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PLANNING AND DESIGN OF A 40 MW WIND FARM AT TEMA, GHANA
Author: Mathias B. Michael
Master’s Thesis Renewable Energy Engineering School of Engineering and Physical Sciences Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh JUNE, 2008
Project Supervisor: Dr. Wolf G. Fruh School of Engineering and Physical Sciences
This thesis is proposed to carried-out as a final stage of my MSc. Programme in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the school of Engineering and Physical Sciences. Wind is simple air in motion, it is caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. Since the earth’s surface is made of different types of land and water, it absorbs the sun’s heat at different rates. Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. Wind energy is also world’s fastest growing energy source and is a clean and renewable source that has been in use for centuries. Wind energy is a clean energy source as electricity generated by wind turbines do not pollute the air or emit pollutant like other energy sources. Wind farm is group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. Individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage power collection system and communications network. Wind energy development is increasingly becoming popular, currently about 93,849 MW of electricity is generated globally. The 40MW wind energy development in Ghana will go a long way to save the energy situation in Ghana. Energy crisis in Ghana requires urgent solution. The design aspect of the project looks at the technicalities of wind farm which includes wind turbine siting where the positions of the wind turbine will be optimised for best wind captivity. Generation, transmission and storage of power, whiles the planning deals with the environmental, legal and socio-economics issues. The power would be transmitted from the generation site to the grid through a 5km over head transmission line. Power quality is a very important factor so far as wind energy development is concerned. For that reason, energy storage plant (Compressed-Air Energy Storage) would be installed to compensate for short peak demand as well as maintaining steady output of the distribution network. The environmental impact assessment would be carried out and the report would be presented to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Socioeconomic assessment report of the proposed project would be submitted to
the Energy Commission. The contingent valuation method would be used in the environmental cost analysis survey.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Ghana is suffering from serious energy shortage for the decade as a result of serious draught in South Saharan Africa and the dramatic increase in population which leads to increase in annual growth of electricity demand. The conventional hydro-power plant which is the main reliable power generating plant is now generating only about 65% of the country’s electricity demand which is about 70% of its generation capacity. Although, there are number of thermal electricity generation plants which produce a total of 550MW representing 32 percent of the current electricity supply and the 106MW Mini Hydro supporting the national grid, but their capacity do not meet the national demand due the following constraints; poor availability, high fuel price and the environmental constraint. This power shortage has resulted a serious power rational for the period of decade and consequently led to the closure of some heavy industries in Tema which has significantly affected the economy of Ghana. However, Tema has a considerably amount of wind energy potential. Therefore, the main aims and objectives of this project is to utilised the potential wind energy at Tema to generate a 40 MW electricity power to support the medium voltage side of the electricity network at Tema. The project aims at supplying power to the residential and light commercial network in the Tema Municipality, in order to divert more of the power supply by the conventional hydro power plant to the heavy industrial network which has the highest demand.
1. Preparatory work Research on the existing wind farms, the background information, the theory behind the project. Study the characteristics and utilization possibilities of existing wind farms. Explore the possibilities for adopting principles of existing wind farms. 2. Methodology for eliciting the system requirement specification The following minimum criteria would be used in order to evaluate if the purpose of the thesis is successfully achieved: • • • • • • • Operating requirement General Requirement Material, Equipment Qualified wind Turbines Wind resource and turbine siting Output meter Storage system
3. Design methodology This consists of the design analysis thus the feasibility of the following: Available wind energy potential on the candidate sites Site assessment, which include visual inspection, Topographic survey, a study of the local road network and land investigation for potential litigation • • Design analysis of the wind farm model for overall system performance verifications. Design model for network integration 4
Design the computer model of overall distributed generation, for simulation and optimization with software tool (PSCAD 4.2)
4. Methodology for data acquisition • • • • • • • • The preliminary data collection would be obtained by the following methods: Site location – site map from National Geographical Department of Ghana Site topology – visual inspection on site visit Wind resource data – on request from Meteorological Department of Ghana Environmental data – on request from EPA Electrical data – by request and interview from Electricity Company of Ghana Legal information – by request from Ghana Energy Commission The final data collection would be the performance data of various alternative designs and the method is by means of computer modelling with a software tool (PSCAD 4.2)
5. Methodology for evaluating results • • • Statistical method would be used to analyse the wind resource data. Environmental and economic policies would be used to assess the environmental impact and socio-economics of the proposed project The PSCAD 4.2 would be used to model and simulate the performance of the candidate designs.
SCOPE The work to be carried out is summarized as follows: • • Specify basic and overall requirement and characteristics of the proposed wind farm. Study the characteristics and utilization possibilities of existing wind farms. Explore the possibilities for adopting principles of existing wind farms. • • Acquisition and analysis of data on electricity demand (loads) schematic layout of electricity network and distribution in Tema. Data acquisition and analysis on wind resource of the candidate sites, identify site or area which offers the potential for a suitable wind resourse by using a combination of maps of the area and the results of statistical modelling. • Site assessment, which include visual inspection, Topographic survey, a study of the local road network and land investigation for potential litigation. • • • • Design analysis of the wind farm model for overall system performance verifications. Design model for network integration Design the computer model of overall distributed generation, for simulation and optimization with software tool (PSCAD 4.2) Economic analysis of the proposed wind farm.
The planning activities include: • • • Environmental impact assessment and report Socio-economic analysis of the proposed wind farm, which includes the environmental cost analysis. Legal assessment report.
Work Breakdown Structure
Initial Environmental Analysis
Start of public consultation
Preparation of statutory environment assessment
Submission of planning application and environment statement
Tasks definition 1. Site Assessment covering wind resource, electrical connection, access requirements, site capacity and ownership 2. Initial environmental analysis covering planning framework, landscape classification, visual effects, ecology, recreation and telecommunications 3. Preliminary consultees 4. On-site surveys covering wind resource, existing land uses, site access, ground conditions, electrical connection and draft design consultation; local planning authority and major
Tasks definition Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Research Functional specification Design specification Preliminary data collection Project Feasibility Preliminary design Design evaluation Data collection Data analysis and simulation Alternative design Final design
Preparation of statutory environment and socio-economic assessment
The thesis start date is 2nd June 2008 and expected to complete on 29th August 2008. The Gant chart attached explains the detail of schedule.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Research Functional Specification Design Specifications Preliminary data collection Design analysis Preliminary design Data acquisition Design Testing Simulation & Analysis Final design
14d 2d 2d 30d 14d 7d 30d 2d 2d 1d? 3d 40d 1d
Mon 02/06/08 Mon 16/06/08 Thu 19/06/08 Mon 02/06/08 Fri 04/07/08 Wed 23/07/08 Mon 16/06/08 Mon 04/08/08 Wed 06/08/08 Fri 08/08/08 Mon 11/08/08 Tue 01/07/08 Fri 29/08/08
Thu 19/06/08 Tue 17/06/08 Fri 20/06/08 Fri 11/07/08 Wed 23/07/08 Thu 31/07/08 Fri 25/07/08 Tue 05/08/08 Thu 07/08/08 Fri 08/08/08 Wed 13/08/08 Mon 25/08/08 Fri 29/08/08
Environ. & Socio-economic analysis Thesis writing Thesis submission
ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 T a s k N a m e D u r a tiSo tna r t 0 2 J u n ' 0 80 9 J u n ' 0 81 6 J u n ' 0 82 3 J u n ' 0 83 0 J u n ' 0 80 7 J u l ' 0 8 1 4 J u l ' 0 8 2 1 J u l ' 0 8 2 8 J u l ' 0 8 0 4 A u g '0 18 1 A u g ' 0 18 8 A u g ' 0 8 TFSSMTWTFSSMTWT FSSMTWT FSSMTWTFS SMTWTFSSMTWTFSSMTWT FSSMTWT FS SMTWTFSSMTWTFSSMTWTF R e s e a r c h 1 4 d Ma yo s n 0 2 / 0 6 / 0 8 F u n c t i o n a l S p2 e d c aM fyi sco an ti 1o 6n / 0 6 / 0 8 i D e s i g n S p e c 2 if id c a aT yt hsi ou n 1s 9 / 0 6 / 0 8 P r e l i m i n a r y d3 a0 t ad Mac yo sl nl e 0c 2t i/ o0 n6 / 0 8 D e s i g n a n a l 1y s4 i sd aF y r s i 0 4 /0 7 / 0 8 P r e l i m i n a r y d 7 e sd iaW y nse d 2 3 / 0 7 / 0 8 g D a t a a c q u i s 3it 0i o dn Ma yo s n 1 6 / 0 6 / 0 8 D e s i g n T e s t i2 n gd aM y so n 0 4 / 0 8 / 0 8 S im u l a ti o n & 2 A dn aW yl yse s d i s 0 6 / 0 8 / 0 8 a F in a l d e s i g n 1 d a Fy ?r i 0 8 /0 8 / 0 8 E n v i r o n . & S o3 c di oaM- yeso c no n1 o1 m0 i8 c / 0 a 8n a ly s i s / T h e s i s w r i t i n4 g 0 d Ta yu se 0 1 / 0 7 / 0 8 T h e s i s s u b m i 1s sd iaoF y nr i 2 9 /0 8 / 0 8
Risk category Description
Likelihood Impact (%) Days
late Preliminary Data collection Data Acquisition on; wind resource , electrical load, distribution network plan, topographical, environmental legal information of proposed site, Data analysis Design modelling (Ghana) Computer modelling; not expect in the use of WAsP programme Complete computer modelling of distribution generation network; availability of software. Only 5 users available on PC Cal. Supervision Consultation; 10 20 15 4 Low High 5 0 Low 15 6 High
Risk Reduction The following below are the ways to reduce the risk: • Employ one person in Ghana to assist in data collection • Base decisions on models and simulations of key technical parameters • Use mature and alternative available computer-aided system engineering tools • Use parallel development on high-risk tasks • Seek outside specialist for critical review and assessment of work • Minimise system complexity • Use design margins
Economic viability; costs of electricity cheaper than the conventional Hydro and Thermal electricity
Considerable amount of CO2 emission would be saved Energy security at Tema municipality would be improved
1. AHMED SHATA. A.S and HANITSCH. R Electricity Generation and Wind Potential Assessment at Hurghada, Egypt, Publisher: Science Direct, 2007, www.sciencedirect.com 2. AEROTEK JS co., Wind-Photovoltaic http://www.aero-tek.eu/wind.html 3. AEROTEK JS co., Wind-Photovoltaic Power Solution Power Solution.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/wind.html# history 4. Ghana Wind Energy Resource Mapping Activities
http://swera.unep.net/typo3conf/ext/metadata_tool/archive/download/g hanawindreport_gh_245.pdf 5. Global wind energy outlook, September 2006 http://www.gwec.net/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Global_Wind Energy_Outlook_2006.pdf 6. Wind regimes of Africa, Comparative Evaluations of wind data from selected countries. 2004 http://www.afriwea.org/download/RWindAfrika_010404_engl.pdf 7. TWIDELL John and WEIR Tony, Renewable Energy Resource (2nd Edition), Publisher: Taylor & Francis, 2006, Uk 8. MANWELL. J.F, McGOWAN and ROGERS. A.L, Wind Energy Explained (Theory, Design and Application), Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2006, USA 9. Matching Renewable Electricity Generation with Demand (Report from Edinburgh University to Scottish Executive) http://www.viewsofscotland.org/library/docs/MREWD.pdf
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN TEMA The following data is needed from the Tema branch of Electricity company of Ghana. • • • Map of distribution network of Tema Electricity supply to domestic network Electricity supply to industrial network
1. Hourly electrical load of Tema
0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 Total
2. Monthly electricity consumption
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
Sep Oct Nov Dec
3. The line diagram of electricity network distribution of Tema. 4. Any other relevant information regarding electricity power generation.
GHANA WIND RESOURCE DATA
The following information can be obtained from the Energy Commission, Ghana, or the Meteorological Services Department, Ghana: 1. Wind atlas of Ghana and Tema 2. Wind data of coast of Ghana, both raw data and processed wind data.
THE SITES The three photos of selected vast undeveloped lands at outskirt of Tema including one from Ningo-Prampram.
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