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EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVES

: IMPACT OF JETS : To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of water on to various target vanes.

INTRODUCTION: Impact of Jets Apparatus enables experiments to be carried out on the reaction force produced on vanes when a jet of water impacts on to the vane. The study of these reaction forces is an essential step in the subject of mechanics of fluids which can be applied to hydraulic machinery such as the Pelton Wheel and the Impulse Turbine. APPARATUS : Impact of Jets Apparatus, which is illustrated in figure 1 below, is intended to be used with Hydraulics Bench which provides the water supply and the means of measuring flow rate. The apparatus consists essentially of a UPVC base assembly with a vertical nozzle supply pipe inside a transparent acrylic tube which supports a removable top flange assembly.

A vertical shaft, which passes through a plain bearing in the top flange assembly, has provision for attaching the target vane at its lower end. The top of the shaft is screwed to a weight platform and a spring between the top flange and the weight platform provides vertical support to an equilibrium position. A weight carrier and a set of brass weights are supplied. Three interchangeable target vanes are supplied, one flat, one conical and one semi-spherical, dimensional details of the three target vanes are shown in figure 2 overleaf. Two interchangeable plain bore nozzles are supplied, one 5mm diameter and one 8mm diameter. Screwed studs are provided on the base plate of the apparatus for storage of the nozzle and target vanes which are not in use. In operation water from the Hydraulic Bench issues vertically from the nozzle and impacts onto the target vane. The impulse force produced by the impact of the jet onto the vane lifts the vane, shaft and weight platform to its equilibrium position.

Weight center

Pointer Brass Weight

Weight Platform

Interchangeable Target Vane

Interchangeable Nozzle

Water supply connection Drain holes in base

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25

45

45

a) Flat Target

b)Conial Target

c) Semi- spherical Target

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THEORY:

When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid bodies there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent there will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged. The pressure exerted by the water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.

v1
0 0

v1

v1
0 0

v1

V1 Cos 0

V1

v1
V1 Sin 0

v1

Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the direction of the jet to be changed through an angle q as shown in figure 3 above. In the absence of friction the magnitude of the velocity across the surface is equal to the incident velocity V1. The impulse force exerted on the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to impart the change in direction. Applying Newtons Second Law in the direction of the incident jet Force = Mass x Acceleration = Mass Flow Rate x Change in Velocity
.

= m v
.

= m( v1 v1 cos )
. .

But m = Q
.

= Q v1 (1 cos )

and dividing through by Q v1 which is the incident momentum

F
.

= (1 cos )

Q v1
In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the water from the surface so that the exist angle is parallel to the exit angle of the target.
a)

Effect of Height. The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and the nozzle exit area.
.

Q vn = A
However, as the nozzle is below the target the impact velocity will be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between potential energy and kinetic energy so that
2 v12 = v n 2 gh

where h is the height of target above the nozzle exit.


b)

Impact on Normal Plane Target. For the normal plane target = 90


Therefore Cos = 0

F
.

= (1 cos ) = 1

Q v1
c)

Impact on Conical Target. The cone semi-angle = 45 Cos = 0.7071

F
.

= (1 cos ) = 0.2929

Q v1
d)

Impact on Semi-spherical Target. The target exit angle is 135 Cos q = -0.7071
F
.

= (1 cos ) = 1.7071

Q v1

PROCEDURE: Set up the apparatus on top of the Hydraulics Bench with the left hand support feet of the Impact of Jets Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulics Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel. Connect the feed tube from the Hydraulics Bench to the boss on the rear of the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus. If an Auxiliary Pump P1601 is fitted to the Hydraulics Bench, arrange the pump valves so that only one pump is used. Fit the 5mm nozzle and the normal flat target. 1. Position the weight carrier on the weight platform and add weights until the top of the target is clear of the stop and the weight platform is floating in mid position. Move the pointer so that it is aligned with the weight platform. Record the value of weights on the weight carrier. 2. Start the pump and establish the water flow by steadily opening the bench regulating valve until it is fully open. 3. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of the jet. Place additional weights onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again floating in mid position. Measure the flow rate and record the result on the test sheet, together with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. Observe the form of the deflected jet and note its shape. 4. Reduce the weight on the weight carrier in steps and maintain balance of the weight platform by regulating the flow rate in about five or six even steps, each time recording the value of the flow rate and weights on the weight carrier. 5. Close the control valve and switch off the pump. Allow the apparatus to drain. 6. Replace the 5mm nozzle with the 8mm diameter nozzle and repeat the tests. 7. Replace the normal vane with the 45 conical vane and repeat the test with both the 5mm and 8mm nozzles. 8. Replace the 45 conical vane with the hemispherical vane and repeat the tests with both the 5mm and 8mm nozzles.

OBSERVATION: Nozzle 1 Total Weight on Carrier Quantity of Water Collected /(litres) Time to Collect Water /(secs) Volumetric Flow Rate Q (litres/sec) Nozzle Velocity Vn (m/s) Height of Target Above Nozzle h mm Impact Velocity V1 (m/s) Impact Force F/ N Incident Momentum QV1 CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS: 1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet provided. 2. Calculate for each result the flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity. Correct the nozzle velocity for the height of the target above the nozzle to obtain the impact velocity.
.

Target 2 3 4 5

3. Calculate the impact momentum Q v and plot graphs of impact force F against impact momentum and determine the slope of the graphs for each target. Compare with the theoretical values of 1, 0.2929 and 1.7071 for the normal plane target, conical target and hemispherical target respectively. DISCUSSION: Make any comments, observations and conclusions you reached from the experiment. Also attempt to answer the following questions in your discussion. 1. 2. 3. How close the experimentally determined force values to those you computed from theory? Explain any differences. How accurately did you think you could measure the force on the jet? Comment also on the accuracy of the volume flow rate measurement. Could you make any suggestions, improving the experiment to obtain better results?