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Problem Set 2 - GR-I - 2013

Hand in at class on Tuesday, December 3, 2013. Write on one side only, in ink no pencil! See the note on the course web-page. Do NOT use any computer algebra system to solve these problems. Do NOT typeset your answers (ie. NO LaTeX, Lyx, WORD, etc!), but write them by hand, clearly. Grades for each section are indicated in the boxes. Notation: |c denotes partial dierentiation wrt coordinate xc and ||c denotes covariant dierentiation wrt coordinate xc . You may nd the course note Riemann Curvature for Spherical Metric useful for some of this assignment. 1. Let Tab be the energy-momentum tensor that appears in the Einstein eld equations. Suppose that a is a Killing vector eld, by which we mean that gab = 0 where denotes the usual Lie derivative along the curve whose tangent vector is . Show that for any such Killing vector eld, this same a is a so-called matter collineation, meaning that: Tab = 0 2. Prove that for a physically reasonable perfect uid there are no spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions to the Einstein eld equations which are also static. 3. Show that a space is conformally at if the Riemann Curvature tensor can be written as : Rabcd = K (gac gbd gad gbc ) 4. The Kretschmann curvature scalar is dened to be K = Rabcd Rabcd where Rabcd is the Riemann tensor. Explain carefully why this scalar can be used to demonstrate the existence of a curvature singularity in a spacetime. Is the conclusion that a singularity exists by examining the Kretschmann scalar coordinate system independent? Why is the use of the Kretschmann scalar to be preferred over examining the Riemann curvature tensor component by component? 5. Consider the line-element: ds2 = 1 c/r 1 + c/r
2

15

15 15

12

dt2 1 +

c r

dr2 + r2 d2 2

(a) What is the area of a sphere of radius r in this spacetime?

(b) Use the Einstein Field Equations to explicitly compute Tab , the energy-momentum 6 tensor for this spacetime. 1

(c) Explicitly compute the Kretschmann scalar, Rabcd Rabcd , for this metric. (d) Suggest another coordinate system and form for the metric for this spacetime, based on what you have computed. Give the explicit coordinate transformation to take the metric as specied to this new coordinate system. (e) Evaluate Rabcd Rabcd expressed in this new coordinate system. (f) What are you able to conclude, and prove, about singularities in this spacetime? Answer in both coordinate systems, and explain clearly the reasons for your conclusions. 6. Consider the Kerr solution in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates as given in the course notes. The Kretschmann curvature scalar is Rabcd Rabcd = 48m2 32r6 48r4 2 + 18r2 4 6 12

10 4

5 6

10

where 2 r2 = a2 cos2 . Describe how to take the appropriate limit to reduce to the result for the Schwarzschild vacuum solution. Use this scalar to discuss the singularity structure of the Kerr solution. What is the essential dierence in the structure of the singularity in the Kerr case and that in the Schwarzschild case.

Some Useful Facts:


1 ec gcm|b + gcb|m gmb|c e mb = 2 g e Aa||b = Aa|b + a be A eb b ae Aab ||c = Aab |c + a ec A + ec A

(ln g )|b = a ab Aa||b = Aa|b e ab Ae


e Aab||c = Aab|c e ac Aeb bc Aae

e e a Aab||c = Aab|c + a ec Ab bc Ae

Ra bmn = a bn|m a bm|n + a cm c bn a cn c bm Ha||sq Ha||qs = Rm asq Hm


m Fab||cd Fab||dc = Rm acd Fmb + R bcd Fam

Rab[cd||e] = 0 u v c = v c|b ub uc|b v b


n nb a an b u k ab = k ab |n u k u |n k u |n

u wc = wc|b ub + wb ub|c
n u kab = kab|n un + knb un |a + kan u |b

u v c = v c||b ub uc||b v b
n nb a an b u k ab = k ab ||n u k u ||n k u ||n

u wc = wc||b ub + wb ub||c
n u kab = kab||n un + knb un ||a + kan u ||b