8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes

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+,$, -., ///012 !34536738 09: /;;1
()<"&=>? #>(*"$%! %-*%$*?>-&%-*: >-(,: &+& %-*%$*?>-&%-* (),: )$>)-
#>(*"$%! ()$#)$?*>)-: #?$?&)"-* #>(*"$%! ()$#,: "->@%$!?< (>*A !*"B>)!:
>-(,: *C% D?<* B>!-%A ()&#?-A EFG D?$-%$ =$)*C%$!: >-(,: peLlLloners,
C)-)$?=<% ()"$* )H ?##%?<!: /I*C B>@>!>)- EFG J)!% =, J>-+() .K !C)D*>&%
%-*%$#$>!%!: >-(,: respondenLs.

$)&%$): !"#
ÞeLlLloners Columbla ÞlcLures lndusLrles, lnc., MCM LnLerLalnmenL Co., Crlon ÞlcLures
CorporaLlon, ÞaramounL ÞlcLures Corp., unlversal ClLy SLudlos, lnc. 1he WalL ulsney
Company and Warner 8roLhers, lnc. quesLlon Lhe
of Lhe CourL of Appeals whlch afflrmed Lhe Crder of Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
of Þaslg, 8ranch 168, Lhe dlsposlLlve porLlon of whlch sLaLes:
WPL8LlC8L, flndlng LhaL Lhe lssuance of Lhe quesLloned warranLs was
noL supporLed by probable cause, Lhe "urgenL MoLlon (Lo LlfL Search
WarranL [no. 23] and for Lhe 8eLurn of Selzed ArLlcles) ls hereby
Accordlngly, Lhe vldeogram 8egulaLory 8oard (v88) and/or any Þollce
Agency or oLher represenLaLlves of Lhe v88 are hereby dlrecLed Lo reLurn
Lo Lhe defendanL/movanL or hls represenLaLlve all arLlcles/lLems ln Lhelr
possesslon selzed under and by vlrLue of Search WarranL no. 23.
SC C8uL8Lu.
1he anLecedenL facLs leadlng Lo Lhe dlspuLed Crder are:
Alfredo C. 8amos, lnLelllgence offlcer of Lhe vldeogram 8egulaLory 8oard (v88),
recelved lnformaLlon LhaL prlvaLe respondenL !ose 8. !lnco had ln hls possesslon plraLed
vldeoLapes, posLers, adverLlslng maLerlals and oLher lLems used or lnLended Lo be used
for Lhe purpose of sale, lease, dlsLrlbuLlon, clrculaLlon or publlc exhlblLlon of Lhe sald
plraLed vldeoLapes. 8amos ascerLalned Lhe lnformaLlon Lo be Lrue and flled a verlfled
AppllcaLlon for Search WarranL daLed !uly 28, 1986 wlLh prayer for Lhe selzure of Lhe
properLles descrlbed ln Lhe search warranL.
Cn Lhe same daLe, a hearlng was conducLed by !udge llorenLlno A. llor of Lhe 8eglonal
1rlal CourL of Þaslg, 8ranch 168, whereln 8amos and hls Lwo wlLnesses, Analle !lmenez
and 8ebecca 8enlLez-Cruz LesLlfled on Lhe need for Lhe lssuance of search warranL.
Cn !uly 28, 1986, Lhe prayer for Lhe lssuance of Lhe search warranL was granLed and, on
Lhe same daLe, Search WarranL no. 23 was lssued.
Cn !uly 2, 1987, prlvaLe respondenL flled a MoLlon Lo Cuash Search WarranL no. 23 on
Lhe grounds LhaL Lhe Search WarranL dld noL sLaLe a speclflc offense and LhaL, even
assumlng lL sLaLed a speclflc offense, lL covered more Lhan one speclflc offense. 1he v88
opposed Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash sLaLlng LhaL Search WarranL no. 23 was lssued for a slngle
speclflc offense namely, vlolaLlon of SecLlon 36 and oLher relaLed secLlons of
ÞresldenLlal uecree no. 49 as amended by ÞresldenLlal uecree no. 1988.
Cn SepLember 30, 1987, Lhe Lrlal courL denled Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash flndlng LhaL Lhe
Search WarranL was lssued for one speclflc offense. A MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon was
flled buL Lhe same was llkewlse denled.
ÞrlvaLe respondenL Lhen flled an urgenL MoLlon 1o LlfL Lhe Search WarranL and lor Lhe
8eLurn of Lhe Selzed ArLlcles alleglng LhaL Search WarranL no. 23 ls a general warranL,
and LhaL lL was lssued wlLhouL probable cause.
Cn May 22, 1989, Lhe assalled order was lssued by !udge 8en[amln v. Þelayo, now
presldlng over 8ranch 168 of Lhe Þaslg 81C, granLlng Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash and orderlng
Lhe reLurn of all selzed arLlcles Lo prlvaLe respondenL.
ÞeLlLloners appealed Lo Lhe CourL of Appeals, whlch afflrmed Lhe sald Crder !" $%$%.
Pence, Lhls peLlLlon.
ln granLlng Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash, Lhe Lrlal courL relled on Lhe CourL's rullng ln 20$&
'("$)*+ ,%- ,!./ '%*0%*1$!%" 23 '%)*$ %4 500(1.67 ($ 1..
whlch lnvolved vlolaLlon of
ÞresldenLlal uecree no. 49, (oLherwlse known as Lhe uecree on Lhe ÞroLecLlon of
lnLellecLual ÞroperLy). ln sald case, vldeo ouLleLs were ralded pursuanL Lo search
warranLs lssued by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL of MakaLl. Powever, Lhe search warranLs
were laLer llfLed by Lhe same courL on Lhe ground of lack of probable cause because Lhe
masLer Lapes of Lhe alleged plraLed Lapes were never shown Lo Lhe lower courL. 1he
CourL afflrmed Lhe llfLlng of Lhe search warranLs holdlngs LhaL Lhe presenLaLlon of Lhe
masLer Lapes was necessary for Lhe valldlLy of Lhe search warranLs agalnsL Lhose who
have Lhe plraLed fllms ln Lhelr possesslon.
When Lhe Lrlal courL granLed Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash Search WarranL no. 23 on May 22,
1989, lL used as lLs [usLlflcaLlon Lhe facL LhaL, as Lhe masLer coples were noL presenLed Lo
Lhe courL ln lLs hearlng of !uly 28, 1986, Lhere was no probable cause Lo lssue Lhe sald
warranL, based on Lhe pronouncemenLs ln 89$& '("$)*+ ,%-.
ÞeLlLloners now quesLlon Lhe reLroacLlve appllcaLlon of Lhe 89$& '("$)*+ ,%- declslon
whlch had noL yeL been promulgaLed ln 1986 when Lhe search warranL was lssued.
ÞeLlLloners furLher argue LhaL, conLrary Lo Lhe Lrlal courL's flndlng, Lhe search warranL
was noL a general warranL slnce Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe lLems Lo be selzed was speclflc
enough. lL removed from Lhe servlng offlcer any dlscreLlons as Lo whlch lLems Lo selze
lnasmuch as lL descrlbed only Lhose lLems whlch had a dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe offense for
whlch Lhe search warranL was lssued.
1he Lhreshold lssued LhaL musL flrsL be deLermlned ls wheLher or noL peLlLloners have
Lhe legal personallLy and sLandlng Lo flle Lhe appeal.
ÞrlvaLe respondenL asserLs LhaL Lhe proceedlngs for Lhe lssuance and/or quashal of a
search warranL are crlmlnal ln naLure. 1hus, Lhe parLles ln such a case are Lhe "Þeople"
as offended parLy and Lhe accused. A prlvaLe complalnanL ls relegaLed Lo Lhe role of a
wlLness who does noL have Lhe rlghL Lo appeal excepL where Lhe clvll aspecL ls deemed
lnsLlLuLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal case.
ÞeLlLloners, on Lhe oLher hand, argue LhaL as Lhe offended parLles ln Lhe crlmlnal case,
Lhey have Lhe rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe an appeal from Lhe quesLloned order.
lrom Lhe records lL ls clear LhaL, as complalnanLs, peLlLloners were lnvolved ln Lhe
proceedlngs whlch led Lo Lhe lssuance of Search WarranL no. 23. ln :(%0.( 2. ;1"%,
CourL declared LhaL whlle Lhe general rule ls LhaL lL ls only Lhe SollclLor Ceneral who ls
auLhorlzed Lo brlng or defend acLlons on behalf of Lhe Þeople or Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes once Lhe case ls broughL before Lhls CourL or Lhe CourL of Appeals, lf Lhere
appears Lo be grave error commlLLed by Lhe [udge or a lack of due process Lhe peLlLlon
wlll be deemed flled by Lhe prlvaLe complalnanLs Lhereln as lf were flled by Lhe SollclLor
Ceneral. ln llne wlLh Lhls rullng, Lhe CourL glves Lhls peLlLlon due course and wlll allow
peLlLloners Lo argue Lhelr case agalnsL Lhe quesLloned order ln lleu of Lhe SollclLor
As regards Lhe lssue of Lhe valldlLy of Search WarranL no. 23, Lhere are Lwo quesLlons Lo
be resolved: flrsL, wheLher Lhe 89$& '("$)*+ ,%- declslon promulgaLed on AugusL 19,
1988 ls appllcable Lo Lhe MoLlon Lo Cuash Search WarranL no. 23 (lssued on !uly 28,
We hold ln Lhe negaLlve.
ln Lhe recenL '%.)/<!1 :!=$)*(67 ($ 1.., 2. '%)*$ %4 500(1.67 ($ 1..
case whlch resolved
Lhe same lssue lnvolvlng Lhe same peLlLloners buL wlLh dlfferenL respondenLs, Lhe
CourL (" <1"= held:
Mlndful as we are of Lhe ramlflcaLlons of Lhe docLrlne of 6$1*( >(=!6!6 and
Lhe rudlmenLs of falr play, lL lLs our consldered vlew LhaL Lhe 89$& '("$)*+
,%- rullng cannoL be reLroacLlvely applled Lo Lhe lnsLanL case Lo [usLlfy Lhe
quashal of Search case Lo [usLlfy Lhe quashal of Search WarranL no. 87-
033. Pereln peLlLloners' conslsLenL poslLlon LhaL Lhe order of Lhe lower
courL of SepLember 3, 1988 denylng Lhereln defendanLs' moLlon Lo llfL
Lhe order of search warranL was properly lssued, Lhere havlng been
saLlsfacLory compllance wlLh Lhe Lhen prevalllng sLandards under Lhe law
for deLermlnaLlon of probable cause, ls lndeed well Laken. 1he lower
courL could noL posslbly have expecLed more evldence from peLlLloners ln
Lhelr appllcaLlon for a search warranL oLher Lhan whaL Lhe law and
[urlsprudence, $&(" (-!6$!"? 1"> @)>!=!1..+ 1==(0$(>, requlred wlLh respecL
Lo Lhe flndlng of probable cause.
xxx xxx xxx
lL ls consequenLly clear LhaL [udlclal lnLerpreLaLlon becomes a parL of Lhe
law as of Lhe daLe LhaL law was orlglnally passed, sub[ecL only Lo Lhe
quallflcaLlon LhaL when a docLrlne of Lhls CourL ls over-ruled and a
dlfferenL vlew ls adopLed, and more so when Lhere ls a reversal Lhereof,
Lhe new docLrlne should be applled prospecLlvely and should noL apply Lo
parLles who relled on Lhe old docLrlne and acLed ln good falLh. (Þeople v.
!ablnal, L-30061, lebruary 27, 1974, 33 SC8A 607, unclano Þaramedlcal
College, lnc., eL al. v. CourL of Appeals, eL al. C.8. no. 100333, Aprll 7,
1993, 221 SC8A 283, 1anada, eL al. v. Culngona, !r., eLc., eL al., C.8. no.
113888, AugusL 19, 1994, 233 SC8A 307). 1o hold oLherwlse would be Lo
deprlve Lhe law of lLs quallLy of falrness and [usLlce Lhen, lf Lhere lf no
recognlLlon of whaL had Lransplred prlor Lo such ad[udlcaLlon. (ue
Agbayanl v. Þhlllpplne naLlonal 8ank, eL al. L-23127, Aprll 29, 1971, 38
SC8A 429).
Llkewlse, Lhe CourL ruled Lhereln LhaL presenLaLlon of Lhe masLer Lapes ln such cases ls
noL an absoluLe requlremenL for as search warranL Lo lssue:
More Lo Lhe polnL, lL ls felL LhaL Lhe reasonableness of Lhe added
requlremenL ln 89$& '("$)*+ ,%-calllng for Lhe producLlon of Lhe masLer
Lapes of Lhe copyrlghLed fllms for deLermlnaLlon of probable cause ln
copyrlghL lnfrlngemenL cases needs revlslLlng and clarlflcaLlon.
xxx xxx xxx
ln flne, Lhe supposed 0*%")"=!1/("$% ln sald case regardlng Lhe necesslLy
for Lhe presenLaLlon of Lhe masLer Lapes of Lhe copy-rlghLed fllms for Lhe
valldlLy of search warranLs should aL mosL be undersLood Lo merely serve
as a guldeposL ln deLermlnlng Lhe exlsLence of probable cause ln copy-
rlghL lnfrlngemenL cases A&(*( $&(*( !6 >%)<$ 16 $% $&( $*)( "(-)6
<($A((" $&( /16$(* $10( 1"> $&( 0!*1$(> =%0!(6. An ob[ecLlve and careful
readlng of Lhe declslon ln sald case could lead Lo no oLher concluslon
Lhan LhaL sald dlrecLlve was hardly lnLended Lo be a sweeplng and
lnflexlble requlremenL ln all or slmllar copyrlghL lnfrlngemenL cases.
!udlclal dlcLa should always be consLrued wlLhln Lhe facLual maLrlx of
Lhelr parLurlLlon, oLherwlse a careless lnLerpreLaLlon Lhereof could
unfalrly faulL Lhe wrlLer wlLh Lhe vlce of over sLaLemenL and Lhe reader
wlLh Lhe fallacy of undue generallzaLlon.
xxx xxx xxx
lL ls evldenLly lncorrecL Lo suggesL, as Lhe rullng ln 89$& '("$)*+ ,%- may
appear Lo do, LhaL ln copyrlghL lnfrlngemenL cases, Lhe presenLaLlon of
masLer Lapes of Lhe copyrlghL fllms ls always necessary Lo meeL Lhe
requlremenL of probable cause for Lhe lssuance of a search warranL. lL ls
Lrue LhaL such masLer Lapes are ob[ecL evldence, wlLh Lhe merlL LhaL ln
Lhls class of evldence Lhe ascerLalnmenL of Lhe conLroverLed facL ls made
Lhrough demonsLraLlon lnvolvlng Lhe dlrecL use of Lhe senses of Lhe
presldlng maglsLraLe. (ClLy of Manlla v. Cabangls, 10 Þhll. 131 [1908],
kabase v. SLaLe, 31 Ala, App. 77, 12 So. 2nd, 738, 764). Such auxlllary
procedure, however, does noL rule ouL Lhe use of LesLlmonlal or
documenLary evldence, deposlLlons, admlsslons or oLher classes of
evldence Lendlng Lo prove Lhe 41=$)/ 0*%<1">)/7 BSee Þhll. Movle
Workers AssoclaLlon v. Þremlere ÞroducLlons, lnc. 92 Þhll. 843 [1933])
especlally where Lhe producLlon ln courL of ob[ecL evldence would resulL
ln delay, lnconvenlence or expenses ouL of proporLlon Lo ls evldenLlary
value. (See 3 !ones on Lvldence, Sec. 1400).
1he lnsLanL case also dlffers from 89$& '("$)*+ ,%- ln LhaL whaL hereln prlvaLe
respondenL puL ln lssue was Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe rullng ln LhaL case, "%$ Lhe conducL of
!udge llor ln Lhe lssuance of Search WarranL no. 23. lrom Lhe records, lL ls clear LhaL
!udge llor observed all Lhe requlremenL necessary before Lhe search warranL was
lssued: he heard Lhe LesLlmonles and sLudled Lhe dlsposlLlons of Lhe wlLnesses for Lhe
peLlLloners, namely, Ms. 8ebecca 8enlLez-Cruz, Ms. Analle l. !lmenez and Lhe v88's
lnLelllgence Cfflcer, Alfredo C. 8amos on Lhe exlsLence of probable cause before lssulng
Lhe warranL.
under Sec. 3 and 4, 8ule 126 of Lhe 8ules of CourL, Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe lssuance of
valld search warranL are:
Sec. 3. 8equlslLes for lssulng search warranL.
A search warranL shall noL lssue buL upon probable cause ln connecLlon
wlLh one speclflc offense Lo be deLermlned by Lhe [udge or such oLher
responslble offlcer auLhorlzed by law afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or
afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce, and
parLlcularly descrlblng Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlng Lo be
Sec. 4. LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL, record. -
1he [udge musL, before lssulng Lhe warranL, personally examlne ln Lhe
form of searchlng quesLlons and answers, ln wrlLlng and under oaLh Lhe
complalnanL and any wlLnesses he may produce on facLs personally
known Lo Lhem and aLLach Lo Lhe record Lhelr sworn sLaLemenLs LogeLher
wlLh any affldavlLs submlLLed.
Pavlng saLlsfled Lhese requlremenLs, !udge llor commlLLed no grave abuse of dlscreLlon
ln lssulng Lhe warranL.
ÞrlvaLe respondenL conLends LhaL Search WarranL no. 23 also vlolaLes Lhe consLlLuLlonal
requlremenLs of parLlcularlLy of Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe warranL, belng a general warranL
and Lhus, ls null and vold.
ln several cases, Lhls CourL had held LhaL:
1o be valld, a search warranL musL be supporLed by probable cause Lo be
deLermlned by Lhe [udge or some oLher auLhorlzed offlcer afLer
examlnlng Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce. ;% .(66
!/0%*$1"$7 $&(*( /)6$ <( 1 60(=!4!= >(6=*!0$!%" %4 $&( 0.1=( $% <( 6(1*=&(>
1"> $&( $&!"?6 $% <( 6(!C(>7 $% 0*(2("$ 1*<!$*1*+ 1"> !">!6=*!/!"1$( )6( %4
$&( A1**1"$ (Sec. 3, ArL. lv, 1974 ConsLlLuLlon, now Sec. 2, ArL. lll of Lhe
1986 ConsLlLuLlon, Sec. 3, 8ule 126 of Lhe new 8ules of CourL, SLonehlll v.
ulokno, 20 SC8A 383, Llme v. Þonce de Leon, 66 SC8A 299, uy kheyLln v.
vlllareal, 42 Þhll. 886, Þeople v. veloso, 48 Þhll. 169, Þeople v. 8ublo, 37
Þhll. 384, 8ache & Co., (Þhll.) lnc. v. 8ulz, 37 SC8A 823, 8oan v. Conzalez,
143 SC8A 687)
(emphasls supplled)
When may a search warranL be deemed Lo saLlsfy Lhe legal requlremenLs of speclflclLy?
ln D1=&( 1"> '%37 B:&!.3E F"=. 2. G)!C, we sald
A search warranL may be sald Lo parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe Lhlngs Lo be
selzed when Lhe descrlpLlon Lhereln ls as speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances
wlll ordlnarlly allow (Þeople v. 8ublo, 37 Þhll. 384), or when Lhe
descrlpLlon expresses a concluslon of facL - noL of law - by whlch Lhe
warranL offlcer may be gulded ln maklng Lhe search and selzure (ldem.,
dlssenL of Abad SanLos, H.), or when Lhe Lhlngs descrlbed are llmlLed Lo
Lhose whlch bear dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls
belng lssued (Sec. 2, 8ule 126, 8evlsed 8ules of CourL). . . . lf Lhe arLlcles
deslred Lo be selzed have any dlrecL relaLlon Lo an offense commlLLed,
Lhe appllcanL musL necessarlly have some evldence, oLher Lhan Lhose
arLlcles, Lo prove Lhe sald offense, and Lhe arLlcles sub[ecL of search and
selzure should come ln handy merely Lo sLrengLhen such evldence. . . .
An examlnaLlon of Search WarranL no. 23 shows LhaL lL was worded ln such a manner
LhaL Lhe enumeraLed lLems Lo be selzed bear a dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe offense of vlolaLlon
of Sec. 36 of ÞresldenLlal uecree no. 49, as amended, whlch sLaLes:
(1) 1ransfer or cause Lo be Lransferred, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly any sound
recordlng or moLlon plcLure, or oLher audlo-vlsual work LhaL has been
recorded on a phonograph record, dlsc, wlre, Lape, fllm or oLher arLlcle
on whlch sounds, moLlon plcLures, or oLher audlo-vlsual works are
recorded, wlLh lnLenL Lo sell, lease, publlcly exhlblL or cause Lo be sold,
leased or publlcly exhlblLed, or Lo use for cause Lo be used for proflL, such
arLlcle on whlch sounds, moLlon plcLures, or oLher audlo vlsual works are
so Lransferred, Wl1PCu1 1PL W8l11Ln CCnSLn1 Cl PlS ASSlCnLL, or
(2) Sell, lease, dlsLrlbuLe, clrculaLe, exhlblL, offer for sale, lease,
dlsLrlbuLlon, clrculaLlon or publlc exhlblL, offer for sale, lease, dlsLrlbuLlon,
or possess for Lhe purpose of sale, lease, dlsLrlbuLlon, clrculaLlon or publlc
exhlblLlon, any such arLlcle Lo whlch Lhe sounds, moLlon plcLures or
audlo-vlsual recordlngs Lhereon have been so Lransferred, wlLhouL Lhe
wrlLLen consenL of Lhe owner or hls asslgnee, or
(3) Cffer or make avallable for a fee, renLal or any oLher form of
compensaLlon, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, any equlpmenL, machlnery,
paraphernalla or any maLerlal wlLh Lhe knowledge LhaL such equlpmenL,
machlnery, paraphernalla or maLerlal, wlll be used by anoLher Lo
reproduce, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe owners any phonograph record,
dlsc, wlre, Lape fllm or oLher arLlcle on whlch sound, moLlon plcLures, or
oLher audlo-vlsual recordlngs may be Lransferred.
ln oLher words, lL auLhorlzed only Lhe selzure of arLlcles used or lnLended Lo be used ln
Lhe unlawful sale, lease and oLher acLs ln vlolaLlon of Lhe sald decree. 1he search
warranL ordered Lhe selzure of Lhe followlng properLles:
(a) ÞlraLed vldeo Lapes of Lhe copyrlghL moLlon plcLures/fllms Lhe LlLles of
whlch are menLloned ln Lhe aLLached llsL,
(b) ÞosLers, adverLlslng leafleLs, brochures, lnvolces, [ournals, ledgers,
and books of accounLs bearlng and/or menLlonlng Lhe plraLed fllms wlLh
LlLles (as per aLLached llsL),
(c) 1elevlslon seLs, vldeo casseLLes records, rewlnders, Lape head
cleaners, accessorles, equlpmenL and oLher machlnes and paraphernalla
or maLerlal used ln Lhe unlawful sale, lease, dlsLrlbuLlon, or possesslon for
purpose of sale, lease, dlsLrlbuLlon, clrculaLlon or publlc exhlblLlon of Lhe
above-menLloned plraLed vldeo Lapes whlch he ls keeplng and conceallng
ln Lhe premlses above-descrlbed.
Clearly, Lhe above lLems could noL be anymore speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll allow
slnce Lhey are all used or lnLended Lo be used ln Lhe unlawful sale or lease of plraLed
Lapes. 1herefore, Lhe pendlng of Lhe appellaLe courL LhaL Search WarranL no. 23 ls a
"general" warranL of devold of basls.
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5N3 UEQPGP5T .K !3E8RN DE88EF5 -., 0L PO N3837T $%>-!*?*%B,
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