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DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING FTeW, ADEKUS

Vak: Mineral Reserves Datum: June 20, 2008 Docent: Ewald Poetisi ________________________________________________________________________ A. Earth's Resources 1. Earth's resources refers to anything we use or extract from the Earth to benefit society, whether it be in the products we make, the energy we generate, or food we grow. 1.1. List some of Earth's resources (5pt): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Forest land and its multiple products and services, Natural land areas reserved for esthetic, recreational, or scientific purposes; Fresh and saltwater fisheries; Mineral resources that include the mineral fuels and nonfuels; The renewable nonmineral energy sources of solar, tidal, wind and geothermal systems; 6. Water resources; 7. The waste-assimilative capacities of all parts of the environment 1.2. We can divide all these resources into two categories(2pt): Renewable and Nonrenewable

1.3. What makes a resource renewable? (5pt) selfregeneration Example 1: wind/sun: harnessing its energy does not deplete the source of this energy, so it is a renewable resource. Example 2: corn/sugarcane: they are cultivated each season, but they are replaced by a new crop the next year.

2. A specific type of Earths resources is mineral resources. 2.1. When does a natural stuff become a mineral resource? (5pt) ____________________ There must exist some substances, naturally-occurring (neutral stuff); There must be human demand for these substances; and The technology to process these substances and to use them to benefit mankind must exists. 2.2. True or False: The process of natural stuff to mineral resource is irreversible.(2pt)

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING FTeW, ADEKUS

2. 3. What is the relationship between the formation of the earth and mineral resources? Explain briefly. (10pt) _____________________________________________________ During the formation of the earth differention took place, resulting crust, mantle and core. In the core concentration of mineral took place due to endogenic and exogenic processes forming mineral resources 2.4. What is the difference between minerals and rocks? (3pt) Minerals are matters consisting of elements and rocks of one or more minerals.

B. Types of Mineral deposits 1. What are mineral deposits? (3pt) __________________________________________ is a concentration of elements or minerals above normal crustal abundances, formed by geological processes, is a geological term, may be a resource

2. True or False: Mineral deposits contain several elements in certain amount that can be divided as follow: Major (> 0.1 %), Trace (< 0.1 %).(2pt) ______________ 3. The requirements for mineral deposit formation are:(2pt) A source of metals, a means to transport the metals, a fluid, physical sorting A source of metals, a means to transport the metals, an energy source A means to concentrate the metals at one location in an extractable form, change in chemical conditions, physical sorting, a source of metals A source of metals, a means to transport the metals, a means to concentrate the metals at one location in an extractable form 4. Nigglis volcanic-plutonic classification categorizes deposits on base of what? (3pt) categorizes deposits on base of their genesis and mineralogy;

5. Based on the genesis of the deposit Skinner and Porter divided mineral deposits as follow: (2pt). A. Hydrothermal deposits, Iron Formation, alluvial deposits, continental deposits B. Magmatic deposits, hydrothermal deposits, fluvial deposits, marine deposits C. Sedimentary deposits, placer deposits, tectonic deposits, sedimentary deposits D. hydrothermal deposits, placer deposits, magmatic deposits, sedimentary deposits, Residual deposits E. Non of the above 6. Explain what is meant by hydrothermal deposit. (10pt)

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING FTeW, ADEKUS The elements constituents, such as Cu, Pb, Au or other metals are dissolved in a hot aqueous solution along with other deposit constituents such as Si, S and Fe. These elements are deposited to form the mineral deposit and gangue minerals in response to a change in the solution, very often a sharp decrease in temperature.

6. Mineral deposits where heavy minerals are concentrated by stream or wave action are called: (2pt) a. b. c. d. e. hydrothermal hydraulic stratiform placer residual

7. True or False: Metamorphic environment is according to Skinner and Porter a major type of ore-forming environment? (2pt) ______________

.8 Secondary enrichment makes low-grade ores into richer ores by: (2pt) a. b. c. d. e. weathering metamorphism deformation igneous activity evaporation

C. Defining Mineral Resources 1. Why is mineral resources are limited in quantity and hard to find? (10pt) The suitable conditions are not common

2. What does mineral resources classification involve? (2pt) o systematic organization of information on ores and other current or future economically important mineral deposits o establishing mineral resource classes

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING FTeW, ADEKUS o determining mineral reserves o non of the above 3. True or False: The process of mineral resources classification guides governmental and industrial planning on how to manage the resources. (2pt) ___________ 4. What are the specific categories of mineralization in an economic sense are: (2pt) o mineral occurrences, mineral resources, ore reserves o mineral resources, ore deposits, geological deposits o ore reserves, cut-off grade, tonnage, prospect, 5. Explain what is illustrated in the diagram below. (15pt)

i. ii.

different levels of geological confidence- horizontal sense and difference degrees of technical and economic evaluation vertical sence

6. Who is a Competent or Qualified Person? (3 pt) A Qualified Person (QP) is an individual who is engineer or geoscientist with at least five (5) years of experience in mineral exploration, mine developmentt, mine operation, project assessment or any combination of these; has experience relevant to the subject matter of mineral project and technical report; and is a member in good standing of a professional association 9. True/False: It is not possible to declare a probable mineral reserve to an indicated mineral reserve.(2pt) _____________

D. Estimation of MR and MR

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING FTeW, ADEKUS

1. Definition Estimation of mineral resources and reserves. (2pt) o A process to judge or approximate the value, worth, or significance and to determine the size, extent, or nature of mineral deposit o A process to outline mineral deposits o A process to valuating mineral resources and mineral reserves o A process to make decision on mineral deposits

2. Best practice means:(4pt) It is a management idea which asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity, incentive or reward that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc.

3. True or False: There are several documents giving guidelines for estimation of mineral resources and mineral reserves worldwide intending to assist in the planning, supervision, preparation and reporting of mineral resource and mineral reserve (MRMR) estimates. (2pt) _____________ 4. How does a Resource Database be created? (3pt)___________________________ RD is established by collection, validation, recording, storing and processing of the data and forms the foundation necessary for the estimation of MRMR E. Management of Mineral Resources 1. Describe briefly the mineral resources management system of Suriname at present. (10pt) The ministry of Natural Resources (NH) includes: 1. Mineral resources that include the mineral fuels and nonfuels (GMD, SOMS) 2. Water resources (SWM, DWV) 3. The renewable nonmineral energy sources of solar, tidal, wind and geothermal systems (NH) Ministry of Labor, Technology and Environment, include 1. The waste-assimilative capacities of all parts of the environment - NIMOS ADEKUS training of executives Natin training of executives