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Free and Forced Convection Aim of the experiment To make the student familiar with free and forced

convection, and heat convection efficiency of the different surfaces.

2 7, 8 1 11 6

5 10

9 4

W L 352

Tempera tur / T emper atu re 1

Tempera tur / T emper atu re 2

Ther moel ement / Ther mocoupl e

Luftstr mung / Air Flow

Lei stun g / P ower

1. Air duct with a cross-section of 120x120mm2 and a length of 1m is used to guide the flow of air. 2. Measuring glands that enable the temperature to be recorder at various points by pushing in a type K thermo-couple. 3. Thermo-couple. 4. Flow sensor thatrecords the flow rate of the inlet air. 5. Pt100 element record the inlet temperature. 6. Pt100 elementrecord the outlet temperature. 7. Heater insert 8. Heater insert 9. Heater insert -These are mounted using simple toggle type fasteners. The different heated surfaces (flat plate, pipe bundle or fins) are each heated by four resistive heaters with a maximum total power output of approx. 170W. The voltage applied is adjustable giving a variable heat output. Bi-metallic strips, which interrupt the supply of power when a set

threshold is re-ached, are used to ensure that the temperature does not exceed 120C. The activation of the electrical power supply starts again at 105C. 10. Control and display unit contains the power supply and the regulators for the fan and heater inserts. In addition, this unit displays the electrical power supplied to the heater elements, the flow rate, the inlet and outlet air temperature and the temperature measured with the thermocouple. A PC can be connected at the rear for data acquisition. 11. built-infan with variable speed conveys the air for the experiments relating to forced convection.

Introduction The transfer of heat by convection plays an important role in many areas of industry. Convection includes the transfer of heat by contact and conduction. A further area is the transfer of heat by radiation. Heat transfer by convection can be sub-divided into natural and forced convection. In the case of forced convection, the fluid to be heated is blown or pumped past the heated surface by a pump or fan, whilst in the case of natural convection, flow is only achieved based on differences in the density of the heated fluid.

Notation = the amount of heat transferred = mass flow rate of air V = velocity of air = specific heat capacity of air A = The cross-sectional area. (This is set at a constant 0.0144 m2 on the Test Stand for Free and Forced Convection. The cross-sectional area is derived from the duct dimensions of 120x120 mm2). = Density of air Pel = Electrical power input to the setup = efficiency = Temperature difference h = heat transfer coefficient = average logarithmic temperature = surface temperature of the heater at inlet = surface temperature of the heater at outlet = Air temperature at inlet = Air temperature at outlet

Theory Amount of Heat Transfer considering the fluid the amount of heat transferred or absorbed by the fluid can be calculated using equation (1). --------------------------------------(1) The specific heat capacity and density can be taken from the tables available in the appendix.Assuming that the temperature gradient on the surface of the heater is approximately linear, theaverage temperature of the air at the inlet outlet to the heated surface can be used to deter mine the specific heat capacity. This is then input into the formula to calculate the amount of heat. The cross-sectional area is set at a constant 0.0144 m2 on the Test Stand for Free and Forced Convection. The cross-sectional area is derived from the duct dimensions of 120x120 mm2. 2


Heat Transfer Coefficient Considering the amount of heat transferred from the surface to the fluid


Setting Up

Placed the air duct on a firm, even surface. ensure that the inlet and outlet of the air duct are not obstructed. This is necessary to ensure that the flow rate is not adversely affected and measurement results obtained which cannot be explained. setup The test stand vertically. The air channel outlet and inlets are to be kept clear so

that the air flow is not restricted. Connect the fan and heater elements to the control and display unit with plugs and/ or couplings; the cables do not need to be heat resistant. Connect The thermocouple to the control and display unit via a jack. Power is provided to the control and display unit by plugging it into an earthed mains socket.

Taking Measurements Connect The heater element with the flat plate to the control and display unit prior to being mounted in the air duct. Connect the power supply Set the potentiometer on the control unit to 100% and the surface temperature measured using the thermocouple. Once a steady state condition ("Chart" screen) has been reached, that is there is no noticeable temperature change at the surface of the heater element, record the temperature. Place the heater in the duct. Once again it is necessary to wait until a steady state condition has been reached. Take The necessary measurements . This experimental sequence is applicable to all the experiments concerned with the individual heater inserts. In the case of the pipe bundle and the heater with fins, the surface temperature can be measured prior to fitting in the air duct using the measuring glands.

Observation Name: Registration Number Date of Laboratory work

Free Convection Heater Inserts 1 2 3 4 5 Velocity of air at inlet (ms-1) Inlet temperature of air(oC) Outlet temperature of air(oC) Surface temperature of heater at inlet Surface Area/(m )

Flat Plate V1 T1 T2 A

Pipe Bundle


Forced Convection Heater Inserts 1 2 3 Velocity of air at inlet (ms-1) Inlet temperature of air(oC) Outlet temperature of air(oC) V1 T1 T2 Flat Plate Pipe Bundle Fins

Calculation Using the data recorded calculate the following. 1. mass flow rate of air 2. heat transferred 3. efficiency of the surface 4. heat transfer coefficient

Discussion Discuss the variation of heat transfer rates in forced convection and free convection for each heat inserter.

STEAM PLANT EXPERIMENT Aim of the experiment

To make the student familiar with steam power plant, its different components, operation of the components and determination of important parameters in view of estimating efficiencies of each components and of the whole plant.

The steam plant consists of three components. 1. Steam boiler or generator (ET813.01) 2. Steam engine (two cylinders) (ET813) 3. Universal drive and brake unit (HM365)

See the schematic diagram of the steam plant given at the end of this lab sheet. The live steam leaves the Steam Generator via the master steam valve V1 and passes to the speed regulator valve V2. Prior to the speed regulator valve, a bypass pipe feeds excess steam directly to the condenser C using valve V5. This pipe can be used during experiments in which the steam engine does not need to run. After the speed regulator valve V2, the steam passes through the rapid action stop valve V3 to the steam engine. The rapid action stop valve closes in the case of steam engine over speed and prevents runaway of the engine on load shedding. The steam engine B itself is equipped with two drain and safety valves. The exhaust steam enters the water-cooled condenser C. Between steam engine and condenser an oil trap is mounted. The condenser works under atmospheric pressure and is equipped with a vent and bleed. The condensate is drawn off via a three-way valve V4 and can be fed either to a measuring container E or to the condensate tank D. The condensate tank is in the form of a cascaded tank and precipitates oil drawn out of the steam engine. The clean condensate is pumped back via pump G to the feed water tank J in the ET813.01 Steam Generator. The pump is controlled via the level switch LS. Additional water is supplied to the steam generator from the additional water tank H via the pump I and valve V8. The condenser is supplied via the valve V7 with cooling water. The flow rate can be read on a variable area flow meter F1. For the measurement of the steam moisture content, the plant is equipped with a

throttling calorimeter F. The pipe to the calorimeter branches off immediately before the rapid action stop valve. The flow of steam can be adjusted using the valve V6. The condition of the fresh steam is indicated via T3, P3, and the temperature after expansion with T8.