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MISSOURI CIRCUIT COURT TWENTY-SECOND CIRCUIT (City of St. Louis) MARY ERIN NOEL, et al., ) ) lai!tiffs, ) ) ".

) ) )OARD O* ELECTION COMMISSIONERS, ) et+., et al., ) ) Defe!,a!ts. )

No. #$%%-CC&&%$' Di". #(

MEMORANDUM AND ORDER lai!tiffs, +iti-e!s a!, ta./aye0s of t1e City of St. Louis, 20i!3 t1is a+tio! to /0e"e!t su24issio! of a! i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! to t1ei0 fello5 +iti-e!s of t1e City. T1e i!itiati"e /0o/oses a!

a4e!,4e!t to t1e C1a0te0 of t1e City of St. Louis +o!sisti!3 of a !e5 a0ti+le 667II, e!title, 8Sustai!a2le E!e03y oli+y.8 T1e ,efe!,a!ts

i! t1e a+tio! a0e t1e )oa0, of Ele+tio! Co44issio!e0s of t1e City of St. Louis a!, t1e City of St. Louis itself. T1e +o44ittee of

/etitio!e0s 5as !ot 9oi!e, as a /a0ty, 2ut +ou!sel fo0 t1e +o44ittee 1as a//ea0e, as a4i+us +u0iae (a!, t1e Cou0t e./0esses its a//0e+iatio! fo0 +ou!sel:s 5ell-a03ue, 20ief). lai!tiffs see; a

/0eli4i!a0y i!9u!+tio! to /0e+lu,e su24issio! of t1e /0o/ositio! at a s/e+ial ele+tio! s+1e,ule, fo0 A/0il (, %&#$. lai!tiffs alle3e t1at t1e e!e03y i!itiati"e is /0o+e,u0ally a!, su2sta!ti"ely i!"ali,. *i0st, /lai!tiffs asse0t t1at t1e use of t1e

i!itiati"e to /0o/ose +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!ts is /0e+lu,e, 2y t1e Missou0i Co!stitutio!, a0t. 7I, <=%. Se+o!,, /lai!tiffs asse0t t1at t1e

i!itiati"e /etitio!s a0e ,efe+ti"e i! fo04 i! t1at t1ey a0e i!+o00e+tly a,,0esse, to t1e City:s )oa0, of Al,e04e! a!, !ot t1e )oa0, of Ele+tio! Co44issio!e0s, t1at t1e e!a+ti!3 +lause is i!+o00e+t, t1at t1e /etitio! su44a0y is false a!, 4islea,i!3, a!, t1at t1e 2allot su44a0y is ,efe+ti"e. T1i0,, /lai!tiffs alle3e t1at t1e

/0o/ositio! is fa+ially u!+o!stitutio!al i! t1at it /u0/o0ts to +o4/el a//0o/0iatio!s 5it1out esta2lis1i!3 a sou0+e of t1e a//0o/0iatio!s, t1at it +o!fli+ts 5it1 statutes 0elati!3 to e+o!o4i+ ,e"elo/4e!t a!, t1e u2li+ Se0"i+e Co44issio! a!, so is 2eyo!, t1e City:s

+o!stitutio!al +1a0te0 aut1o0ity, a!, its ,is/a0ate t0eat4e!t of /e0so!s o0 e!tities ,efi!e, as 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y /0o,u+e0s8 is a ,e!ial of e>ual /0ote+tio!. At t1e 1ea0i!3 o! t1e 4otio! fo0 /0eli4i!a0y i!9u!+tio!, t1e0e ,i, !ot a//ea0 to 2e a!y fa+ts i! ,is/ute, alt1ou31 t1e /0e+ise 4ea!i!3 of t1e /0o/ositio! 5as a 4atte0 of "a0yi!3 o/i!io!s. +o44ittee of /etitio!e0s /0ese!te, /etitio!s 0efle+ti!3 %%,?=' si3!atu0es of 0e3iste0e, City "ote0s to t1e Ele+tio! )oa0,, a!, t1e )oa0, ,uly +e0tifie, t1e /etitio!s to t1e )oa0, of Al,e04e!. $. l.E.. T1e

T1e )oa0, of Al,e04e! ,i, !ot a+t to su24it t1e /0o/ositio! to t1e l.E.. #. T1e Ele+tio! )oa0, a++o0,i!3ly 1as /0o+ee,e, to


+all a s/e+ial ele+tio! fo0 A/0il ( a!, 1as 2e3u! /0e/a0atio!s fo0 1ol,i!3 t1e ele+tio!. T1e 2allot fo04 a,o/te, 2y t1e )oa0, 5ill !ot +o!tai! a su44a0y of t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio!, 2ut 5ill i!stea, /0ese!t t1e e!ti0e te.t of t1e /0o/ositio!. l.E.. @. I! o0,e0 to

/0i!t a!, ,ist0i2ute a2se!tee 2allots i! ti4e fo0 t1e ele+tio!, t1e Ele+tio! )oa0, 4ust +o44e!+e t1e 2allot /0i!ti!3 /0o+ess !ot late0 %

t1a! *e20ua0y #$.

A s/e+ial ele+tio! of t1is so0t 5ill +ost t1e l.E.. ?.

ta./aye0s a//0o.i4ately A=&&,&&&.

T1e i!itiati"e /etitio! ( l.E.. %) su44a0i-e, t1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t as follo5sB A /0o/ose, o0,i!a!+e su24itti!3 to t1e 0e3iste0e, "ote0s of t1e City of St. Louis a! a4e!,4e!t to t1e City C1a0te0 e!a+ti!3 a !e5 A0ti+le 667II setti!3 fo0t1 t1e 0i31t to a sustai!a2le e!e03y futu0eC 0e>ui0i!3 t1e City to +0eate a!, /u2lis1 a!!ual a!, @yea0 Sustai!a2le E!e03y la!sC a!,, /0o1i2iti!3 t1e City f0o4 30a!ti!3 a!y u2li+ *i!a!+ial I!+e!ti"es to a!y U!sustai!a2le E!e03y 0o,u+e0 (t1e full te.t of 51i+1 a//ea0s atta+1e, to t1is /etitio!.) T1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t ( l.E.. =) ,e+la0es a 80i31t to a sustai!a2le e!e03y futu0e8 a!, /0es+0i2es t1e esta2lis14e!t of a 8sustai!a2le e!e03y /oli+y.8 0o/ositio!, <#. T1e o/e0ati"e se+tio! u2li+

of t1e /0o/ositio! /0o"i,es t1at t1e City 8s1all !ot 30a!t a!y *i!a!+ial I!+e!ti"es to a! U!sustai!a2le E!e03y <%(a). 0o,u+e0.8 Id.,

Se+tio! %(2) ,i0e+ts t1e Mayo0 to +0eate a!, /u2lis1 a! a!!ual

a!, a @-yea0 8sustai!a2le e!e03y /la!8 t1at 4ust i!+lu,e 8+o!+0ete o//o0tu!ities8 fo0 /u2li+ fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"es to /0efe00e, e!e03y /0o,u+e0s a!, i!itiati"es, a"aila2ility of City /0o/e0ty (i!+lu,i!3 /0o/e0ty of t1e La!, Reutili-atio! Aut1o0ity a!, t1e La!, Clea0a!+e fo0 Re,e"elo/4e!t Aut1o0ity) to i!,i"i,uals a!, 30ou/s fo0 8sustai!a2le e!e03y i!itiati"es,8 a!, t1e /0efe0e!tial use of lo+ally 3e!e0ate, e!e03y. As use, i! t1e /0o/ose, C1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t, a 8/u2li+ fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"e8 4ea!s a!y 8e+o!o4i+ o0 fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"e offe0e, o0 /0o"i,e, 2y t1e City,8 i!+lu,i!3 85it1out li4itatio!8 a!y fo04s of ta. 0elief o0 0e,u+tio!, a!y ta. i!+0e4e!t fi!a!+i!3, a!, 0e,u+tio!, =

+0e,it o0 su2si,y 0elate, to a!y 2o!,, loa! o0 si4ila0 a00a!3e4e!t, a!, t1e a2ility to fo04 o0 0e+ei"e a!y e+o!o4i+ 2e!efit f0o4 a!y s/e+ial ta.atio! ,ist0i+t. 0o/ositio!, <=(2). As ,efi!e,, 8/u2li+

fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"e8 also e./0essly i!+lu,es 8a!y 4o!eta0y o0 !o!4o!eta0y 2e!efit related to any public fund or program." <=(2)(iii), e4/1asis a,,e,. As use, i! t1e /0o/ose, C1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t, t1e te04 8U!sustai!a2le E!e03y 0o,u+e08 4ea!s a!y e!tity o0 o03a!i-atio! 0o/ositio!,

e!3a3e, 8/0i4a0ily i! t1e 4i!i!3 o0 e.t0a+tio! of . . . fossil fuels, +oal, !atu0al 3as, oil, !u+lea0 a!, 0a,ioa+ti"e 4ate0ials, o0 ot1e0 e!e03y sou0+es t1at a0e !o!-0e!e5a2le,8 0o/ositio! <=(+)C 2ut t1e

,efi!itio! 3oes fu0t1e0 to i!+lu,e a!y e!tity o0 o03a!i-atio! t1at 8t0a!sa+ts at least A#,&&&,&&& of 2usi!ess /e0 +ale!,a0 yea08 5it1 t1e ot1e0 ,efi!e, 8U!sustai!a2le E!e03y 0o,u+e0s.8 Id.

T1e /0o/ositio! /u0/o0ts to aut1o0i-e +iti-e! suits to e!fo0+e its te04s a!, +o!tai!s a se"e0a2ility +lause. 0o/ositio!, <<$-@.

Di"e! t1at t1e )oa0, of Al,e04e! fo04ally !otifie, t1e Ele+tio! )oa0, i! No"e42e0 of its 0efusal to a+t o! t1e /0o/ose, C1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t, t1e ti4i!3 of /lai!tiffs: a+tio! 1as /la+e, t1e Cou0t i! a ,iffi+ult /ositio!. T1e sta!,a0,s 3o"e0!i!3 /0eli4i!a0y 0elief +all

fo0 a! a!alysis of a /0o2a2ility of su++ess o! t1e 4e0its a!, t1e li;eli1oo, of i00e/a0a2le 1a04. )y its "e0y !atu0e, /0eli4i!a0y

0elief is ,esi3!e, to /0ese0"e t1e status >uo 5it1out a,9u,i+ati!3 t1e 4e0its of a +o!t0o"e0sy. I! t1is +ase, 1o5e"e0, t1e /lai!tiffs ,esi0e

to /0e+lu,e t1e s/e+ial ele+tio! s+1e,ule, fo0 A/0il (, a!, t1e $

e.i3e!+ies of +o!,u+ti!3 s/e+ial ele+tio!s (o0 a!y ele+tio! fo0 t1at 4atte0) lea"e t1e Cou0t "e0y little ti4e fo0 0esea0+1 a!, 0efle+tio!. Alt1ou31 /0e-ele+tio! 0e"ie5 of a "ali,ity of a! i!itiati"e /0o/ositio!, e.+e/t o! /0o+e,u0al 30ou!,s, see4s to fly i! t1e fa+e of t1e ele4e!ta0y /0o/ositio! t1at t1e +ou0ts ,o !ot 0e!,e0 a,"iso0y o/i!io!s o0 ,e+i,e 1y/ot1eti+al +ases, it is !o5 5ell 0e+o3!i-e, t1at t1e +ou0ts 4ay e!te0tai! /0e-ele+tio! +1alle!3es to t1e fa+ial "ali,ity of a /0o/ositio!, a!, 4ay e!9oi! /la+e4e!t 2efo0e t1e "ote0s if t1e /0o/ositio! is fou!, 5a!ti!3. Kansas City v. Chastain, EE

S.W.=, EE, SC'%#'@ (Mo.2a!+ %&#$)C Baum v. City of St. Louis, #%= S.W.%, $( (Mo. #'=(). A++o0,i!3ly, e"e! t1ou31 /0eli4i!a0y 0elief is

,is+0etio!a0y, t1e Cou0t +o!+lu,es t1at it 4ust ,eal 5it1 /lai!tiffs: 4otio! e"e! if t1e 0esult is to fo0estall a! ele+tio! fo0 a +o!si,e0a2le /e0io,.# lai!tiffs: t1eo0y t1at +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!ts a0e /0e+lu,e, 2y Mo.Co!st. a0t. 7I, <=%(a) !ee, !ot ,etai! us lo!3. Alt1ou31 t1at

se+tio! 0efe0s to a4e!,4e!ts /0offe0e, 2y t1e City:s 8la54a;i!3 2o,y,8 !ot1i!3 i! t1at se+tio! fo02i,s t1e City f0o4 /0o"i,i!3 2y its +1a0te0 fo0 a4e!,4e!ts 2y i!itiati"e o0 ,efi!es 8la54a;i!3 2o,y8 to e.+lu,e t1e +iti-e!0y t1e4sel"es. *u0t1e04o0e, Mo.Co!st. a0t. 7I, <<#'(a) a!,

%& 4ust 2e "ie5e, as su//le4e!ti!3 <=%(a), see Wunderlich v. City of St. Louis, @## S.W.%, F@= (Mo.2a!+ #'F$), a!, <%& +lea0ly aut1o0i-es +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!ts 2y i!itiati"e. Di"e! t1at a !u42e0 of a4e!,4e!ts

lai!tiffs: +ou!sel 1i!te, at t1e 1ea0i!3 t1at /0e"e!tio! of t1e A/0il ( ele+tio! +oul, fo0efe!, a!y ele+tio! at all. T1e Cou0t +o!si,e0s t1at t1e +o!fusi!3 /0o"isio!s of t1e City C1a0te0 i! t1is 0es/e+t 5e0e 0esol"e, 2y State e rel. Blac!"ell v. #ravers, ?&& S.W.%, ##& (Mo.A//.E.D. #'(&).

to t1e City:s +1a0te0 1a"e 2ee! a,o/te, 2y i!itiati"e ,u0i!3 t1e +e!tu0y si!+e t1e +1a0te0:s a,o/tio!, it 5oul, 2e 0e"olutio!a0y to +o!,e4! t1at 4o,e of /0o+ee,i!3 at t1is late ,ate. I! 0e3a0, to t1e fo04 a!, suffi+ie!+y of t1e i!itiati"e /etitio!s, t1e Cou0t 2ea0s i! 4i!, t1e st0i+tu0es of t1e Missou0i Su/0e4e Cou0t t1at t1e 9u,i+ia0y 4ust t0ea, 5a0ily 51e! as;e, to i!9e+t itself i!to t1e /0o+e,u0al as/e+t of t1e i!itiati"e /0o+ess. See, e.3., $issourians to %rotect the Initiative %rocess v. Blunt, F'' S.W.%, (%$, (%F (Mo.2a!+ #''&)C &nited Labor Committee v. Kir!patric!, @F% S.W.%, $$' (Mo.2a!+ #'F(). T1e0e is !o >uestio! t1at t1e /etitio!:s la!3ua3e ,i0e+te, to t1e )oa0, of Al,e04e! is ,efe+ti"e, si!+e t1e )oa0, of Al,e04e! 1as !o aut1o0ity to a,o/t +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!ts 2y itself. T1e 4ost it +oul, ,o

is a30ee to su24it t1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t to t1e "ote0s, 2ut t1at a30ee4e!t is !ot a +o!,itio! /0e+e,e!t to a "ote. T1e Cou0t

a30ees t1at a0ti+le 7, <$ of t1e C1a0te0 4ust 2e +o!st0ue, as a 4e0e !otifi+atio! /0o+e,u0e to /e04it t1e )oa0, of Al,e04e! to e!,o0se t1e /0o/ose, a4e!,4e!t, o0 to 3i"e t1e /etitio!e0s ti4e to 5it1,0a5 it, 2ut t1e /etitio! itself s1oul, 2e a,,0esse, to t1e Ele+tio! )oa0,. Si4ila0ly, t1e e!a+ti!3 +lause of t1e /0o/ose, a4e!,4e!t is !ot +o!so!a!t 5it1 a C1a0te0 a4e!,4e!tC 2ut, i! t1e +ase of C1a0te0 a4e!,4e!ts, t1e Cou0t +o!+lu,es t1at !o e!a+ti!3 +lause as su+1 is 0e>ui0e,. T1e fo04al ,efi+ie!+ies of t1e /etitio! a0e !ot suffi+ie!t to /0e+lu,e su24issio! of t1e /0o/ositio! to t1e "ote0s. T1is is so

2e+ause, i! ,eali!3 5it1 i!itiati"es, t1e Cou0t 4ust +o!st0ue t1e ?

/0o+e,u0al 0e>ui0e4e!ts li2e0ally, a!, 4ust e!su0e t1at t1e "ote0s a0e 3i"e! t1e last 5o0, 51e0e"e0 feasi2le, a2se!t f0au, o0 so4e ot1e0 fatal i4/e,i4e!t. Cf. &nited Labor Committee, su/0a.

T1e +lai4s 0e3a0,i!3 t1e su44a0y set out i! t1e /etitio! a!, fo0 /u0/oses of t1e 2allot a0e a ,iffe0e!t 4atte0. To 2e su0e, t1e

Ele+tio! )oa0, 1as 4oote, t1e +lai4 +o!+e0!i!3 t1e 2allot su44a0y 2y /la!!i!3 to /0i!t t1e /0o/ose, a4e!,4e!t i! full o! t1e 2allot. Alt1ou31 t1e C1a0te0 +o!te4/lates a su44a0y, t1e Cou0t +a!!ot +o!+ei"e of a!y 2asis to +o!,e4! t1at /0o+e,u0e, 3i"e! t1at t1e /0o/ositio! fits +o!"e!ie!tly o! a si!3le /a3e a!, so +a! 2e easily 0e"ie5e, 2y t1e "ote0s. O! t1e ot1e0 1a!,, t1e su44a0y of t1e /0o/ositio! a//ea0i!3 o! t1e i!itiati"e /etitio!s is te0se, /e01a/s too te0se. It o4its t1e

+0iti+al i!fo04atio! a2out t1e ,efi!itio!s of 8 u2li+ *i!a!+ial I!+e!ti"es8 a!, 8U!sustai!a2le E!e03y 0o,u+e0.8 I!,ee,, a "ote0 51o

0ea,s o!ly t1e /etitio! su44a0y 5ill !ot ;!o5 51at 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y8 4ea!s, eit1e0. I! /a0ti+ula0, t1e su44a0y is 51olly sile!t o! 0o,u+e08 to

t1e e.te!sio! of t1e ,efi!itio! of 8U!sustai!a2le E!e03y

e420a+e e!tities o0 o03a!i-atio!s ,oi!3 4o0e t1a! A#,&&&,&&& 5o0t1 of 2usi!ess 5it1 a! oil +o4/a!y, fo0 e.a4/le. O! its fa+e, as testifie,

to 2y t1e /lai!tiffs: 5it!ess M0. C0i4, t1is 5oul, a//ly to ai0li!es usi!3 La42e0t Ai0/o0t a!, ,e0i"i!3 a 2e!efit t1e0ef0o4. Su0ely t1e

"ote0s 5e0e e!title, to t1at !u33et of i!fo04atio! i! ,ete04i!i!3 51et1e0 to si3! t1e /etitio!. O! t1e 51ole, t1e Cou0t +o!+lu,es t1at t1e su44a0y of t1e /0o/ositio! set out i! t1e /etitio! is ,e+e/ti"e 2y o4itti!3 +0u+ial F

i!fo04atio! a2out t1e s+o/e of t1e /0o/ositio!.

T1e >uestio!, See State e

1o5e"e0, is 51et1e0 t1e Cou0t +a! ,o a!yt1i!3 a2out it.

rel. 'ienhoff v. (al!o"s!i, ED ''(=% (Mo.A//.E.D. %&#$)C Cole v. Carnahan, %F% S.W.=, ='% (Mo.A//.W.D. %&&(). Di"e! t1at a0ti+le 7 of t1e C1a0te0 /0es+0i2es !o s/e+ifi+ fo04 fo0 a! i!itiati"e /etitio!, it +a! 2e a03ue, t1at t1e o!ly 0e>ui0e4e!t is t1at t1e0e 2e a title fo0 t1e /0o/ositio! set out i! t1e sa4e 4a!!e0 as 0e>ui0e, fo0 o0,i!a!+es, a!, o!ly if t1e te.t of t1e /0o/ositio! +o!tai!s 4atte0s !ot i!+lu,e, i! t1e title +a! t1e /etitio! 2e i!"ali,ate,--a!, e"e! if t1e 9u,i+ial aut1o0ity e.te!,s so fa0, it 4ay 5ell 2e t1at t1is is !ot t1e so0t of +1alle!3e t1at is +o3!i-a2le 2efo0e t1e ele+tio!, fo0 a! ele+tio! +a4/ai3! +a! 4o0e fully a+>uai!t t1e "ote0s 5it1 t1e t0ut1 of t1e 4atte0, es/e+ially if t1e e!ti0e /0o/ositio! is /0i!te, o! t1e 2allot. O! t1e 51ole, t1e Cou0t is !ot i!+li!e, to e!9oi! t1e ele+tio! 2ase, o! t1e fo04al o0 /0o+e,u0al o29e+tio!s 0aise,. +o!si,e0s t1e su2sta!ti"e +1alle!3es. )e+ause t1e la5 /e04its /0e-ele+tio! fa+ial +1alle!3es to i!itiati"e /0o/ositio!s, it 5oul, see4 t1at a!y ta./aye0 1as sta!,i!3 to asse0t t1e +lai4s of fa+ial i!"ali,ity, e"e! if t1e o0,i!a!+e 5oul, !ot ot1e05ise a//ly to 1i4, si!+e t1e i!9u0y is t1e +ost of a! ele+tio! to a,o/t a 4easu0e t1at i!e"ita2ly 5ill 2e st0u+; ,o5!. Ge!+e, t1e Cou0t 5ill /0o+ee, o! t1e assu4/tio! t1at /lai!tiffs 1a"e t1e 0e>uisite sta!,i!3--a t10es1ol, issue t1at t1e Cou0t is 2ou!, to +o!si,e0 51et1e0 o0 !ot a,"a!+e, 2y t1e /a0ties. T1e Cou0t +o!+lu,es t1at, o! its fa+e, t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! is i!"ali, as i! ,i0e+t +o!fli+t 5it1 Missou0i statutes a!, 5it1 t1e ( T1e Cou0t !o5


0ote+tio! Clause of t1e fe,e0al a!, state +o!stitutio!s, a!, is

t1e0e2y i! e.+ess of t1e City:s aut1o0ity u!,e0 its +o!stitutio!al +1a0te0. I! 0ea+1i!3 its +o!+lusio!, t1e Cou0t ,oes !ot a++e/t /lai!tiffs: asse0tio! t1at t1e /0o/ositio! a4ou!ts to a! a//0o/0iatio! i!itiati"e fo0e+lose, 2y Mo.Co!st. a0t. III, <@#. *i0st, t1e /0o/ositio! ,oes

!ot 0e>ui0e a!y a//0o/0iatio! to i4/le4e!t its +e!t0al /0o"isio!s. T1e 0e>ui0e4e!t t1at t1e Mayo0 ,e"elo/ 8sustai!a2le e!e03y /la!s8 i4/oses a !e5 ,uty o! t1e Mayo0, 2ut ,oes !ot +o4/el t1e Mayo0 to e./e!, a!yt1i!3 4o0e t1a! /e0so!al e!e03y o! t1e tas;. *u!+tio!ally,

t1e /0o/ositio!:s i4/ositio! of a ,uty is !o ,iffe0e!t t1a! a!y ot1e0 le3islati"e 0e>ui0e4e!t t1at t1e Mayo0, as +1ief e.e+uti"e of t1e City, i4/le4e!t a!y ot1e0 la5. Se+o!,, t1e +o!ti!ue, "itality of

+ases a//lyi!3 a0t. III, <@# to +ity +1a0te0 i!itiati"es 1as 2ee! +alle, i!to >uestio! 2y t5o 4e42e0s of t1e Su/0e4e Cou0t, Kansas City v. Chastain, su/0a (Wilso! H *is+1e0, II., +o!+u00i!3). W1ile t1is

Cou0t is of t1e o/i!io! t1at a /o5e0 t1at is ,e!ie, to t1e /eo/le of t1e State i! a0ti+le III of t1e +o!stitutio! +a!!ot 2e 30a!te, to t1e /eo/le of a 4u!i+i/ality t10ou31 t1e 4e,iu4 of a0ti+le 7I, t1e Cou0t sees !o 0easo! to 0est its ,e+isio! o! Kansas City v. $c(ee, %?' S.W.%, ??% (Mo. #'@$). T1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! 2efo0e t1e Cou0t is fa+ially u!+o!stitutio!al fo0 t5o 0easo!s. state statutes /e04it. *i0st, it /0o1i2its 51at 0ele"a!t

Se+o!,, it is a /ate!t ,e!ial of e>ual

/0ote+tio! to t1ose e!tities su29e+t to its /0os+0i/tio! of t1e 30a!ti!3 of 8/u2li+ fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"es.8 '

T1e Cou0t 1as 1a, o++asio! 0e+e!tly to i!,ul3e i! e.e3eses of 2ot1 t1e City:s +o!stitutio!al +1a0te0 /o5e0s a!, t1e ta. i!+0e4e!t fi!a!+i!3 (8TI*8) statutes. See State e rel. Smith v. #I)

Commissioners, %%!, Ci0. No. &'%%-CC&'=F', aff:, i! /a0t a!, 0e":, i! /a0t sub nom. Smith v. City of St. Louis, ='@ S.W.=, %& (Mo.2a!+ %&#=)C )iremen*s +etirement System v. City of St. Louis, %%!, Ci0. No. #%%%-CC&%'#?. T1e Cou0t 5ill !ot 0eite0ate its a!alyses of t1ose Suffi+e it to say t1at t1e 1o4e 0ule /o5e0s

4atte0s at le!3t1 1e0e.

+o!fe00e, o! +o!stitutio!al +1a0te0 +ities a0e 20oa,, 2ut !ot u!li4ite,. Co!t0a0y to /lai!tiffs: fo04ulatio!, t1e test of t1e

"ali,ity of t1e e.e0+ise of 4u!i+i/al le3islati"e /o5e0 u!,e0 a +o!stitutio!al +1a0te0 is !ot +o!siste!+y 5it1 state statutes, 2ut +o!fli+t. T1e 3ui,e/osts fo0 t1e Cou0t:s a!alysis 1a"e 2ee!

su44a0i-e, 2y t1e Su/0e4e Cou0t as follo5sB . . . u!,e0 Missou0i la5, 4u!i+i/al o0,i!a!+es 4ust 2e 1a04o!i-e, 5it1 t1e statutes of t1e state, a!, if t1e o0,i!a!+es +a!!ot 2e 1a04o!i-e,, t1ey a0e "oi,. . . . Go5e"e0, a +ou0t s1oul, +o!st0ue o0,i!a!+es to u/1ol, t1ei0 "ali,ity u!less t1e o0,i!a!+es a0e e./0essly i!+o!siste!t o0 i! i00e+o!+ila2le +o!fli+t 5it1 t1e 3e!e0al la5 of t1e state. . . . O0,i!a!+es 4ay su//le4e!t state la5s, 2ut 51e! t1e e./0esse, o0 i4/lie, /0o"isio!s of ea+1 a0e i!+o!siste!t o0 i! i00e+o!+ila2le +o!fli+t, t1e! t1e statutes a!!ul t1e o0,i!a!+es. . . . To ,ete04i!e if a +o!fli+t e.ists 2et5ee! a! o0,i!a!+e a!, a state statute, t1e test is 51et1e0 t1e o0,i!a!+e /e04its t1at 51i+1 t1e statute /0o1i2its o0 /0o1i2its t1at 51i+1 t1e statute /e04its. JState e rel. #eefey v. Bd. of ,oning -d.ustment, %$ S.W.=, ?(#, at ?(@ (Mo.2a!+ %&&&) J+itatio!s o4itte,K.K I! +o!st0ui!3 t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio!, t1e Cou0t 1as also 2ee! 4i!,ful of t1e 3e!e0al /0i!+i/les of statuto0y +o!st0u+tio!. T1e

/lai! 4ea!i!3 of t1e le3islatio! is +o!t0olli!3, a!, t1e 5o0,s use, 5ill 2e 3i"e! t1ei0 o0,i!a0y 4ea!i!3 a2se!t +lea0 i!,i+atio! of a #&

s/e+ial ,efi!itio! o0 te+1!i+al 4ea!i!3.

Le3islatio! s1oul, !ot 2e

+o!st0ue, to lea, to a2su0, 0esults, 2ut t1e Cou0t is !ot at li2e0ty to /0o"i,e 4ea!i!3 t1at is !ot su//o0te, 2y t1e te.t. T1e Cou0t 1as

also 2ee! 4i!,ful t1at, at t1is sta3e, t1e Cou0t +a! o!ly u!,e0ta;e to ,e+i,e if t1e 4easu0e is facially u!+o!stitutio!al. -micus asse0ts

t1at !o su+1 u!,e0ta;i!3 is a//0o/0iate i! t1is +ase, as t1e 4easu0e is suffi+ie!tly a42i3uous a!, +o4/le. t1at fa+ial i!"ali,ity +a!!ot 2e ,ete04i!e,, 0elyi!3 o! &nion /lec. Co. v. Kir!patric!, ?F( S.W.%, $&% (Mo.2a!+ #'($). T1e Cou0t ,oes !ot 0ea, &nion /lectric as /0e+lu,i!3

a!y a!alysis of t1e te.t of a /0o/ositio!C 0at1e0, &nion /lectric tu0!e, o! t1e issue of 51et1e0 t1e +ou0t +oul, loo; 2e1i!, a /0o/ose, statuto0y i!itiati"e a!, ,ee4 it a +o!stitutio!al a4e!,4e!t. T1e

Cou0t +o!si,e0s &nion /lectric i00ele"a!t to t1e +lai4s !o5 2efo0e it. T1e Cou0t a30ees 5it1 amicus t1at t1e /0o/ositio! s1oul, !ot 2e +o!st0ue, to fo02i, t1e /0o"isio! of /oli+e o0 fi0e /0ote+tio! to t1e 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y /0o,u+e0s8 5it1i! its 2ou!,a0ies, alt1ou31, 0ea, lite0ally, <=(2)(iii) +oul, 2e so +o!st0ue,. Go5e"e0, t1e /lai!

i!te!t of t1e 4easu0e is to /0e+lu,e t1e 30a!ti!3 of ta. 2e!efits o0 i!+e!ti"es a!, !ot 4u!i+i/al se0"i+es i! 3e!e0al. State, =$= S.W.=, ?@? (Mo.2a!+ %&##). Cf. $an0ara v.

Li;e5ise, t1e Cou0t a30ees t1at

t1e /0o/ositio! ,oes !ot t0e!+1 u/o! t1e 0e3ulato0y aut1o0ity of t1e u2li+ Se0"i+e Co44issio!--at least, it ,oes !ot ,o so o! its fa+e. T1e Cou0t +a!!ot at t1is sta3e +o!si,e0 51et1e0, as a//lie,, t1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t 5oul, i!t0u,e o! t1e 0e3ulatio! of /u2li+ utilities. Go5e"e0, t1e0e a0e ot1e0 /0o2le4s fo0 t1e i!itiati"e. ##

T1e TI* statutes, <<''.(&& et se1., RSMo %&&& H Su//., e!a+t ela2o0ate /0o+e,u0es 3o"e0!i!3 eli3i2ility fo0 2e!efits u!,e0 t1e statutes. T1ose 2e!efits /lai!ly +o4e 5it1i! t1e ,efi!itio! of No51e0e

8/u2li+ fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"e8 i! t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio!.

i! t1e statutes, 1o5e"e0, is t1e0e a /0o"isio! li4iti!3 o0 aut1o0i-i!3 a 4u!i+i/ality to li4it t1e +lasses of /e0so!s o0 e!tities eli3i2le to /0ese!t a 0e,e"elo/4e!t /la! a!, o2tai! +0e,its u!,e0 t1e TI* s+1e4e. T1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! 2efo0e t1e Cou0t effe+ti"ely i4/oses a li4itatio! o! t1e 30a!t of TI* +0e,its t1at is !ot fou!, i! t1e statutes. /e04its. T1e /0o/ositio! at issue 1e0e +losely 0ese42les t1e +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t fou!, i!"ali, i! State e rel. 2a0el"ood 3ello" +ibbon I! 2a0el"ood, I! s1o0t, t1e i!itiati"e 5oul, /0o1i2it 51at t1e statute

Committee v. Klos, =@ S.W.=, $@F (Mo.A//.E.D. %&&&).

/etitio!e0s sou31t, a4o!3 ot1e0 t1i!3s, to i!itiate a +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t to fo02i, t1e +ity to aut1o0i-e t1e use of e4i!e!t ,o4ai! i! +o!!e+tio! 5it1 a TI* /0o9e+t. T1e Cou0t of A//eals (Teitel4a!, I.)

1el, t1at t1e /0o/ose, /0o1i2itio! o! t1e use of e4i!e!t ,o4ai! 5as i! ,i0e+t +o!fli+t 5it1 t1e TI* statute:s /0o"isio!s aut1o0i-i!3 su+1 useB . . . t1e City 5oul, 2e st0i//e, of a!y TI* e4i!e!t ,o4ai! /o5e0 u!,e0 t1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t, as lo!3 as t1at a4e!,4e!t 0e4ai!e, i! effe+t. We 1ol, t1at t1is 5oul, 2e i! +lea0 +o!fli+t 5it1 t1e TI* A+t a!, 1e!+e 5it1 A0ti+le 7I, <#'(a) of t1e Missou0i Co!stitutio!. J=@ S.W.=, at $F#.K )y a /a0ity of 0easo!i!3, t1e 8sustai!a2le e!e03y8 C1a0te0 a0ti+le as /0o/ose, 2y /etitio!e0s 5oul, st0i/ t1e City of St. Louis of t1e ,is+0etio! to aut1o0i-e TI* 2e!efits to 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y #%

/0o,u+e0s8 0e3a0,less of t1e !atu0e of t1e /0o/ose, 0e,e"elo/4e!t /0o9e+t. T1is effo0t to +a0"e out a s/e+ial +lass of 2usi!ess

e!te0/0ises fo0 51o4 TI* +a!!ot 2e a"aila2le is i! ,i0e+t +o!fli+t 5it1 t1e TI* statutes a!, is i!"ali, o! its fa+e. See also -CI

%lastics, Inc. v. City of St. Louis, F%$ S.W.%, @#= (Mo.2a!+ #'(F) (state Sales Ta. A+t +o!t0olle, 4a!!e0 of su24itti!3 sales ta. /0o/ositio!s to "ote0s a!, City +oul, !ot su24it su+1 a /0o/ositio! i! a!y ot1e0 fas1io!). Li;e5ise, t1e /0o/ose, +1a0te0 a4e!,4e!t see;s to e.+lu,e 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y /0o,u+e0s8 f0o4 fo04i!3, ,i0e+ti!3 o0 0e+ei"i!3 8a!y e+o!o4i+ o0 fi!a!+ial 2e!efit f0o4 a!y s/e+ial ta.atio! ,ist0i+t.8 At a 4i!i4u4 t1is /0o"isio! 5oul, /lai!ly 2e a//li+a2le to

s/e+ial 2usi!ess ,ist0i+ts fo04e, u!,e0 <<F#.F'& et se1., RSMo %&&& H Su//. A3ai!, !ot1i!3 i! t1e 0ele"a!t statutes aut1o0i-es o0

+o!te4/lates t1e e.+lusio! of a!y +lass of e!te0/0ises f0o4 o2tai!i!3 2e!efits f0o4 a s/e+ial 2usi!ess ,ist0i+t. E"e! +o!st0ui!3 t1e

i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! so as to a"oi, ille3ality o0 a2su0, 0esults, t1e Cou0t +a!!ot a"oi, t1e +o!+lusio! t1at t1e i!itiati"e is i! i00e+o!+ila2le +o!fli+t 5it1 t1e s/e+ial 2usi!ess ,ist0i+t statutes. Alt1ou31 t1e fo0e3oi!3 /ate!t ,efe+ts 5a00a!t t1e 30a!t of i!9u!+ti"e 0elief i! t1is +ase, t1e Cou0t +o!si,e0s itself o2li3e, to a,,0ess t1e /lai!tiffs: e>ual /0ote+tio! +lai4. A2se!t i!"ol"e4e!t of a 8sus/e+t +lass,8 t1e s+o/e of +lassifi+atio! /e04itte, la54a;e0s u!,e0 t1e E>ual 0ote+tio! Clauses

of t1e fe,e0al a!, state +o!stitutio!s is "e0y 20oa,, a!,, so lo!3 as t1e Cou0t +a! +o!+ei"e of a!y 0atio!al 2asis fo0 a le3islati"e #=

,isti!+tio!, t1e Cou0t is +o4/elle, to ,efe0 to t1e le3islatu0e:s 9u,34e!t. Disti!+tio!s 2ase, o! 5ealt1 a0e !ot o0,i!a0ily 8sus/e+t,8

a!, 0e3ulatio!s of o++u/atio!s a0e sel,o4 su29e+t to su++essful e>ual /0ote+tio! atta+;. Ne"e0t1eless, 2usi!ess e!tities (51i+1, afte0 all, a0e a s/e+ies of asso+iatio!s of +iti-e!s +o4i!3 to3et1e0 i! t1e e.e0+ise of e+o!o4i+ f0ee,o4) a0e e!title, to +o!stitutio!al /0ote+tio! as +iti-e!s a!, 4ay !ot a02it0a0ily 2e ,e!ie, 2asi+ le3al 0i31ts. Citi0ens &nited v. )ederal /lection Comm., @@( U.S. =#& (%&#&). *u0t1e04o0e, le3islatio! t1at is ,esi3!e, to 8fe!+e out8 sele+te, +lasses f0o4 t1e full 0i31ts of +iti-e!s +a! 2e fou!, ,efe+ti"e u!,e0 e>ual /0ote+tio! /0i!+i/les. I! t1is +ase, t1e +lassifi+atio! +0eate, 2y t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! of 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y /0o,u+e0s8 a03ua2ly is 0atio!al, i!sofa0 as t1e ,efi!itio! /e0tai!s to e!tities ,i0e+tly e!3a3i!3 i! 4i!i!3 o0 e.t0a+tio! of +oal, oil, 3as, o0 !u+lea0 4ate0ials. Go5e"e0, t1e e.te!sio! of t1e ,efi!itio! to a!y e!tity 8t1at t0a!sa+ts at least A#,&&&,&&& of 2usi!ess8 /e0 yea0 5it1 t1e ,i0e+t /0o,u+e0s o! its fa+e la+;s a!y 0easo!a2le 9ustifi+atio!. As t1e testi4o!y at t1e See

1ea0i!3 illust0ate,, u!,e0 t1e ,efi!itio! of 8u!sustai!a2le e!e03y /0o,u+e0s,8 t1e City is 2a00e, f0o4 30a!ti!3 a 5i,e 0a!3e of e+o!o4i+ 2e!efits (e"e! if !ot 2asi+ se0"i+es) to ai0li!es, 0ail0oa,s, /u2li+ utilities, la5 fi04s, auto4o2ile 4a!ufa+tu0e0s, a!, a 1ost of ot1e0 e!te0/0ises--all of t1e4 la5ful, a!, !o!e of t1e4 (li;e 3a42li!3 o0 al+o1oli+ 2e"e0a3e e!te0/0ises) 1isto0i+ally su29e+t to s/e+ial fo04s #$

of 0e3ulatio! ,ue to t1ei0 i!1e0e!t 0is;s to t1e /u2li+ 1ealt1 a!, 5elfa0e. I! t1e e>ual /0ote+tio! +o!te.t, t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! +losely 0ese42les t1e Colo0a,o +o!stitutio!al a4e!,4e!t st0u+; ,o5! i! +omer v. /vans, @#F U.S. ?%& (#''?). I! t1at +ase, t1e /eo/le of

Colo0a,o atte4/te, to e.+lu,e 1o4ose.uals f0o4 t1e /0ote+tio! of la5s fo02i,,i!3 ,is+0i4i!atio!, 2y /0o1i2iti!3 state a!, lo+al le3islato0s f0o4 e!a+ti!3 su+1 /0ote+ti"e le3islatio!. I! t1e "ie5 of t1e Su/0e4e

Cou0t of t1e U!ite, States, t1is 8fe!+i!3 out8 of a s/e+ial +lass f0o4 see;i!3 to o2tai! t1e 2e!efits of le3islatio! +o!t0a"e!e, t1e *ou0tee!t1 A4e!,4e!tB It is !ot 5it1i! ou0 +o!stitutio!al t0a,itio! to e!a+t la5s of t1is so0t. Ce!t0al 2ot1 to t1e i,ea of t1e 0ule of la5 a!, to ou0 o5! Co!stitutio!:s 3ua0a!tee of e>ual /0ote+tio! is t1e /0i!+i/le t1at 3o"e0!4e!t a!, ea+1 of its /a0ts 0e4ai! o/e! o! i4/a0tial te04s to all 51o see; its assista!+e. 8:E>ual /0ote+tio! of t1e la5s is !ot a+1ie"e, t10ou31 i!,is+0i4i!ate i4/ositio! of i!e>ualities.:8 . . . Res/e+t fo0 t1is /0i!+i/le e./lai!s 51y la5s si!3li!3 out a +e0tai! +lass of +iti-e!s fo0 ,isfa"o0e, le3al status o0 3e!e0al 1a0,s1i/s a0e 0a0e. A la5 ,e+la0i!3 t1at i! 3e!e0al it s1all 2e 4o0e ,iffi+ult fo0 o!e 30ou/ of +iti-e!s t1a! fo0 all ot1e0s to see; ai, f0o4 t1e 3o"e0!4e!t is itself a ,e!ial of e>ual /0ote+tio! of t1e la5s i! t1e 4ost lite0al se!se. 8T1e 3ua0a!ty of :e>ual /0ote+tio! of t1e la5s is a /le,3e of t1e /0ote+tio! of e>ual la5s.:8 J@#F U.S. at ?==-=$, +itatio!s o4itte,.K Ge0e, too, /etitio!e0s see; to 8fe!+e out8 a 30ou/ of e!te0/0ises f0o4 see;i!3 to o2tai! 2e!efits ot1e05ise a"aila2le to t1e4 at t1e ,is+0etio! of City la54a;e0s. T1is ,isti!+tio! 2ase, o! o++u/atio!,

o0 o! a 2usi!ess 0elatio!s1i/ 5it1 a! e!tity e!3a3e, i! t1e ,e!i30ate, o++u/atio!, is a02it0a0y at 2est, a!, ,oes little to a,"a!+e 51at is /0esu4a2ly t1e i!te!t of t1e /etitio!e0s, i.e., to ,is+ou0a3e t1e use of fossil fuels a!, to e!+ou0a3e t1e use of ot1e0 e!e03y sou0+es. #@

E"e! 3i"i!3 t1e i!itiati"e /0o/ositio! t1e 4ost le!ie!t +o!st0u+tio!, t1e Cou0t +o!+lu,es t1at it is, o! its fa+e, fu!,a4e!tally a /u!iti"e 4easu0e, 2ase, o! a 2ias a3ai!st la5ful 2usi!esses t1at a0e ot1e05ise e!title, to t1e sa4e /0ote+tio!s of la5 as ot1e0 +iti-e!s. T1e 4easu0e is >ui!tesse!tially i!,isti!3uis1a2le

f0o4 t1e Colo0a,o 4easu0e st0u+; ,o5! i! /vans. T1e Cou0t is of +ou0se +o3!i-a!t of t1e se"e0a2ility +lause set out i! t1e i4itati"e /0o/ositio!. T1e /0ese!+e of t1at +lause,

1o5e"e0, ,oes !ot s1iel, t1e /0o/ositio! f0o4 its fa+ial i!"ali,ity. T1e Cou0t is !ot at li2e0ty to 0e50ite t1e 2allot /0o/ositio! i! su+1 4a!!e0 as to eli,e t1e /u!iti"e a!, u!+o!stitutio!al /0o"isio!s a!, /ut a 0e,a+te, /0o/ositio! 2efo0e t1e "ote0s. T1e Cou0t +a!!ot assu4e

t1at t1e /e0so!s 51o si3!e, t1e /etitio! 5oul, 1a"e ,o!e so a2se!t its u!+o!stitutio!al featu0es. Mo0e i4/o0ta!tly, t1e se"e0a2ility +lause T1e /0o1i2itio! of 8/u2li+ To st0i;e Cf.

is i!suffi+ie!t to sa"e t1e 4easu0e.

fi!a!+ial i!+e!ti"es8 is at t1e 1ea0t of t1e /0o/ositio!.

out Se+tio! % of t1e /0o/ositio! is to lea"e a! e4/ty s1ell. 2a0el"ood 3ello" +ibbon Committee, su/0a, =@ S.W.=, at $F#. ORDER I! li31t of t1e fo0e3oi!3, it is

ORDERED t1at /lai!tiffs: 4otio! fo0 a /0eli4i!a0y i!9u!+tio! 2e a!, t1e sa4e is 1e0e2y 30a!te,C it is *URTGER ORDERED t1at ,efe!,a!t )oa0, of Ele+tio! Co44issio!e0s, its 4e42e0s, offi+e0s, a3e!ts, e4/loyees, atto0!eys a!, all /e0so!s a+ti!3 i! +o!+e0t 5it1 t1e4 5it1 !oti+e of t1is O0,e0 2e a!, t1ey a0e 1e0e2y /0eli4i!a0ily 0est0ai!e, a!, e!9oi!e, f0o4 e./e!,i!3 /u2li+ #?

fu!,s o0 ot1e05ise ta;i!3 a!y ste/s to /la+e o! t1e 2allot at a!y s/e+ial o0 3e!e0al ele+tio! t1e /0o/ositio! /u0/o0ti!3 to a4e!, t1e C1a0te0 of t1e City of St. Louis 2y a,,i!3 !e5 a0ti+le 667II, as set fo0t1 i! /lai!tiffs: 1ea0i!3 e.1i2it @, a,4itte, i!to e"i,e!+e at t1e 1ea0i!3 2efo0e t1is Cou0t o! *e20ua0y F, %&#$C all /e!,i!3 fu0t1e0 o0,e0C a!, it is *URTGER ORDERED t1at /lai!tiffs s1all /ost a 2o!,, i! +as1 o0 5it1 suffi+ie!t su0eties, i! t1e su4 of A@&, i! fa"o0 of ,efe!,a!t Ele+tio! )oa0, as a +o!,itio! of t1is /0eli4i!a0y i!9u!+tio!C a!, it is *URTGER ORDERED t1at t1is +ause is set fo0 t0ial o! t1e 4e0its o! Mo!,ay, Ma0+1 =#, %&#$. SO ORDEREDB EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE Ro2e0t G. Die0;e0 Ci0+uit Iu,3e Date,B EEEEEEEEEEEEEE, %&EE ++B Cou!selL/a0ties /0o seLA4i+us Cu0iae