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**TWO DERIVATIVES, ONE DERIVATIVE: GEARING UP FOR LN(X)
**

CALCULUS | PACKER COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE

So so so many moons ago, we found the derivative of xy + y + 1 = x in two different ways. We first did it traditionally (rewrite the implicit relation for y totally in terms of x and then take the derivative). Then we did it using implicit differentiation, and got a seemingly different answer. The weird thing was – we found they were the same. Traditional Differentiation Step 1: Solve for y explicitly xy + y + 1 = x xy + y = x − 1 y ( x + 1) = x − 1 x −1 y= x +1 Step 2: Take the derivative of both sides Implicit Differentiation Step 1: Take the derivative of both sides directly xy + y + 1 = x d d ( xy + y + 1) = ( x) dx dx 1 y + y ' x + y '+ 0 = 1 y + y'x + y' =1 Step 2: Solve for y’ y + y'x+ y' = 1 y'x+ y' = 1− y y '( x + 1) = 1− y 1− y y' = x +1

y'=

( x + 1)(1) − ( x − 1)(1) ( x + 1) 2 2 y'= ( x + 1) 2

We did this before, but here’s a graph of the original relation. Find the derivative at both points using the equation derived using the traditional differentiation and then using implicit differentiation. Traditional differentiation: The slope of the tangent line at (-2,3): The slope of the tangent line at (1,0): Implicit differentiation: The slope of the tangent line at (-2,3): The slope of the tangent line at (1,0):

Okay, we saw that they were the same beforehand. Both yielded the same answer although they looked different. That’s like saying f ( x) =| x | and f ( x) = x 2 . Although they look very different, it turns out they are the very same equation. So now our task is to understand why the two different derivative equations will always yield the same answer. Can you show y ' = 2 1− y is the same as y ' = for the relation xy + y + 1 = x? 2 ( x + 1) x +1

Start with

2 1− y x −1 and show somehow it is equivalent to . (HINT: the relation can be rewritten y = ) 2 x +1 x +1 ( x + 1)

Problem 1: Try doing the same thing. Find y’ traditionally and implicitly. Show that the two are the same. x3 + y 3 = 1 Traditional Differentiation Implicit Differentiation

Show they are the same!

Problem 2: Try doing the same thing. Find y’ traditionally and implicitly. Show that the two are the same. y3 = x Traditional Differentiation Implicit Differentiation

Show they are the same!

Problem 3: Try doing the same thing. Find y’ traditionally and implicitly. Show that the two are the same.

xy = 1

Traditional Differentiation

Implicit Differentiation

Show they are the same!

We are finding the derivatives not of original functions, but of inverse functions. At the end of doing each problem, we will know the derivative of the inverse function, not the original. That’s why we’re writing the original functions in the grey boxes, but we’re not really looking at them again. Inverse functions are important (e.g. inverse sine!) so we should know how to deal with them. Although often when we use implicit differentiation we have a “y” in the derivative, for these, we are going to avoid that.

Original

Inverse

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