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by Lauren Kougias An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Approved: _________________________________________ Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete, Project Adviser

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hartford, CT December, 2009

© Copyright 2009 by Lauren Kougias All Rights Reserved

2

.......................................................................................... 8 Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ..... 3 Expected Outcomes..................1 1.............................................. Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 1..... 4 2.......... 5 2.........................................................................................................................4 Modeling ..2 1................. 2 Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....... 18 4..................................................... Appendix A – Nonlinear Buckling Results ...... 6 Eigenvalue Buckling Solution and Mesh Density Study ... Buckling of a Thin Cylinder Under Axial Compression .............. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ..............................1 2...............................................................................2 2.................. 1 1.............................. References.................................................... 19 5........ 12 3......................... 5 LIST OF SYMBOLS................... 7 ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... 20 3 ............ Conclusions.........................CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES..........................................3 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Theoretical Solution............................................................................3 Problem Description ..........

. Eigenvalue Buckling Mesh Density Study Results .. 15 4 ................................................. 5 Table 2...... 12 Table 3... Nonlinear Buckling Results.........LIST OF TABLES Table 1.................... Material Properties for AMS 4928 (Ti 6-4)..........................................................................................

11 Figure 7............ Load vs................................. First Six Eigenvalue Mode Shapes....... linear element (a) and a fully integrated............................................................................................................................................................ quadratic element (b) subjected to bending moment M ............................... Element Size .............. 20 Figure 13............................................................... e = 50% shell thickness ...... Displacement Curve for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder.................... 3 Figure 2........... 9 Figure 3.............. 16 Figure 11............. Eigenvalue Buckling Mode Four Deflections........................... Convergence of Eigenvalue Buckling Results vs................ 12 Figure 8.......... Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder..................... 7 Figure 5........ or "Out of Round" ............................ 20 Figure 14......................................... 14 Figure 9............ Definition of Ovalized...... e = 10% shell thickness............ 17 Figure 12........................... Finite Element Model Boundary Conditions ..................................................... 10 Figure 6... e = 50% shell thickness..... Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder..................................... Proportional loading with unstable response.. Displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Perfect Cylinder ....... Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder.................................................... 15 Figure 10............. e = 1% shell thickness ............................ Effect of Ovalization on Buckling Capability..... ......... e = 100% shell thickness ......... Deformation of a fully integrated...................... 6 Figure 4.....................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.................... Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder................... 21 5 ..........................................

Fcr σy Force Vector Stiffness Matrix Displacement Vector Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) Poisson’s Ratio Density lb lb/in in psi N/A lb/in3 Eccentricity or Imperfection Size (Half of out of roundness value) in Cylinder wall thickness in Cylinder radius in Length of cylinder in Buckling coefficient Critical buckling stress Critical buckling stress N/A psi psi 6 .LIST OF SYMBOLS {F} [K] {U} E ν ρ e t R L kc N.

Thank you to my colleagues and technical mentors at Pratt & Whitney. family and friends for all of their support. Thank you to Professor Gutierrez-Miraverte for all of his guidance and patience throughout these last few months. for their technical guidance and support during the execution of this study. He has truly been an educational mentor and an advisor.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my husband. Without their help and moral support. Special thanks also to my good friends John Battye and Susan Smith for taking the time to read through this paper and offer constructive criticisms for its improvement. completing this project would have been nearly impossible. 7 . Richard Monahan and Bessem Jlidi.

Finite element results were calibrated to and were in good agreement with the theoretical solution for a perfectly round cylinder under axial compression.9% and 75%. This paper addresses the buckling capability of a cylindrical shell under a compressive axial load using finite element analysis and shows how variability in manufacturing processes.3%. Results show that. respectively. Out of roundness of 1%. such as ovalization of a cylindrical duct. as expected. 50% and 100% of the shell thickness resulted in a reduction in buckling capability of 8.8% 65. 10%. 8 . 37. buckling capability of a thin cylinder is significantly affected by out of roundness. can affect the buckling capability of these parts.ABSTRACT The use of cylindrical shells in the aerospace industry is widespread as load carrying structures.

thin cylindrical shells are used for bypass ducts. In military engines. specifically slight ovalization due to manufacturing. Therefore. Introduction The use of thin-walled cylinders is widespread in many engineering industries.1. This study will examine how imperfections in a thin cylinder. The effect of this ovalization will be studied using finite element analysis. The bypass ducts of a military jet engine must withstand severe compressive loading due to the many quick maneuvers that a fighter jet makes in a given mission. In designing thin cylindrical shells. In the aerospace industry. the fuselage of a commercial jet is subject to inertial and pressure loads during takeoff and landing. a more detailed analysis must be conducted. it is typically assumed that the cylinder is perfectly round and the imperfections resulting from manufacturing processes are not captured. This analysis. Slight part imperfections are difficult to avoid and make the job of determining the actual buckling capability of a part difficult to predict. As a military jet moves through the sky. lowcost parts increases. It is typically found that results obtained from experiment are significantly different from the theoretical solution. Although the loading of these thin-walled cylinders varies. however. Submarines are subject to large external pressure loads as they dive into the depths of the ocean. As industry becomes more competitive and the need to design lightweight. the similarity among them is that the buckling capability of the structures is an extremely important factor in their design. the stiffness matrix is not updated during the solution and the results predict a load carrying capability greater than the structure could actually sustain. In order to design a part to its true limit. it is 1 . The eigenvalue method predicts the buckling strength of an ideal linear structure. A thin cylindrical shell is extremely sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. Since it is a linear solution. The discrepancy is thought to be due to imperfections in an actual manufactured part that are not accounted for in theory. including the axial load from the engine thrust. The least expensive way to study this effect would be by conducting a linear eigenvalue buckling analysis. the bypass ducts are subjected to several maneuver loads. is known to be anticonservative [1]. and factors such as part variations due to manufacturing must be considered. can affect its buckling load capacity. creating optimized designs is becoming more and more important. which are typically defined as geometric shape imperfections and load eccentricities.

1. is updated to reflect the new stiffness under the current loading. {U}. The nonlinear large displacement method gradually increases the load in steps. has the capability of using the results of an eigenvalue buckling analysis to impart imperfections into a part for a buckling analysis. Abaqus. The equilibrium equation. The unconverged solution typically indicates that the structure is unable to carry any more load and buckling has occurred. which models large deflections and post-buckling behavior. Once this occurs the finite element package is unable to find a solution and the job is aborted. A nonlinear buckling analysis will then be performed on the cylinder using a static Rik's solution. Lee explored the advantages and disadvantages of using eigenvalue buckling analysis and nonlinear large displacement static buckling analysis to evaluate a thin cylindrical shell subject to an external pressure load. This study does the same for a cylinder under axial loading. For this study. in each step by an iterative process. “Buckling Analysis of a Submarine with Hull Imperfections”. Although this method is more time consuming and computationally expensive. The eigenvalue mode shape that reflects an ovalized cylinder will be used to impart slight deflections to the part. As the load increases in each step.1 Problem Description The purpose of this project is to study how imperfections in a thin-walled cylinder affect buckling capability.common to perform a nonlinear. is solved for displacement. [K]. Lee determined that out of roundness in a cylinder significantly decreases its capability to withstand an external pressure load. it is typically a more accurate method for determining buckling capability of a part. was completed by Lee in 2007 [2]. The load is increased until instability occurs and the stiffness approaches zero. a combination of linear eigenvalue and nonlinear buckling analysis will be performed. large displacement static buckling analysis. a finite element code. A somewhat similar study. There are many imperfections that can affect the buckling 2 . the stiffness matrix. The load applied to the structure in the last converged step previous to the unconverged solution is typically used as the buckling capability of the structure. {F}=[K]{U}. He also studied the effect of mesh density and material nonlinearity in his study.

for which the Abaqus solver is known as best in class. that can result from manufacturing processes in the production of thin cylinders. is 3 . This project requires nonlinear large displacement analysis. or out of roundness. material imperfections. Figure 1 shows what is meant by ovalized. etc. Once the solution is validated. the nonlinear buckling analysis is performed.2 Methodology The finite element method is used to conduct the analysis for this project. e e e e Figure 1. A perfectly round (no imperfections). or "Out of Round" 1. a study is conducted by imparting various degrees of imperfection into the cylinder. a product of Dassault Systemes. The degree of ovalization. iterating on element size until the solution converges. including ovalization. simply supported cylinder is modeled in Abaqus. while the dashed line is ovalized. variation in thickness. The effect of ovalization and the degree of ovalization required to significantly affect the critical buckling load for a cylinder in pure axial compression will be studied. An eigenvalue buckling solution is conducted several times. The resulting buckling load obtained from this analysis is validated by comparing it to a simple hand calculation using a simple equation derived using small deflection theory. or out-ofroundness. Abaqus is an industry leader in the field of finite element analysis. This paper will focus on the ovalization. The solid blue line is a cylindrical duct. The element size used is determined by conducting a mesh density study. Once an element size is determined. Definition of Ovalized. The largest element that produces accurate results is used to produce accurate results in a model that runs as quickly as possible.capability of a thin-walled cylinder. The software used is Abaqus.

The stresses in the cylinders will be examined to explain the premature collapse under axial loading. The ovalization is created in Abaqus using the imperfection command. the total out of roundness is equal to e + e.measured by the total diametric deformation. This command uses the eigenvalue buckling result for a specified mode and scales the normalized displacements. 1. the total out of roundness is two inches. 4 . It is unknown whether or not the trend between load carrying capability and out of roundness will be linear or exponential. or 2e. The displacements are then used to change the shape in the nonlinear buckling solution. So if e is one inch.3 Expected Outcomes It is expected that this study will reveal that the ovalization of a cylindrical duct has a very significant effect on its buckling capability under axial compression. as seen in Figure 1.

000 lb/node.0.000 psi The mesh boundary conditions can be seen in Figure 2. The load is ramped up throughout the solution in increments until buckling occurs. The material properties for AMS 4928 can be found in Table 1. specifically AMS 4928. therefore linear elastic material properties are used for these analyses.000 lb. or 70°F. Table 1. The boundary conditions are shown in Figure 2. The load proportionality factor. Buckling of a Thin Cylinder Under Axial Compression 2. The opposite end is simply supported. which equates to a total load of 124. Material Properties for AMS 4928 (Ti 6-4) [3] E ν ρ σy 1. The thickness is 0. since information about its properties is publicly available. which would mean that the load carrying capability of the cylinder is greater than the load applied to the model. Typically buckling occurs before the material begins to yield. Symmetry along the axial direction is used on one end of the cylinder. it is held from translating in the axial (z) direction and from rotating in the radial (x) and circumferential (y) directions. That is.2.15 inches. is used for the material in this study.69E+07 psi 0.32 0. The model is run at room temperature. Titanium. a ratio of load capability to applied load. The cylinder is 80 inches in diameter and 80 inches in length.158 lb/in3 86. 5 .1 Modeling A baseline model consisted of a perfectly round cylinder (e =0). The axial load is applied to the simply supported edge of the cylinder in the +z direction. can exceed 1. The value of the applied axial load is 10.

6 . unstable response of a structure. the displacement increases more quickly with the same rate of loading until the critical buckling load is reached. Finite Element Model Boundary Conditions 2. buckling is caused by imperfections/instabilities in the structure. Buckling is not typically caused by overstress of a structure as it occurs while stresses are still below the yield strength of the material. the structure essentially has no stiffness. Rather. once a buckling begins to occur. as seen in Figure 3 at Point A. at least up to point B on the curve. Figure 3 shows an example of a complex.Axial Load Applied and Simply Supported Along Edge Symmetry Boundary Conditions Along Edge Figure 2. the displacement also increases and stiffness increases.2 Theoretical Solution The behavior of a cylinder under axially compressive loading is complex. The displacement and load have a linear relationship – as the load increases. The nonlinear buckling analysis should exhibit similar behavior. At this point. However.

of a thin cylindrical shell. however. small deflection theory has proven anticonservative for determining the buckling strength of thin-walled cylinders or thin-curved panels. It is generally accepted that this is due to geometrical imperfections and associated stress concentrations. Proportional loading with unstable response [4].455. Large deflection theory shows better correlation with experimental results. using small deflection theory is shown in Equation 1 [5]. the calculated theoretical critical load is 1. it is difficult to find solutions to these problems without knowledge of 7 .952 lb. As described above. or buckling capability.Figure 3. For the cylinder used in this study. Fcr = where E = Modulus of Elasticity ν = Poisson's ratio t = Wall thickness R = radius of shell E t2 3(1 −ν ) R The resulting stress from this equation is multiplied by the cylinder's perimeter to obtain the total load carrying capability of the structure. A simple hand calculation can be used to find the critical buckling load. Equation 1. The classic solution for the maximum stress in a cylinder under axial compression.

linear elements subjected to bending loads.imperfections due to material grain structure and manufacturing techniques. 2. the design is typically based on best fit curves for experimental or test results. shear locking is not typically an issue. Fcr = where kc = buckling coefficient k cπ 2 E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 12 1 − ν 2 ⎝ L ⎠ 2 ( ) E = Modulus of Elasticity t = Wall thickness L = Length of cylinder ν = Poisson’s ratio Curves relating cylinder dimensions and Young’s modulus are used to find the buckling coefficient kc. Bruhn’s book [6].539. They may exhibit some locking if they are distorted or if the bending stress has a gradient. Equation 2 from Bruhn [6] is used to find the critical stress for cylinder under axial compression. or a 71% reduction in buckling capability as compared to the theoretical solution. The theoretical curve results in a kc of 750 and a load of 1.F. and proves that considering imperfections when designing a thin cylindrical shell is extremely important. Since the edges of quadratic elements are able to curve. The which is only 2% higher than the theoretical solution from Reference 8. but typically don’t have as many issues as linear shells. experimental curves are based on 90% probability. Shear locking can affect the performance of fully integrated. The calculations below use design curves provided in E. problems were encountered using this type of element because linear shells are prone to shear locking. This is a significant reduction in capability. However. Equation 2. Therefore.736 lb. Figure 4. Bruhn derives the theoretical solution for a monocoque cylinder under axial compression.279 lb. from the 8 .3 Eigenvalue Buckling Solution and Mesh Density Study At the beginning of this study linear shells (called S4 elements) were used for the mesh due to their fast computational time. The solution using the experimental curves is 420. which is based on experimental data.

or mesh density. (a) (b) Figure 4. this study is conducted using the eigenvalue buckling analysis. In order to ensure that the results obtained during this analysis are correct. it is important to ensure that the results obtained are reliable and accurate by iterating on the element size. and for an unknown reason.9 Documentation [4]. The first six eigenvalue buckling mode shapes can be seen in Figure 5. shows a comparison of how linear and quadratic shells behave under a bending load. Once the element size is small enough that the solution begins to converge.Abaqus 6. these elements were utilized for this study and yielded accurate results. Deformation of a fully integrated.5E-4”) to aid in buckling. which are reduced integration linear shells with 5 degrees of freedom per node. quadratic element (b) subjected to bending moment M Quadratic shells (S8 elements) were then used to mesh the part. However. with only a small imperfection (e = 0. This analysis is performed in Abaqus using a perfectly round cylinder. or 1. These elements are used for the Abaqus benchmarking studies and example problems for use in modeling thin cylinders. the structure was not undergoing collapse. Therefore. the solution time increased tremendously. it was found that S4R5 elements. With further reading through the Abaqus documentation. are recommended for modeling thin shell structures.1% shell thickness. While performing a finite element analysis. linear element (a) and a fully integrated. 9 . that element size is used.

10 . The mode shape can be seen in Figure 6 below.455.592 lb.776. This mode represents the ovalization of the duct.Figure 5. This result was used to estimate a reasonable load to be applied for the nonlinear buckling run.224 lb. so it is used to impart imperfections into the structure. This is within 1% of the theoretical solution of 1. which equates to a buckling load of 1. The eigenvalue for this mode is 11.460. First Six Eigenvalue Mode Shapes The mode of interest is mode four.

an element size of two inches is used for all the modeling completed hereafter. Eigenvalue Buckling Mode Four Deflections Table 2 shows the eigenvalue buckling analysis results for various element sizes.Figure 6. Figure 7 shows how the solution begins to converge to approximately 0. Therefore. A more refined mesh would be acceptable but the increased computing time would be of little benefit. 11 .5% once the element size reaches two inches.

or governed by a single scalar parameter. The modified Riks method is a solution method in Abaqus used for load cases where the loading is proportional to.00% 97.50% 98.00% Percent Change in Mode 4 Eigenvalue 99.98% 0.25 1 0. Eigenvalue Buckling Mesh Density Study Results Element Size (inches) 10 5 4 3 2 1. Convergence of Eigenvalue Buckling Results vs. this scalar parameter is the axial compressive load.04% 0.53% 0. Element Size 2.79% 1.5 1.49% 0.5 1 12045 11679 11394 11187 11109 11081 11057 11057 2 12045 11679 11394 11187 11109 11081 11057 11057 3 15246 12089 11926 11822 11769 11753 11746 11743 11743 4 15504 12132 11954 11838 11776 11757 11749 11744 11744 5 15504 12132 11954 11838 11776 11757 11749 11744 11744 % Change 27.Table 2.07% 0. The results is a load proportionality 12 .50% 99.16% 0. In this study.00% % Error vs.50% 97.50% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Element Size (inches) Figure 7. Element Size 100.00% 96.50% 100.4 Nonlinear Buckling Analysis A nonlinear buckling analysis is performed using the “modified Riks method”.00% 98.

factor (a multiple of the applied load) and displacements. a very small imperfection (0.0003” out of roundness) is introduced into the model. For the modified Riks solution. see Reference 4. Since both loads and displacements are unknown. The stress plot shows that stresses are high in the area around the imperfections. or 0. or where the cylinder is out of round. the applied load is irrelevant because the load will be increased until collapse occurs.592 lb was applied to the finite element model. Figure 8 shows displacement and von Mises stress plots of this analysis. A baseline analysis of a perfect cylinder is conducted. along the static equilibrium path in load-displacement space. This load was selected as an estimate based on eigenvalue results and the theoretical solution. 13 .239. A load of 10. another quantity. For more information on the modified Riks method. In order to aid in the buckling of the structure. even if the load exceeds the applied load. This allows the modeling of both stable and unstable structures. called arc length.000 lb/node or 1.00015”. is used to measure the progress of the solution.

This is a significant reduction in capability when trying to design a structure. This parameter is used to find the load carrying capability of the structure. and a larger load was applied. A cylinder that is out of round by only 1% of the shell thickness reduces the buckling capability by 8. The results can be seen in Table 2. The column labeled LPF in Table 3 is a ratio of the load carrying capability to the applied load. Figure 9 illustrates how even a slight out of roundness can affect buckling capability. The trend appears to trend exponentially. it merely means that the load applied to the model was less than it was capable of sustaining. Displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Perfect Cylinder Next. several degrees of out of roundness are analyzed up to 100% of the shell thickness. If this value is greater than one. 14 . rather than linearly.Figure 8.3%.

000 Buckling Load Capability (lb) Effect of Ovalization on Buckling Capability for a Thin Cylindrical Shell 1.0% 8.84% 38. The von Mises stress is higher along the major axis of the ellipse.689 891.589 % Reduction in Capability 0.000 1.703 357.003 488.000.25 0.400.3 Load Capability (lb) 1. 15 .35 Distance Out of Round (in) Figure 9.1% 1% 10% 50% 100% Distance OOR (inches) 0. 10% and 100%.15 0.288 % Error 1.8% 65.394 0.05 0. Nonlinear Buckling Results Imperfection: % Shell Thickness 0.431. increases in the structure.44% 1.3% 37.312. which is what would be expected.9% 75. Appendix A shows displacement and stress results for e = 1%.0003 0.729 1.Table 3. Effect of Ovalization on Buckling Capability As the imperfection.000 400.059 0.43% 75.03 0.15 0. the shape of the buckled structure becomes more representative of an ovalized structure.003 0.200.15”. Figure 10 shows the displacement and stress plots for a cylinder with an e equal to 50% of the shell thickness.000 1.66% 9.000 200.2 0. or out of round by 0.1 0. or out of roundness.3 0.000 0 0 0.719 0.155 1.000 600.600.000 800.0% LPF 1.80% 66.

displacement curve for this analysis.Figure 10. also closely represents the theoretical prediction shown in Figure 3. 16 . Once the peak load capability is reached. seen in Figure 11. The load slowly increases with slight slope changes as the structure becomes unstable. the stiffness of the structure is zero and collapse occurs. Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder. e = 50% shell thickness The load vs.

Load vs.Figure 11. e = 50% shell thickness 17 . Displacement Curve for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder.

It was shown that this type of imperfection can significantly reduce the capability of a thin shell.9% and 75%.3. using elastic material properties for Ti 6-4 was an appropriate assumption. In addition. significantly reduced the load carrying capability of the structure. The stresses in the nonlinear buckling analysis did not exceed the yield strength of the material.9% reduction from an e of 50% of the shell thickness. It was shown that adding imperfections in the form of out of roundness. Therefore.3%. or out of roundness. of a cylinder affected the buckling capability. An e of 1%. however. it would be expected that for an out of round structure the actual load carrying capability would be less than the values reported here due to other imperfections in the structure. This result is close to the 65. Conclusions The results of this project meet the expected outcome.8% 65. Therefore. or ovalization. It should also be noted that this study only addresses isotropic materials and the results should not be assumed to be the same for a composite structure. 50% and 100% of the shell thickness resulted in a reduction in buckling capability of 8. further studies that take other imperfections into account must be addressed. respectively. 37. the intent of this study was to show how ovalization. the actual load carrying capability of a thin cylindrical shell under axial loading is 70% less than the theoretical value. the hand calculation based on experimental data showed that. In conclusion. the accuracy of the solution was increased. does not take into account any other material or geometric imperfections that will be present in a structure. The baseline nonlinear buckling analysis resulted in a solution within 2% of the theoretical solution. based on 90% probability. It was clearly evident that by decreasing the element size for the eigenvalue buckling analysis. However. This helped to calibrate the model and ensure that the element size used for all analyses was appropriate. The FE solution. 10%. 18 . 86 ksi.

. Inc. Vol. 49.C. Aero. Appl.. Mech.1989. 263 (1996). E. Sciences.9 Users Manual [5] Broggi. Matteo. Innsbruck. Jacobs Publishing. ppC8.F.efunda. Chap.1115/1. Seurer. EU. 1957. 19 .. Jour. Institute of Engineering Mechanics.0 Users Manual [2] Buckling analysis of a submarine with hull imperfections Lee.1-C8. 24. Austria.. Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures. [9] Harris. Skeen and Benjamin. NY. W. 1973. Buckling of Cylindrical Shells with Random Imperfections – Revisited.26. Harvey C.4. 15. August. McGraw Hill Inc. [6] Bruhn. References [1] ANSYS 11. pp 714-717. The Stability of Thin-Walled Unstiffened Circular Cylinders Under Axial Compression.. University of Innsbruck.3101927 [8] Young. “Ti 6Al-4V” http://www. 2008.com/materials/alloys/titanium/ [4] Abaqus 6. 2007 [3] Efunda. [7] Buckling of Thin Shells: Recent Advances and Trends Jin Guang Teng. DOI:10. Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain. Rev.

5. e = 1% shell thickness Figure 13. e = 10% shell thickness 20 . Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder. Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder. Appendix A – Nonlinear Buckling Results Figure 12.

Axial displacement and Von Mises Stress for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis in Cylinder. e = 100% shell thickness 21 .Figure 14.

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