was published by !room Helm, "ent $reat%ritain- and 'auren(e Hill, Westport, !onn. in the GSA, AJJ p. 1S%B $%- 4J4**46A+8@ GSA paperba(3- 4++A4+)6I4 in )*+,. 7his boo3 has been out of print for years. 1t has been (omputerized, displayed on the Bet, and forwarded to you as a tool for edu(ational purpose, further resear(h, on a non (ommer(ial and fair use basis, by the 1nternationl Se(retariat of the War and Holo(aust 7ales An(ient Amateurs= Asso(iation WH?7AAAB- in )**6. 7he .mail of the Se(retariat is PaaarghQabb(.(omR