Biology Exam Notes 25 M/C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
periodic table;mass number, etc. isomers H-H bonding different bonds in the macro molecules amino acid types or reactions; condensation, dehydration, etc. difference between exothermic/endothermic and endergonic/exergonic ch.2&3 cofactors/coenzyme redox reaction anaerobic respiration/ch. 2 alternative pathways alt. pathway ethanol photosynthesis photosynthesis dna replication genetic code lac operon mRNA a chromotin fiber/ width operon blunt/sticky ends endosymbiotic steriod/hormone exert their effect by... homeostasis homeostasis
5 out of 8 Short Answers 1. characteristics of H2O 2. dna experiments; must be able to draw and explain 3. know RNA/DNA protein and what role do they have 4. 4 parts: respiration;stages, reactants, products, netp atp 5. photosynthesis/why the leaves change colour with season 6. ch.4&5 explain experiment 7. enyzmes in DNA replication 8. list all function groups and where M/C ● ● ● ● Element on periodic table:top number, mass number, number of protons and neutrons bottom number, atomic number, number of electrons isotopes- same atomic number but different mass number. difference is the number of neutrons pg. 22 electronegativity is the affinity of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond. 0 -> 1.7 (non-polar covalent) 1.7 ->4.2 (ionic) isomers - molecules with the same chemical formula but with a different arrangment of atoms; ex. alphaglucose, beta-glucose pg. 30 H-H bonding is the strongest intermolecular forces; strong dipole-dipole forces that form between an electropositive H of one polar molecule and an electronegative N, O, or F.
the reduced coenzymes act as mobile energy carriers within the cell. 64 Cofactors . that are needed for some enzymes to function Coenzymes . 43 Nucleic acid/phosphodiester linkage . Anabolic Rx . 17 Macromolecule bonds/functional bonds pg.atom gains one or more electrons Oxidizing agent . 41-43 Condensation(Dehydration) Rx . Pg. pg. there is a terminal amino group and a terminal carboxyl group on each end of a polypeptide ( more than one amino acid). pg.atom loses one or more electrons Reduction . 25.a functional group linkage formed by condensation of a carboxyl group and a hydroxyl group. 101 Calvin cycle is relevant as it recycles the coenzyme of rubisco that catalyzes the first reaction and the oxidation of RuBP to phospho-glycolate. FAD+:transport of protons (H+) and electrons from one reaction site to another NAD+ to NADH . 66-67 Oxidation . 54 Carbohydrates / simple sugars (glucose) Lipid / glycerol and fatty acids protein / amino acids nucleic acid / nucleotides Carbohydrates/glycosidic linkage . pg.coenzyme used to shuttles electrons to the first component of the electron transport chain into the mitochondrial inner membrane.a chemical Rx in which the energy of the products is more than the energy of the reactants. 37 Proteins/peptide bond . 147) FAD to FADH2. 95-96.a water molecule is used to break a covalent bond from a large molecule to smaller subunits Catabolic Rx .reaction that produces a large molecule from smaller subunits Hydrolysis Rx . such as dissolved ions. also used in photosynthesis ( pg. pg.covalent bonds holding monosaccharides to each other that are formed by condensation (removal of water) which the H atom from hydroxyl group of one sugar and the -OH group comes from a hydroxyl group of the other pg. coenzyme A attaches to remaining acetic acid to produce acetyl-CoA which will be used in the Kreb Cycle. bonds become more stable. removes a water molecule. 60.a chemical Rx involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.creates a covalent bond between 2 subunits.nonprotein components. by a removal of an H atom and an -OH group from the other subunit’s functinal group. pg. 28 Endergonic/Endothermic Rx . 72 NAD+. 94. pg.is similar to NAD+ as they are energy-harvesting reactions that will eventually transfer most of their free energy to ATP molecules.the substance that gains an electron Reducing agent . Exergonic/Exothermic Rx .reactions that break macromolecules into individual subunits.organic nonprotein cofactors that are needed for some enzymes to function pg.a chemical Rx in which the energy of the products is less than the energy of the reactants. 30 Lipids/ester linkage ..between the glycerol and the fatty acid. 162 Redox Rx .links between nucleotides by a phosphate group There are 20 different amino acids and are the side chains in an amino acid. pg. a reaction in which oxidation and reduction occur. pg. NADP+. pg. 41. is when the product of one reaction is the reactant of the next series.●
Water molecules are hold each onto each onto each other by H-H bonds and gives water the unique properties and angular shapes.
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. occurs by condensation between the oxygen from the carboxyl group and the H atoms from the amino group of an adjacent amino acid.the amide linkage that holds amino acids together in polypeptides.the substance that loses an electron A coupled redox reaction. 28.
regenerating NAD+ and allows glycolysis to continue. Glycolysis allows organisms to obtain energy from nutrients in the absence of oxygen. if there is no lactose present. step 6 will be blocked and glycolysis will discontinue. the product which is tryptophan. ***remember the question on the test that asks about the stronger bonds. termination. preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing the lac operon genes. Ethanol fermentation . 120 Photosynthesis can be broken down to three stages: Stage 1: Light Reactions Stage 2: Synthesize ATP and NADPH Stage 3: Calvin Cycle Chlorophyll A is the only pigment that can transfer the light energy to the carbon fixation reactions in photosynthesis. Initiation . TRP operon is similar to lac operon. free energy is released in each step. It takes 6 turns of the cycle to produce one 6-carbon glucose molecule. exposing the
. then the operon is repressed. but if there are high levels of tryptophan. The electron moves to successively stronger electron acceptors. the genes collectively code for the enzymes and proteins required for a bacterial cell to use lactose as a nutrient Lacl protein . CAM plants closes stomata during the day to reserve water and opens at night incorporating the CO2 accumulated in the air. 119 Lactate (Lactic Acid) Fermentation . Light reactions occur on the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast.a repressor protein that binds to the lac operon operator. mRNA is translated by ribosomes into protein. Chlorophyll b and carotene are accessory pigments that transfer their energy to chlor. Pg.the end product of transcription of a gene. Lactose is the signal molecule/inducer. but in step 6 (G3P to BPB) of the glycolytic pathways reduced NAD+ to NADH+ and cells possess a limited supply of NAD+. fermentation is the alternate to process without oxygen and the ETC through various bacterias. This forms ethanol and allows NAD+ to be recycled and glycolysis to continue.whether it was the one previously reduced/oxidized. Pg. Anaerobic respiration is the cellular respiration without oxygen as the final electron acceptor. In aerobic respiration the ETC oxidizes NADH back to NAD+.A. where each replication is composed of one parent strand and one synthesized strand. the genes are not transcribed.● ●
reduced>oxidized>reduced. Therefore.a cluster of genes under the control of one promoter and one operator. The main objective of the Calvin cycle is to produce G3P. Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma. Thus if cells continue w/o a mechanism to oxidize NADH back to NAD+. Therefore. elongation. is the corepressor as it binds to trp repressor protein which then binds to the operator. ****review process of DNA replication.NADH produced transfers its hydrogen atoms to pyruvate in the cytoplasm of the cell.
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mRNA . etc. 219 review genetic code pg. C4 plants reduce photorespiration by continuously pumping CO2 by a two part compartment of a mesophyll cell and bundle-sheath cell. ***review chart on pg. 240 Lac operon . it binds to the protein causing it to fall off the operator and allowing the genes to be transcribed. then DNA is unwound.NADH passes its hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde (when CO2 is removed from pyruvate). pg. 181 DNA replication occurs semiconservatively.RNA polymerase binds upstream at promoter region. When there is lactose present. 3 CO2 = 1 3-G3P molecule. The synthesis of mRNA can be put into three stages: initiation.
liquid or a gas. 4. bonding causes liquid water to absorb a large amount of heat to become a vapour = evaporative cooling (like sweating to dissipate heat) 6. the V-shaped molecules reduces the the density (ice floats on water).fragment ends of a DNA molecule that are fully base paired. Introns are cut by spliceosomes then exons are joined together. high surface tension.
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endosymbiotic . adhesion. Hydrogen bonding accounts for the following properties of water: high solubility of polar and
ionic substances. 206-207 ● used an alga that contained a cap. 19 1. Uracil .stranded overhangs.pg. stock and a foot where the nucleus is located. It’s polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical structure makes it a highly polar molecule.
DNA experiments Hammerling: to find the location of the hereditary information pg. 7. ● Experiment 2: removed the foot. and high specific heat of vaporization. which is beneficial to at least one of the species. chromatin fiber diameter is about 30nm-40nm sticky end . resulting from cleavage by a restriction enzyme
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The endosymbiotic theory proposes that an ancestor of cyanobacteria was engulfed by an ancestor of today’s eukaryotic cell and gave rise to plant cells. and the cap regenerated. 332
Characteristics of Water . a string of 200 to 300 adenine base pairs to protect from degradation.form hydrogen bonds with each other = high surface tension Adhesive .H. 3. high specific heat capacity.Adenine.synthesized 5’-3’. Elongation .under 0 degrees. High specific heat vaporization . colourless. ● Experiment 1: removed the cap. Termination . 5’ cap is added to the start. and did not regenerated. capillarity.process by which a constant internal environment is maintained despite changes in the external environment Review homeostasis pg.hydrogen bonding causes water to absorb a large amount of heat before it’s temperature increases and lose large amounts of heat before its temperature decreases = temperature modification ( helps organisms maintain body temp/homeostasis). SOLID WATER IS LESS DENSE THAN LIQUID WATER Highest density @ 4 degrees C . WATER CLINGS Cohesive .form hydrogen bonds with polar materials = capillary action 5. 2.fragment end of a DNA molecule with short single. WATER ABSORBS LOTS OF HEAT High specific heat capacity . tasteless and can be solid. signaling as the beginning of translation. cohesion. 265 steroid hormones exert their efforts by entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the
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template strand. pg. poly-A tail is added.
.mRNA and RNA polymerase are released.physical and chemical contact between one species and another species living within its body. resulting from cleavage by a restriction enzyme blunt end . odourless. Water is very soluble because it provides partial positive and negative charges.
Hershey/Chase: to confirm that DNA is the hereditary information. 152-154 ● Summer leaves contain chlorophyll and accessory pigments. one of intermediate and one of light density. ● one tRNA only has one amino acid. ● The results of Hershey and Chase’s experiments showed that only the DNA from the
bacteriophage.a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides (each consisting of a deoxyribose sugar. 32P was found in the cell.●
concluded that the DNA is located in the nucleus.
All the DNA after one generation after the switch to 14N would consist of one 14N strand and one 15N strand. 210 .a form of RNA that binds with ribosomal protein to form ribosomes ● Ribosomes consist of a large subunit and a small subunit. it is also single stranded and able to leave the nucleus. and blue) are
. carotenoids (yellow-orange). did not contain the 35S but was in the medium.
semiconservative . Meselson/Stahl: to suggest that DNA was replicated semiconservatively. ● RNA pg. mRNA is translated by ribosomes into protein. After two generations. 242 .A tRNA molecule with its corresponding amino acid attached to its acceptor site at the 3’ end.a form of RNA that is responsible for delivering amino acids to the ribosomes during the process of translation and synthesize proteins. and anthocyanins (red.237 . ● The enzymes responsible for adding the appropriate amino acid to each tRNA is called a-tRNA synthetase. ● In spring and summer. while the other half would have a density similar to the 14N DNA. 217-218
● ● They grew a bacteria in a medium rich in a heavy nitrogen isotope 15N and was grown for 17 generations. form phosphodiester bonds. the anticodon on the tRNA has AUA. ● It is the intermediate between and the ribosome. a phosphate. half of the DNA would have a density like that after one generation. ● Protein coat was tagged with an isotope of sulfur (35S) while the DNA with an isotope of phosphorus (32P). the anticodon recognizes the codon of the mRNA and the opposite arm carries the corresponding amino acid. uses a ribose sugar. is the carrier of the information from the DNA.the end product of transcription of a gene.uracil instead of thymine and binds to adenine. 238. 250-251. if the mRNA has UAU. leaves appear green because of the high concentration of chlorophyll.
Xanthophyll (yellow). ● rRNA pg. ● mRNA pg. 208-209 ● They used a virus that would infect a bacterial host. ● Is the template strand for the mRNA. ● The bacteria that was exposed to the tagged DNA. ● At one arm of the tRNA. Photosynthesis: Why do the leaves change colours with the season pg. ● Autumn leaves contain less chlorophyll. causing the colours of the accessory and other pigments to become visible. two different bands would be present in the gradient.process of replication in which each DNA molecule is composed of one parent strand and one newly synthesized strand. ● Found that the bacteria that were exposed to the tagged protein coats. Therefore. ● tRNA pg. enters the bacteria to direct the synthesis of new viral DNA and new viral protein coats. The isolated DNA should settle as one band of intermediate density after centrifugation. violet. The subunits are a combination of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein. Pyrimidines: Thymine + Cytosine ● nitrogenous base attached at 1’ and phosphate at 5’ of the sugar . which has a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2’ carbon. pg. also. and four nitrogenous bases) that carries the genetic information of an organism ● Purines: Adenine + Guanine . ● aminoacyl–tRNA . pg. but the green colour of chlorophyll overwhelms the colours reflected by the accessory pigments. 250. and not the protein coat.
Roles of RNA/DNA/Protein ● DNA pg.238.
red.an enzyme that cuts out nucleotides at the end of a DNA strand
. cooler and shorter days trigger an end to auxin production. however.the enzyme that joins DNA fragments together by catalyzing the formation of a bond between the 3’ hydroxyl group and a 5’ phosphate group on the sugar phosphate backbones exonuclease . nutrients and sugar to the leaves. allowing the abscission layer to grow and cut off the circulation of water. plants stop producing chlorophyll. In fall. controls a special band of cells at the base of each leaf stem. During the growing season.the enzyme that builds RNA primers DNA polymerase I . Another chemical in leaves. causing the yellow.the enzyme that unwinds double-helical DNA by disrupting hydrogen bonds single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs) .the enzyme responsible for synthesizing complementary strands of DNA during DNA ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
replication DNA helicase . and brown colours of autumn leaves to show. In autumn.a protein that keeps separated strands of DNA apart DNA gyrase .a sequence of 10 to 60 RNA bases that is annealed to a region of singlestranded DNA for the purpose of initiating DNA replication primase . auxin prevents this layer from fully developing and blocking the tiny. called the abscission layer.●
overwhelmed by the green light reflected by chlorophyll. auxin.the bacterial enzyme that relieves the tension produced by the unwinding of DNA during replication RNA (ribonucleic acid) primer . internal tubes that connect each leaf to the rest of the tree’s circulatory system.
Enzymes involved in DNA Replication ● DNA polymerase III .an enzyme that removes RNA primers and replaces them with the appropriate deoxyribonucleotides during DNA replication DNA ligase .