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GREEN CHEMISTRY

Dr Nam T. S. Phan Faculty of Chemical Engineering HCMC University of Technology Office: room 211, B2 Building Phone: 38647256 ext. 5681 Email: ptsnam@hcmut.edu.vn
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REFERENCES
1. Mukesh Doble, Anil K. Kruthiventi, Green chemistry and processes, Elsevier, Oxford, 2007. 2. Pietro Tundo, Alvise Perosa, Fulvio Zecchini, Methods and reagents for green chemistry, Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2007. 3. Roger Arthur Sheldon, Isabel Arends, Ulf Hanefeld, Green chemistry and catalysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2007. 4. James Clark, Duncan Macquarrie, Handbook of green chemistry and technology, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, 2002. 5. Andre Loupy, Microwaves in organic synthesis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2002. 6. Timothy J. Mason, John P. Lorimer, Applied sonochemistry: Uses of power ultrasound in chemistry and processing, WileyVCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2002. 7. Peter Wasserscheid, Thomas Welton, Ionic liquids in synthesis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2002. 8. Nam T. S. Phan, Green Chemistry, vol 1: Green catalysts and green solvents, VNU-HCM Publisher, 2008.
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COURSE OUTLINE
Principles of green chemistry Catalysis and green chemistry Ionic liquid as green solvent Water as green solvent Supercritical CO2 as green solvent Chemistry in micro reactor Microwave-assisted chemistry Ultrasound-assisted chemistry Renewable materials/ green energy Seminars: During the seminar hours, students are asked to join the discussion effectively under the supervision of the course instructor.
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Chapter 1:

PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

What does the Chemical Industry do for us?

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Chemistry a dirty word !

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Yield is not enough !!!


Yield = % of maximum possible quantity of product But !!! Ignores auxiliaries (reagents, catalysts, solvents, etc) Ignores work-up, purification Ignores energy used, hazards involved, toxic chemicals
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For example: A typical textbook procedure for oxidation reaction Yield = 55% Weight of product = 15g But !!! Involved 900 g inputs Produced 800 g of waste

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Chemical Engineering Design


Key Roles

Design chemical processes

Optimize process conditions

Yield chemical products

SHE issues critical Safety Health


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Environment

Atom efficient Safe One step No wasted reagents Environmentally acceptable


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Simple

THE IDEAL SYNTHESIS

100 % Yield Available materials

What is green chemistry?


The design of chemical products & processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances

Discovery & application of new chemistry / technology leading to prevention / reduction of environmental, health & safety impacts at source

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History
Pollution Prevention Act 1990 Green chemistry Began in 1991 at Environmental Protection Agency, Paul Anastas 1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards 1997 Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference 1999 Journal Green Chemistry Chemical & Engineering News 2001 Journal of Chemical Education
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12 Principles of green chemistry


(Paul Anastas & John Warner)

1. Prevent waste: Design chemical syntheses to prevent waste, leaving no waste to treat or clean up

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Pollution Prevention Hierarchy

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2. Design safer chemicals and products: Design chemical products to be fully effective, yet have little or no toxicity

3. Design less hazardous chemical syntheses: Design syntheses to use and generate substances with little or no toxicity to humans and the environment
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4. Use renewable feedstocks: Use raw materials and feedstocks that are renewable rather than depleting. Renewable feedstocks are often made from agricultural products or are the wastes of other processes; depleting feedstocks are made from fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, or coal) or are mined
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5.Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents: Minimize waste by using catalytic reactions. Catalysts are used in small amounts and can carry out a single reaction many times. They are preferable to stoichiometric reagents, which are used in excess and work only once
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6. Avoid chemical derivatives: Avoid using blocking or protecting groups or any temporary modifications if possible. Derivatives use additional reagents and generate waste

7. Maximize atom economy: Design syntheses so that the final product contains the maximum proportion of the starting materials. There should be few, if any, wasted atoms
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8. Use safer solvents and reaction conditions: Avoid using solvents, separation agents, or other auxiliary chemicals. If these chemicals are necessary, use innocuous chemicals
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9.Increase energy efficiency: Run chemical reactions at ambient temperature and pressure whenever possible

10. Design chemicals and products to degrade after use: Design chemical products to break down to innocuous substances after use so 33 that they do not accumulate in the environment

11.Analyze in real time to prevent pollution: Include in-process realtime monitoring and control during syntheses to minimize or eliminate the formation of byproducts
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12. Minimize the potential for accidents: Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, or gas) to minimize the potential for chemical accidents including explosions, fires, and releases to the environment
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Condensed Principles of green chemistry (Samantha Tang, Richard Smith and Martyn
Poliakoff ) P Prevent wastes R Renewable materials O Omit derivatization steps D Degradable chemical products U Use safe synthetic methods C Catalytic reagents T temperature, pressure ambient I In-process monitoring V Very few auxiliary substances E E-factor, maximize feed in product L Low toxicity of chemical products Y Yes, it is safe

Productively !!!

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Green chemistry is about:


Waste Materials Hazard

Reducing

Risk

Energy
Environmental Impact COST
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