:>*

'

PRESENTED TO THE LIBRARY
OF

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINHRY
BY
f/Lfs.

AlexandeiT Pfoudfit.
I

7^y
f

//fm,^

fn

J^M^ Jl^ ^%^

HIS
R^ WITH
S

L

S,

SIMPLICIUS COMMENT.
Made
Englilh from the Greek,

George Stanhope,
Dean of Canterbur'y^ and
in

D. D.

Cha|)lain

Ordinary to His

Majesty.
correded.

The Fourth Edition

With the

LIFE

of

Epictetus,

From Monfieur Boilieau.

LONDON:
Printed by J^. B. for

Richard Sare,

near

Gray's-Im-Gate in Holborn.

MDCCXXI.

To

the Worthily Honoured,

WILLIAM GORE
F

TEW
I

#v>

I•

JV G,

County of Hertford Efq^
^

SIR,

To

omit the many
I

trifling Preten•»•

ces,

commonly made uieofupoa
ihall

thefe Occafions,

think this Dedi-

cation abundantly juftified,

by only

al-

A

1

k<^ging

Epistle Dedicatory.
ledging
every

One
is

thing in

its

Excufe^
lefs is

That
every

Man

by no means duly. prepared

to Read,

or Relifh,

much

Man
;

of Quality,

a proper Patron for

EpiBetus.

So Exquifite a Piece of Morality requires, not only a Good Underftanding, but a Virtuous and Well-Difpofed Mind, a Serious Senfe of the Dignity of a Reaibning Soulj and a due Care to keep up its Charader AiFedions raifed above the Sordid Enjoyments of the World, and a fix'd Opinion, that the Trouble, ^m^ j$e at about thefe things, ought not toibe* efteemed the Bufineis, but the great Misfortune and Incumbrance of Human Life A fteddy Goarid a Temvernment of the Pailions per Even and Eafie, Affable and Obliging. Without thefe Quaiifications, or ibme good Advances towards them, a Man's Palate can never ftand to the following Reflexions^ and the moft excellent Rules of Living would be encertain'd with Coldneis and Contempt»
: :

,

Whether

and by the beft. who knows. that have the will pineis to know you. in the following Tranilation is neither poiTible nor proper for Me to determine: fect. I termine Your caie . Morality. it is But. and your own Family 5 a publick BleflGng to your Country and your Friends ^ and that I may have A 3 . Sir. the Chriftian. to take Sanduary in the Goodneis of a Perfon. yet a though that perforto be never fo per- mance were allowed vantage. have even Correded and Refined upon all the moft valuable Parts of this Book. Religion . Whether Reafon I have done this Author .Epistle Dedicatoty. the better how to Pardon. very neceifary Ad- and indeed a Right due both to Him and my Self. that you may long continue an Ornament to Learning . becaufe he knows how to Judge . do it Hapfor me: Permit me only to clofe this Addreis. but tranfcribed. with my moit fincere Wiihes. and whoie Virtues have already not only approved. need not take upon me far this is • I will to de- all. How not.

thefe ProftlTions will be the accepting which I am now defirous to make to the World. and mofl Humble Servant.*- Tour mofi Obliged.. GEO. STANHOPE. SIR. of my being. Teh.Epistle Dedicatory. Lewifliam. have the honour of being ever acknowledg'd in that Number. T. with all poffible Reiped. . One Teftiinony whereof..

fo as to decline both the Slavery of a Literal^ and the Licentioufnefs of a Loofe and Luxuriant Interpretation. It is not my 'Turpofe. and impra6iicable Speculations. nor ought it to he any Man's to vindicate thefe. But 1 77iufl beg Leave to put -my think: (at leaf to own A 4 Reader . '^ and Freedom I could. airy..PREFACE. to plead in Vindication of their ExceJfcsJ that the Generality of Rules prefcribed for the Reforming our Manners j are Things too nicely thought^ fiibiime. 'Do mt give the Reader this Trouble^ out of any Intent to make an Apology for jhe'Wing the following Book in Engliih for fiire the rendring fuch admirable Infiructions as dijfufive as it is foffible^ cannot need an Excufi\ Nor do I intend to give him a tedious Account of the erformance itfelf btitjhall onlyfay ^ that it hath been my Endeavour toexfrefs the Author's Senfe with all the Eafinefs^ . and tempt fome 'Perfins. Maflers of Heathen Morality^ in every particular Not iofi they advanced. from thefe ex^ travagant Syfems of Moral Terfeliiions. My T^ifign at prefenti cejfary is only to make fime ne- RtflexionsuponthofeTarts of the Stoical hl)fophy^ which are apt to prejudice Men againfl it. or any other.

what is the prober Advantage to be made of thefe Errors . all not fubduing the Fafilons abfolutely. 1 think cannot fairly be denied. and the brave Attempts they made. but ever debafed their Knowledge with an Alloy of Ignorance and Folly . And that. not to run down Morality. than any Human For. I think it therefore my T>uty. and that fur e is. of Truth with' cut Error. and have quite mif in taken the Cafe. Reader in mind. exalted our Virtues . they afQns ?mieh. that. in defpight of all the Aggravations' their Failings are capable of. to create in us a more jufl ft eem and Veneration for his o'^jun Chr'iftian ^hilofophy . I now . though the Sroicks are moft defervedly admired for their Noble Notions in thefe Matters above any other SeEl. in their TVay of Treating the and Flowers of the Soul. as an empty Name (to which the Stoicks mttft be allowed.PRE Face. no doubt. to its rimitive it and ^erfeSlion yet. That the ^^rinciples of Religion have . fo far to com' ply with the ObjeBor in vondemning thefe Schemes of Ethic ks as to floew upon this Oc* cafion . of them . How far it is pojjible to go. and Light without 'Darknefs. to^jvards the reducing 'Ftirity Nature . whoy in the midfl of his moft liberal Endowments . infinitely better Infiitutions were ever able to do. over-Jhot the Mark . and adjufted the meafures . to which alone this ^erfeBion was referved. ne%)er fuffered the great ef Heathens to be without fome notable T)efe6i of Judgment. to have done excellent Service) but to differ in this the Wifdom of Almighty God.

than they either do. '. from becoming flat And accordingly. and confequently mufl be beft ac* quaint ed with our Frame. Rewards and ^unifhments. rights and at a true which Motion. who and naufeous to us contrived. Tety to deliver ourjelves from thofe inward Commotions. They are like the Acid in our Stomachs . He faWy that thus to eafe us of all our i^ains. He. of all our Tleaand for this Reafon he hath made Trofares mifes and Threatmngs . by no means of Nature's. affrights us with many 'iDifficulties and T>iJcotiragements . would be to rob us. hecaiife the fame things are equally capable of producing a great deal of good. and prevents the mofl necejfary Funiiions of Life. indeed the Secret Springs that move and aBuate us .R . that fo to fet them. which . the Gayeties and Anxieties of Heart. / take it for granted^ that the generality of '^Teople might do a great deal more in it. and all the Care incumbent upon the Governing Tart of the Mind. and the moji fatal ObfiruBion to a good and hapfy Life . but entirely of our own making. which are vifible Occafions of fo much Mifchief. which is the prevailing Vice. we mufl not frefently pafs rafl) and rigorous Sentence of utter Excifion ufon them but try fome gentler and more prudent Method. that conflantly provokes and renews our Appetites . now ^'tfpute . F A C . is itch. . or imagine they can do : And that Sloth. found them neceffary to infpire and invigorate this heavy Mafs . thence. at the fame time. fall Thefi are . may be every flows from Jufl and Regular.

but in moderating and regulating them : And no "Degree of Love . different ways of working upon our Taffions^J the mofl proper and powerful Inducements to the befl Religion in the fForld. we to Civil Society ^ and the mutual Concern For fome Rules given feel for one another. and does not amufe us with vain Notions . but tells usy That the more fenfibly they do fo . So that in truths the main^ I might fay the wholej of our T^uty and Happinefi. and expe£ls w^ foould feel the Smarts in order to be amended by the Rod. if literally and fir iSily foUowedy may feem to threaten the T>eflru5lion of all Natural Af- fe5iion and Charity among Men . which therefore Chriftianity hath taken into its peculiar Care and 'TroteBion. here. that thefe Things neither touch nor ought to ajfe6i us . the more glorious the Improvement and the Reward is It infpires Campajjion capable of being made. Thefame U'lfficulty regard lies againfl Stoiciim. and with direiied to worthy Ends. <f or T>efire ^ or Fear^ or any other fimple when placed upon worthy £ or . and good Nature. and the tender efl Refentmeuts of other ^-*eople's Misfortunes. confijis^ not in fliJling thefe Ajfedtions^ and condemning them to State of utter InaSlivity. It reprefents Temporal AffliBions as Chaflifements .PRE FACE. or which are but fi many Hatred Griefs intenfe. Anger y or can be too Objeofs. It remits us for Comfort to higher and better Confiderations . It commands no Man to attend the Funeral Obfequies of his Friend or "Dearejl Relation^ with a gay or per- .

tEan this Book.PREFACE. which we owe to ourfelves and to one another . This Cenfure to is Me Admirers of Heathen T^hilofophyy that^ wherein foever thofe Syfiems of Morality differ from the Chrifl i an. fuch as may be ufed with a very good Grace. Againfl which therefore it makes ample rov^on fiich as offers no Violence to the Original Softnefs of Human Nature y but preferves all thofe Re]pe6is entire . or SuUennefs^ or ride . that the Excefs and In^ ordinacy of our afons is the only Thing blame-' able in them. we can /car ce give them greater Commendation^ than they really d'. highly feafonable the mofl partial no more. . than what appeared and expedient . that challenges more Efleem. be mofl effeilualy when rightly applied. may feem rather the EffeB of Stupidity . The Ap^ plication is fo enfe y by a little Change of hilofophy into Rtligiony and the 'Flnrality cfDi^ vine Beings into the one only True Gcd^ that' any .ftrve : And among them alf^ I know none. that this is an imaginary ^erfe^lion^ which few ever did^ and none ought to attain to : Andy in a word. fe£fly compofed Countenance welly that this Behaviour . to con- Alltifwns fo lively y the Exhortations fo moving^ and the Arguments fo ftrongy that they may well be allowed y not only to convince cur Retifony but to'excite our gj-eatefl Admiration. The hifrpMions are fo wife the vtnce . as knowing very is Barbarous and and that what fime have called hi* Brutiflo lofophy and Conjiancy in fitch Cafes . andfuch as wiU . they are In other 'Toints^ manifpjily ijjferionr to them.

that EpiiStetas his Troficient floould out-do any rofeJfor of the Goffel^ who walks by a clearer Light. and excels in every Advantage of Goodne/sy except fuch as he wilfully denies to himfelf^ thofe of Confideration. without fuffering themfelves to be prejudiced againft.. that the wore unlearned Readers may . . by provoking Men to a Holy Emulation . any cofifidering Chr'ift'ian may here find a Scheme of what Him/elf ought to be. of every Common Man. what a Reproach the ^erfeBion of thefe Ancients is to us at this And I heartily wifl? .. And. and Refolution^ and an aliive Zeal. no doubt. except fome particular Subtleties in the Firft ^ Thirteenth^ Thirty Fourth and Thirty Eighth Chapters^ (which I mention here particularly-. muft Benefit of fiich Writings : and That.. muft be . S. G. if they fleafey fafs them over. to let us fee . and to fuit the Capacity . Treatife may have its due Influence upon every One who fhall perufe it . But it be what is again remembred the proper . the reft of the Book) the Arguments are Jo plain andfubftantialy as to recommend themfelves to the Senfe . and a generous T>ifdain .PREFACE. that the prefent "Day.

HILE my were employed ah out making good the Promife^ which my Reader will find in the f. INTRODUCTION. 1 b^yve therefore only added a marginal Note or two^ and given the Narration as I found it. Frencl• Colle6tions Boileau. with the Original authors. THE . or any other Author I have met with upon this thofe very Difcourfes of this Philofopher^ j hath ^preferved for us Subje£l.THE J 4 SL JL JLy F I C FROM THE U of S. 'The greatefl part will approve itfelf Authentick^ becaufe gathered from which Arrian and with regard to them^ the References her» are much more exadl^ than in Mr. from fages are taken^ delity^ as Which^ by comparing whom the feveral Paf- I obferved to be coUeBed with ftich Fimight reafonably excufe any farther Pains of mi::::^ than that of Iranfiating it into our own TOngue.rfl Page of this Edition^ it was my Fortune to light upon the following ^ account i)/Epi£betus in French. Boileau.

Among fome other of this Man's Aotions. ^. i8.I'via-i.a The life of of Epi6ietus his Birth feems to have been near the End of Nero's Reign. who was a Shoemaker. II. to an Officer of Nero'^ becaufe he found him a Bungler at his Trade i But the fame Feli: THE Time tio (for fo to make the Slave was called) coming afterwards the Emperor's Shoes. Epaphroditus upon the News moft furprifingly of this Preferment. I. applauded his Parts. Cap. but that they were both without queilion. ^. GfH.Gellius^ and Su'idas tell us. and jn great Pallion threw himfelf at his Feet. and made this Good- for-nothing Fellow his principal Confident. thoufand . Lib. Arrian hath taken occafion to mention Two. • Sti<d. I think. but only his being Mailer to fo renowned a Slave. and a Captain of his Guards. Lit). Lib. The other Circumftances relating to it. ^6. and in ihort. ^ This Man had fold one of his Slaves. a Man. i9. Cap. ^ Another time. was particularly civil. *> in EpiSet. and what Dideclaring. of whom Story hath delivered down nothing valuable. he had not above a hundred and fifty •. which. becaufe they are exaftly agreeable to his Temper. the Place ot it Hierapolis^ a City in Phrygia. and feem to give us a very expreflive Idea of the Perfon. and intimate Friend. or worthy of Remark. ought not to be onoitted here. are uncertain For we have no farther Knowledge of either his Father or Mother. and refpeotful to him 5 confulted him in Bufincfs. of very mean Condition. that now out of ilrefs he was reduced to gU his Eftate. ^A. L Cap. '^rridx. there came a Man to him. that he was Slave to Epaphrodttus^ a Freemiin of iV>r<?'s. complaining moil heavily of his hard Fortune .

the Quality of a in the Philofopher. that a Perfon. Cap. that he was really ailoniihed at his Patience. from Rome Philofophers and Jtaly^ he all for baniihing City of Epirus. II. in forbearing fo long to make his cafe known. Cap. it is Difcourfes. in v^rfr. that Emperour was very intimate with. but with great ferioufnefs. *^ Under the Dominion of this coxcombly Mailer it was. Eit[«b. a called by NicopoUs^ withdrew to And his being included Moderns under Prcvefa. but pafied the remainder of his Life at NicopoUs : And this Opinion is grounded upon Arrian's taking exprefs notice in leveral parrs of his Colledions. in the Life of yldrian^ tells us. At what time. f SfATi. is that : a manifeft Proof that he was a Freeman. notwithilanding this conjecture be fupported by the Authority of SaJmafius^ I am apt lliU to fulpeoi. iii plied.I C S. ad Epift. f. 16. It hath ihould be fuffered to continue in Slavery. £rSimp!.G<//Lib. that after this Retreat. of which at his Book . we have no pofitive Account Edi£i: of Dcmitiany an that upon we are afliired of. Nit. thoufand Crowns left > to which Epaphroditus renot by way of Raillery. Now d ' ^. he never returned any more to Rome . and bore a parit will by no ticular Refpe£t to Epi^etus. confills. 4. For in- not to be imagined. or by what means. that EpiStetus pafied the firft part of his Life. Chren. jncans . XV. and an appearance of Concern. whofc Merit had recommended him to the particular Favour and Eileem of the Emperours of his time. as any other Man would have done upon fo extravagant a Complaint. me our. who. that thofe deed. he obtained his LiBut thus much berty. that it wants And in this fuCpicion Spartian ^ bears Confirmation. were made and delivered NicopoHs ^ Bur. been generally thought. Prohibition.

With all my hearty provided you gi^e me one of your own Daughters. intimates that he had none. had been in a place fo remote. that Repartee of Demonax in Lus. The reafon of. when Ef'lUetm advifed him to many and leave Children. generofity. and that familiarity fo itriftly kept up. that he had no Children. we have no Grounds to believe. from the time of Domiiian's Edift. and the Mailers of any fort of Science ( though at the fame time no Man living took more delight in rallying them than he) yet. Sj'an. For Arrian^ in feveral PaiTages. and Philofophers. Who. this probably was his obftinate contempt of Riches. ubifupia. without fo much as a Door to it. replied pleafantly. But whether a married or' a fingle Man. one . in^yldr. that they fpoke in prejudice of Marriage. which would not fuffer any Favouss of that kind to be falten'd upon him. lio Atteridaints but am Lucian in Demon. who profeifed fuch Veneration {oxEpi^tetus^ bellowed upon him fo much. if EpiEletus his conftant refidence. OF this regard Ihould means enter into how be fo remarkable. But how liberal foever Spartian ^ hath been in the commendation of Adrian'?. upon this Provocation particularly. befidcs chat no Author mention any fuch. fo neither do think there is enough foi:'denying it. and Orators. as hiightfethim above even extreme Poverty. For. I take it for highly probable. and high Eileem for the Poets.iv The my LIFE Head. and Mathematicians. takes notice of £/>i<^^/w his averfion againil the Epicureans. ss the City of Nicopolis. that either that Emperor or any of his Succeilbrs. It does not certainly appear. And this appeared by his manner of living at Rome y in a little Cottage. whether he were ever liiarriedj but as I have not Authority fufHcienr fpi?affirming.

proclaim not *' your own Sobriety upon every Occafion. to give an account of his Opinions. ' Stib. Ch. fo nobody fure was fo very induitriousto conceal the good he did. Cap. LXX. " Appptite. ^ for the moft graceful Furniture is Temperance and Modefty \ Thefe arc the lafting Ornaments. He was fo perfe6l]y mortified to all Ambition and Vain-glory. not to attraft the Admiration of the People. and darwas moil This eminent in his ov/n praftice. do not glory m your abilemious way of living. Hence he ufed to fay. This gave occafion to thofe Rules. 8. but an earthen Light oF which we owe thoie beautiful. that if any Philofopher ever made Humility the conilant Principle of all his Anions. " And if you drink nothing but Water.do it for your own '' Benefit. thofe Divine Thoughts. Serm. Lib. Let vain-glorious Fools made their Trials as his peculiar Among which ling one feems to have been Modefty.EPICTETUS. we may make a judgment how poor this one old Woman. to the : Philofopher was. no Hoiilhold-StufF. ^ publick as they can j but know. that all affixations of this kind are utterly unworthy the Charadcr of a Philofopher. and to be well contented with mere Necef" faries. Lamp. For. and will never be the worfe for wearing. of which Arr'ian hath And by all thefe Cirpreferved fome noble Remains cumftances. this was certainly the Man. " ' Mrrmn. as to have brought your Body to coarfe " Fare. which we meet with in the fol" If you have fo far maftered your lowing Manual . 38. Or if you " would inure yourfelf to'hardfliip. as no Man of his age did ib much good. come now and his Virtues. as well as in his recommendation to othei?. Ano- . ^ that there is no need of adorning a man's Houfe with rich Hangings or Paintings . IV.

as by what he did occafion to fay. who made profeffion of this Science. mn. And. Cap. no Perfon whatfoever of his time was better quahfied for becoming an Author j yet he was fo infeniible of any Excellence that way. whether the very Name of Ep6ietus had not been loil to the World. ip. Gelims^ who cites the paflage. rank as Urine. 12. EpiSletus reprefented to him. that his Another cafe was fo Avretched as to call for Pity. not fo much by what And this gave him he fpokc. Lib.VI The L Another inftance this 5 I F free of he was from Vanity. ^ that a true Philofopher was obliged to dillinguifli himfelf. One day. Lib. had nolArrian tranfmittcd to Poilerity the Maxims taken from his Mailer's Mouth. who was angry at being piis how thiit. Cap. ir a'ubi faffun. before thou put " any Liquor into it ? For if that be not feafoned. iince his very being out of humour upon fuch an occailon was an evident proof. 6. gives it this Com- n> sylrrian. " ^ II. " ^i Lib IV. although : tied. as to leave nothing of his own compofition behind him. " that thy Vcfl'el be fweetand clean. that the greater part of them. yi. or if you can think of any " thing yet more offenfive and corrupt than either. C. 19. how very unjuil that Anger was. XVII. but not in Fa6l. fo perfectly untouched with an inclination predominant ufually in the moil exalted Minds. " whatever is poured into it. " " wouldeft be at ? Hail thou been careful to fee . mendation . It was his Judgment. ° meeting a Man upon of moil profligate Life. we have fome reafon to doubt. he accolled fenlclcfs Creature. Lib^ III. time. who yet had the confidence to fet up for Learning and Philofophy. Gdl. were only Philofophers in Word. and infamous Character.tp. Cap. what is it thou him thus. will turn four as Vine" gar. " meeting with a certain Perfon.

A weaknefs and lamenefs in his Body he fuffered under. and quoted by ^ A* Gel" lius. Dijfert. nothing more truej meaning. IL Cap. ^. This he acknowledges very frankly in an Epigram compofed upon himfelf. whoie H^ir was matted and greaiie. Gell. in that common misfortune of an ill Perfon. he long before Epi5letus his time.II. gives them fuch a tinfture. yilthough by Birth a Slave. that he was a very great Lover of Neatnefs} and faid himfelf. by means of a Humour that fell into his Leg. Salmiif. than of one. yet dear to Heaven I am. becaufe. as Salwas a Poet of note But then Salmafius not allow this to be compofed by Epi' 9 » ^rrian. that they prefently become good for nofhing. himfelf will Epigram to Leonidas. upon occafions. in Body lame^ In Fortune poor. t i ^etus . are infufed into a Soul deprefled. like a foul VeiTel. 3. Cap. p. and polluted with vicious Habits > this. and turn all to corruption. that nothing could be more weighty. 8. that he had much rather fee one of his Scholars come to him well drefled and curled. becaufe Philofophersarebutfeldom famous for it j which is. fo much the more valuable. Lib. or any fort of ufeful Knowledge. mendation. that. But there was in Efi^etus one Quality. when moral Principles. and had more hopes of fuch a one's improvement. and his Habit ilovenly. He did indeed ihare with the mofl celebrated Philofophers of old. Smpt. in £/>»'«. ^ Flanudes in his Anthology mufl: needs be miftaken in attributing this mafias hath rightly obferved.I C S. Lib.

^r^ument CHlaubon 1 by no medns admit. that this Epigram is nor to be found in any antient Manufcript of yf. ^ This Lib.viii 6ietus neither. The only Argument alJedged for this Opinion. And it looks as if Fortune were permitted. Gellius. which is the inconfiilence that appears to me. ought not Murk^of their beiii^ more or left Favourites of Heaven. to make War upon him. The firil LIFE of it but thinks that fome half-witted Peinferted. It being certain. and then into the Text of A. that the Condition and Hardihip of a Slave. by the liberal endowments of his Mind. were neceflary to rethat EpiSleius : commend to all bis Virtue.iefgntdonlj fhi-Wy that to fiingnijhing ^dverfry Men meu with in the ^fffi'rs of the V/ortd. and his let it off in a brighter luftre Poikrity. very Proyertly or dibe (eefned tije he . there is one reafon which inclines me to fufpcft his being the Author of it. Gellius. if the conjefture be true. 1 own however. on purpofe to add to the Glory of his Triumphs For I will venture to affirm. was very ill ufed by Fortune but how niggardly foever She was to him. is. and the Submiffions they expcd upon that account. but contends for to different Sen!e of this Di/inh. andthiuki't . Providence made him good amends. . 1. Fortune had no influence upnor could he ever be 5 broug'-t to a fervile Flattery of Peifons in the moil exalted Station. but dealt with them very plainly. when hefaw occaiion. we muft fay that the fame Pedant foifted it into ^ Macrobius too For : 6 own. meannefs of The on the greatnefs of his Soul s A/4cr<ifr. the Matter of the Dillich is inconteftable. for a Man of Epicietus his fingular Modetly and Huhe alfo quotes it Epi6ietus his mility. Speaking of Princes and Tyrants. Cap. in the firit Book his Saturnalia. as well as the Infirmities of his Body. the Power they boall: of over their Infeiiours. dant made. 1. to fpeak fo advantagiouily of himielf ^ But whatever become of the Compofer. But admitting this to" be fo.

as we feed and rub down our Hor'' ksy that they may be capable of doing us better " Service. Cap. and fome way or other? If we can-'' not avoid going out of the World. paid wrong. Lib. your Father was a Senator. What *' is it that they can do to us. when " fuch addrciles ceafe to be for the Interell: of their *' Subjeils. mult we not of neceffity " die. Cap. the Prince . than others of a made to them for their own Each Man that makes ir. We " ' ^. becaufe you have fcendcd. it is ^' from the fear of being hurt by it. is not that theilior" teiland eafieftway.ifeafcs j if the Fever have Altars. what freedom he takes with thofe. Lib. And in another' " place } '^ Why all thefe Terrours ? fays he. who fanfy themfelves free. " and you are the Emperor's Favourite. which Violence and Rage fends " us out by ? Was any Tyrant ever fo cruel to his bit" tcreil Enemy. which we fhould be fo *' much afraid of? The woril their Malice can inflict ^" upon us is Death.quickly finds himfelf neglected ^' and defpifed. what mighty ^' matter it is how we go ? Nay. Cap. when them by thofe under their Jurifdidion. * II. IV. ^rrian. as the Men of Rome *' facrifice to D. as to be killing him fix Months to" gether? And why then is not fuch a Death rather '' to be chofen. " hath a regard to his particular Intereft j and. fays he. I. i. in the " ix Thefe Great " People arc much " themfelves upon *' they value the deference and fervices. Lib. 6. that your '^ Quality makes You more free. which often^ " times is whole years before it has difpatchcd us? ^ Obferve. than a Hedick Fever. as we do of ^' Beailsof burden. he expreiTes himfelf to this purpofc. fome time. is Do they " think all this Court " fakes? Nothing lefs.EPICTETUS. take care of fuch. " ^rrian. " been twice Conful. becaufe they were nobly de" You think. "We adore them. And. * 3 meanev . 19.

ifijg. y If He *' be wanting in his Duty. and then all the return he made was this. Contentednefs gave him true Liberty under the moft calamitous Circumilances 5 And.The L *' F of Alas! meaner Birth and Fortune. either to their Virtue or then* Happmefs. Did I not tell you Sir^ that you would break my Leg? ^ Celfus tranfported with a Slave in Lib. nbove that 0/ Jelus Clirift. to fo high a degree of Perftftion. Cantabr. In ihort he did fo. it maybe truly faid. without any flourifh upon the matter. He you are Hemp and and TiiTue. If you go on^ you will certainly break my Leg. A worthy privilege indeed? So little Referve did Epidletus ufe to thofe above him. than the dcfpifed is ill you arc more a *' " and His Condition « may be fometimes «' Man. that he is « Hair-cloth. he undergoes the laih j but " if You negleot yours. Cap.^. as you have ungoverned Pailions. they contributed nothing. with a fmile. Epi^etus obferving him delight with fo barbarous a Pleafure. you have the privilege to have " your Head taken off. when it was neceffary to ihevv them to themfelves. ' Set the . faid. CelC Lib. conr. and becaufe you are Noble and Ca" fafs Favourite. 368. VII. and free from any appearance of Pailion. that no Man ever carried the pomt of Conitancy. 26. but perpetually plagued and harrafled. P-». who was bornfoj more at large than yours. Slave. and convince them of the vanity of thofe Prerogatives they were fo caulefsly proud of j Whereas in truth. and you in Silk ufed by a barbarous Mailer. m. Oiig. you are punifht according to '' your Qiiality. While he was yet a Slave to Epaphroditusy this Brute of a Mailer one day took a Frolick to wrench his Leg. by as Malters. Edit. whtrt Cclfus frnendito ^reftrihe confiancy of Epittetus. " " many *' The difference is. and that he continued it with greater Violence.

" I fhall cheat *' this Rogue next time. (hern 5 . the Virtue and Habit of Conilan- cy ken Leg. extols this Patience Co far above any other inilance of it ever fecn in the World. for when he comes to Ileal ^' another Lamp he ihall find only an earthen one. he faid with a fraile. For ^ Himleif hath told ^' us. thro' the Injuries of time and neglect. He needed no partakers in his Affliolions. having purchafed is purchafed. b. and therefore muft be fuppofed to proceed accord" ing to the true and natural difpofition of his mind. but he. ^ Chap. or your ilolen. a Man is under no temptation ro difguife. " Wine If your Oyl. . we had not loil that Book which Jrrian compofcd of the Life and Death of this excellent Perfon j I make no doubt. 18. or fome other Paflion is apt to Hep in j but in thofe which are trivial. and miffed it. one's fclf to bear the fmallell accidents with evennefs of Temper. but we fliould feeagreat many other like Examples of his Conllancy. to fofteii . refled: prefently. I. In Him the Habit of Suffering was fo mafterly that no Man ever had learned that Art more perfeotly. When he looked about.» Enchirid. be fpilt. the admiration of Philofophy. it cannot reafonably be fuppofed.I C S. If. Cap. which he accounted a very coiUy piece of Furniture. This is not indeed an inilance equal to that of his bro- " " Loilts as thefc. who could with fo much calmnefs fupport the breaking of a Leg. an Iron Lamp. that by fuch flight ^ Accordingly. as he fat one day deep in thought. of whatufeit istoaccuilom fays he. it was ftolen out of his Hut. that he runs his Argument up to a moil extravagant and blafphemous Impiety.XVII. had exerciled his Patience upon ieveral other very trying occafions. Vain-glory. but yet caufe it well deferves our mention: Bcr m matters of greater moment.

muil all " mankind be fentenccd 10 the fame Punilhment. He thought it as much a Reproach.ip. For he diilinguiihed very rightly between Courage. fays he. from others fharing in his Mias if what any one felt were abated or increaNeighbours fek more or lefs. in cafe tion of their being fingular. I. mere" ly for the fake of givmg you that fantalbcal Com" fort that other People fuffcr as well as You ? And. When Reafon and Duty lead us on. yet he acknowledged no fuch high-flown Punotilio. who would rather fuffer a Carriage to drive over his Body. When Epaphrodiius broke his Leg. for a to folace himfelf. upon the account « * ' ' «^. and make It their own A6t and Deed. Lib. if he had it in his Power to take a fmooth onej nor to climb Rocks and Precipices. have been very well fatisfied. Lib. fo did the correotnefs of his Notions likewife. And he would expofethe ridiculous folly of thofe who -. to run into Danger. asihould render it commendable to prefer it before Safety. but he could. by the confidera" What. of . Headvifed no Man to chufe a rough way. 1. than turn out of the way to avoid it.xii The L all I F F them 5 but had he thought it a the Guard within himfelf. he bore it patiently. and Foolhardmefs j between enduring and courtmg Sufferings and Danger. when Providence allowed him to travel this Journey of Life upon even ground. though Honour oblige Men to encounter it when it afiaults them. concerning this Virtue of Refolucion. C. to have found him better natured. i. Cap. then he admits of no changing a right courfe. Nay» Mnn feries fign of a very corrupt Nature. ~ ^rrian. ** you were condemned to be beheaded. He was not like that fturdy Philofopher.. fed in proportion as his aggravated their own Alisfortunes. as to run away from it j and. I. as Epidletus his praftice advanced him far above other Philofophers.

I. Li'o. CHp. which he forefaw " Hehidius would be fure to oppofe. V\Ahich the Emperor. and paiTed his Life in effeminate eafe and indul" gence. which may attend our pci fevering in it. and People. but only maintained the combating with. but ib long as he " continued a Member of that Body. Hehidius his ** return was. " ^ Had Hercules fate at home by the Fire'* fide. 1. and all thofe Mon- " fters he fo laborioufly defeated. fent a meilage to defire. What honour had he acquired. Tofuch occafions. which exercifed his " Gallantry. and aobing ac** cording to the diftates of his own Reafonand Con*' fcience. xm of any hazards or inconveniences. he " would not come to the Houfe that day. Lib. from profecuring his purpofe. He therefore. the Hydra. and quelling of them. Senate.yfrrian. *' knowing his Humour.EPICTETUS. .. 8 y^-irrian. 16. if his " Virtue had not been thus dangeroully employ'd ? Mankind reap'd from fo great a he had declined the occaiions of exerting *' it ? This plainly ihews. ^ They were " the Lion. to have been an occafion fordifcovering what kind of Perfon //(?ri-«les was and for perpetuating his Glory in the World. penfc . the Boar. Cap. he could not dif- " . f Lib. 6. 2. Cap. we muft apply whac he fays of the advantage fuch tryals are to ^ocd Men. that it was in the Emperour's Power to *' deprive him of his Senatorfliip. Hchidius^ for his undaunted fteadinefs in this Virtue. Vefpafian was extremely defirous to gee " fomeihing paifed in the Houfc. he had never been Hercules. Senator thought it became him to make a " motion. that he did not think thofe Monfters defirable things. Epiiletus had been very juil to the Reputation of benefit had ** " What Soul. " all confpired together to obilruct j but ftill ihac "s This " univerlal Combination was not able to difcourage " hira.

what have they fen" tenc'd me to. " your Head ihallpay for it. we will fup " to Night at jiricia. " In his return. " Come then. Cap. " Whereupon. you *' mufi: be advifed with. He had alio a " Well. becaufe one day being told of an Accufation preferred againft him ^before the Senace. fiid he. fays Vefpafian^ am content you ' fliould be there. he only reply'd. he was met by one. if you are againil what I propofe. He valued him more efpecially . Sir. to Death ? No replied the other. and " mull be Mineto die bravely and chearfully. that the Caufq was given will pleafe to order. who brought him News. I. let us go to the Bath. " Well *' then. it is time to " be moving. provided my Voice and Opini" on be not asked. to " Baniihment only. find Fefpafian. very particular regard for Jgrippinus . " to be filent. for the fmartnefs of a Repartee. ^Lnle ViUa^e not far /rem Rome. but what of the Clock is it? And when they told him it was about five.Xiv The L J F E of " " penfe with himfelf from attending the Bufineis of Well. Nay. Bat do it at your Peril. ^ " *Tis very well. mind . " and according to what I conceive moil: reafonable " and juil. " for be aflured. I muit give my Advice freely. ^Arrian. if It it ** maybe Your Bufincfs to lentence me to die." faid he. but if you are there. Jgrippinus'an'iwcx' ed without any Concern.'* You will ** do Your part. EpiEietus had alfo a particular Refpe6b for Pyrrho^ becaufe he looked upon Life and Death as things indifferent. I engage his Pofl:. ** you 1 ihall take care to fuhmit.. and ihall endeavour to do Mme. I. faid he. (rerurned Helvidi*' us) did I ever tell you I was immortal. ** reply'd Hehidius. provided yoa will be fure not to " fpeak in the debates thatiliall arife to day. Li'o. againft him. faid FefpafiaWy And if I be. to one who had a ^ ^ Stnb^ui.

to be punifhed as he faw fit.I C S. inilriid:ed him in Virtue. I would tell it to thy Maiter. when the Executioner gave the ftroke too feeble for the Buiinefs. replied Pyrrho^ becaufe they are both " indifferent. he now reftorcd to them. made this refolute Anlwer. and laid his Neck fairer for the fecond llroke. whom they had deli" vered into his hands full of Treachery and Wicked*' nefs. ^Epi^etus would frequently extol the Gallantry and invincible Courage of Lateranus ^ who. I. ViWiLycurgus^ initead of revenging the Injury. XV " If living and this Subjeft. Bear and Forbear : Words. told them. and not ^ ^rrian Lib. 1. " fays he. " If I had any thing to " difcover. do not you ihew it by dying? For this ve" ry reafon . He frequently expreffed his admiration oi Lycurgus the Laceilcemon'ian\ Bravery. mind to banter him upon In fliort. to a Man who had put out one of his Eyes. " dying be indifFerenc in your efteem. his Neck to receive the Blow 5 and. when condemned by Nero to be beheaded. and to the ailonifliment of all the People. Cap. having been before examined by Epaphroditus ^ concerning the Confpiracy of which he Hood accufcd. for which reaibn he had always thufe two words in his Mouth. '' That the Malefador . <C to . The fame Perfon. there being but the difference of a fingle Letter between them. that I know no reafon for preferring " either. why then. and after he had modelled him into a good Man. The People delivered this Offender up to his Mercy. difpofed himfelf a fecond time. he brought upon the publick Theatre the Perfon fuppofed to have long before been put to death. Ifretched ouc . which in Grfi"/^ have a pe(?uliar Elegance. with all the Quali" fications of Juftice and true Goodnefs. EpiSlctus made all Philofophy to confiil in Continence and Patience.

for all his Aftions. upon undertaking any thing of moment. and all his Inilru6tions. ufed in the firll place to confider. " becaufe Epicletus ^ being a Perfon who made fo nice iind fo juil a Judgment of Men and Actions. it is much for the Honour of Their Memory. reproved any Perfon for his Vices. yet was he one of the greateil Ornaments of it. far above the common ilandard j but above ail. at reducing the rigour of their Maxims and Precepts into Praolice. and delivering found and good Senfe. whofe behaviour merited his Approbation > and the greateil Men need no more. were fo familiar. Though . The Comparifons he made ufe of in all his Difcourfes. For. xvi The LIFE of Thefe PaOages 1 the rather mention to thee. though he was one of the lait. He conform'd himfelf. the moil fevere and exalted 5 and " Man of all the Alitients. in perfpicuous and iigniticant Terms. to quote fome In lliort. fo juil in every Circumilance.. but was contenc with making himfelf mtelligiblc. fo apt. as Perfons of an extraordinary Charadrer. to And the manner of Socrates^ and Zeno^ and Diogenes. for ellabUiliing their Reputation with coniidering Perfons among all Poilerity. He did not afFe(3: elegance and politenefs in fpeakmg. making him his univerfal Pattern. who formally applied himfelf to the Rules of this Se6t. in his Difcourfeand Behaviour. or inilruftcd him in Virtue. reverenced them. it was hisconilant Cuilom. no ' ' yArrian. which was of all others. he was an admirer of Socrates^• and formed his Style upon the Model he had fet him. what one of thofe Worthies Whenever he v/ould have done upon a like occafion. He all alongprofeifed the Stoical Philofophy. that eveiy Body was infcnfibiy won over by them. In this too he copied after Socrates^ as indeed he did throughout. he of thefe Philofophers for Examples. was more expert.

the whole Jeil had been fpoiled. Lib. ^ Who among bore himlelf. who pretended there could be no fuch thing as Certainty. that that Vinegar was him to renounce his own fantaltical Principles. 27. he would bring him Vinegar} and ifheiliould pretend. regard to Pyrrho irreconcileablc Enemy to moil a Se6t that went under of the Scepticifm the ridiculous Followers one of his upon ocasked He his Name cafion. all his Life long. I. were he a Servant to one of " thefe Scepticks. by which governed. nothing but " What is the whole Iliad of Fancy and Humour . ^rnan. as to go to the Mill. " That. yet was he : Though he ever fo groily deceived.° *' Horner^ but a Succeflion of moil unreafonable Hu*' mours ? Paris took a Fancy to carry oiF Menelaus " his Wife. were at the bottom. to be angry at this preverienefs . i8. " if her Husband had been ib prudent." Fancy and Fortune. For the Former. and. But upon his Mankind are " " * ^rrian. he obferved. that all the moil important Events of humane Life. as to account '' the lofs of fuch a Wife. againft. ^' being . they intended to go to the Bagnio? And often he ufed to fay. the Two things. fays he. Avere what he waged War. and Helena to go away with him. that Men were continually impofed upon by the Report of their Senfes. all the Revolutions that make the greateil Noife in Story. he would pour Brine upon them was when " " " his Head} when he called for a Julep. Lib. 11. Cnp. "For when fuch ii Mafter commanded him to " pour Oyl into his Bath. " We had had neither Iliad nor Odyjfes. 1. Lib.I C a particular S. Now. he ihould take delight in plaguing *' him. or conltrain acknowledge. ^Arrtan. Cap. rather a Deliverance than " an AfHiclion . 1 would either " " " oblige his him to Julep. 20. Cap.

1. is " the general way of the World. Dif- . a Mmd devoted quickly off. deEye and Taile. iightful to the In agreement with thefe Notions. as his Mind: being duly feniible. Serm. his vigour in the ftudy of Virtue was fuch . is This Coniideration moved him to prefer inward Peace and Tranquillity. and yet runs On the other hand. but whatever is beftowed upon the Mind. whofe ftream is dangerous to pafs. renounced all the Delights to devote himfelf folewhich ly to the nobler Satisfadions of the Soul. is content to be opprefs'd with Cares and StsLxus. fol« lowed Wars and Tumults." Spring. though never fo beautiful. or laden with the richeft Trealures . which Men herfelf to Servants. the Slaughter of infi" nite innocent Men. fweet and wholefomc. When he was any time at an Entertainment. And this in good truth. that no Man ever afpired- more eagerly after perfeotion. he would rc** *' " " " " " femble to a Torrent. and can never be loif. his Care entirely gratifie He had the Senfes. fo that Man makes a very ill Choice for himfelf. and the utter fubvcrfion of fe" veral antient Cities. foul and rapid. and turns to no account . that whatever is beitowed upon the Body.xviii The LI FE of " being as extravagantly hiimorrome as the reli. " lead in dependence upon Fortune. fierce in its Courfe. was not as fo much to regale his Body. as it would be no Comfort to a Man to be drowned in a Veilel . to Virtue he compared to a perpetual unexhauiled whofe Waters are clear and Smooth. free from all manner of fully or corruption. before the gveateil Advantages in the World j for. vho. who proltirutes " The Life. for the fake of Wealth and Magnihcence . a lafting Advantage. perifhes quickly." The Latter he ufed to compare to a Woman of Quality.

^rrian. and eagerly " afpire after Gieatnels and Abundance ? Why does *' he not rather employ his Care. And ** had we the whole Earth at command. Stobsus. " when compared with the highcil Elevation of world. and tofs about upon Down ? And the " preference is manifeftly due to a Mind perfeftly " compofcd . . Cap. He .I " C S. who cultivates " his Mind well. is fiitisfied from " himfelf. xijc > - — -U and purchafts any degree of Grandeur. to ileep in a hard Bed. " with good Health j than to be iick in Damask " or Velvet. and provides againil this Evil. ihort and narrow. that makes us truly miferable. That murt. 'tis our Ambition or our *' Difcontent. • Stobntts. Tq this pLirpoie he would lometimes argue as follows. foured by Vexation and perpetual i" " Anxiety of Heart. J 8. Lib. and caiie with a moderate Fortune. the pofleilion *' even of this could not let us at eafe from our fears " and melancholy. All that Na•' ture fuggefts upon this occaiion . would never be uneafie " that he did not dwell in Greece. and never complauis of Poverty. about making " that Condition eafie to him. being only a Difquiets. We are infinitely in the " wrong ( would he often fay ) to charge our Mifery " upon our Poverty > no. why fhould he torture " himfelf with ambitious Thoughts. *' deilre to live happily in one's own native Coun" try 1 When a Man therefore is born in mean " and low Circumilances.• Thus I have given you a fhorc fample of Epidetus his manner of arguing upon thefe occafions. ** ly Greatnefl'es . and can be the Work " of Reafononly i therefore the Man. at the what or the expenfe of his own Eafe and Liberty. or For" tune *. * II. Ssrm. i6. millakcn World calls Happinefs. ** A Man born in Perfia . by " ftocking it with found Principles. which Providence ** Is it not much more at iirft had placed him in ? " deilrable.

Epi tl et u s xo m\ug-aiQ his Fury. Lib. Words. But in this Point too. or to give countenance to what they did '^ amiis. without - ' ^4taan. than it did in the Doftrineand Difcourfes. were like the wanton " Wives of Rome^ who. Another . becaufe he there is againit Women being confined to one. they put a very partial monweakh. he ufed to fay. the better to conceal their " own Shame. either to cover. for having over-looked a fallacy in a " Syllogifm. and took delight in telling the Story publickiy.XX The L I F E of would by no means bear with thofe. and malicious Conilruotion upon that Philofopher's attending to his true meaning and " defign. who infome colourable pretence. Sir? 1 have not fet ** Fire to the Capitol. Nay. than in having his " Rufus one Faults or Defefts roundly told him. Epicletus was fo far from refenting this fmartnefs amifs. acknowledged the Jultice of the Argument. tus. " and then proftitute herfelf to all the Sex > but the " Marriage now in ufe he thought fit to be abolifhed. Such. 7. Slave. ufed to make P/iZ/i?'s Books of hisComduftrioufly fought for *' He *^ *' " '' *' the conilant Subjeft of their Commendation and Difcourfe. /* Day happened to reproach him in terms immode*' rately fevere. merely. as now they are. his Sincerity never was folicitous to find out an Excufe for it. For. This Principle appeared no lefs in the Prailice. 1. Cap. that way might be made for Engagements of " another kind. ** only. he upon no occafion exprefied greater Satisfaction . ^ replied Rufus ^ doll: " thou think no Fault deferves reproof. when he was fenliBle at any time of having failed or done amifs. that a " Woman ihould firil contract herfelf to one Man. but burning " the Capitol ? Thou hail been guilty of the woril " this Cafe could bear ". that he fmiled at the Wit of it. For it was no part of his Intent. Why fo rougii and hot. made an" fwer.

one who had formerly Jived in great " but was then reduced to extremity of want. " when the Defence of a Friend was under con" fideration Being fatisfied. y that the Wife Man only was ** capable of making a true Friend. 9. The Reader need only be put in mind. came to him with a Requeft. I. But above all. Cap. as not thinking. EpUict. though '' with the hazard of their very Lives. 12. Epi5letus was a Perfon of moft nice: Honour in the matter of Friendihip. that this was a Caufe^ " in which they were bound to engage . IL Cap. that he never forgot it afterwards.Jirrinn^ * Cap.EPICTETUS. . " for of that he had no need.• Have you never feen a couple of Whelps : him " ^' KArrisn. full ^ '' a Principle of Intereil in this point. Lib. that he did not proceed upon that piece of Service. and not " with a defign to be taught how to bemoan himfelf. EpSletus^ very ready to do endited a Letter in his beof kind and tender Exprcilions. XXI Another time. reprefented his Misfortune in complaints moving. 39. Lib. Cap. He Would " not allow Men to confult the Oracle for Advice. " That he made that *' Addrefs in hopes of receiving fome Relief. that his " Sufferings were any real Evil ". . telling him. II. that he was none of the Wife . * Lib. You do but imagine fo^ " replied EpiSletus^ but I will convince you oi' your " miftake. that he would recommend him to the People. ^ that he was a Stoick^ to convince himfelf. 7. Plenty. that the hardeil Hearts rauft needs have been foftned by them j which when the Party concerned had perufed . half. Enchind. This difdainful Anfwer pleafed EpiSietus fo exceedingly . As he was " once maintaining. and yet he ** loved his Son with a moil true and tender AiFec" tion notwithilanding. and loving fin" cerely j a certain Perfon in the Company made ** anfwer. he gave it back again.

or any fuch trifling Advantage. Paflions are » " irregular. were not all their former Promifes and Profeilions as abfolutely forgotten.xxii The L together ? I F E of " *' " " '' " " " " *' " ** " " " " " *' *' *' " " think chefe Jittle fond of one another j and yet do but cail a piece of Meat before them . would have pafled for a perfeot " Infidel. 22> whofe Minds are unftable. a bit of Land. whether he will not wiih your Death in order to get into poficifioni and. and this Experiment will foon ihew you. with a moft favage Cruelty to deilroy and murder one playing One would Dogs were infinitely " another ? " Memlaus =^ entertained Paris with great Hofpita- " lity. Cap. " Lady. a fine caft between themj and this gave rife the longeft Bloody Wars. that any Man. "^" «and . if he had fo much as feemed to doubt. " who had feen how dear thefe two were. was " *' " they were true and eternal Friends. that of and moft to one in vain a thing been recorded So ever Story. Juil thus is the Cafe between you and your Son. U. as if they had never been? Did not their brotherly AfVeolion vanifh in a moment ? And did not thefe two Perfons do their utmoil. while un" der the fame Roof. whether you will not hate him mortally in a very little while upon this account. and fo particular a Kindnefs. " whether " here again . But another Bone of Contention . conclude Perfons Friends whofe to it is. hath indeed. Throw in a Bone of Contention. how far they are from the love you fanfy. Lit•. which is the Piece of Meat that makes Dogs worry one another. when a Kingdom fell to them . Were not Eteodes and Polynices Children by the fame Father and Mother ? Were not they brought up all along together ? Had not ten thoufand folemn Proteilations of the moft inviolable Friendihip pafled on both fides? And yet. and fee. ^nmn.

and how he " *' they are enamour'd with the poffibly be fixed. and my tendernefs was fo great. without knowing his good Fortune. " which you mifcallExcefsof Love for others. it was not Love. ^ Some Perfons had alledged the neceifity of endeavouring to be rich . " fays the Noble-man. like that of a certain Racer at Romcy How " " " " " '' who. " and who. methinks one " would be glad to have their worft Enemies ihew " their Concern. to recover " to his Senfes. " that 1 was forced to quit the Houfe and run' away " from the poor Girl. And do you reckon that an Ar" gument of Affeftion? i'^ys Epiileius . The very truth is.EPICTETUS. of the firft Qtiality coming one day to vifit him. juil: as you do yours for your deareil " Friends. ii. " Alas I. was fain to be difmounted. and rcfreihed with Spirits and Cordials. whether he 5 lik'd that State the o- ther anfwered. but it is my misfortune. for my extreme fondnefs " and folicitude for my Children. ^. that " drove you from your Child . Cap. Confider of this inftance a little. % « you . cannot to enquire. for eagernefs at the Sports and. " " " " Affairs. but fome other difor" der of mind. £pjff«. Enchirid. Lib. never " to enjoy one quiet hour. Cap. when he had won his Prize. 31. " Epiuletus^ for I prefume all People that marry. after fome Difcourfe about other long as World. tJiat Poverty incapacitates a Man for being ferviceable to him his Friends. and then you will come to judge rightly of that. Epi5ietus happened " were married. that he was indeed a married Man. doit '' with a Profpe6l of bettering their Condition. upon a pretence. fo ? fays but extremely unhappy in being fo. when his Horfe was upon full fpeed wrapped himfelf up in his Cloak. or Profcffions firm to any ^ " A Gentleman. and things of this Principles whatfoever. True. I had a little " Daughter fick lately. ! faid Epi^tetus^ how infinitely • ^rrian.

And if. I engage to « employ my utmoft endeavours to be fo my felf. And you are doubtlefs *' unreafonable and unjuft to the laft degree. that of all the ancient Philofophers. I allow Men to take all lawful and honeil methods of getis that. than any who were enlightened by the Gofpel. and to have entertain'dmorejuft and becoming Notions. Dei. and to fpeak of this Author with a great deal of Re- « Le Chit. in re" quiring me to fubmit to fuch hard Conditions j and ** much in the wrong. But then take care. thought himfelf in Juilice bound to make one exception at leart. you can inftruft me in any « fuch way of growing and being Rich. he feems to have made the neareft approaches to the trueChrirtian Morality. as " the World now goes. they may . if you do not prefer the good '* Qualities of the Mind. ^w- notwithilanaing his violent prejudice againft the generality of the Heathen Sages. at the expence. But that. but only by lending him LMoney ? No fuch matter. His Dootrines were *' " ting Wealth in truth guflin. before a ** rich unfaithful pretender to Friendihip". concerning the Nature and Providence of God. when they have it. fped. which feems to be the peculiar Glory and Commendation of Epi^letus. be in a Condition of Relieving their Friends^ jn " want. This was an Anfwer truly worthy a Philofopher. but fuch as are fair and decent. and with the cer*' tain Lofs of others. . that there no way of being uferul to one's Friends. that you ufc no me*' thods.xxiv *' The LIFE of " *' *' you deceive yourfelves! Do you think. which are really fo there I j " muft defire to be excufed. before the Advantages of " Fortune} a good Man before a wealthy one j a *' Man capable of being a faithful Friend. But « if you expeotfrom me. that lihould purchafe things " not really good. fo very agreeable to ours j ^ that St. is. .

or altering thcni for the better. the Immortality of the Soul i the Unity and Perfeftions of God j the Wifdom and Goodnefs of Providence j and. Cap. ^rrian. and how nobly he argues for. & 24. than when moil modeft. without takHe hath nothing of the ing in any of their Sournefs. ^ in declaring openly againft that moft impious and Anti-chriftian Maxim. make no difficulty from the reft j when we he was convinced of. If then St. Cap. Lib. Wolfius thinks Cap. Another Excellence peculiar to himfelf. So that he reformed Stc-icifm as well as proieiJed it. with the Chara6ler of a very AVife and exceeding good Man. fenfible. Cap. have the leaft tincture of Vanity in them. that neither his Morals. Jerome did not grudge a Philofopher of that Scdf. which can be faid of none befides. the honour ot being numbred among the Saints. and elponfedno Principles fo in:)plicittly. him 14. 3 as . when Humility was fo truely his Charaoler. 9. as deep aibi. nor his Praolice. What place ihall we allow Epi^tetus? Who. Lib. beiides that he vindicates the Immortality of the Soul. II. 9. in here Mrrian. I am d * . Lib. is. as ilrenuoully as Seneca^ or ever a Stoick of them allj hath the advantage over his Brethren. as to bath he proceeded in this Point. XXV fpeft. of making their Romantick Wife Men in a manner equal vi'ich God. as he h\v occafion. maintained by the leil of this Profeflion. Lib. how clearly rejected their Chimerical and impraoficablePerleftions j and thought a Philofopher never more truly fo. '^ v^hy Epi^etus fhould be far Nay. 9. I. He treated in a manner different refleot. And reafon good there was. I. 5 ^rrian. «Sr I.) a Man may lawfully die by his own ^ hands. that he admitted all the Severity of the Stoicks. of honouring him. as not to leave himlelf a Liberty of departing from them. Infolence fo ufual with that Scot.I C S. iyiz.

flius. and Herod the Sophift. XVII. That this was his true Intention is evident from another PaiHige. Lib. ranks him among the Em* Thcmiperour Adrian\ moft confiderable Friends. 7. 34» 36. 0. Cup. How ridiculous cut in Pieces. The Phrafe here iitor. if not. Se£t. in^^dr. And again.M. where he expofes the folly of being full of s If you have any Suficnance Care for to morrow. iz. The unblemiihed Probity. that ' R ^rrian. Lib. I. ticular . ip. in which he lived. which recommended him to the particular Favour and Efteem of all thegreateft Men of the x'^ge. Lib. as I obferved before. is who two the fame. * Thtrmfi. 2. a Man ought not rather to be than defer t thePofl his General hath fixed him in j and to imagine ourfelves at Liberty to quit the Pofl God hath fet us in. that our term of Life is fo ihorr. then march out to him. Seft. He contra£ted a particular intimacy with Favorinus. 'That when a Man is 'weary of playing his part. 5. I. but. tian. ad Jew». that he received feveral marks of Honour. who are two very eminent Perfons in AntiSparquity } as we find by Philoflratus in his Lives. Cap. he may he comforted with re- membring that the Door is open. ' Span.Gtll. But the meaning of the Door being open. his in Jovinian. " ^. Let us wait God's leifure to deliver us from enraged Tyrants : When he gives the gnal. Cap. you will make your exit } the Doer flands always open. and paris it to fuppofe. Lib. was the very thing. but this feems to be only from a wrong Interpretation of that PaiTage. Lib. XI.xxvi as the reft TheLIFEof . Emperour Oration to the fays. that we may go out when we pleafe . and let Epi^letus be his own Expoor three Lines before hath this re- markable Sentence. (fays he) you will he fupported . is not. that it cannot be long before we are called out. remarkable throughout his whole Converfation. whenever we pleafe ? h But to return. 1. Sec.

1. his Reputation was fo great > ih^ii Lucian^ who calls him a wonderful Man. that he alone had been of his forming. from iht cordingly Marcus AurcJius^ in his Book of Meditations. " rod the Sophiil. and fanfy themfelves " Philofophers. For We '' Dialogues adverf. msfltes Libros ementem. This " fo confounded that forward young Gentleman. as if he thought all xhcGreeks and La*' tiyis to be mere Ignoramus's incomparifon of himfelf. Avith fo great regard as to fet him upon the fame level wirh the Socrates's^ the Zeno's^ and the Chryfippus's. that no ^ " Hebody could ftand out againft his Arguments. and turn him to that Chapter " "^ in the Second Book. D ^ fhis . where he fpeaksof thofe con" ceited People. mentions him more than once. as fufficiently demonftratcsthe Excellence of his Mafter. rallies an ignorant Fellow. met one day with a pert young " Blade. of what Authority Epi6ietus and his Do6lrines were." may judge from this inilance. at that time in the World. eig iouj'nv^ or Soliloquies.I C S. 2. was to fend for ArriarCs Colleolion of Epi" Etetus his Difcourfcs. who pretended himfelf Profeflbrof the Sto*' ick Philofophy j and talked and fwaggered at fo in" folent a rate. that " he had not one Word to fay for himfelf. " Alter having heard patiently all he had to fay. Jntonines. Whatever he faid carried fuch Force. I w4. becaufe they can do it fluently. InioS. whoie Name hath been tranfmitted with Reputation to Pofterity j and He is fuch a one. the *' way Herod took to reprove and put him out of coun*^ tenance. And acticular Rcfpeol:. would infpire him with the Wifdom of its former Mailer. for purchafing Epi6ieius his Earthen Lamp at three thoufand Drachms. that iludying by the Light of this Lamp. Cap. upon a vain imagination. In fliort. and met with fo general Acceptance and Refpeot. Arrian is the only one.GW/Lib. though we ihould fuppofe. who talk much. " Cap. Of all his Scholars. ip.

he committed to writing the Diftates dcHvered by his Mailer in his Life time and piibhihed them in one Volume. which no where occur in his Writings extant at this day. gives them the Title of xjzjvivjv. ° which is a ihort Compendium of all Epi5letui his Philofophical Principles j and hath ever been acknowledged. Cap. mentions a Traot. After this he compofed a little Book. ^rri-in. z. during ArriarC?. Thus much as is certain . Script.[!. XVIl. But thefe probably are the lame with thofe Difcour^ y^i mentioned before. of thefe called and VUI. Set ' ^• ^. Porphyiii. He likewife wrote aBook of the Life and Death of Epi^etus. than own Life. Jeipfo. Prtf. called his Enchiridion. ip. and poilibly. ° in Chron. Lib. Probably this double Title might proceed from the different form. like that Philofopher. Marcus Jurclius which is now unfortunately lofb. entituled Jlolften. Cantabr. that A. of the fame Author. ' into . 1 am alfo apt to believe. £dir. in two ful Pieces iiother large feveral Copies. Simpi in Jovin.xxviii The LIFE of '^ this is the very Perfon. XIX. Cell Lib. by reducing fix Books " Gtneb. in a fecond Edition. and diftingnifhed by the Title of Xenophon the Younger \ becaufe. & ^ £». which at prefent we have in four Books. might think fit to leave out fome things publiihed in a former > and that he plight new cail the Work . under the Name of Epicletus his Difcourfes or Di£'ertations'. Cellius. furnamed the Pious. De •:. called the Commentaries of £/?i^etus. larger. Gellius ^ cites a Paf- fage out of the fifth. It is not unlikely. "^ Some fay XII. that thefe Difiertations were formerly we now enjoy them . ^.oDoi. Gell. For ^irrian in his Preface to thofe Books. which he had read with great application.y. 1655. de Vn. ^ there might not be four only. but five or fix Books of them. ' i. who was afterwards advanced to be the Freceptov oi' Jntomne . for one of the moil valuable and beauti: of ancient A4orality. ^/i. and that Stob^us relates feveral. fag. that Arrian. ' Aallcu. Cap. under which they were publiihed.

and Principles. Salmaf. that he died when rictus Marcus Aurelius was Emperor j but I am very ape We ^. •^ ! -. is of Opinioa that Suidas is miilskenj and produces feveral Reafons for thinking fo. will eafily difcover the Forgery. ad L^iS!et. diiAlrercac. There are befides. or about what time. Now from the Death of Nero^ to the beginning of Marcus Aurelius his Reign. was Slave to Epaphroditus ^ a Captain of Nero's Life-Guard. were in the Library at Florence. either of what Diilemper. fome Anfwers pretended to be made by him to Queilions put by Adrian the Emperourj but any Man. of feeing fome Letters. written by this Great Man publifhed. ^Wolfius indeed did once put us in hopes. and is acquainted with Epi£ietus his Manner. he had been informed.EPICTETUS. before our Eyes are gratified with the fight of that Curiofity. Annot. when• he tells us. and that they cannot belong to thisPhilofopher. to fufpect the Truth of this Afl^jtion. Wolf. credit Suidas his xxix But however that be. that £/•/eietus was himfelf a great Writer . there intervened no iefs than Ninety Four Years. ^ SalmafiuSy w!^o hath enlarged upon this matter. in « S. 5c iw»f/. which . I can by no means Account. Adr. ad Cakem Elr. " have no account that can be depended upon. was not rightly informed himfelf j and we are like to wait a great while. who gives himfelf the trouble of ^ reading them. EpiSuidas indeed affirms. In Pi-Af. who hath read Arrian at all.uid. for this is very hard for any Man to conceive. which 1 ihall confider in this place. Firft is. 2. in Epiilet. y The Epi^etiis s * thereat. into four. But in all probability. that the fame Author tells us. That I. which. the Perfon who communicated tliis piece of News to him.

befides that EpiSletus iiad retired to Nicopolis long before that time. 'tis poiible he might not be taken into Epaphroditus. we may allow his Death to » L•'/. or ever imbibed it lieartityhimfelf. anfwer to this Solution. that Epiiietus had fome krioxuiedge of the Chriftian DoHrinc . deed the Philofophers. or thereabouts. but only fp^aks of reading fome Difcourfes of his. this Wclfius is Epaphroditus taken for the Ferjon of brought that Chy. either inflruitei lence. ^ This Junius Ruflicus had communicated to him. . that Newas living at the time when Epi£letus belonged to him. and that he ferved him whilft in that Quatain ro lity. though it be not abfolutely conclufivej becaufe. it may be replied. Pbilof. 'till after Nero's Death. among the Perfons with whom he had any Converfation. This Conjefture carries fomewhat of Argument in it. 18. * / cunnot but obfcrvchere grofs miflakf in the Preface to Berkelius'i Edition of bis Notes printed Enchiiid. which 2. J670. or of removing from Hierapolis to Rome. EpiUetus may we muft be prefumed to have reached a Hundred and Fifteen Years. as Lipfius ^ hath obferved judicioufly enough. So that according to this Computation. prebablt . vcr. ) yet we have little ground to imagine. ColoiT. before he was capable either of doing Epaphroditus nny Service . V'. him in it. Marc. that Marcus Audoes not reckon this Philolophcr. to me feems to carry lefs Strength than the former. But the Chara&er given of Ep'lActUS ^nd though it be highly his Majier. Ttens Paul at Lugd. 'Tis true. it is more credible. 4. -who Rome. 7. vjhere Name. (as inixilio -write after the publication of the Gofpet. The that LIFE of to the improbability of this account. For. Manuduft. vjiU not incline us to believe him one of them.nh'' s Chanty to St.h. z^ ruiV/j Stole. 2J. which is not very eafy to believe. ib. LiU> I. by their -way af arguing fo much wore rtfined than their Predecejfors. But then. relius The fecond Argument is. that Chapter menat that Saintsof Oyai's Hoiifiiold. Salmaf. Cap. *> have . that ^Epaphroditus^ being diftinguiihed by that Title of Cap- of Nero's Guard. and barbarity. I. ««i/Amft. fuppofe Epi^letus Tome Years old . do./". ^ntsnin. and meannefs of Spirit. in his Family. fuih tnfof/jij Epaphroditus.^xx which adds more is . feem all to have had . that a Perfonof fuch infamous finalities.

it might very' well happen. though EplEletus himlelf 1 haiie heard Favoriiince Favorinus died under Adrian . But Salmafius hath not produced that Paflage entire. that A. Cap. this Reafon is not convincing. 2. that Luc'ian outMarcus Aurelius. becaufe Fa'uorinus might very well inform A. Lib. ip. and. multos Ltbros ementem. or at leaft in the very beginning Epi5ietus^ that the Memory of Marcus Aurelius^ fays of that Philofopher was ftill frefh at Rome. EpUetus my Judgment. that Circumftance will create us no Difficulty at all. & 11. Sal- Now adverf. XVil. were . Gellius does not fpeak there of his Memory in general. that the Lamp might be fold in Epi^etfis his own life-time. and from thence . 4. that he had been a Slave J which lail alters the cafe very much. * " ' Dialog. 5. pag. but of every body's remembring. much about the beginning of this Emperor's Reign. And he might very well be fuppofcd to live till the beginning of his Reign. And fo this Lamp being fold is no confequence while Luc'ian was vet alive. Satmaf. ^. 3. is no bar to Epi^etus his being alive in ^ Marcus his Reign. 3. Gellius^ who wrote under Antoninus Pius . Nay. for Epi5letus not to have died before the Reign of Marcus Aurelius. Gellius^ what Epi^eius had faid upon fome certain occailons. p. than that he lived till the time of Marcus JureUus. ^ The Third Reafon is. World to believe. 18. is f .I C S. taken from that Expreffion of nus fay . for^. Gdl. without implying any neceffity of this Emperor's feeing his Difcourfes. ^ The Reafon alledged by Salmafius Gellius . is inferred. Lib. till after the Author was dead. in little or no Conlideration. f ^. Satmaf. tJ^/W^i affirms no more. of his Lamp was it fold in Luciayi's time. ibid. ^ that EpiStefus was dead before that Sale was made. Geil. ^ The Fourth is. if this be admitted. lndo£i. xxxi have happened. But lived this the Reafon in the For we have all at all. Cap. And mafius concludes it impofiiblc. p.

manner of fpeaking. And therefore. to One Difficulty more indeed occurs me. when mentioning Epi^etus^ does terms > Epioletus would fay ^ That 'venerable ufed to fay^ Such a one hath told me^ that Epidetus was wont to fay^ and the like. that it was well known. admitted. between the Death of Nero .The is LIFE of were ilill alive. till . very unufual and odd Perfon fpoken of is yet in being. this is a it in thefe old Man Now . how Suidas his account of his living down to Marcus Aurelius his time ihou!d ftand Book. as any of the former. it being highly improbable. there fome Ground for urging it. if at all. in my apprehenfion. Gellius wiot^his Nobles Attic<^. that Book was publiih'd. and the Edict of Domitian for baniihing the Philofophers. bare Prefuraptions ought not to prevail for its being received. that Arrian might collect and publiih thofe DiiTertations. For A. 'and commonly read. Epaphrodit us. without fome Authority to warrant fuch a Conje6lure. Edid is placed in the Eighth of Doniitian. ex- For that .. before the compofing of Arrian's in which he colkols his Difcourfes. before the Death of his Maiierj but I can fcarce think he did fo. good. S And if Lipfius his i'erve- Notion be that EpiSietus did not in Chron. For it is evident. when A. Now this very little. ceeds Twenty Years. And I am when the indeed the rather inclined to embrace the Opinion Salmaftus contends for. and that is as much as to fay. Eftfcb. becaufe it feems to me highly probable that Epidletus was dead. And if fo. which Salmaftus takes no notice of. Gellius^ who wrote his Book under Antoninus Pius^ the Predeceilbr to Marcus Aurelms. in the Reign Antoninus Pius. and a thing out of the common way. But ftill it muft be confeiTed. 'Tis the fpace of time. it is as coniiderable . to fet forth the Difcourfes and memorable A^lions of a Perfon furviving the publication. and yet. I own it may be objected. I fee no poffibility.

I acknowledge . xxxiii the difficulty grows yet more upon us. that Lu' cian^ who was his contemporary. which are ilriolly required of a Faithful Hillo^^ '^ -. from a paiTage in 'Themiftius who pofitively affirms. makes no mention of him. For at that rate. cui T'xinlvisMAcrabii. But is never to be reconciled with ji. when he left Rome^ till after Nero's Death obedience to the Emperour's prohibition. Scaligcr in his Animadthat the Decree verftons hath obferved expreilly . in Dialog. to bring him down as far in this We as Marcus AureUus his Reign. This Argument is of fo great weight with me. by replying. But this Ohjcilion too may be taken off. And yet fo many we cannot afford him neither j when it is remembred. \ Urat. were it not. GeWus his account . that Orators. meant by A. rafter at lefs than Thirty Years old } and. in their Speeches. S. that it would quite bear down all that Suidas hath faid . that the Two Antonines ihewcd Epidtetus particular Marks of their Favour and Eileem. he could not be above Eighteen or Nineteen at moil. rian •^ LiiriAn. as a Perfon of great Repute at that time. in that Dialogue. according to that calculation. that Eufc' hius takes notice of a fecond Edi6t agamil the Philofophcrs. who fpeaks of him . concerning Perfons ivho lived to a great Age. will ask a Hundred and Eight or Nine Years. do not always tye themfelves up to the fame Rules of ncfs. Gellius ( which is plainly that under debate at prefent) was publiiTied in the Eighth Year of Domitian. and conftrained to withdraw to Nkopolis^ in the Qi^iality of a Philofopher concerned can hardly allow him this Chain the Ediol. .I C . not publifhed till the Fifteenth of Domitian > but. ad joviji. befides that he (lands fingle in this Point. that I find my felf llill in fome fufpenfe. and is not ilrengthened by the Teilimony of any other Chronologer or Hiilorian.

befides that Suidas is not always in the right 5 we have an Inilance in the Perfon before us. my felf. A C R O- . the Difficulties on both fides of the Queftion arefuch. For. this Relation o^ Suidas. that I will not take upon me to determine either way > but Ihall fatifie . fincethat Life written by Arrim hath been loil. I confefs. that this Veneration . becaufe it is the firil: attempt of the kind that I know of. in the calcuBut whenever he died. with a more than ordinary Refpeft. And this we plainly find done. Upon the whole Matter. may be prefumed to have miftaken. certain his lofs was much lamented by all the Men of Note then alive i and his Memory will be valuable and glorious. this. with thus laying before my Reader what may be faid for. in the Books he hath left us. inclines rather to Salmafius^ and I am apt to think Epidictus was dead. for exprefs an Honour : Epiiletus in the time of Jldrian^ and Antoninus Pius^ and before he came to be Emperour himftlf Or lailly. And thus I have given the Reader what fcattered Remains I could gather up concerning him 5 which I hope will be the more kindly received . 'tis lation of his Age too. before Marcus Aurelius began to Reign. And yet. I mean. OF.xxxiv rianj The Or elfe LIFE th-ar. in which he affirms Epitietus himfelf to have been a great Writer of Books. where he is manifeilly in the Wrong} That. &c. was paid to his Charafter and Memory after the Perfon wasdead. where Epiclctus is mentioned upon feveral occafions. if I may be admitted to interpofe my own private Opinion. among all fucceeding Ages of the World. and again il. who hath miftaken in this Point. And he. Marcus Jurelius m\ghi ^ by faying.

from Nero. : N. I i^ i7 5-8 Eighi Months from 0• dober iph. 3 Nero. 806 807 808 8op 810 811 Tears of Chriil. l'^ 8i5 817 818 - 64 ^r 66 <^7 9 II 68 ^3 Tearf . The vulgar Tears of Chrift are two lefi this Account begins 54. and B. Tears Tears of Rome.CHRONOLOGICAL TAB LE For making a probable Conjedureof the according time when EpiBeius died to the foregoing Account. than thefe. fP 4 6 7 8 Epaphroditus» 60 61 812 l'^ 814 6z ^l Epihetus.

for ba- p8 PP 100 lOI niihing Philofophers. 824 ^^ 825 827 828 849 820 831 74 7r 7<i Cap. P4 i'f i)6 Hr 846 847 848 8.« Rome. 7^ 73 ^5 17 18 IP Helvidius. 8. . 83(5 ^37 838 83P 840 842 843 844 87 88 8p po pi 3i 33 ?4 3 3<^ P2 93 37 38 3^ Philofophers banifheci. 20 21 77 78 ^^ 80 8r 22 ^3 25- J//. I. Epift. Arr. C. 821 822 Fl. 2. Vefpaftan. Fefpaftan. Plin. if. Lib. "Nero. 44 4 8ri 4(5 /- 2>^r/ .yiClironological Table. 10. L.0 Cliiift. 69 70 71 14 If 1(5 Gii/^^5 O/^o. . I. Euphrates Philofoph vidi Arrian. 8ip 82. I'rajan.49 8j-o 40 41 i>7 42 43 Second Decree Nerva. VitelUus. IV. HI. 832 833 834 82 8? 3 841 84 8r 8(5 25 ^7 28 19 30 31 Domittan. Tears ' Tears of Tears of /?"o.

Tears of Chrift. Tacitus.. 106 107 108 109 IIO III fi f3 r4 S". 73 Favorinns and Polemo. Charon. from Nero. 74 7r 7<i M^ 133 M4 77 78 7P Aulus Gsllius. 102. Fa- ^r 66 ^7 6S 69 70 71 7i mous about this time» 122 1^3 124 I if 126 127 128 I2P 130 131 Euphrates'^ Deaths Arrian. s^ fS IIZ 7 fP 60 61 iM 114 I If 116 117 118 IIP 120 121 6z <^3 <i4 ji4drian. Pliny the Younger.A Chronological TABLE. Tears . 103 104 105- 47 48 4P fo fi Corn. Plutarch.

165 EPIC' .A Chronological TABLE. to whom jirrian was Preceptor. 88f 886 887 888 8po 891 80 81 81 158 MP 140 141 ^^ 84 Sf 8(5 Antoninus Pius. P04 pof po6 907 po8 pop pio pll ii4 Iff if<5 PP 100 lOI if8 ifP 160 161 i6z 101 105 104 ICf io5 107 108 pil 915 Mareus Aurellus. 8P4 Spf 8p(5 8P7 8p8 %99 poo poi pi i>3 poi 903 P4 9S 96 97 p8 Epi£ietush Death. died at the beginning of Commodus's Reign. 8pz 8p3 14^ 144 146 147 148 149 IfO 87 88 8p po pi Lucian wrote before and about this time .

] So Satma/tm pioves it ouglit to bctcad. thus much Arrian himfelf declares^ in his Epiftle Dedicatory to ^ Mejfalinus \ to whom he addrefied this Book. the Reader be curious to find it know Ep'i'i^etus's written by Arrian . prefixed to this Edition. fo fat as occurs atpiefcnttb the Memory and Obfervation of thcTranllacor. and not Muf^Hienut. but othcrs who have given an account of Epitletm. The fame Arrian coxnpo^ta this very Book too. and inoft likely to afFeft Mens Minds. of fuch Remarks and Rules. •• Mejfalinui. not only in ^rrM». and an exceeding Admirer of Epiiletus. Life and Death being a ColleiSion out of EpiSietus's Difcourfes. as being both a particular Friend of his. which goes by the Nameof Enchiridion^ IF he may at large in an Account of his Charaiier. as he thought moil feafonable and ne^ ceflary. and delivered • The Reader will find all that is material. » who alfo compiled J the Difcoiirfes of EpiBe'tus^ and digefted them into feveral diftinft Trads. WITH SIMPLICIUS HIS COMMENTARY. (Though the fame Things indeed. X 10 .« { « - ICTETUS HIS ENCHIRIDION. Sec his Note on the Place.

This ii plain in the Gwe/ict and Valminian H«<efic$ paiticularly. which fuppofed Men (like Metals) te • ani beieiined from their Drofs and their paft Offences to be puniflied. and confounding Troubles. yet all in fome degree: and it is to be hoped. and from whence the Metaphor feems to be taken) is to a Soldier. but the Stupid and Sotiifh muft needs be aiFeiled with them Andj tho' not at all equally. and can only be made wifer by the c Fiery Difcipline of the Next. To fet our Souls as Free. were either the Remains. as its Inftrumentof Operation. lie fcattered up and down in thofe Writings of Arrian. It is cdXita^n Enchiridion. and awakened into fefious Thoughts and Endeavours of Reformation. confidered as a Rational Soul. by fevcral forts of Tortures after Death.Epictetus's Morals in almoft the fanie Expreffions. to difengage them from all thofe ilavilh Fears. The Inftrudionshe gives. which are wont to fubdue and tyrannize over them. he allows all thofe innocent Pleafures. making ufe of the Body. and fuch as are neceiTary to keep up aSuccefllon of Mankind in the World. and other Corruptions of Human Nature. becaufe allPerfons. ihould be perfeft in Book of as this Book.] This Expreifion proceeds upon an on of the Pjthagoraans and Flatonifis. In ihort. without any Impreflion or Concern at all . is loft to all the Methods of Amendment in this World . are built upon Human Nature : and on the Foundation of them all is Man. or Manual. The Difcourfes are lively and moving. . but thefe to be in the Nature of Corxeolions. : A 'The Fiery Difcipline of the Next. From them the Dofirine of Purgatoiy feems to have been derived j and indeed many other Erroneous Opinions among Chriftians. who are defirous to live as they ought. The Man. that can read thefe Reflexions. and would reduce what they read into Pradice) is. they \Vill be fo aiFefied. and have it always ready at hand: conftant and neceiTary ufe. or the Improvement. of fome fond Conceits and odd Expreffions among the eld Fhilofophets. as the Sword ( which commonly went by this Name . which are called Epioletus^s Difcourfes. as well as Funilhments. as to be made fenfible of their own Failings. and Infirmities . Upon this Account. which Nature requires. as when their Great Father and Creator firft gave them to us .) The principal Defign of this Book ( if Men would but fufFer themfelves to be wrought upon by it. and All.

ihould not have a diftinft Nature of its own . when we come to confider And thefe Obfervations and them Maxims. that that Being. Now. as the Condition of the prefent Life makes defirable tons: But then it is conftantly with this Referve. which ferves itfelf of the Body. That they render all.with SiMPLicius's Comment. which is accommodated to a Rational Soul. and the Enjoyment of that Good. who govern themfelves by them. after thefe are loffanddeftroyed . is. there is fome fort of Method and Connexion. yet he that lives according to thefe Diredions. which can anyway conduce to our True Happinefs. and do not content themfelves. with turning Men over to a long Payment. becaufe he attains to the PerfeSion of his Nature. as for fuch as are wholly inconfiftent with that True Happinefs. and a mutual Relation almoft all through. truly happy at prefent. and can ask nothing farther. and Moderation. So that w^e may take the Advantage of all the World calls good. it muft needs have a Perfedtion of its own too. of which the Nature of a Body is capable. which the Pythagoreans call their Memorandums or Moral InflHutions: Though among thefe indeed. a Nature that continues entire. provided it be done with due Temper. which is confeifedly mortal. Not but that there moft certainly (hall be fuch a State. One very remarkable Excellency thefe Writings have. when it attains to all that Vigor and Perfedion. the Enjoyment of fuch other Things. and of its Appetites and Affedions. or any of its fenfual Inclinations but be conftantly raifing itfelf up above thefe. by diftant Promifes of their Virtues being rewarded in a future State. they be put into . And thus the Body of a Man. fo as not to be enilavedto the Body. we are abfolutely forbidden the having any thing at all to do with them. But. though we ihould fuppofe the Soul to be mortal. hereafter . and afpiring to the Enjoyment of its own proper Happinefs. enjoys its own proper Happinefs. The Difcourfes themfelves are ihort and fententious much after the manner of thofe Precepts. 3 and fo he does likewife. will be fure to find his Account in them. for he cannot fail of being a truly happy Man. : . and that It and the Body periih both together. as will appear . and fuch Rewards For it is impoiiible. that the Reafoning Faculty preferveits own Liberty. though 3 particularly. peculiar and agreeable to its Eflence and Nature. andconfequently. as fo many Inflruments to aS by.

and carried to a clofer and deeper Confidcration of the Truths contained in them . And fif ft. who by this means will be more fenfibly affected. and exert all its Powers in iuch Operations. they are capable of cultivating. are all yet upon one Subjed. nor the Body and Soul For both. viz. What fort of Perfons thefe Inftrudions were deiigned for. that it may maintain its own Dignity. who hath abfolutely purged away all for he (fo far as this mortal iche Dregs of Human Nature State will admit of fuch Perfe£tion) makes it hisBufinefs tp dived himfelf of FleOi and Senfe. That uf amending the Life of They are all direSed to one and the fame End .iiake Either a part of the thefe two. mull fake care to preferve his Soul. He good that would anfwer that Charader iri and Prerogative of a Nature. he that fuppofes the Man. perhaps.Epictetus's Morals intodiftjnd Chapters. hath no more Pretenhons to Reafon than a Brute. by which God hath diiiinguiihed him from Beads. For fuch a exalted even above the rational Lite. in the Men that iubmit to be direded by them. Much lefs can they fujt the Circumftances of a fpeculative Virtue . as equally conftituent parts of Humane Nature. contrived for the Ufe is Perfon is of the Soul : Men. hath a Vulgar Notion of Ihings. who lead their Lives according to the Didates of Reafon. to an inferiour Rank. as are agreeable to uncorrupt Nature. nor Other. fo as to ufe earneft. as Nature requires h Ihould {je^ in a State of Superiority ever the Body . andaifert the Dignity 6 and . not being very converfant in fuch kind of Writings. as for the Readers Benefit. andis entirely taken ?ip with the Improvement of his own mind. t»ut yet it may not be amifs. they are not proper for the Man of confummate Virtue. who do not confound . and What Virtues efpecially. and attains to a fort of God like Contemplation. a little to explain and enlarge upon them and that. and fcarce delerves the Name of Man. and all the Appetites and PafHonsthat attend and ferve the Body . is deprcft and funk down into Matter . it is plain. ftridly fpeaking. and belong to the fame Science . and look upon the Body as an Inllrumentpf Adiion. Ma». TheExpreiTionsare perfpicuous $nd eafy. which rouze anc} invigorate the Reafonable Soul . the firii Thing to be cleared upon this Occafion is. To : Now : which a Degree ftill higher than the former. is. who. will be led into a more perfeiSt Underftanding of them. by thefe Explanatiqns. as well for the Writers own f^ke. to confill as much of Body as Soul. They are adapted then more peculiarly.

he concludes. and Trades. only whilft I prefent him with fo neceifary an Introdudion to them. as fore. hath the Governmeat 4 . would not have the Reader take it ill. that it is the Man. which the following Difcourfes are intended to excite Men to. confirms itfelf in Habits. thus framed by Nature. which employs the Body as an Indrument. 5- and manage it. by exerting its Power=. for a Fundamental Truth. and the Pra£lice of fuch things as are agreeable to Nature. fo the Soul too. between Him and his beloved Alcibia^ which des. Socrates hath undertaken to demonftrate. isditferent from that which employs it. confidered as an Inftrument. This is the Ground Epioletus goes upon . But the Method. and then he makes it his Buiinefs to excite all his Scholars to get a perfed Knowledge. direSs his Scholars. is this. that the Thing ufed. as I we may. as its In^ For EpiStetns fets before us the Opefirument of Adton. is the proper Obje6t of thofe Moral and Political Virtues. and all maOuer of Operations. /^ and (trengthens 1 its own natural Conftitution. For as the Body gathers Strength by Exercife. proceeding upon this Foundation. and tells us. That which employs the Body. in the Exercife of Arts. in that Dialogue gives us. viz. faid. From hence again he draws this farther Infcsence: viz. and by frequently repeating fuch Motions as are natural to it . of them: That by fuch daily Stroke to Naour Condition is capable of being. fufficiently plain. That the Real E£e»ce of the Man is his RatioKal Soul^ which makes ufe of the Body. and heufes his Hand too: Then. to be detained a little longer from the following Difcourfes. wholly at its Government and Difpofal. He makes ufe of clear and familiar Examples. which he does not at all attempt to prove. what fort of PraQices and Converfation are proper to make a Man. That the Real ElTence of a Man is his Rational Soul. And Epideius. as the explaining a little this Notion. in which Socrates proceeds. and nothing elfe. rations.I with S LIc I s's Commenr. which JE^/ii/e/^j all along takes for a granted Truth. and acknowledged beExercife ture. but takes it. inferring from hence. and becoming his Charader. peculiar to fuch a Perfon. as I faid. That a Man in Cutting (for inftance) ufes his Knife. give the finiihing and be as perfeft. And fuch a Perfon as this. that employs this Body. Now in truth it is the Rational Soul. perfeol. and to employ themfelves in theconitant Pradlice. not as a part of the fame common Nature> but as an Initrumenr.

Either the Soul alone. or any External Advantages of that kind. what a Tool is to the Artificer: And confequently.) then it follows. the Workman is the Principle of Motion.Epictetus's vernment and Difpofal of what his Morals Man it fo employs. So then. hepurfues a very foreign For he neiInterefl. It is evident again. but all terminates in thofe things. then it is plain. that the Soul. Much more extravagant and abfurd is it then. is truly and properly the Man. but what they derive from him. one much more diftant than the former ther makes theMan. (as we fee in Handycraft Trades. and the Body itfelf he forms Argument Now : have no part of that Government. then it is evident. or Both together. becaufe. And then into this DisjunQive Syllogifm. and the Body cannot command nor difpofe of itfelf. which animates and moves it. (properly fpeaking) but only that of his Inftrument. if the Man have the command of the Body. mufl: confultthe advantage and improvement of the Soul. : : BfiBeti . nor the Man's Inftrument. in ftiort. But. the ObjeS of his Care. if the Body in its own Nature be void of all Life and Motion. in fo doing. that the Body is to the Soul. to lay himfelf out upon Riches. which mak§ for the Convenience of this Inftrument only. does not (it feems) advance himfelf. and his own Good. and purine the Huppinefs peculiar to this for he that beftows his pains upon the Body. Whoever would make the Man his Care. this prerogative does not extend to Soul and Body both. that the Body alone cannot be theMan. and the Tools have none. that Body and Soul together cannot be the Man. being the Original of all Operation. and if it be the Soul. muft needs be the Man. and therefore Both cannot be the Man. for the very fame reafon For if the have the Government of the Body. or the Body alone.

all our Anions of every kind are in our own Power. who have chofen this Exprefliou for it in that Paffage which leems very pertinent and direiling to this purpoie. But I muft own.with SiMPLicius's Comment. Gat. Motions and Operations of the Soul . within our own Power Of the Former fort are our Opinions and Notions of Things j ^Our AfFedions. 4'^. any our own difpofal and Choice thing is a Man's own. which yet 1 donotfo nicely confine my felf to in this Tranilation* as not to render it by Paraphiaiein fomc Places. we out and which depend purely upon as we commonly fay. . Lib. fo as that it fi-iould fall within the compafsof a Second Perfon. vS ticular . XVI. very much prevailed with me. The ObjeSi of our Choice. EpiBeti Enchiridion. are entirely our own. are the parcalls thofe HE Things ifi felves are Mailers of. for inftance. in his EngUpj Tranflation of ^momnu!. ^jfedus. 'i'V^H. our Defires. . this of <Ajfe[Hon. things whatfoever may be divided into two thofe that are. for theGreeI> i^uzi . and within us. and our own Choice. to grant or deny it. or any fuchare the way hinder him in the Enjoyment of it. 111. And in ihort. yet I queftion wherher any Englifli Word will fully exptefs it : If any. ^^tSiens. LL Sorts'. but x\tAd of it. 'tis confeft. : I. it is not poffible for any thing without us to determine our Choice. }®' iMi&xVeif. and of Meric Cafaub. which though the Latin Impetus may do right to. for indeed. and our Averfions. and owing folely to our own Judgment. Now ^^jfei'. Such.. and the Motions toward it. 6e(}.rom] This is the moft convenient Rendring I could think of. vjhich. to permit or debar. our oivn power. i'ofy. what to CKprefs it by generally. . They are born and bred within us.''> {. CHAP. is very often fomething without us . and thofe that are not. which he is not beholden to anybody elfefor. that in the midft of my Doubts. COMMENT.<£la. the Authority of our Learned Gataker in his Latin. Cataub.

bur fuch a one. that of all thefe. and. and reprefented the Affedions. the Firft in order of Nature mull be Opinion. within us. which moves ourAffeiSion. The Cafe is the lame with ourDefires. between the Internal Motion of the Mind. but the Aftedion itfelf is excited. though we are often induced to take up this or that particular Opinion upon Truft. as that Riches. but not infufed fo Mechanically. For at this rate. Good. or running away. forcibly and againit their Wills . of fuch abfolute efficacy. to what we hear orher People fay of it . then it prefently excites either Defire or Averfion . 'tis true. Of their Perfuilion. which are but a kind of turning aiide. it is fuff?ienily matiifcft. and of our own Accord. as if they were antecedent to Defue and Averfion . we (hould make our felves as fenflefs Creatures as Parrots. or the like. know not what they fay. and vporihy the Charader of a Man. fometirnes by things without us. by which I underiland fuch a Knowledge or Judgment of things. yet is not their Authority. occalion'd. and from the Credit we give. as the beginnings and immediate . the proper Affections or Motions of the Soul. or Evil. purfuant to cither of thefe. and the External Motive or Inducement to it. or Indifferent. are things in their own Nature. as when we move our own Bodies. When this Opinion relates to any real or feeming Good or Evil. the Opinion muft be our own A£l and D. by our own Strength. as is grounded upon Reafon. The Objeft. as that the Opinion ihould not llill be our own. is without Us. or move towards it and the Evil muil Now .8 tiGular Epi cTETus's Opinions Morals we make we entertain. For the Good muft needs be delired. And. and arifes. and fo likewife with our Averiions too. thus coniidcring theie Affedious. If we be allowed then to think at all. Though indeed the be difapproved. Stoicks have advanced a contrary Method. to Zr void thfObjeol that provokes them. or Death. Thus again. which we apprehend oui felves to be conccrn'd in.) put her felt forward. who when they call for a Cup of Sack. This Motion is not like that of Men thiuli forward by another. and the Judgments Things. and recommended and conveyed to us by the Inftrutlions and Arguments of others. before (he flee from it. by which the Soul is carried to or from its Ohjfd. by which the Soul does (as it wer<. and go inpurfuitof the thing ddircd .-ed. before the Soul be affected wiih it. as that we Ihould be purely pafllve io ot the cafe. For there is a great difference obfervable.

Now whatever mod fimple Being. But howjhe cafe be fomewhat intricate and perplexed. to fiiew. in which ^11 Deiire? centre. and lofes much of its native liberty and power. and Not only fo. how much we have in our own power . this Good forms and produces all things out of itsow» fqlnefs. but fo many Names God. when fubdued by the Body. that all the Happinefs and Mifery of a Man's Life depends upon the ufc or theabufe of this Liberty. But after all. though They are begun too.• that ipult needs be both the Caufe. Thus One Good Beins^ produces many Good Beings. (as it were) and exprefs Images of it. that they feem to row from So the particular Complexions and Conilitutions of Men. both the moft excellent. fo clofely and manifeftly interwoven with the Blood and Animal Spirits. and Beginning. from within. for and this is Good. nor under the abiblute maftery of the Perfons thus deiiring. in order to a more exaot underitanding of the whole Matter. and cannot he perltQiy at their own difpofal. andibelait and loweil rank of Beings. nal Principle of its own. bear the clofeft affinity to itfelf. and examine the whole matter particularly. 9 mediate Caufes of thofe Defires and Averfions in the S< ul.with Simp LI c lys's Comment. drawn and managed at pleafure. The Source and Original of all things is Good. as alfo. it is very eafie to difcern. and the brutiih impulfes of Senfe. and to which all things naturally tend. and what ObjeSs it extends to . tho' in the former inftance of a diforderly Mind. the Brutiih Inclinations. ever. are fo much of a piece with the Body. both what this Liberty and Power is. does in a great degree degenerate into Machine^ is violently agitated. Rational Soul itfelf. it maintains an abfolute freedom. produces many other fimple Beings like it felf. thi^ feveral Principle. are of a piece with it. the middle fort. One Principle produces many Now Principles: And this One. but the proceed Originally. I will trace the thing up to its firft Caufe. The Firil and moil excellent. and the caufe of all things. One fimple and uncompounded Being. But when it afts in agreement with Nature and Reafbn. Independent and Supreme. that thefemuftof neceffity derive their Motion from an External Caufe in great meafure. and the End and Gonfummate PerfeSion of all. fuch particularly as Anger and Senfual Appetite. and moves only by an InterIn a Mind thus regularly difpofcd. who before all things. muft of neceffity be the Purert and For all compounded Things and Numbers . ^fr'i•. firif. are is this iimple Being. For indeed.

muft needs have a tendency to. more properly their own. and taking that Agreement in fuch Proportions. and all Truths. and are contained in the firft and univerfal hended under it. The cafe is the fame with all manner of Congruities. and better than. Allowing only for fome Abatements. For the fame Relation. as the capacity of thefe derived and fecondary Gaufes will admit. and all Principles. and inferior to them in Dignity. and partaking of the Property peculiar to it. by their and are of the fame Nature with that primary Goodnefs. So that the Firft Principle. themfelves. . Thus ther. or what Objeitfoever it belong to. and terminate in. and multiplied into feveral Species. from whence one and the fame Form is refleded down. in order of Nature.ion of all things from itfelf. are yet each of them reduciAll things ble to One Principle. Thus an Unite one : . as fomething above. and Individuals. nofuchRefemblanceto And hence it is. in this vaft Variety of Beings. mon ings. For every Species. upon all the particular Kinds and Creatures compreis the Foundation of all Numbers. the fame does each of thefe Subordinate Principles bear to the feverai Species. in the Produ6i. Principle produces many Principles. for thefe. do exaftly agree. Beings. fo far forth as they are Principles and Originals toother things. which are diftinguiflied from one anoown peculiar Differences. and firft principle of all . and in giving to thofe that refemble . according to the particular Forms and Circumftances in which they differ. and Original Caufe. which is diftinguifhed from the reft by a peculiar difference of its own. its own Perfedtions.Epic us*s Morals bers are after the Simple and Unites. that One commany Simple be- many GoodneiTes. immediately from all itfelf. Beautiful and Lovely (for inftance) of what kind foeverthat Lovelinefsand Beauty be. and its Exuberance is feen. and Things not Good. whether Bodies or Souls. and a fingleCaufeis the Original of all Properties. muft have received its Being from fomething elfe. are yet derived from one common Source of Beauty and Gracefulnefs. contained under it. So that all partial and fubordinate Caufes do really fubfift. And all Compounds. do defire the Good. its proper Principle. and original Truth. which that firit XJniverfal Principle bears to all Beings in general. muft have the Excellence of which all Abfolute and Infinite Power confifts. And whatever is not felf-exiftent . anditsown fulnefs. the Precedence before others that bear it.

but are themfelves naturally and and this. but eflentially Whole. Simp Lie I s's Comment. . or Gracefulnefs. For this indeed is itfelf All. as being in their own Nature. Good owing their to fomething without fo likewife them too. as Generals in a Singular. above and before All . are of the fame Kind and Nature with itfelf. but even of all other Principles too. and what Defcent from themfelves are purely paffive in . lofe that Perfe6lion of being Eifentially Good. and ly. and from Many. is all their And. n not locally or numerically. virtually as the Parts in the Now eiientially Good and Happy. rooted and confirmed in the fame Happinefs . inferior to that fixed immutable nature which is always coniiftenc with itfelf. . Nor is this Principle a limited or particular one (as for inftance. but muft center at laft in an Unite. becaufe they have no difcerning or governing Faculty they arefubjei^ to perpetual change anddiviiion. but fimply anduniverfally a Principle or Caufe . they ftand in need of no additional Good from abroad. . or produce themfelves entire at once. or Good•' nefs. like that front whence they fpring. a fort of Beings. fo as to be all in all. not only of Spe* For cies and Beings. is plain. and who derive themfelves from that Firft and thefe Secondary Caufes in Conjundion. and in One Common Good many Goodnefles fubfift and dwell. a principle of Beauty. and out of One Principle many Principles grow. not in the fame manner with Bodies. Yet ftill. Nor have they any power of moving themfelves. or Truth) as each of the refl are . void of Spirit and Life. But the laftand lowed fort. are fixed and unchangeable. and as Numbers in an Unite. and yet fuperior to the Loweil and Mechanical fort. They retain their Native Goodnefs. thefirftand immediate Produflions of this firfl: Ori^ ginal Good. whofe one original Good is more remote. that Now all other Beings. and. that Exiflence is from without. the Property of a Principle cannot take its Rife from Particulars. (as Bodies for Example) As their Ex* iftence and Motion. a Principle. and confequent•» ly cannot be prefent to themfelves in every part. and enjoy what they have by participation on* Fixed indeed they are in God's EiTential Goodnefs. there is a middle ftate between thefe Extremes. is fomething from without.with one and . and that One is the great Original of All) the firft Beginning and Caufe of Caufes. Motion and And thefe are moved. which have no power of aSing or moving themfelves. therefore he continually communicates it to them.

they can fcarce be allowed to have any. by a Motidn imprefled upon them frorti fomething clfe. But the Souls of Men are fo contrived. and Affections and Choice. unleft you will call it fo. For if it received its own motion from fomething without. into one Perfon. and to the Body. but by one internal and purely theirs. and enjoys its Good by participation onlv. but when they lofe this power. muft be capable of indining to both fides. this motioii of the Body could not. this free Being is beneath the fix'd and unchangeable Goodnefs. For Inclinations. Animate . Yet this is done by no Foreign Force. the Firft and Beft. not only of a£i:ing as they pleafc themfelves. of thefe. becaufe they employ themfelves wholly upon purfuing mean ends. Now its own Inclinations and Dellres. both to itfelf. For which ireafon. are Motions proper to Souls. and confequently. and never perverted to the worfe. and thofe that have non€. all is inverted and out of courfe. with any propriety of Speech. Inanimate Bodies. and Delires. but only are delirous of Good) do bear fo near a Relation to them. and afterV/ards put the Body into motion. as to link together. of foaring upwards. So then the Soul gives motion. being the immediate produftion f things EiTentially and in their own naturegood. their Defires and their Determinations are uniform.1 c s's Morals Bodies. their Choice is ever uniform and confiftent. andfo is carried towards it . which nrft moved the Soul. When they make the Former their conftant Care. that they are not fo themfelves. determined to the good part. and for governing thofe things. fet into motion by a Principle frorti within. And if by Choice we mean the preferring of one thing before another. Maftersof their own Motion. wecall all Bodies. an Heavenly and an Earthly Nature. but \^hat proceeds from fbmethinej without. downwards. but of pulling other things into . and free. be imputed to the Soul. but would be whoUyowing to That. becaufe thty ever take the chiefeft and moil perfedt Good. (though with this abatement. or of finking Now . and of That of the Body to which they are united. that they defire it with a natural and unchangeable Affedion . . but by its own Spontaneous A 61. and entirely their own. and only affeol low Adions: Notwithftanding Nature hath qualified them for the animating and moving of Bodies inanimato and purely paiTive. and hath given them a power. and above Contradidion . And in this capacity are Souls. which are incapable of procuring or partaking of any Good by their own Ad .

and addi6led herfelf too much to Temporal and Corruptible things. fure . *tis diindeed to Objefts eligible and good . that afflided him before. you fliall find. always attended witri true Pleawherever the Soul di'fcovcrs the leaft ihadowof this. the Meat. without flaying to whether it be r. than while the Pa with it. and make Pleafure the only End and Bufinefs of their Lives. or Dry. Now when the Soul hath converfed loo familiarly with. foon becomes our loathing and averfion. pleafure in eating. So long as we are Hungry. depend upon this /recdom of Will. her choice tended with re£led ftill is no longer above Cohtradidion. or the like. which. never recollecting that it is necefiarily attended with many Troubles and great UneafineiTcs. upon the account of lome PleaAnd becaufe this is moft fure attending it. which otherwife are not capable thing. prevails upon us. bur many Struggles and ftrong Oppofitions . and fometimes a treacherous and deceitful one. nor would Drinking give a Man any. but when once the Sen fe of thofe Pains ceafes. the Choice of true fubftantial Good is the Foundation of ail our Virtue. or whether it be falfe. and is itfelf a certain. and ever mingled with it: So that if you fuppofc any Pleafure in Di inking. and would not be Pleaiure without For he that takes thefe to introduce and recommend it to us.with intoA£lion of any fuch SiMPLicius's Commen^ 13 at pleafuretoo. fuch as have but a periihing and tranfitory Good in at- them. generally undergo a great deal of trouble and uneafincis along with it. are agreeable to us.fure. and have too much of them. is. continues for the Pleafure lafts no longer. that allay thefe uneafineiTes. jpain to us. hence it is. . Lives. buf then this is fometimes a real Good. For when the WiU is diiir*- . and Power of Choice in us. and Fire. (he catches at it greedily. who (utfer themfelves to be carried away into inordinate and extravagant Enjoymmis. and only carries a counterfeit faceot Good . And what before gave (atibtafiion and relief. the Happinefs and Mifery of them. are the conftant Attendants of Ple. but tor the Thus unealinefs and Pain Thirit. Thus alfo the Men.:al and confider of what kind the Pleafureis agreeable to that Good which is truly lo. or Cold. would have none if he had not iirfl been Hungry . that it comes from fome remains oi Thirft. Now tbe choice of this pleafant treacherous Good is the caufe of all our Faults . that true Good that. we quickly grow weary. as on the contrary. and Drink. And indeed all the Good and Evil of our whol.

For thefe are not abfolutely oursj but are fpecified and diftinguiflied . By all this it appears . confidered ftridly in it felf. but alfo. that Epiaietus took the right Method. but upon the Intention. becaufe it is the Effedof our own Choice. and propofes their Enjoyments to it felf as its own Happinefs. and all the Diihonefty of our Adions j all the Happinefs . lince all the Excellen- cy. great affinity to aWord that fignifies * Eligible^ not * only becaufe Virtue is properly the Objed. when done in a juit Caufe. and not from any violent Impulfes from without us. ^c. and not according to the quality of our Adions themfclves. according to this. then it is And for this dire6ted to Objeds truly Eligible and Good. : Qualities accordingly. arifingfrom within. as a thing abfolutely in our own power . For the Opinions and AfFedions of the Soul. or Evil. or in a legal way. .14 difingaged. are but fo many Steps towards Choice. of which our very EiTence and Nature coniiils . The or evil adion of Killing is always the fame. This is the very Reafon. noi: in our own power Nay. it is not only excufed. and which give them their moral ilers . the Freedom and Power which we have in them.* A '%. its Inclinations and Averfions. but applauded and highly commendable. become formally good by our own Will . make our own Freedom and Choice the Standard to riieafure our Adions by. and all terminate in that at lail and thefe are properly the motions of theMind. and they pronounce of our Vices and our Virtues. But when the Will ads in compliance with the brutiih Appetites and Inclinations. Virtue. of our Adions does not depend upon the Adions themfelves. and its determinations are properly the ads of that Rational Soul. it is excufed and pardoned. when he began his Inftrudions with this confideration of things within our own power . So that we our felves are Ma: of all thefe things. So that the formal Good. reafon. So that all this Freedom and Choice is in our own difpofal. and advifed us to make it the general rule of our Condud . Epictetus's Morals when it proceeds from a free principle. the Choice. ^?»!. then it makes an ill Choice.and fixes upon counterfeit Good inftead of true. but when this adion is involuntary. why the Laws of God and MaUj ^nd the Judgment of all Wife Men . and our own Choice. becaufe infuch cafes it is not properly ours. which is its proper Happinefs and PerfeName which hath dion is called in Greek. They look upon the Intention. .

both thofe that are contained in the World. that a£l mechanically. no one Motion. Appetites. that all our Adions. But. and the Place which our Choice and Free. when he fays in general Terms. and without any Purpofe. And this Proportion. For at that rate. bs fo underltood. who would rob us of this Liberty and Power. but only fuch as are within us. I fay. proceed from Neceflity . upon our natural Power. yet perhaps it may not be amifs. Now. or any way concern us. in which it will not. which ought to be obferved. mav prove impoiSble to fome Good. there oppofite would be no proportion at all betwixt the Parts. and to refute them particularly. even when limited in the moft cautious manner that can be. fince the avoiding that Evil is lor the : attaining for the Advantage we may find from it. That all things may be diflingu'ijjed into two forts ^ fome that are ^ and fame that are not in our own power \ we muft not fo underftand him. that are within our own power. there are very many inftances. and will allow us to have nothing at all in our Two power: And among thefe. and thofe that are above. by chance. it is by no means true . would be quite loit. and by pure chance.Will hath. and not from Choice . as if all things whatfoever were meant by it. and out of the World . and in efcaping ' F bs . that what we defire. all Natures and Beings. and make every Adion in fome de^'ree fubfervient. But now. depends upon it. and is neceffary to make a juft: Diviiion. they intend to fayj that we propofe to our felves no end at all in what we do. nay. or if it would hold in fome cafes. or at leaft Even where the Objed is Evil . without purpofe. this fome feeming Good Obfervation" holds. i$* nefs and all the Mifery of our Lives.with SiMPLicius*s Comment. and Others make us like Stones put into motion. and PalTions. and the Neceflity that fo it niufl be^ might fuffice. if all things whatfoever. were fet in oppofition to the few in comparifon. And it may be faid in general . in regard feme People quarrel with this Diftinc-^ tion. of any Living Creature in the whole World. That there is no one Ad. Some aifert. if by this mechanical and forced fort of AQion. have conftantly fome particular aim and end fixed to them . to confider the Objeolions of thofe Men . but is performed out of a profped of fome real . to which they dired their Endeavours perpetually. iho' what hath been faid already. and without any purpofe or defign at all . For all Arts and Sciences. But if this ading by Chance. yet it is evident.

Who Ad ftir . Some lay all upon the Nature of the thing it felf which is the Objeft of our Opinion. attained to the leafl knowledge in Arithmetick . becaufe ariling from the evidence of the thing alFented to . that our Errors and our Vices. and the impoflibility of its being otherivife? So again. as our greateft Virtues themfelves are. and not at our own Difpofal . that the Objed of our Delire. that this excites our Paflions. and generally fpeakiug. argue for their Opinion feveral ways. all our Choices and Intentions. which did him no good. or not. cannot. that a Man took a Medicine without any thought. and firmly believe. or perhaps. And for this reafon we affirm . For we all know . Thofe who pretend. deiires Meat. or Profitable. and contend.i6 be compaiTed ful . and Warmth. that hath ing to it. and the Final caufe. that our Opinions and Delires. or hurthave attained it . which turn to our Benefit when they are . or to no purpofe. by its own Power and Evidence. for inOance. For we maintain. or Thirft. or the direil contrary . or Defire. when a Man hath entercain'd a Notion of any Goodncfs or Excellence. (as we fay fometimes . are the Motives. that a Man in extremity of Hunger. Some of them make the Wants of Human Nature the Ground of this Neceffity. I c s's Morals or incapable of anfwering our end . and affeSs our Minds. and a Perfon upon a Sick Bed. the eifed of Freedom and Choice. which concern.Will. or Cold. not only things that may be attained. are as truly the eiFeds of this Liberty and Choice. and but thofe too. as proceeding from Motives without us. and not beginning of our own accord within us. and Drink. that twice Two make Fourl And which way fliall we call fuch an Opinion as this. and not rather of abfolute Conikaint. and which are prejudicial to us when we have them. whether he will or no. which when we . does he not forthwith naturally defire the one fort ^ and decline the other? For rhe befi Philofophers are agreed. which is ib abfolutely the effed of Conftraint and Neceflity . imposed by the JSiaiure and Quality of things without us. cannot help deliring Health and Eafe. or Averh'on . are neceiTary . ivhich fet all the reft on Work : and if this be true. when he apprehends a thing to be Lovely. that thofeDefires and Averfionsare in our Power. whether we are confentis there. did him harm:) Neither does this Senfe deftroy our Free. and does not readily allow. how fiiall we challenge that as our own and Deed.

liiie fo many Engines. will have falfe and miftaken Notions. themfelves. and Cuftom. that the Difpofition of the Perfon is deiigning the caufe of all this Neceffity . and fuch Converfation. to take up with an Error. this. and feel and lament the force which they cannot reiift . (fuch as by cultom are become familiar and natural to them) offer themfelves. if you do but fuppofe his Will to incline him that way too. might alfo be allowed to take up falfe Opinions. when Objeds which are agreeable to their Inclinations. who are angry at alter them. ' we fhould allow him to aiTent to Truth. By the fame reafon. and the Wife Man. condemn their own Dchies. they tell you. ftrongly determine him to. 17 our Affections accordingly. And yet. unlefs we fuppofe fome weaknefs or dcfed in the Organs which fliuuld apprehend and reprcfent them to us. whether he will delire thofe things or not. and Terrsper. Thus the Dethem both are fixed. cannot be: For it is with the Underiianding. Thus the Temperate Perfon finds in himfelf an habirual defire of fuch Adions. : F Thefe . an J it is not in their power to For fome we fee plainly. it is impoffible to have things apprehended otherwife than they reprcfent themfelves. without any Difpoial or Confent of ours? Others rather think. and fenlible Objeds. ytt find their Habits and Cuftoms fo violent and prevailing. and thtuit forward. if thefe things were entirely at ones own difpofal . Nor is it in ones own Choice. and enterall figns of Opinions of them and the Ignorant and Unlearned. a Skilful and Judicious Man will give a right Judgment of things. and wifh with all iheir Souls that they could reitrain and fubduethem. merely by Virtue of his own Free will.with ftir SiMPLicius's Comraenr. and the Objeds about which it is employed. according as it itands inclined. I mean. For it cannot agree with the Charader of a Wife Man . fay they. if he could heip it. to find out the Truth But it itands to great Reafon. muft needs be wrought upon. that the Ignorant one fhould aflent to a Falfhood. tain true . as are agreeable to the Virtue of Temperance. But this. nor with that of an Ignorant one. For the Ignorant Man would never prefer Falihood before Truth. and the Skilful and Learned (liould rejed \t.• as we find it v»'ith the Senfes of the Body. which his own Nature. and the Intemperate is no lefs fond of occaiions to exercife his Extravagance. this would not be. that they are hurried on.

and to be moved by that Senfe: from whence it is plain. becaufe their Nature is not capable of Defire: For. thefe Men could never lay true. inanimate Creatures. and the Choices of the things. would always create Defire. orMoifture. and finding^what Planet each Perfon is born under. Heat. (hall afterwards be difcovered on we by their Behaviour and Converfation. they produce the Predictions of Aftrologers. and the power of difpofing our Defires and our Averfions. determines us in the Opinions we fliall efpouie. Covetous. and thus declare before-hand the Inclinations and Defires. it is neceiTary. and puts it paft Men's Power to change or conquer them. is the Sum of all the Objediions. commonly urged againft that Liberty we profefs to aiTert. if there were not fome Conttellation. how abford is it to pretend to a power of regulating and determining our own Defires. I think. upon calculating Nativities. a Lover ot Learning and Wifdom . and yet they never what they fiand fo much in need of The Reafon is plain. theRefolutions we lake. which enforces thefe particular Inclinations and Appetites . both to have a Senfe of the thing defired. a Third. take upon them to pronounce very peremptorily. who. fhall make. not only all other but even our very Defires and Inclinations too. when we are abfolutely and irrevocably ftaked down to this or that particular Obj eft beforehand. which in the whole Courfe of their Lives. But this it does not do. And in confirmation of this Argument. and muft defire and purfue it. if this were true. as we fee fit ourfelves. And ii any luch Fatality there be. nor defcribe iuch Tempers and Practices fo exadly as they do. a Fatality in the upon one more Motion and Pofiti- Heavens. or Cold. whether we will or no ? This. a Second. which made our the Foundation of that pretended Neceffity and Con- we may reply. Wants ftraint in Anfwer to the Firft of thefe . and particularly.8 . that Want does not always infufe^ or indefire fer Defire. then Want . that. fome fatal over-ruling Influence. that fuch a one fhall be a voluptuous Perfon. or Drought. and the Adions we do. in order to Defiring. 1 I c s's Morals ufe of againft Free- Thefe will . Now. which influencing. and of fixing Now them upon what Objeds we pleafe. For there are many things. that are oftentimes in great want of fome Quality or other. are the Cavils that there is commonly made though indeed a great many Men infift and fanfy. But .

but what is Matter and Body belonging to it. For it is the Mind of Man. flie can fo far difpofe of her felf. And this con- the Si^port of Now flant Uniformity in their cafe. to fupply. when . that inclines it to the worft part. is troubled with no ditference or diftraolion of Delires. andaThird. and othersof a worfe and more vile. the Power and Liberty of the Soul confifts in this . For all defire is a Motion of the Soul defiring. But when itpurfues the Inclinations. the Hands apply themfelves to the Relief we want but yet this Itching does not give us the Hands we fcratch with : Nor is it truf. which invented them. fome of a better and more excellent kind. withoutDifficulty or Oppofition. which captivates the Will. hath no Wants. little or nothing. Thus (10 illuitrate the Thing by a tamiliar Inftance) Itching difpoies us to fcratch . whereas Nature hath made her capable of Defires of feveral •Qualities. and took Occafion froin thence to feek out this Relief. it. it complies and concurs with all the Bodily defires. and defires the Good peculiar to thefe Conditions. as to fix upon either the one or the other of thefe forts : Now F 3 Which . either of its own felf. that the Neceifities of Human Life have invented the Arts and Trades made ufe of for the Creatures. may be confidered in a threefold Capacity and Difpoiition . a Second. that. and a threefold Defire. and confequently. except thofe relating to the Body. being without. faw the Need there was of them. but Neceliity. makes us think them the Effed. in otder to the Relief of the Wants ttiey fee). but it is by no means infufed into the Soul from the Irrational Life of Brute Beails. thatbetter and more excellent part aboveit fo that here may be a threefold Converiation. and upon a Senie of the UneafintTs it gives us. in truth. a threefold Want.: with S But I L I c 1 s's Commenr. do then exert Define. not of Liberty. but one fort of Defires to exert. and lives agreeably to the Nature. the rational Soul of Man. One. being placed. then it exerts its Faculties freely. then. as I faid before. and exerted by the Soul. defiring. wholly corporeal . of neceffity. and hath brought theFreedom of it to be a Matter of fo much Controverfie. But now. and having. and confults the Brutifh Appetites and Wants of that part only . that is. when called out by any delirat)le Objtft. that regards its ownfelf. When it gives itfelf tamely up to the Body. theBodily and Brutiili . in a middle Station. or the excellent Beings above it . born and begiin within. And this is that fort of Defire. 19 which are endued with a Faculty of they teel themfelvcs in want.

if it have complied with thofe fnil Delires. though . . as the Perlons who urge it imagine. with another over-ruling one of Fading or Abftemioufnefs. happens. and by folloviTing the better they are exalted and confirmed . as fiie faw Caufe. as the greater Good. orfome other Sufte-. . nor draws him by violence to itfelf. receive it Jufi as the feniible Objed does not infuie the Faculty of Senfation into the Perfon who receives its Imprefilons. it exerted another oppolite Defire. affcdtd with them. that upon fuch Occafions every one muit be affeded with it. but by propofing itfelf. And hence we fee it often. . but only prefents itfelf to the Eye. The Objed of Defire neceffarily excires the Soul to a Defire of it. which Nature hath qualified to meet. in fuch Proportions as are proper for uniting : with that Organ ofSenfe. v/hich tells us.Epictetus's Which Morals yet is done w\:h this Difference. muli be acknowledg'd to have a great deal of Truth in it. For. might upon this Account very julUy endued with Reafon fay. or perhaps. Now I think no body can fay. as had fo pleafed indeed we find the Generality of People do upon thefe Ocbut you fee. for the Choice of thefe is indeed truly and properly Choice. as thinking it better upon its own Account. and this too taken up poffibly upon fome Religious Account. but the Mind. that ihe had it in her Power to qualifie her Defires. becaufe . a'^e. whereas. Thus it mud needs be. that. which was ordained by Nature. and if the Motion of tlie Mind were neceilarily imprefiTed by it it muft needs follow. and thus calling forth thofe Powers of the Soul into Adion . and cafions profccuted that. might. and requires Meat. and to place them upon fuch or fuch Objects. that when the Body finds itfelf low and empty. or more conducing to the Health of the Body. but yet rot fo inuch. the Objed does not move the Soul to Defire forcibly and mechanically. and to . as perfedly to condrain the Perfon deiiring. that. And fo the Objed of Defire pre•^ fents'its Convenience and Fitnefs to the Soul and this invites fuch Motions. when defirable Objeds offer thtmfelves fome People and others are nor. as fomething fit to be embraced . if the Objed were endued wirh fuch Efficacy and Power. and fo more eligible So that Epiotetus ^ looking upon the Soul as of the two. and fitted for that Union. the Mind fteps in and countermands this Defire. merely in point of Prudence. by purfuing the worfe her Faculties are enfeebled and debafed. or in Obedience to fome Law. in fuch a Cafe. jiance. Purpofe. as Nature hath provided proper for this . we fee. The next Objedion.

as aStoneorClod of Earth is carried downwards. dtfiics his Soul. Avhich all the while lies concealed. as moving forwards towards the Thing defired. indeed. when v/e are inclined to fomething. and is duly proportioned to the Nature of the Thing. which to Us appears very defirable. Nay. and with Injuftice. while the reft of his Body is in no Motion. as a defirable Thing. This Motion.fide and counterfeit Appearance of Good. thai Nature hath left us nothing iij oiir own Power: World of Men do Now. and this keeps him from confidering. ia truth. That our Defires and our Opinions are carried to their proper Object with as invincible a Necelfity. and to inform ourfclv€s. and proceeding from within . as are alfo our Opinions. For it ihevvs us a gaudy Outfide to invite our Defire. but a violent Impulfe. which taints under tliis Gain. is plainly in our Power. as. mentioned here by Epidetus. andinay teach them not to be impofed upon with falfe Appearances. or whether it only cheats us with a fair Out. or dragged along by one another. withfuch as we may out any local Motion in the Perfon dellring refemble to a Man's ftretching out his Hand to meet or embrace one. For Defire is a kind of Expanfion in the Mind. The exceffive Eagernefs of his Defires utterly overlooks and lies fiieltered it ftifles all theft•. which are the only Calamities fo wicked a Wretch fears . thus much for he prefently reprefents to himfelf. fuch an Operation upon the Mind would not be Deliire. And then. Thus the Thief is carried away with an Idea of Gain and Riches. whata fuch Things. which we defire or conceive of: Ai)d fometimes it ismifiaken and very different from it. and conjTequently. we may go fomething farther yet. for. whether it be a real Good and worth our purfuing. and Imprifonment. xi though perhaps not every one in the fame Degree. but is really what ibould rather provoke our Averfion. or forcible Attraction . which the idea of this Objed flatters us with. or having any dread at all of that horrible Evil. is fometimes what it ought to be. in thelnftanceof Gain juft now mentioned. and Puniihmeut. are told again. and hath a great deal of hidden Kvil within.with S IMP Lie I s's Comment. under fome Advantage. fuch as we fee. begun originally. well. We F 4 Nor . as for any Apprehen^ fions oi Difcovery . and yet areneverfoundout. to fix upon fuch Objeds only. So that Defire is a Motion. and the other Things . when one Body is thruit forward. may bring then. And. particularly. to examine this Object of our Defire more nicely. wemaycorrett and regulate our Defires . as are truly defirable.

that they continue ftedfall in their own Good. after this or that manner. for that Preference is no more conftrain'd and neBut it is their ceiTary. by the frequent Repetition of Ads fuitable to them. ifthe Soul can bring pofitions as are . that a Free. . the oThat kind of NeceiTity. it the Soul is the trueCaufe of all this. to do a Thing. the one abfolutely deftrudive of Free-Wiil. And this NeceiTity is by no means a Mechanical NeceiTity. or to defire. which are more remotely defcended from that great Original. and never futier themfelves to be drawn oif to the Contrary. wnen we never fee it dofo. prefer that conftantly and yet the Freedom of their Choice is ftill the fame . but is what the Nature of fuch an Agent admits and requires. That the Liberty and Power of the Will is to be judged of. than we have. But then there is another fort of NeceiTity from within ourfelves. But as for Our Souls. does indeed take away all Liberty andClioice. proceeds from any Things without us. then Though.es each Faculty and Part to ad agreeably to its own Nature and origin^)) Conftitution. when he is compelled by any other external Caute. or to leave it undone. which keeps every thing within its due Bounds. which is from a Principle of Mo-ion within itfelf. what is neceiTary for its Prefervation. in truth. which ther very confiftent with if. Excellence andPerfedion. to fuppofethat a Stone can afcend. and for exerting the Operations. to this it may be replied. when we fee our AiTent and Appetite always moved by the Credibility or the Deiireablenefs of their ObjeQs. For the Souls immediately united to the Original Good. that there is a two-fold Neceffity. Free. muft not be admitted for a general Rule neither.Will. and worfebyPerverfenefsand a DiiTolute Behaviour. their Deiires are aceordipg lo their Tepipers and Difpofitions thofeof them ty asSelf-Motion. And this is fo far from deilroyinjj. proper to a Creature endued with fuch a Facul- Now to fuch Habits and Difcan grow better by Virtuous or Vicious Wifdom and Sobriety. but fuch as are confirtent with the Nature of a FreeAgent. becaufeit is notimpofed by any thing from without us. contrary to one another. than if they took Evil inftead of it. and obiip. For by this means it comes topafs. that it rather preferves and fupports it.Agent can be wrouj^ht upon by no other "ways. Befides.Epictetus's Nor Morals have we any more reafon to conclude. forno Man can be faid to ad freely. andean confirm itfelf in each of thefe Courfes. that we are free to think. : that . by Mens being able to do Things.

but even to determine our Choice. and made it iiTipoiTible for it to be corrupted : without its own Confent. have ill. by which I mean. to thefe we may anfv/er. . I fay. have evil ones: But thefe Souls of ours are capable of great Alterations. that he did For he hath fet it above the reach of all external Violence fo and Neceffity. and thefe may differ. and it is an Argument of his Mercy. but hath a Mixture of the middle and the loweft . That being foreign to thisSubjefl-. whofe Buiinefs it is to make ufe of it now. be Eternal and Immortal. the Body animated by the Soul. There is one Argument more ftill behind which pretends^ That a fatal Revolution of the Heavens hath fo ftrong and abfolute a Power upon us. and leave us no Liberty at all to difpofeof ourfelves. Its Inftrument indeed. and not by So that any Force or Neceffity that compels them to it. as to be proper and ferviceable tothe Soul.with SiMPLicius's Comment. and Matter. without degenerating GodthereiiitoBirrennefs. according as thoie Caufes are diiferently difpofed. as the difFereiice of Tools teaches us todiftiguifli the Now : fever al . the Animal taken in the grofs. who is infinitely good himfelf. manner indeed. They decline too. (which I (liall not go about to prove. or to have its Dependence \ipon. and all our Inclinations. but) If the Soul. and the exceeding Riches of his Goodnefs. and thedrft and bed continue ftill fuch. not in all Points agieeableto the Dofirincof the Stokks in this particular. there can be no manner of Pretence for charging any part of our Wickednefs upon God. made the Soul in a Capacity of being perverted . good Defires. Matter and Motion. with regard to Things here below. and this Mixture was fit. as not only to influence our AtSions. becaufe its EiTence is not of the firft and beft fort of Natures. it cannot be allowed tareceive its Being from. may owe its Nature and its Changes to inch Catifes For material Cauies produce material Effeds. and Immortal. and thofe ftill z^ that are that are well difpofed. by Reibrmation and better Care. by Supineand both thefe Changes are foolifh Negleft nefs and wrought in them by their own voluntary Choice. That if the Rational Soul be Eternal. and iink down from Virtue to Vice. as to leave it capable of being corrupted. tho' it muft be confeft. And the inftruiBent is formed fo. that fo all might remain in its Perfedion. a fore. but only the empty Name of fuch a Liberty. and Imprrfedion. He created the Soul after fuch . but ihall defire at prefent to take for granted. that is. They frequently recover themfelves from Vice to Virtue.

and from hence make attained to their Conjedlures of the Difpoiitionof the Soul . : gives us a clear Knowledge of the People that attend upoa : By the fame Reafon. . for thofe who are Mailers felves. as carrying fome Affinity to For. This . and Affinity of Tempers. and are govern'd andfubdu'dby it . and this is the Reafon. and fatal Revolution of the Heavens. Generality of Souls. as but only to infer a Refemblance of their Temper. and the Diifolute. there are fome particular folemn Seafons and Places. . and the Idle. in Cities. yet not fo. are brought under that For Likenefs. (a fort of Degradation. and thofe that are fet apart for Pomp and publick Sports. (the Houfes and Gonjun6tions of the Planets) may be able to give us fome Li^hr. thofe to the Mafon's^ and others to the Smith's Trade. when falling and the Converfation of naughty Men. infli£ted upon them by way of Puniilimenr. the particular Seafons and Places. forthelofs of their Primitive Purity) addift themfelves too much to the Body. together. an4 well-difpofed. find oui the Nature and Temper of the Inftrument (the Body) from the different Conftitution of Material Caufes. wheri the Conjundions. then thofe Souls. of their ter Dexterity. as to impofe any abfoluteNeceflity upon their Appetites and Inclinations. and conform their Defires to its brutiih Appetites and Inclinations. fo as to ufe it no but to look upon it as longer as their Inftrument of a part and piece of their own Ellence. . fo as to fay. Befides. and religious. this Pofition. gather the Rabble. God in his Jufticehath ordained fuch a particular Pofition. have better Tools. Thefe belong to the Carpenter's . For. and all the Fatalities confeqaent to it. a ftran>:e Power of biii^ging all mat agree in it together. and ufe them with greaIn like manner. the under ill Management. which give us good Grounds to diftinguifn the Perfons aflembled in them as the Days and Places of Publick Worihip commonly call thofe that are wile. and the Perfedion of the Work it felf. fo that the obferving thefe Solemnities For indeed. which have deferved this Vengeance. into the Temper of the Souls them united to Bodies under them. why they often guefs aright. hath Puiition.2-4 1 c s's Morals feveral ProfeiTions that ufe them. carries fome fort of Argument to the ProduQion of the Souls united to Bodies under it. and not only to diftinguiih the Trades them- felves but the Skill and Capacity of the Artificers themto judge of their Defigns and Intentions. They who have : theKnowledge of Aftrology. under which Men are born. than others Trade.

fuitable to their But the Management of themfelves. who have chofen of Trade. and great Temptation. Adulterous. 25r fj Revolution then. For. left in their own Power. are Cnucious and Wary correct the Heat of Youth. and ufe it virtuoufly. that makes Men Knavilli. fometimes in a moderate. Thofe that receive thcie Influences moderately. even . or Mufick. and promore thtm. or Unnatural and Bruitiih. nor take away its native Freedom . the behaving themfelves well or is ill in each of thefe Ways. And it is not the Influence of the Stars. is the Choice and Work of the Soul afterwards . as itAnd This felf hath deferved to be given it for its Ufe. and Bufinefs. or the like. That Men born under it fhould be Knaves and Cheats. give way to them. but thofe that recfive thenj immoderately. notwithftanding all the Advantages of fuch an Employment. and is framed agreeably to fuch a Body. its particular Defires and Inclinations. and we do not fo much blame or commend Men for their Callings themfelves. though the Carters of Nativities Ibmetimes fay true. yet this only happens. we fee many.^ Again . And what Rtfiexion pen Nature can this be? For. 'V. and fometimes in an immoderate Degree. arc chofen by the Soul according to her former Difpoiition . as for their different Behaviour in them. according to their former Dignity and Difpolition but Aill••. The Souls chufe their particular Ways of livirt^. and do not aillil them by their own Depravity . or Lafcivious. dcbafe and proditnte thtirifeives to all manner of Wickednefs. does by no means conftrain or bind up the Soul. when they foretel thefe Things . For the different Methods of Life. by conlidering theConitellaiions that People are born under. fo as to make it neccffary. Farther yet: This fatal Poiitionor Revolution does never (as fome Men too boldly ainrm it does) cagfe any thing of : Way Wickednefs in us. as that of Husbandry. yet continue very honeft and good Men in it . a Upon this Account. or addided to beaftly and unnatural Lulls. - . according as we receive particular Qualities or Impreilions . Dignity and Deferts in any of thefe Callings. and the Improvement of Wifdom and Virtue. which is done. . and many who profefs Philofophy. gives Men an Opportunity of learnine. and Mens Station in the World is ailigned them. but the Corruption of the Mind.with This fatal SiMPLicius's Comment. are yet of very loofe Coiiverfation. or Mcrchandife. that is. but the Soul only bears fome Refemblance to the Temper of this Revolution.

when the Aftro'ogers have (as they think) formed to themfelves certain Marks and Rules. but to ourfelves. For all Evil is occafioned. that hurt is not owing to the Things. and the Superftitious Regard that they had to Judicial Aftrology. whereby to know. as to allow fon:e confiderable Influence of the Heavens upon the ^odies and Tempers of Men . and fuch as none. And thus much may fuflfice. he may lofe his Eye-fight by his Folly. it both makes Things viiible. thatmuftbi imputed tothedatk Notions of the Old Philcfoihers. may turn to our Prejudice by aperverfe Ufe of it. The Sun gives us Light. in forming the Dilpofitions of their Minds. which the Complexions of People have. And yet. and are endued with the greateft Power and Strength. Whether the ereding of any Schemes can furniih them with fuch Marks of DiftinSion. as to take too much of it. I fay. and if it were not fo. upon this Matter. and others Subtle and Knavifh accordingly. but thofe who have made themfelves Mafters of Aftrology. and who in a vicious excefs . and not the Brightnefs of the Sun. preferve the Original Conftitution given them at firft by their Great Creator.6 I c s's Morals even that. that all the World muft allow them. which proceed upon theHypothefes of the Pre-ex ftence and Tranfmiorrstion of Souls. whch S-mplidus himfelf is content only fofarto comply with. or no: Some Things indeed are fo manifeft. which is the Author of Light to all the World. But then. Now. are never the Caufe of any Evil. feems to me very plain. Some PaiTages there are too. I very much doubt. but by the Want of Power . Freedom of from the MoBut ' If this Argument feem obfcure in fome of the Farts of it. . as. a:id that Stroke. who will receive thefe ImpreiTions in a due meafure. can make any thing of. not by the Excefs. that when the Sun is in Cancer^ our Bodies feel excelTive Heat but fome again are exceeding dark and doubtful. which is moft beneficial to us. in Anfwer to them who deny the the Will. be theOccalion of Blindnefs and Darknefs to him. Power ought not to be reckoned among thofe Things that are Good. always a6l upon a good Defign. to gaze upon his Rays when they ihine in their full Strength . according to the^r Meiits 01 I>emeiits in fome foimei State. And yet it is as plain that even Good Things in Excefs oftentimes prove hurtful to us . and enables us to fee them. this whole Notion of . is to be blamed . then they pronounce fome Men Wife. and properly fpeaking. but then. if that. Tho'. But io truth. upon the Pretence of any Fatality tion or Poficion of the Heavens ''. and their being provided withBodjes of Good or Bad Complexions here. that fuch Things. Now. if a Man will be €> foolilh. that Folly. after all. that thofe Things which aft coniiantly according to the Defign and Diredions of Nature.

but overthrow its very Original Conftitution . in his AuiaiAavei- nous ontlxe'ienthBQok of ^ ZJfo^f'ifi LitiriiWi. which we feel and find every Moment. That thofe who go about to deftroy it. Embracing and Declining. that he hath a Power of Confenting and Refufing. upon any Arbe replied in general. mufthavea Principle of Motion of its own. P'or if this alio derived its Motion from fomething elfe. They who will not allow us to have our Adions at our own difpofal. and not violent Impulfes and Attradions fromThings without us. Defiring. do by no means confideror underrtand the Nature of the Soul. or elfe it is moved by an External Force. as all other Inanimate Creatures are. tj this Liberty. do not attend to. according ternal Principle. and then it is excited by a Caufe within itfelf to its Appetites and Affedions. Comparing.^. (as was urged before) the Body is not moved by this. Again. in which the EiTence of the Soul chiefly confifts. from whence the Motion is at iirft imparted to this. to this Diftindion. to who deny may gument whatfoever. but by fome forcible Impreflion from without. that which puts the inanimate into Motion. it muft be either moved of its own Accord. then.inmany Modern Philofophers have proved it. But now all thefe are internal Motions. Accepting or Rejeding Power. and not thruft forward anddragg'd along. the Vital Energy of the Soul. that the one Sort are moved by an inNow. lO be no better. but by that other Caufe. and VirThere is no longer tue and Vice are utterly confounded. For they take away all Principle of Internal and Seff-MoFor tion. as groundlefs and f. and its AiTenting and DiiTenting. a I'ld is now very jnftly exploded. Once more. See particularly CaJ^nd. Agreeing to or Denying. Declinin. without feeming to be fenfibie of it. being moved no longer from within. and the other are not. by veiyfii'oftaiitial Ar£U(nti)ts. nor are able to account for. it Mechanical. and cannot itfelf be moved Mechanically. and then it is purely But indeed. and the like. and fo the Body. muft itfelf be concluded Inanimate. and Inanimate Bodies. any . Chooling. By denying that we have power ever our Adions. as Bodies are . All• Moral Diftindions are lort and gone. begun in the Soul itfelf. of Judic'ary Aftiolocy tafiical. and it is to no purpofe to argue againft that.with Simp Lici all s's Comment. Now this is what Experience and Common Senfe teaches every Man . fuch as Inanimate Creatures muft For This is the Diiference between Animate be moved by. of Confidering. and a liberty of Willing or not Willing.

yet it is fo. And then. upon the account of tlieir refufal. but a Life of Rapine and Violence. is purely paffive in the cafe. are evacuated . For here are Two things propofed. after fuch and fucha manner. and this Perfon is at that time under the circumftance of an inanimate Creature. when yet the upon them. But I exped. that the Adverfaries of this Opinion will appeal back again to our own Experience. and the ftrongBent of natural Sympathies and Antipathies ? Do not thefe compel us to do and fuffer many things againftour Wills. that does a thing without his own Choice. So that. . and our own. thing . if they refufe it. and fuch as no Man in his Senfes would choofe. Others again are peremptory in the refuling it. notof Civiliz'd Men. even in thufc Adions thac i^Qni moft involuntary. Applaufe or Reproach. Rewards or Puniihments. than any Puniihment they can pofSo that. yet ftill we choofe to adl. The Laws of God and Maninftitutedfor thofe Purpofes. and the utterly impoffible that a Man ihould be carried to do any without the confent of his own Mind For he. and nothing left us. and quite overturn'd. is like a Man thruft down a Precipice by fome ftronger Hand. there is find feveral receffity that lies ftill . For but we Perfons take feveral ways. as looking upon fuch compliance to be a greater Evil'. of Kdifery and Confufion a Life. and for this Reafon it is. if it were in his power to avoid ? To this my Anfwer is ftill the fame. all Order and Society muft needs be loft . with regard to the prefent ftreights we are in. is the fame. that we make choice of it. when we really do ad. though the fide we take. This is further evident from Mens own pradice. but the Choice upon thefe Occafions is ftill free. fibly undergo. and when confidered abfolutely. Some choofe to comply with what is impofed upon thtm. and the very Foundations of them all torn up. though with never lb great unwillingnefs and reludancy. he does not ad at all. but of Ravenous and wild Beafts. And it is What? Do we 111 ranny of Men. be not eligible for its own fake. not often find ourfelves forced by the Tyoverbearing Torment of our own Paffions. our Liberty is not deftroyed.2' I cT ETus's Morals any juft Ground left for Praife or Difpraife. for fear of enduring fome greater Evil. That notwithftanding all this. and enforced by thefe Sandions. and urge afreih. do but coniider. For when once we are come to this pafs. how difmal the Confequences muft be. which he cannot refift. and. and when compared with fomething which we avoid by this means.

which would be chofen for its own fake. and fomething Involuntary meet. there are fome cafes. and. made peculiar to us: But when we fail in thele Matters . what we ought to place all our Happinefs and all our Unhappinefs in. receive all their Good and Evil . They depend upon the Impreffions made upon them from without. 29 For we muft diftinguifh between what is Voluntary. when what is Eligibleupon thefe Occaiions. the thing itfelf. this mixture of Voluntarinefs and Involuntarinefs. and in fuch meaiures. s Now Now . as we ought to do . For which Reafon thofe are properly call'd Mix^d Aolions\ that is. becaufe this the following Book depends upon diflindion of the 'Things in oitr own power : For. And Homer very elegantly defcribes the perplexity of Thought . we are to expeft it all from our own Adions. which ftillaplacefor Liberty and Choice. and ourNotiDUs agree-. from thefe Operations. and what is Free. and for the Degree of it. For things that move Mechanically and neceffarily. V/hen therefore we have juil Ideas. and endued with a principle of Motion from within. then we tail of that Happnefs and Perfedion too. we fliould never choofe. as they derive their Being from. and when we apply our Delires and our Averfionsto fnch Objeds. then we are properly happy. both for. they are ihez^ppetices. in which we find both fomething Voluntary. And indeed. and the Atfcdions of the Soul. but with regard to Deiirable Objeds. when he fays to this purpofc. fomething el fe. in the Soul. but for the fake of avoiding fomegreater Mifchief. and are themfelves the caufe of their own Motions and Operations. with regard to Knowledge and Speculative Matters.with the things themfelves . properly fpeaking. A Thefe things almoft all I thought fit rather to enlarge upon. which Nature hath defigned us for. and attain to that Pcrfcdion. which we have power to choofe. and Matters of Pradice. But thofe Creatures. if we could help it. fo they owe all the Good and Evil they are capable of to. and Avtriions. but that is Free. but carries fomething along with it. he lays the true Foundation here at firlf and (hews us. the Defign of it being wholly Moral and Inftrudive. not only for its own fake. and that. wliich ad freely. That only is Voluntary. is not (imply and abfulutely fo. are their Opinions and Apprehenfions of things.with Simp LI ciu s's Comment. Great Strife in my divided Breafil find^ Will confentitig^ yet unvjiUing Mtnd. being at our own DifpoHil. thefe Operations.

and Places of Reafon. that we attain to Pofts of Greatnefs and Government. Reputations^ PreHonour and Authority. and by her Diligence and Wifdom it is. is properly and entirely our own Work. without the Choice and Confent of the Soul. fuch as Sciences and Trades. For as to Actions that concern things without us. for this we may that be fure of. is not. THE Power . are put into a better or a worfe Condition. and flie is not the fole and abfolute Miftrefs of them. but muft be beholden to the favourable concurrence of feveral other things. But the regulating of our Opinions. thefe are not entirely in our own power. as are wrouj^nt by ourfelves only. and the inftrudling others in it. a good Air. and Ability to perform the fundions of Nature. why thefe arefaid to be out of our own and Difpofal. So that our Good and Evil depend our felves. For indeed there could be no fuch thing as the exercife of Authority. therefore they are faid not to be in our own power. or any other Employments and Profeffions of Credit and Reputation in the World . for it is plain. But. are things out of our own Power. becaufe thefe things are not totally a: her Difpofal. and our own Choices. and (lands in need of no Foreign Affiilances. I mean fuch. efpecially as the World goes now. Thus the Body requires found Seminal Principles. And yet thefe are all of them things fo far out of our own reach. to compafs them . but our own Choice. his do not come within the compafs of own power. and need nothing more to effeot them. and fupplying the Neceffities of Humane Life. or contributes nothing towards them. Pofleilions. BUT our Bodies. and in ihort. every thing befides our own Anions. that no Man is accountable for thofe things. or the Negleft (he is guilty of with regard to them. will depend upon all thefe. and the miking ourielves Matters of Knowledge. The Soul does aifo furniib Occafionsfor the acquiring Credit and Fame.so Ep I CTETUs's Morals Now by our own Actions. and fweet Water . a wholfome Dwelling. and moderate Exercife. and Strength. but require many Helps and external Advantages. becaufe the Mind hath no part in them. and a flrong Conftitution. ferments. that both our Bodies and our Eftates. in proportion to that provident Care the Soul takes of them. in order to the compaiTing of them. convenient Diet.

we are Sick. though he would never fo fain. andimpofe. For Money is at thd : bottom of all Wars and Conteniionsj and this we cannct Q U . cannot rife. are no more in our power. That of all the things faid to be out of our power. Others who have no Notions of a Deity. but cannot make ourfelves Inviiible. when we would. but Theirs. a more Potent Enemy ruihes in and aiTaults us. to pafs. but fometimes upon themfelves too. From whence we conclude. or to prevent.with Simp Lie lus's Comment. we give theOccafions of Efteem or Difefteem. Hence it comes who are profane and ir. for mere So that the being well eiieemed Senfelefnefs and Stupidity. when we have done all we can. with a falfe appearance of Religion. became th-e "Wants of This expofe Us to all the reft. for thefe are owing to a World of fortunate Accidents. are miftaken by fome People for InfiAnd thus the Referved and Temperate dels and Atheifts. but Money. and make Preferment the Price. though by the management of ourfelves. we When glad to lie undifcovered. 31 reach. that contribute to our getting them. which is. we lie at their mercy. that entertain it . nor fuch as follow upon our Choice of thein. or behave themfelves like Men that think fo of him. and to as many unfortunate Accidents. that we can neither beftow them upon ourfelves. The cafe is the fame with our Wealth and PoiTeiTions too . and fubordinate Officers to And particularly in fuch States. the Body is firll mentioned . not of Merit. and yet our Wiihes do not bring it to pafs. wedefire a fpeedy Re- Would be When covery. but what are highly reverent and becoming. and. than Riches For. gain the Charader of Piety and Virtue.-eligious Men at the bottom. but depends upon the pleafureof thofe. Ports of Authority and Government cannot fubfiit. to think : what they pleafe of us. without Inferiors to be governed. Converfation. There a Man ^ that wants a Purfe. that think well or ill of us. that fome. that all things of this Nature are not in our own power. Reputation and Fame. of is by no means in our own power. nor keep off the contrary Inconveniences. that never charge God with any of our Frailties or ImperfecStions. not upon others only. becaufe they arc not our Works. aS aflift in governing them allow Places to be bought and fold. And yet on the other hand. Accidents too mighty for Us to ftiuggle with. I only add one Remark more here. yet ftill theOpinion isnotOuis. that confpire to deprive us of them . is defpifed and traduced by fome. and that for this very good Resion.

The former fort he tells us. are Feeble. are Free. and fupplying the Neceffities of the Body. able to put a rellraint upon my Delires or my Averfions ? But now the things that are not in our power. or lofe ihem. and compel me to fuch or fuch particular Notions ? Who is . are weak and indigent. and at the pleafure of others. Servile. or to keep us back from them. he pro- ceeds. Again. and we may have ihtm. as to depend upon the Inclinations of other People.] For who can pretend tocorred my Opinions. in whofe power it is to communicate them to us. which are fubjed to be given or with-htld. but they are Mailers of them. and Raiment. i>o again. but keep them from us oervik. but thofe that are not in our power. becauie it is not in the power of any other Thing or Perfon. Nor is the Management. I c s's Morals be without. . Thofe cannot be countermanded. either to compel us to them. as They pleafe : And accord . to govern ones felfas one pleafes. 'Vt^t*^^*!*'*!**!*^*! '7*1*^*1**1*' I ij**j*"*i**j*"i|*"*j• *p "v" *[* "T* ) *|* ^ *t* *!' ij* H' H* *f*" 'T' ' •* ^ '* W ( ^^ CHAP. and to be under the command and diredion of no other whatfoever. II. AFter having and thofe diftinguifhed between thofe things our that are. but muit feek it. in the next place to defcribe the Qualities proper to each of them. are in their own on. in order to the providing convenient Food.fufficient. that are not. arefo contrived. in own power . at any Body's Difpofal but our own . [as being in a Man's own Power. Free. liable to Oppoilti- THE Nature things in our own power. and not Ours but Anothcrs. COMMENT. it is not we. not capable of being countermanded or hindred . and confequently but thefe that depend upon the affiftance of fir/n andJhuMg another. But the things out of our power. or and therefore ihefe are not Free. thofe things are Self.32. for this is the true notion ot Freedom. and the Enjoyment of them.

as they really are.with SiMPLicius's Comment. and our Inilrument of Adion. III. It is evident. much Trouble. which is indeed another's} you ihall be fur e to meet with many Hin- drances and Difappointments. ftriSly fpeaking. True or Falfe Apprehenfions and Opinions. ihall own no body check or difappoint you j you Ihall accufe no body. But right. belong not to the Man. an much more cern at empty and popular Applaufe. and be continually finding fault both with God which and Man. that make a Man happy or unhappy. ihall complain of nothing. But for the things out of our power. that if you miftake thofe things which Nature hath made Servile. and this Confideration gives us the greateft propriety in them that can be: But thofe that depend upon the pleafure of any Body elfe. looking you take things upon no more to be your ihall anothers. fo as either never to be at all. orto bedeftroy'd again when they have been . or to be fnatched away from me. Once more. every kind of Good or Evil. never to be put into my Hands. REmember then. as for inftance. alas remote. and confequently of ! this is little fomething or no con- all to us. after that I am poiTefled of them. that the things in our power. Regular or Irregular Defires. than indeed is fo } and all that to be really belongs to himj no body ever be able to put any conilraint upon you. which refpeds the things in our power. and fancy That your own. is properly Ours . 33 accordingly thefe are fubjedt to many Hindrances and Difap• pointments. ihall ne- G X ver . CHAP. and the like Thefe are the things. are our ovjyi^ becaufe they are our Adions . for Free. they are none of ours Thofe that relate to the Body. that are properly anothers. But if we talk of a little Reputa: : tion. but only to our Shell. From whence we muft infer. and if great Diftraotions.

it is agreeable to all the Reafon in the World. nor can we meet with that. that we may be fure to find it . And now he advifes. . which is properour Happinefs in them. with regard For this is the true Foundation of all the Happito them. if our Happinefs coniifts in regular Delires. are the things that make us Miferable. and exped to find our Hapthis pinefs in fuch. of our Lives. it. that generally we muft needs be difappointed of the things themfelves. what vjas^ and what was not in oivfj power^ and defcribed the Qualities peculiar to both forts. attaining to the Good we aim at^ and reftraining all the Mifchief that could befal us. But now. The being difappointed in our Hopes. when a Man fets his Heart upon that which is anothers. whether he fliall ever obtain it or no ? the natural Gonfequenccs of fuch Difappointments are. and to find that Happinefs. For how fliould it beotherwife. and obtain what we yet ilill thefe things are not what we take them ly for . if we place our AiFedions and Defires things not in our power. makes us Happy. it : double Misfortune muft needs follow though Oneway we fhould are ib fond of. that thofe out of our power^ are anothers. the being interiuptedj and having all our Meafures bro- Now keHy. Averfions. for how is it poffible we fliould not. or the falling into Mifchiefs and inconveniences. miffing our Ends and Advantages. had told us before. or the Wretchednefs . which is proper(And we Ihall be fure to find ly ours. prove fuccefsful . fuitably to the Nature of thefe things. depends entirely upon HE ourfelves?) On upon upon the other hand. and peculiar to us. COMMENT. and not be guilty of preverfe and ridiculous Abfurdities. and thefe Deiires and Averlions are in our own power . to believe.34 ver do I c s 's Morals from no body. the Difappointment is unavoidable. as if it were his own . and what relation they bear to us: That the things ifi our power are properly ours . and when he muft depend upon other Perfons and Accidents. ing well in our Attempts. and jufl. any thing unwillingly. that Men would manage themfelves. But befides. The fucceednefs. ihall receive harm ihall have no Enemy y for no Man will be able to do you any prejudice. we muft feek our Happinefs here. when the Regulation of our Defires and Averfions. that.

and being delivered from what we dread . then we ITiall have no occafion of Grief or Remorfe For that can happen but in Two cafes. that does tis mifchief. if we fettle our Affections. when we find our Pains have been employed to no purpofe. we can never be fruiirated in our Defires^ nor ever be endamaged by any inconvenience wc fear^ provided we will but make thofe things our care. any Difappointraenr or Hindrance. and defeated in our Endeavours after that we defired. of fuch De. places his Happinefs. and fpare neither Men. nor ever 1 : Now : Gj . At this rate. and he that deprives us of what he could take away. as Pleafure and Joy are theEffedsof Good Succefs. when we areovertaken by the Mifchiefs we feared. we lofe fometimes thofe that are . that we ihall never be annoyed by any ConQraint or Compulfion. in which the Man who lives according ro the Didates of right Reafon. we can have no Enemy neither. and God himfelf. complain of nothing . as are agreeable to Reafon and Nature . or fome way obftrud our Advantage. And if fo. fuch a Perfon will accufe no /W«». we can never live in awe and dread of any Man . 3 ken. but dial have the fole Government. and thefe are the things. and complain of every one that we think contributed to our Misfortune. the accomplifliing what we wiih. Confequently. upon the entertaining fuch Defires and Averfions. and what falls within the compafs of our own power. but upon our own. and make a true DiftinSion between what is ours. why we fear any Body. and beftow our Care. and what is not . For by being fo tenderly afFeded for things that are not in our power. not upon things which belong to another.^ with SiMPLicius's Comment. but no body can do this to a Man who is out of the power of all Mankind to hurt him By the fame Reafon. Regular and Moderate Defires and Averiions. for the reafon. and would fain have avoided.fires and Averfions. and entire Difpofal. or the falling into what we fear'd. Befides. and that we are engaged in wrong Courfes. is becaufehe may dousfome prejudice. either the muring of what we wiih'd. nor foinetimes Pr<5vidence. fo. robs us of wh^t he hath no power to take from us . But if we be difpofed and aifeoled as we ought. that is. and a World of Grief and Remorfe. viz. which are in our own power. For. then we may reft fecure. for he is accounted our Enemy. There is another Mifchief comes of this. our proper Happinefs. we prefently fall into Trouble and Difcontent. But no Man alive hath it in his power to offer Violence to our Defires and Averfions.

And. muft needs be above all Grief. are fo valuable. to be not only the beft and moft for ones advantage. you propofe to your felf. mud needs be more eafie and pleafant. the Enjoyment of fuchPleafures only. but the pleafantfor ones fatisfadion too.36 Ep I CTETus's Morals So that the Life of this ever do any thing againfl his H'^ill. thofe that are prejudicial and hurtful. and run away from Pain. from its being Free and Uncontrouled. andaccuftom ourfelves to. by natural Inftin6l. ing had not ' more it than ordinary Pleafure in it. therefore the Advantages. who place all their Good and Evil ia their own Anions. Temperance. that fo we may embrace and purfue. and come to a But there are no iniiances to be probetter Senfeof things. than Extravagance and This needs no other Licentioufnefs are to the DiiTolute. here we may obferve farther. who proceed upon wife and reafonable Confiderations. And this makes it neceflary to take good heed what Choice -we make. and turn Sober. but depending and doing all upon the Di6lates of one's own Mind And thus thofe happy Men live. abfolutely Free. when theyconfidcr. that ever abandoned themNow if this way of Livfelves to Debauchery andExcefs. (for Example. IV. as may And be beneficial to us. NowfomePleafures attend thofe things . endeavour after Pleafure. that you ought not to content your ielf with a cold and moderate purfuit of them J but that fome things rouil be 7 . Man is untainted with Perturbation and Senfual Pleafure. never choole : C Since A P. duced. For . that fuch a Virtuous Life as this. Every Creature does. remember. how excellently well he proves the Life of a Wife and Good Man. and all Fear. above Checks and Contrndiciions. more proof than that many Debauchees leave their loofe way of Living. and Others. which Nature hath given them.) is really delightful to a Virtuous Man. that are truly good and advantageous to us. and the ufe of that Liberty and Power. above Hindrances and Difappointments. as 'Plato tells eft and us. Epialet/is demonilrates. and exquilitcly Happy. Men would with fo much eagernefs and fatisfaflion. of any Temperate Perfons.

who makes thefe his Concern. but that his Pains and his Affedion muft be fo entirely devoted to this one thing. being impoffible. provided they be managed with Difcretion . at the fame time prefervehisown Freedom. and the Rules of Right Reafon. and how delirable the Life of fuch Perfons muft needs be. that he muft not look upon this asaBulinefs by the by. and divinely Bleft . and fome degree of Solicitude and Pains for Thefe. HAving direSed us. yet you will be fure to find your felf fruftrated in all that can make you Free and Happy. the Exercife of juft Authority. the Good it defires never deceiving. while you puriue the latter. It. ( fuch as Excefs and Senfual Pleafure. COMMENT. as may be no ObftruSions to the Soul's Good. and tells him. the care of continuing agood Family. But as for fuch others of them. fliould. fafe from the AiTaults of any ill Accidents. butea(ie and delightful too. the latisfadlions of Marriage. not only advantageous. exquifitely Happy. and what falls within the compafs of That That iucha Life is above all Moleitationand Controul. and Ambition. and things out of their power for it. by purfuing the former j Or if not fo . But if 37 laid aiide. into a partnerfhip with xl. but in one Word.: with be wholly SiMPLicius's Comment. as many of them as are inconliftentwith a Virtuous Converfation.) muft be abfolutely difcarded. and all the reft Che providing all neceifary Supports of G 4 : . but place it in their own natural Liberty. and fordid Wealth. and expe£t to compafs ihefc. you will needs be grafping at both . and Power. while his main Defign and Care is for fomething elfe. who depend not upon External Enjoyments. fuch as a decent Dwelling. The External Enjoyments of the World then muft fit fo loofe about his Heart. and Innocence. and Wifdom. as not to admit of any thing befides. and others you muft be con- tent to lufpend for a while. a Zeal worthy of fuch mighty Expedations. a competent Equipage. that any Man. what it is we are to expe^ Happi- nefs from. that. the Evil it declines never overtaking. he now proceeds to excite in his Reader. and at the fame time attain unto Honours and Riches too 5 there will be great hazard of your lofing the latter.

vfurp a Power that belongs not to them. headviTes his Scholars to fuperfede. Ho mull attain to fuch inuft takecareof two things. ar. yet the Paffions mutiny and make head. that he be iure to do it cautiouily and feafonably. andfuiierno other thing whatfoever to divert them from it. till Time andPradice have confirmed their good Habits. between vhat will really make for his Ativantage. through the Ungovcrnablenefs of thcAffedions and Senfual Appetites . it being neceiTary. Firft. and to put on this unpenetrable Armour. that they who would be truly and eminently Good.^ .8 Epictetus's Morals of fome convenient time the like nature. in order to enjoying the World. For this Reafon. a Degree of Wifdom. nor rebel againft Reafon . that they may never revolt. but to anfwer the Charader of a Sincere and Truly Good Man. Whoever . for awhile. It is neceiTary then. of whatought to be done. JVtth Ragetranjported^ I pup boldly on And fee the Precipice I cannot jhun. and what will turn to his Prejudice: and then Secondly. he muil keep under his brutiih Appetites. but may be ready and obfervnnt to it.din fuch Proportions. for And that for very good reaat leait. that a Man provide himfelf with a competent Degree of Knowledge and Prudence. though the Mind hath a Notion. and toward fuchObjeds. and impofe upon the World wich a diifembled Virtue. fq as to maintain ones own Virtue and Innocence. fon. only at fuch Times.propofes to himfelf. Or elfe. when about to murder her Children . not merely to be popular. Remorfe and Senfe of Guilt dravj back my Soul^ Butfironger Pajfion does her Powers coniroal . For Men arc betrayed into Vice two ways. introduces Medea^ complaining of the Impotence of hef IMind. and reduce his Appetites to Moderation and Obe(iience. and over-ruie Thus the Tragedian the calm Judgment of fober Reafon. when we do not difcwrn what is good and proper to be done. as may enable him to diftiuguilli. that are confiftent with Virtue. And when he engages in Bufinefs and Converfation. when. though but a weak and imperfca one. Either for want of the Underftnnding being fufficicntly enlightened. fhould make the Exercife of Virtue their whole Bufinefs and conftant Study. as to move. as the Reafonable Soul lliall limit andprefcribe to them. Epioietus is iirgent wirh his young Beginners to fufpend even thofe things. and qualified the« .

and out of a fecret Shame and Confciouf. For they. either to gratifie their Hopes. Befidtb all this. leii they ihould exert this Power toihcir Prtjndice. fall into fuch Perplexities and Diftra£lions. is not only inconvenient and it hazardous. that this requires their Care. it expofes us to Difappointments in our true Happinefs. Now. that. which are the only Things that makeMen free.who asyetare but rav/and unexperienced in Virtue. which Lord it over them. really good nor do they eiprefs a beccniiug Concern. but ridiculous and vain. 39 to ufe the World with Safety and Diicretion. But he acquaints us farther . upon fuch Things as are out of a Man's Power. that place their Dciires and their Averfions purpofe. for thofe. They muft alfo live perpetually in ailavifh Fear of all thofe Men. though fuch a divided Life as this. and cannot have Inclinations and Averfions grounded upon. and eaiie. as reftrain and flop their Career. who divide their Defires and Endeavours between Both. and hsppy. becaufe they do not apply their Mines to thefe entirely.with them SiMPLicius's Commenr. to engage with the Worid. When our Care and Concern is laid out' upon the fccniing good Things wiihout us. For. or enraged Tyrants. thcyfall ihort of thofee?toit. than that which addids itfelf wholly to tiie World. without any Check or Interruption at all. For they muft of Neceflity live in Subjcciion to their wild and brutifh Palllons. in whofe Power it is. and govern'd by. . by taking off our Care from thofe Tilings that are more properly ours. wiih. right Rcafon. like fo many cruel Mailers. it is impofiible they ihould ftttaiii For the moil part therefore. muit needs fail of Prudence and Moderation. till a Man hath fortified himfelf with Temper and Prudence. and thofe that are not. or infiift the Ills they fear. as isRaihnefs and Folly to go into the Fieid unarm'd. do neither make a ju(r Diftindion between thofe Things that are. and to no manner of They. jiefs. or to who can intercept the Good they obltiufit and defeat them . j'et it cannot but be exceeding ifoublefome and uneafie . fo it is. muflbe acknowledg'd to be lefs vicious. to employ themfelves inBaunefs and Worldly Care. ternal Advantages they propofe to themfelves. much . I ut now and therj are diverted by Defires and Endeavours after their true and proper Happinefs . and will not fufferthcm to do nor to endure. for that which is their own peculiar Happinefs nor beftow the Pains about it that it deferves: and till they do fo. every Thing that is necefiary for obtaining the falfe Good they chiefly purfue.

yet finds but too often. by the material Principle. V. muit needs be and eternal Self- Gondemand de- li'ation. with this Reflexion. Diflreff 1! is at flake. I'lifp'ire.4© much more is Epictetus's Morals fo indeed. as ufed to diitinguifli between Moderation iptended here of the Defed. that he adrefles himfelf to the Rational Soul . than that of the Worldling. own Adions. full of perpetual Inconiiilencies and Remor- one continual Labour Diilikeof ones fes. admonifh and awaken us with a Remember. For it in vain. that Fpt^tetus^ upon thefe Occafions. and hath an inbred Faculty of difcerning and adhering to Truth. we when is andExcefs. and lignif. and by this means is betrayed into Ignorance and Forgetfulnefs. coniidered in thefe Cirriagcs and all its Miferies. that this Eye of Reaion is darkened. hath dim and confufed Reprefentations of Things impofed upon it. and examine you are it by fuch Rules of MoMailer of > but efpeci.. and not the real Nature of the Things themfelves. and brave Kefolves CHAP. but Happinefs and our himlelf. to which it is united . does frequently in the following Difcourles. WHEN rality as therefore any frightful and difcouraging Imagination nfiimltsyou. Then bring it to the Teft. The Reafon of which is. that A Man who propofes to himfelf A d~ xmritnges fo valuable. the true Caufe of a!! its MifcarSo that.. and cold Indifference. Move GenroHS Ibou-^his. it ftands in need of a continual Monitor to rouze it into Thought and Remembrance. and meet it boldly. But when he fays. But it worth our taking Notice. harden yourfelF. cumllances. So is that it infinitely painful teflable.es For where our a fupine Ncgled. That it is only your Apprehenilon of things. as Pindar expreiTes and Danger jhould ozir Courage fire. ever ftriving to reconcile Contradidlions. take it. which. there. ou^htnotto be co'iitentivith a moderate PropcHt'ionof them•^ This Expreflions is not to be underflood.. though it be naturally andeirentially endued with juft Ideas of Things.illy by thi^ moil .

he advifes more at large. and made our Minds Now : quiet . That the Man. HE had told us. by the Excefs and Irregularity of their felf the Motions. we linow. and Others that terrific them with Calamities of that kind. That there is very often a wide Difference. Of things thai are. And thefe Apprehenfions he calls frightful a. or And if. and no more.. That it is but a Fancy of our own. muft be conitant and indefatigable. that it is what you arc not at all concerned in. and the Reprefentations of them to us FOr. moil material Diftindion. he informs us here. be found one of the latter fort. will be able to juille out our Reafon. or any of its Temptations. and immediately tranfported with any Imagination. And this is exceedingly weakned. which they make in our Minds. our Fancies. not away. which he tells us. no Violence they can ufe. tofeduce or draw him off from the purfuit of M. and empty Dreams. between the Things themfelves. as in Things that are indeed Pleafant and Benefic!:jl . But ilnce. remember. But the Strength of thefe Reprefentations depends upon the Impreifions. and not fuifcr the World. and difarm it of all its Force. And here he fays much the fame Thing in fewer Words .^d difcotiragirig\ becaufe they are extravagant and unreafonable and embitter ones Life with a World of Terrors and Troubles . to be hurried In the following Difcourfes. who propofeth to hlmAttainment of Virtue and Happinefs. when once we are thus fixed. \o as to receive no Inconvenience from them. by this Coniideration. how to manage fuch Appreheniions. it are not. gaudy Vanities. are yet fubjeft to frequent Fancies and Apprehenfions: Some that put them upon defiring fome of thofe external Advantages. whether it tend to Hope or Fear. and flight it accordingly. do fometimesgive us theReprefentations of Things as they really are. or pervert our Judgment . by making that fingle Coniideration habitual to us. who do make thefe Things their Study and Care. That a Man ought to harden and fet himfelf againft it .with SiMPLicius's Comment. as foon as we have allayed the Heat of the Imaginution. upon Enquiry. COMMENT. and fometimes they delude us with wild Inconiulencies . even they. in our Power.

there are feveral Rules to try it by: Some taken from the Nature of thefe Ideas themfelves. ought by all means to be detcftcd dnd And no Man yet ever arrived to that Degree of avoided. whatever They diilikeand condemn. Folly.42^ I c s's Morals quiet and calm. and the Concern They exprefs for them. but efpccially. There is likewife another Method. becaufe the Freedom of the Willis the true fpecifick Difference of Humane Nature. fidered as Men . every one that confults the Safety and Happinefs of his Soul. Whether they be fuch ObjeSs as tend to the good of the Mind. as to perfuade himfelf. in diftinguiliing between the feveral Ideas and the Things they reprefent . as. and todifmifs it with this Anfwer. to fatisfie ourfelves. will challenge his greateft Care and Concern. and Wife and Good Men have approved of. are Things well-plealmg to God. or not. be out of our own Difpofal. (i^^ 'Things that are lObjed that prefents itfelf. and Excefs. For if the Are-. that Injuftice. and Luxury. upon (he Judgment and Determination of Almighty God. is. which proceeds upon the Judgnaent of Wife and Unwife Men. ihould be prefently employed. That this is no part of onr Concern. ihall depend merely That upon its all its Good. CHAP. For that. or our Fortunes only Whether they contribute to any real Advantage. As on the contrary. yet there is one peculiar to Men. . and the Things they reprefent. For it is impofliWe for any Thing to be ftriftly Good or Evil to us. the ready Courfe to be taken. and which is of general ufe upon all Occafions. which is not within our own Power. But though there are many Rules which may be ferviceable to us. which God himfelf. or whether they concern our Bodies. its ^ndall Evil. or was fo far blinded byPaffion and Luit. as a Thing inviting onr Delire. neceffarily infers this Prerogative. in a nice Examination of the Idea reprefented to us. own Choice. And this depends upon the Diftindlion oiThings thus in our own Power. con-. or whether Plcafure is the only Thing they can pretend to Whether what they propoie be feafible. muft needs be convinced. The very being of a Creature thus quali- Now : : fied. or provoking ourAveriion.

the Thing . within own Power. that is Evil you fear. and propofes to you.I with S LIcI s's Comment. he . Averfions then be taken off from all out of your own Power. know this is not come to your turn yet. which recommends any Defire. Lee your Mind therefore go no farther than the mere Tendencies and Propenfionsj to moderate and ufe thcib gently. REmember. graduiilly. and he. your LET Things your VII. is an unfortunate Man . 43 CHAP. VL That the Thing. you are fure to be unfuccefsful } and if you would reftrain them to fie and proper Objects. if you confine is a miferable Man. or Death. : lay them for the prefcnt. is the efcaping the And in thefe Cafes . you will of Neceflity be miferable. which your Averfion aims at. is a Promife and Profped of obtaining the Objeot you are in purfuit of} As on the contrary. And as for Dcilrcs. CHAP.would decline y but if you extend them to fuch Things. and cautioufly. as Sicknefs. wholly afide for if you fix them upon Things out of your Power . C M~ . that is overtaken by the Mifchief he declines. baulked of his Defires. or Poverty.. your Averfions to thofe Evils only. fuch as come within ir. and transferred to fuch Things as are contrary to Nature. But now. which are at the Difpofal of your own Will} you can be never overtaken by any Calamity you.

then it will not be poiUble for us to be baulked in our Hopes. in cafes of Defire. as Intemperance for Example. And the Misfortune oppofite to good Succefs is. The Obfervation of this Rule would be fure to make us fuccefsful and happy. andwhat is not within our ovun Power. But if our Defines and ourAverlions be confined to Matters within our own Power and Choice. the miffing our ObjeS is fortunate. To this purpofe. or overtaken by our Fears. that our Apprenlionsand Ideas of Things delirable muft be regulated by thatneceffary DiitinQion of IVhatis. becaufe it cannot depend 'upon yourfelf. inftead of thefe you pitch upon Sicknefs. He that extends his Defires and his Averfions. from what U mifles . that the End our Averfionspropofe to themfelves. you can never be overtaken by any Thing you fear. lies here. the Objeds of your Averfions. But if. which are contrary to Nature. but then this getting is to our Prejudice. to Things out of the Difpofal of his own Will. So again for Defire. to explain. were. becaufe in thefe Matters you may be fure to efcape if you pleafe. you take care to make thofe Things only. for here we get our Obje(S indeed.44 I c s's Morals COMMENT. you muft needs fall into calamitous Circumllances fometimes. is. when we do not get our Object. in fhort. and he tells us. When he hath fet thefe Matters in a true Light. then he proceeds thus. you are fure never to be unfortunate. is. and the Negled of it unfortunate and wretched. fo that in this cafe. when the Thing we would avoid does happen to us. The Subltance and Connexion of all which. and confequently. who fixes upon Objeds out of his own Power. or Poverty. not to fall into the Mifchief we endeavour to decline . What fort of Perfons we ufe to efleem lucky or unlucky. and the like. his firil bufinefs is. now follows THIS went and in a direft as it Method . very frequently before. and Injuflice. it is unfortunate. and what wc might much better have been without. or any of thofe Things that are out of your own Difpofal . but Happinefs and Succefs will attend us continually. That Man cannot fecure himfclf againff frequent Difappointments. as on the contrary. a Deinonftration of the Truth of the laft Chapter: where we were told. whether you (hall be delivered from thefe or not. and within the compafs of your own choice.

Yet ftill. that they any thing pleafant but what Reafon and found to be fo. but upon others. Since it is plain. they ture and Allay of Pain along with them. to agree. by thefreeGuidanceof their Reafon. are the only good and proper Objeds of Defire. as do not fo much as think hath approved. and is overtaken by Fears . for the brutifli Appetites in Them are fo fubdued. by defcending to Their Notions.• So that even theSenfual and moft Vicious Men may convince themfelves from this Difcourfe. is the general Notion Men have of it . and keeping off the Evils we fear. But the Generality of Mankind. in truth. who tix upon Things without their Power. without examining. and that the Evils in our own Power are the only noxious and deihuotive. whether this Pleafure be fuch as makes for their true Advantage. that the true way never to bedifappointed in their Defires. and accommodates himfelf to his Hearers. and avoid only the truly mifchievousand fubilantial Evils. and proper Objeds of Fear and Hatred. as are really profitable and good. that thofe Things which are within our Power. diftinguifii the Objedsof their Delire. But it is worth our notice. becaufe thefe Things depend not onhimfelf. agree. or overtaken by their Fears. by no other Mark than Pleafure. to raife them up higher to fomething better and more perfed. pers and Cpnverfations. and partly from their brutiih AfFedions being kept in perpetual Commotion and Diforder. Nowfuch a one is confeiTed to be an unfuccefsful and unfortunate Perfon. that Happinefs confiits in obtaining Mens Wiflies and Delires. hovj Epidetus imitates Socra- tes\ way of Arguing upon this Occaliun. and his therefore wretched and miferable. but only the empty Shadows and falfe Refemblances of Pleafure. or not: And thefe Men often hit upon very impure and uniincere Pleafures .with niiffes his Simp Lie I s's Comment. all Mankind are agreed in the general. falls ihort in his Hopes. and this they do. are not really and properly Pleafures. that they do not employ their Defires and Averfions alike. is. For. 45• Aim. And he muft needs do fo. and the moft diftant Tem- But then herein they diifer. fo difciplin'd by Acts of Obedience to the Judgment. that they. fuch as carry a MixFor. partly for want of duly improving their Judgments. muit needs fall fllOfC . For the Wife and Virtuous purfue fuch Obje^s only. was faid before. fo as. that Proiperity andSuccefs conlift in obtaining the good Things we wiili. and thus far Men of all Perfuafions. and the due Government of their Paflions . and in efcaping the Mifchiefs and Dangers they fear.

or Poverty. weihould never beoppreiTed with any of the Calamities we fear. thatyf// Defire pould for the prefent be wholly laid afide ? There is a manifeft Reafon. becaufe this evidently makes for our Advantage. which are prejudicial and againrt Nature: If.4<^ Epictetus's Morals Ihort very frequently of their Hopes. but that which follows hath fomething of difficuky in iti For what can be his meaning in that Advice. and put them upon thofe within our own Choice. But what ihall we fay to his forbidding the Defire. For. take off our Fears from thefe Things. All here is fufficiently plain. you muft unavoidably be unfortunate. though we ihould fuppofe no fuch Troubles and Difappointments attending them. and fuch a Life. but it will depend upon fundry other Circumftances and Accidents. and falfe Apprehenfions of Things. are yet not capable of bringing us any real Advantage. nor that. for Inftance. \ve would make it our Care to avoid Erroneous Opinions. which this Courfe delivers us from. if we would follows his Advice. there would then be no tarther Occafion for Defire . or not. and transferred to fuel Things as are contrary to Nature. and endure what they fear: And this is what even Vicious Perfons acknowledge to be a great Misfortune. though we can contribute confiderably towards the avoiding of them. your Averfions be taken off from all Things out of your own Power. which. and needs no Enlargement. or the like. and alfo in Gonlideration of the Things. But. yet the Thing is not wholly and abfolutely in ourfelves . But if you were come to it. which come within the Difpofal of our own Wills ? The Reafon he gives is this. both in regard of the Difappointmentsand perpetual Uneafinelles. whether our Endeavours ihall fucceed. that concern Things without our Power. becaufethefe are Things not in your Power to efcape. and whatever elfe can be any Obftrudion to a good Converfation. becaufe it is in our own Power abfolutely to avoid thefe Things. Let then^ fays he.And this feems to' €Ui . why we fhould difcharge all thofe Defires . themfelves. even of thofe good Things. ior this is no other than a Motion of the Mind defiring. Becaufe yyu are not yet come to this. For if you place them upon Sicknefs. within your Power. by which it reaches forward to what it is ftot yet eome to. For nothing more than our own Averiions and Refolutions is requifite to the doing this effedually. which is the proper Happinefs of a Man. and lofe what they defire. as Reafon and Nature have made fuirable to our CharaSer.

Fc# by that Purfuit he did not underftand any Bodily Motion. as are agreeable to Nature and Reafon what Ground can there be for fufpending all our Deiires. but lour Defires and Averfions ere ar. fecm to foUnd . abfolutely fpeaking but only toreftrainthe Vehemence and Eagernefs of that Averiion and Defire. and the effefiing what he would. Since therefore the Advantages you propofe to yourfelf are fo exceeding valuable^ Remember^ that you ought not to content yourfelf with a cold and moderate purfuit of them. : 47 cutoff all Defirein general For how is it polTible to obtain any Good.tectdcnt to fuch Motions to and from theObjed. till they be firft competently informed. Chapter he gave this Advice. which. are always antecedent to Deiire and A. that he intends to cut oif all Deiire of thegoodThings in our Power. without firft defiring it? Efpecially. . towards the andcatitioufly. not fo much in Adions. and makes after the Obje<£l:. the Stoicks contend. which in a moderate Degree he is content to allow. that Epi^etus bete addrefles himfelf to young Beginners in Philofophy for whom it cannot be fafe to indulge any Defires at all. For you fee. and do proJuce them. In Anfwer to thefeObjedions. what are the Objects which they ought to fix upon. How can we fuppofe zx\^ Affections and Prupenfions without Defire ? For the Order of Things infers a Neceffity." with Simp LI cius's Comment. cooty^ For we muft necelfarily move. And fo that thefe Affedions and Propenlions of the Soul are to be underftood. then interpret the as they . nor may wefuppofe. in the Adl of Deiiring. that this looks like a dire6t Contradiftion to what went before. verfion. it may be replied. to make: ufe of our Propenfions and Affcclions of the Saul gently. as in the entertaining fuchDelires and Averfions. when in the 4th. and utterly forbidding us for a while to entertain any at all? Or how can we imagine it pofllble. as Caufes do their proper EfFeds. And again. Objedof oUr Defires. for a Man to live void of all Defire ? I add. Or if he dired we muft not his Difcotirfe to Men already inilruded . but the Eagernefs of the Soul. only of thofe firil Motions to or from its Objeds. before there can be any fuch Affcdions and Propenlions of the Soul. if (as hath been formerly ihewn ) the Good and Happinefs of a Man coniift.. by which. Words Aga:n . and from that which is bur Averfion. that he advifes in the very fame Place. (he moves towards.

and be fatisfied at firfi. fome Checks upon its forwardput and faft. and they recover themfelves for us. and a more Thefe keep the Soul from fpending fafe way of proceeding. And this experimentally is an Inconvenience. that we andrefolved in this profecution. of Aftion. to change from a bad State to a found and good one. but for the generaand flow. as well as the Body. bothof preferving. nor give them their full range immediately. of confirming and increafing. to move ki/r-irt'ly and gradually^ and with much coolnefs and cauThit is.48^ Epictetus's Morals When would not con he advi led before. to flacken the Reins by little and little and tion. and eager in it. as to be able. and Crates^ and Zf«o. as Nature hath appointed with regard to the Soul. For gentle Methods are commonly more likely to hold. would bring himfelf to the contrary Habits of Sobriety and ftrid Difcipline. it was no part of his Intention. This is the true Reafon. tent themfelves with a cold and moderate purfuit of fuch valuable Advantages. becaufe of the quences it is apt to have. and by degrees. For what the Author of . and attempt things above their For this ufually tei^s to the weakening of the Strength. the vigour of it. this is fuch a Condition. that Again. not to let loofe our Defires and our Averfions. to Abftemioufnefs and Failing advance by Steps. when Men flioot beyond the Mark thro' an Excefs of Deiire. but rather. as to fatisfie ourfelves in doing what he adds himfelf immediately after. their Alterations are gradual fo too and fall by little and little. be fo happy. as much as overftraining injures the Body. which Men fond of Exercife. Soul. might. who from a difiiblute and nead-ftrong courfe of Life. Diogenes indeed. . the abandoning fome Enjoyments for all together^ and the fufpending of others for fame convenient time. are moft unfeafonFor there are but very few Perfons of fuch a ably guilty of. too ftrength •»its nefs . why we are adviied to put a Reftraint upon the AfFedions of the Soul. which is the true way. to re- Men commend ihouldbe an eager and violent Delire . . though but flow ones. they lity of People. fixed ill Confeis with great reafon condemned. which many have found from the immoderate Violence and heaj. and fuch eminent Lights as thefe. with abating fomewhat of his former Extravagance. from Luxubut he muft ry and Excefs. or the Defires and Averfions of it. the . all on thefudden. Now a vehement Degree in any of thefe things. Conftitution. either in Body or Mind. muft not prefently leap to the diftant Extreme. For the Man. either the Propenfities of the Mind.

after a pretence of having tried. and till the Brcaft have difcharged itfelf of this. One probable account of this may be taken from the Nature and Condition of Men. there be occafion to alter their Judgments. Epidetus advifes his Scholars to move leifurely and gradually to ObjeSs of both kinds. The firft ftep towards a good Life is to throw off all the Venom and Corruption of a bad one. that mighr advance us in Vir^ tue. that contribute to our Recovery. Thus at lail it becoines Incurable. and grows upon us. corrupt all the Good ones that are put to them. by bringing us to a Contempt of better Principles. but produces in us a Loathing or all thofe Remedies. why does he allow our Averfions. any more than our Defires ? forhe bidsus/e/^i' off our Averfions from thofe Prejudicial things that are not in cur power. but now. and will not fo rhuch as fuffer us to udmii of any Arguments or Aflions. does not ?Qta Him. and bend them againfl thofe that are \ and yet at the fame time he prohibits all manner of Deh're. if fo much Caution and GoldnefsbeneceiTary. that fo. who are beginning to reform. if upon a Second view. asunpleafant . The H^ife retreat . andfave themfehes hy Flight. and. Thus it is in Matters of Learning and Knowledge . for fome time. a whea : . very confiderable upon Rap ufe Force. is much more truly applicable to our Souls That fo long as a Man Continues fullofgrofs and noxious Humours. no Nourifhment can be had from any Principles of Virtue infufed into it. the Difpoflible to be complied with. eafe gathers more ilrength. and with fofi Pleafures Fight . as hurtful and injurious to us . Young Students muft admit the Idea's of things warily. Juft as ill the jaundice. when their Minds are not too ftronglypoirefs'd with their firft Notions. theNouriihment he receives. and found themdetedive. Sometimes they make us difreliih them. 'The SiMPLicius's Comment. fo much as his Diftemper* For the Vicious Principles. which had taken PoiTeffion. fomeiinles condemn them as Evil. is 49 Golden Verfes hath obferved. and reject them as imAnd all this while. will not permit us to indulge that at all. What the great Hippocrates has moft excellently obferved concerning our Bodies. Once more. it may be done with greater Readinefs andEafe. and not take every Appearance of Truth for an unconteftable Axiom .with the thefe Occalions. fonictimes dread and avoid them.

that we can ever arrive at great Perfedions. Thus the Averfions are allowed in Young Beginners. Now. This Difcourfe is alfo excellently well fuited to fuch Perfons. and reduce them within fome reafonable bounds. tho' they cannot gain an abfolute Adallery over them. as encouraged and commended. hath not qualified you for fuch Defires For when we aim at fomething that exceeds our Capacity. becaufe they judge of them byway of comparifon with greater. CHAP. and before we can cope with things above us. by growing into a Diflike of Vice. though an abfolute freedom from Paffion. becaui'e the Method of their Cure requires it . Such as thefe therefore are not yet arrived to the pcrfe£lion of thofe things which fhould be the Objedl of their Dcllres: And this I take to be the meaning of that Exprefllon. This is Kot come toyour turn yet . in order to the removing that Prejudice. i. and a Converfation in all points agreeable to the Rules of Decency. and fometimes a defponding Mind. and Nature. . we muft pradife upon lefs. that their Lives may be pleafant and fweet to them. yet Beginners muft faiisfie themfelves with lefs . and think they do very well. be the proper Excellency. And yet it is by fmall beginnings only. They mull expedi to relapfe fometimes. and find we cannot reach it. and Security. and an eafie Mind. Men violently bent upon things above their Strength. follow upon it. to put themfelves into a Condition of receiving Virtuous Principles and Good Iiiftrudions. e. and the firft ftcp towards a Reformation. a Man nauit prefently. and are not fo much to be condemned for falling. is. when they can abate of their Paffions.5 feates Epictetus's Morals •when the Vitiated Palate thinks Honey bitter. and a finking of our Spirits. thenTroubles and Difappointments. and will never endure to tarte Honey after. which indeed is the very thing all Creatures aim at. and make ourfelves Mafters of fuch as we are a : Match for. which we ought to dellre and purfue . the imperfeil State you are in. and think them vile and defpicable . flight fuch as are proportionable to it. in regard it ihews them the right way to Liberty. when they rife again.

of VIII. yet they may not be able to create to us any manner of Diiquiei and Confu- fomcthing of Intereft fion. C r. our own power. thoi'e things thatare not at the Difpofal of our own Will . when Death takes either of them away from you. and much Dealing with. and things out of. Fter the diflinSion between things within.) But iince it is impoffible to live. make them familiar. or areufefuland beneficial to you. by beginning at the flighted and moll inconflderable things. to rcfle£b with what Nature and Condition thofe things are which miniiler Delight. without having in. for fonie convenie!)t time. coniider. and an AdveriiTement how we ought to cUcem each oi them That the iormer fort only malt be looked upon as our own. and tells us. in all : . and in the Dilpoful of others . REmember yourfelf. that theie are of Humane. he had told us. and to fufpend all manner of Deiire. and For info rifing to the higher and more valuable. though they be not at our own pleafure. and you cannot be much troubled or furprized. how we ought to be atictked with regard to thofe that fall within our power To make iuch of them as are contrary to reaibn and Nature. conudcr it is but Earthen Ware . 3 And . ftanccj U you are fond of an earthen Cup.1 with S I LIc I s's Comment. probability. is grounded upon the Arguments already mentioned. the Objedl: of our Averfion. the latter as Foreign. (Which Advice. or which you have a natural ten: dernefs for And that thefe Reflexions may an- Iwcr their End. upon all Occafions. wjien ever it happens And if you be fond of a Child or a to be broke. that is of a Frail and Mortal Nature j and thus your Surprize and Concern will be the Icfs. thar. Wife. 5 CHAP. henow informs us how to converfe with them.

Virtuous Converfation. as a Skilful Mailer. by fome common tyeof Nature and Affinity between us . is phin.. without profiting us at all . The Second fort. fuch as are beneficial and convenient for Ufe. and Gardens. And the Third. either the ny's. are the Three things that engage our Hearts . which is a Pleafure more generous and improving. as Places of Authority. or Tricks of Legerdemain. as Pidures. and it is always upon one or other of thefe Accounts. thefe are fuch. For Pleafure. the Mind. in Eloquence or For that Hiftory. and Exercife: Some regard only our Fortune. and reconciled to all the Hardihips and Miferies attending ir. differ. In this Relation ftand our Wives and Children. Beauties of Nature. and the like: Some are ferviceable to the Meats and Clothes. and the like. or Buffoons. And this is a very juft and true Diflinclion. fuch as we have a particular Aifedion for. that we are fond of this Mortal Stati•. or the exquiiiteWorkmanfliip of other Profeifions. without any regard to our own Benefit and Convenience. But the Third fort we have a Natural Tendernefs for without any profped of Advantage from them. fx I c s's Morals And here he takes notice of Three forts of thefe External Things. and thefe are recommended to our Affedion. cur Kindred. Some value thofe of the Eye lefs. our Friends. the Entertainments and Diveriions that Men are delighted with. Such as can only pretend to pleafe. pleafant Flowers. and Statues. and. which all of us naturally have to Stories. and our ftruotive Body. in Races. as Countrymen. as the Colours of Peacocks and other fine Birds. and find greater fatisfa<3ion in the Entertainment of the Ear. are Some contribute to the improvement of likewife various. and Buildings. as the Harmony of Vocal and Inftrumental Mufick . from that fondnefs. Others in Dancings. in Jugglers. as miniiler to our Entertainment and Delight. Lands and Tenements. and Meadows. The Second. and fometimes in Fables and Romances. and Profit. Firil. In- Now Books.^hr. or Tilting or the like. orZar Some again in curious Sights. from our very Childhood. and Groves : Or in the perfedions of Art. and which we are tender of. and Natural Affeilion. which tend to our Ufe and Benefit. . by reafon of fome natural Relation they bear to us. Money and Goods. according to their feveral Tempers and Inclinations: Some find their Pleafure in Flays: Others in Sports and Exercifes. thefe contribute much to our Deli.

• and afterwards he may. greater Difficulties. and extravagant Concern . what their Nature and Circumftances are. with relpeft to every oneofthefe. without any great trouble. and begins with fmall and eaiie Trials.with SiMPLicius's Comment. before he can m. the next firil Words to begin a: with little give us very good Counmatters. will find the Change too violent for his Body to bear. yet grow much more fupportable by Curtom and Ufe. But if fuch a one abate of his former indulgence by degrees. Thus it will be very feafible. nay. then allow himfelf but Two. and more likely to continue. and. not only with but with the leaft and moil inconiiderable. 5-3 the Advice given. and away. firll take himfelf down to Three Meals. the Nature and Condition of each of them is . which fuggefts to us continually. though very grievous at firft and in themfelves. proves unfuccefsful. ior according to the old Gri-i-zi. grows ftronger and bolder with his good Succefs. than a MeAnd fuch a Meditation ditating upon the Lofs of them. And this force. ^^"'• '"e^^"-"• He that undertakes the Irggeft firll. would render the thing eafie and familiar to us. and gives out in utter Defpair. Now that we would Corruption and Decay. and when any Accident of this kind befalsus. And indeed the cafe here is the very iame with fevera! other Inrtances. To this fel . upon Nature is the Reafon. only juft for a fpurt. * The Pot^ ^ t ' ter rmiil try a C»p. « / 4 ^'^ . fpends his Strength to no purpoie. and conquers dill greater and Thus a Man ufed to Four Aleals a Day. wherein we find. and fuch a Change vvill be infinitely more fafe. why fuch warm Undertakings are generally of dangerous confcjuence . For fuch a Reflexion as this. what Hazards and Uncertainties they are liable to. purpofe. what fit dov/n. advances more furely. and that none oi them are abfolutely at our own Pleafure and Difpofal. and by gaining Ground upon what was a Match for him before.ke a 'Jar. when this Proportion is grown habitual and eafie. . and never get through the trouble and pain of it. and not to be depended upon . and icriouily confider. which the Unthinking part of the World are oppreiTed with upon fuch Occafions. that the Troubles and Pains of Body and Mind both.'.Proverb. But he that fets out leifurely. that they are fubjed' to is. is no other. little. would prevent all that Surprize and Confulion . that the Enjoyment of them is fhort. come to content himfelf with One . is pre^"''S• ^^i• ^'^1fently worded. if he attempt all on the fudden to fall a whole Day together.

may fay. and cannot be furpri^ed and confounded with Paffion. to incline us to value it. and fuch as he is in a continual poffibility of lofing. Though he be Deadj yet I am the fame Man^ as tf he were fiill alive I pnly fideration . . and confirmed with an habitual recolledion of that Child is fnatch'd away from him. he is prepared for the Stroke. which is of itfelf not fo. we are to remember. the not being difturbed if he do Die. whenever ^ . ^ly Child is not Dead tome. therendring this Confideration familiar and eafie tome. That what he thus dotes upon. and living in expedation of it. As in an Earthen Pot. as if fome ftrange or new thing had happenedto him. as that their Nature is corruptible. and daihcd to pieces with the leaft Accident. and deal with them as though they were. And if his Mind be once throughly poiFefs'd with this Con. We it is. For a Man thus compofed. which can have nothing but itsUfefulnefs.j 54 Epictetus's Morals (Tiould Apply this now to the inftance before us: confider thole things that are dear to us. as if he were not dead Thefe are in my power And which is a great deal more. is but a Man if a Man. and empty formal Words to fay but to make his whole Behaviour fpeak. they do in effedt bring the very Accident of his Death. that are not by Njture within our Power. to fpeak more truly and properly. by degrees to Matters of greater Concern. as a thing no lefs natural and likely than his Life. : . in mere Speculation. and the behaving my felf with fuch evennefs of Temper. For by it we get aMaftery. the Enjoyment of them uncertain. confequently a brittle and frail Creature. within it too. ihall be ^ble at laft to encounter hisAfFe£lion for a Child. acquaint ourfelves with the Condition of all the reft . what abundance of Wifdom and Artifice there is in this Management of things. and all the Difpofitions of hi Mind to carry the imprefllon of this wife and ieafonable Reflexion. And what can be a poorer and more contemptible inftance than this. And here it is very well worth a Remark. it. and the Lofs of them what we have reaibn to expLft every Moment. and not and and trifling as rifes only it. to begin with? Yet mean . or. upon the account of their Ulefulnei's and Convenience and from fuch among them as are of leaft Confequence and Value. a Man that lays a good Foundation here. The faving my Child from Death. is a thing not in my power but a due Confideration of his being liable to it. it is of a brittle fubftance. over thofe.

and this 1 aui iure can never be done. and fuch as Nature. withan intent. For after fuch wife preparation as this. IX. but this was not the only thing I propofedj that which I chiefly intended. though it be Co Circumilances of the thinff flight a one. And when you have done thus. Juftling for Pailage. while : COM- . arefetch'd fromtheTwo latter forts of Things. as to deferve no fiting us. to preferve 1 my Mind do fo. CHAP. as going to bathe j leprefent to yourielF before. this Reflexion will prcfently rife upon it Well. that thofe things. To which purpofe you will do well to fay thus to yourfelf > My Deiign : is to bathe. That the Inftances by Epi/^eti:s. if I fuffer every Accident to difcompofe me. I prefume to intimate. are Conlideration at all. Scurrilous Language. was to keep my Mind and Reafon undi Curbed . if any thing intervene to obihuft your A¥aihing. and can only pretend to pleafe without provery mean and defpicable.with SiMPLicius's Comment. and weigh well the Nature and Nav. Dailiing of Water. fuch as are ufetul and beneficial to us. and Affinity gives us a more than ordinary tendernefs for : And thefe were prudently chofen. every ilion you undertake . which are for Entertainment and Diverfion. Rude Behaviour. what Accidents you may probaThat in the Baih there is often bly meet with. and Reai'on undillurbcd.hand. you may with more Security go about the thing. from Peribns who have made any tolerable advances in the ftudy of Wifdom and Virtue. confider firft with yourfeir. and Stealing. but ^o it is too. 5-5- produced here I only obferve farther.

AFter giving Inftruclions concerning our Behaviour. his Joy is the : . and to expeS. when it is left to our own Liberty to take a fater. whither he might have travell'd by Land. Great Caio reckons this for one of the Errors of his Lite. this double Advantage If they do not happen. with regard to the things of the World . when Man thus prepared. where there is abfolute occafion for our runwill be. if encounter you. he lays down is this . either not to be furprized. yet if there be a likelihood of any fuch Accident. or. Or if we are called upon to £ we Then there is no take up Arms in defence of our Country thought of declining the Matter wholly. to decline the hazard. in chuiliig a more dangerous PaiTage. But now. if the thing be not ning fome Rifque. out of our Power . That you take a juft account of the nature of each A6lion. it is an AQ. to a Place. Or are obliged to ftand by a Father or a Friend . and if it do frequently happen to others. . For thefe too have a great many Circumrtances. or the Relation they bear to us. As if we have neceifary Affairs to dif- which require a Voyage to or from fome Illand. though they do not neceifarily. and murt therefore be undertaken with The Rule ih^n that great Prudence. though no misfortune ihoiild aSually happen. hath any of them come upon us. and not be difturbed . which. yet may poflTibly attend it . in fome hazardous or unlucky Bufinefs . either upon the account of the Delight they give us. and fairly compute the feveral Accidents. without being driven to it by necefluy: And this Anfwer. that many People do the fame. and our Method and to lay maft be to undertake it upon due deliberation together the feveral accidental Obftrudions wont to arife in we may fuch a cafe: That fo by this timely kecolledion render them eaiie and familiar. is to conliJer our Anions. of Imprudence. patch. and much Preparation. the Convenience they are of. A : greater. will not bear us out. . to make choice of fuch a Courfe. Now the Fruit of this fuch Difficulties do of abfolute neFor the cefiity. and come off fafe. by letting it alone.i6 I c t£ s's Morals COMMENT. that he chofe to take a Voyage once by Sea. the next Step in order. that thefe are very like to happen in your own cafe particularly. which ufe to en- gage our AfFedions . In fuch a cafe.

57 becaufe having fo fully poffeft himfelf with an exgreater pedation that they would. But. whatever the Event be. And if they do. Now if every one Ihould take fuch Pains. grounded upon our unmofihenes dertaln'ng things Virtuous and Commendable. this is almolt a Deliverance to him. that what you attempt. and that there may be feveral Circumftances attending it. To be fure. can ever bear Difappointments and CroiTes with Moderation and Temper. which way we (hall attain to this generous Temper of Mind.e of his. then to hope well. then I think it is very difiicult. to converfe all that while with this ghaftly AppariTherefore. and fo can encounter them. the Eifedi of this would be Cowardice and Idlenefs for Men would find themfelves Befides. Firft. But Epi^ietus declares himfelf of Opinion. which brings them upon us is Virtuous and Becoming and then . if the Affair he be engaged in continue That : anytime. it is impolTible to conceive. and efpecially. which may enable us to entertain the Difpenfations of Providence decently. to bear ir generoufiy and decently. the Ihock is the fame. if byhoping well. is. and refling fatisfied in this Confideration. SiMPLicius's Comment. againft this Counfel I expe£l it will be urged .j.with . if by hoping well. then he hath the advantage of being provided againfl them. which may probably happen to them in every Undertaking. be Good and Virtuous. to take a true Profped of the whole Affair. . without much danger or diforder. tion. Only indeed he give us no Diredion. that the Method to qualifieourfelves for fo doing. 1 may venture to fay. Becaufe the A6tion itfelf. For when a Maq fails from what he v/asin imagination. becaufe whenever they happen. he fays the very fame thing with Epidetus. Firii. and reprefent to ourfelves. though they ihould happen to be harfli and fevere. than to have the Ima. are yet very tolerable. Demoflhems intend a firm perfuaof Safety and Succefs. and provided againft before. to reprefent all the CroiTes and Difappointments. . upon thefeTwo Accounts. fion as . utterly difcouraged from attempting any thing all. Troubles and Misfortunes conftantly before his Eyes . whatever the Event be. But by the Objector's good leave. and. ^ . nothing can be more grievous to any Man. they are no more than what were expefted. Demofihenes his Advice feems much more Prudent and Eligible. Z)<ra good Confidence. which though they may not be agreeable to us. nay. and fuch as we may reconcile ourfelves to. howr a Man thus perfuaded. that it is fit for us to undertake.

and Banifhments. notwithAnd ftanding all the difcournging Dangers that attend it. Wf ather. under the expeftation of fome crofs Accidents.de it their Glory. and an UnacliveLife.^ Efpecially too. that what we attempt. or ( which is all one) oi the Man. You fee. without great Diflurbance. For if a Man think him-felf obliged to chufe a Greater Good. is good for the advantage of the Soul.oa ox thefe Anions is truly and properly his own. . that we ought to perfcvere in luch an Undertaking. and not His. yet put our Humours into a great ferment. But the Benefit of chuling a Virtuous Adtion. ly : . but to over-balance them all becaufe the Good of this does fo very muchej^ceed the Evil that fccms to be in them. and generally occafion many Diitempers among us. . and facrificed their very Lives for it . and accounted their Sufferings upon fuch an Account. that he fliould be difcouraged and uneaiie. but the Evil of thofe Accidents. when the Gv. though at the expence of fome Hazard and Inconvenience. Nor is it true. though they change gentand by degrees. for it is the Good of our Souls. when attended only v/ith a Lefs Evil how is it poffible. ) the Defire of that Good mud needs infpire us with Courage and Vigour. and Difgraces Nay. nor Ihall we think it Ours. of either Body or Fortunes. and Seafons of the Year. but fuch a real Diticrence. that a juit Computation of all the Difficulmurt needs ties and Dangers wont to attend our Adions. is not properly an Evil to us. if we be wife. the very Mind. which ibmetimes follow upon Virtuous Actions. condemn Men to Slavifli Fears. muQ needs be. For if our Reafon convince us. why Men of Virtue and V/ifdom have nv. it is fufficient. and the more Violent this Change at any time is. and LolTes. the Greater in Proportion the Diforders that follow upon it. For all Danger and Detriment. not only to be fet againft.58 as if he Epictetus's were in reality. which are truly and properly ourfelves. This is the very Reafon. is only fomething reiTiote. And this Advantage is confiderable enough to be fet againft many Troubles. (for that Soul is the Man. the confideration of this danger will be very much foften'4 „ by this moft Rational and Virtuous Perfuafion. nor the And neither the are of a Conftitution to bear fudden and violent Alterations. . Morals Body. to chufe Good with the greateit Dangers why they have done it cheerfully. in defpight of all Dangers and Difcouragements. and pcrfifting in it. is our own Good. when this is by no means a fuperlkial and notional Diftindion . as his whole Praftice and Behaviour ihews liim fenlible of.

and coning. . an<3 defend us from all that Perplexity into which unexpefttd Events commonly betray Men. For he that is troubled and Difcompofed. been already (hewn to depend upon Reafons. Of the fame nature w. andfanfies himfelf unhappy in what he fuifers. Sc .'.dilfio. who was the only remaindet of that Famuy. which makes him give out. by an Example taken iiom common Converfation. that a Plague wliich then Jnfefted the City. fo much celebrated ty the i^'ian Poe'. \^vnimei]f. that we ihould be careful to apply thefe things to Affairs of Moment. 59 die Account. which need not be repeated.TCt be removed. to the truth of what he would infer from it . we will For this is the way bear it with Temper and Moderation.s a. under one of the Meanefl and moft Iniignificant Initances that can be. in proportion as the Hazards of them are more difcouraging . and died for the Service and Sake of their Country. matter of «a-ffiij Joy to ihem.-s th«t AiJ of Ctrl!»:. trary to the Rules of Nature. and repent his UndertakBut both thefe Failings are highly Criminal . ccuid . flew himfelf. lians. whether it be agreeable to Decency and our Duty. and partly too. either had not fufficiently conlidered what he went about. Story. K'lig o£Theie<. to fettle bur Minds in this Refoiution. after fuch Profped taken. Epialetus couches his Advice here. always to take our Meafures from the Nature of the thing. But his Delign is alfo . ^Mein particularly and all thofe other Hirces iniri'd have voluntarily devoted the mielvts . then his Diforder is the Efle6t of Effeminacy and Cowardice. nnd upon an AnTv/er of the Oracle. as himfelf had told us before. Then. CHAP. to maintain the Charader of Virtuous and Rational Men. they may rife by degrees to others of greater Difficulty And the Succefs of this Method hath and Confequence. and in thofe Occalions. till the Race of frtdra«j wete all exti:/d He. to put his Scholars upon exerciling their Virtue in LriTer Trials. that fo from Trivial Matters. and fo to gain the AiTent of his Hearers. and what thofe Hardfliips are that ufually accompany it. this muil let us into all the Advantages of doing well. and Right Reafon. it is plain. and the Dedi. or if he did forefee all this. partly to illuftrate what he fays . who Now ' This Perfon was Son to Creon. before he engaged in it. that if the worft happen.with SiMPLicius's the greattft .

Difquiet. but the Notions and Opinions. X. is the only thing Therefore . in the midft of all thofe Hardihips which frequently attend our beft Adions : That this might be accompliihed by the Power of Premeditation . but WE Now by Death Nature. but here is another .6 Epictetus's Morals CHAP. own Minds . which they form to themfelves concern* gives their Lives Miferable. let us be Juft. and makes not the Nature of Things as they really are. Sotruth. as much as we* But our Opinion that it is Evil. fince Thofe. this cafe. fetch'd from the Nature of the Things themfelves . what Means would be proper and EifeSual. whenever we meet that makes it fo. and the Confideration of thofe Difficulties and Dangers which ufe to give us Difturbance. with Obftruotions and Perplexities. it murt needs be a great deal ftronger with regard to all the reft. hath in For if it had. or fall into Troubles and Diforders. is THAT which Men ingthem. the greateft and moft confounding one to Human For if the Argument hold good in that can be. 8 To . were told before. by reprefenting thefe inconveniences. which we look upon as the moil perplexing and dreadful. not byforae flight and trivial Inftances. crates COMMENT. for preferving an Even and Compofed Temper of Mind. by ourownConfeiTion. even Death. nothing of Terror in it : muft needs have feared it. Thus. convincing ourfelves. that fuch Adions were worth our Undertaking. as he did before. and not lay the blame where it is not duej but impute it all to our own Selves. even with all thofe Incumthat Rule proceeded upon the Work of our brances. and when we had made the worft of it. and our prejudicate Opinions. and confirms what he fays. are lefs difmal and affrighting. And here he changes his Method. are fure to happen .

whofe Appreniions are moft improved. fuchto all People in their right SenBut Death does not appear Evil to all People. of all the Things that we apprehend as Evil. to difcern Taftes as they really are.) From all which Premifes. And fuch a Perfuafion there may very well be. we muft remove the Diftemper of the Mind. this Conclufion evidently follows. That our Fears and Troubles concerning it do not come from the Thing itfelf. Thus all Things naturally hot or cold. he produces that. is confeiTedly the greateft and moil terrible . as Now. are prejudiced again ft ir.I with S LIc I s's Comment. . For Honey is not bitter. which. 6i this purpofe then he tells us. The Argument he ufes is fhort indeed. or beautithe ever ful. fo. and Confequence whereof lies thus. as the only way to bring thefe Perlbns if it were fo. muft needs appear fo to all Mankind. That Death is not in its own Nature evil. with which we po/Tefs and diforder our own Minds. with his Friends. and Ihews. is to carry off that Redundance of Choler. and which tpr thatReafon difcompofe our Spirits. becaufe we think ourfelves miferable under them. but from a difquieting Perfuafion of its being evil. nor are they univerfally agreed in this Notion of it. that even Death. and make a right Judgment of what is really Good and Evil to u?. nay a violent and untimely Death. are really neither Evil themfelves. And confequently. or the like. Hechofe to undergo it. (For Socrates did not think it fo . demonlkating to them theExiftence and Immortality of the Soul. and yet Men in the Jaundice. and moft fuitable to the real Nature of Things. and the Efficacy of aPhilofophical Life. more efpecially to thofe. appear fes. who have their Palates vitiated. For Proof of this Determination. To we : Method. He endured it with all the Calmnefs and Compofure imaginable He fpent that whole Day in which he died. that all our Troubles ies of any Evil to Us and Perplexities are entirely owing to the Opinions. when it was in his Power to have declined it. correift our Notions of Things. is yet no Evil. That thofe Things which apprehend to be Evil. by juft Diitindions between : Things . a conitant Bitcernefs occailoned by the overflowing of the Gall. which corrupts their Palate So in this Cafe. in order to Virtue and Reformation. but very full and conclufive. "Whatis Evil in its own Nature. nor the true CauQuite contrary . tho' there be no Ground for it in the Nature of the Thing. whicli we ourfelves have entertained and cheriflied concerning them.

with regard to the Body. and feem a ftrange Paradox. in . which Men. not only to fome Perfons. in his Book concerning Laws. fince moil of us. when we lye under the prefent Smart of any Calamity. or SocraUszs he is introduced by Plato. Morals our own Powand what belongs not to us. and without Exception to All. but in general. what Degree of it is there fo violent. according to this Rule. hath drawn his Argument from is generally efteem'd the moil formidable Evil that we are capable of iuffering But however. it cannot be Evil and though it ihould be granted fuch. if Death be none of the Things in our Power. ought not upon any Confideration. as his Circumftances may alter. As to Pain. it is really my judgment. much dy. than for People in Pain. goes a gre it deal farther. nothing happens to a Man. no Circumfiance vjhatfoever . and luithout any Referve . fpeaking in his own Perfon. they had much rather be Dead than live in Want?) upon this Account. than the Separation and Diffo: lution of them. Itmaypoffibly furfrize you. and to be preferred before this Life that we lead in the Bothis. can render it more for a Man" s Advantage to hive than to Die. ilraightway imagine it worfe than Death (for what can be more ufual. as Men may be better or worfe. to be rather chofen. are not content to go through. to tell us. and when reduced to Poverty. to cure a dangerous Difeafe? They do not only Endure. as A£ls of thegreateil Tendernefs and Friendihip. In all other Cafes. he might not at another time better be luithout: But no Time. yet if it do not extend to the Soul. it cannot be er Things that/fri?. though this make it pretty plain. That the Continuation of Soul and Body together . nay even thofe of low and vulgar Spirits . and boldly affirms. we may apply Epioietus^% i\rgument to thefe Inilances alfo. That this floould be the only Accident which is good at all Times. that a Men. nor do any Harm to That. 'tis true.y 6z Epictetus's . that it is Good. and in fome Cir- comftances. For thus Socrates expreiTes himfelf in his Phcedjn . and Things what is properly Ours . delivers himfelf to this purpofe If I may be allowed to fpeak my Opinion freely. which. and look upon that Now which : Cutting and Burning. but yet fo it is. evil indeed. but Chufe and Pay for it: They thank their Phyiicians for putting them to Torture. Now. and // toU'. For. EpiBetus. to willi for Death to deliver them from it. And Plato. that /Ire Not. and very often in no great Extremity of it neither. .

is. yet the principal Ufe I would make of this Oblervation is. that enduring will be for their Advantage. Now the manifefl That nothing of this : I is . they did not out of Now any Compulfion. not that their ^enfe of Pain was lefs quick and tender than that of other People. as we fondly imagine. For the verty is : Let others keep^ or Crates'/ ovjn mourn lofl^ flor^^ Hands make Crues poor . the preventing ihofe Diiorders. 6$ well pltafed to purchafe Life fo dear. freely and chearfully. And the regulating of ihefe Notions• is in our own Power confequently. was . from the time he had disburdened himfelf ot Confequence of all this isj kind is terrible and infupportable in its own Nature. that Men can really luffer with great Patience and Rcfoiution . bur. who endured Scourgings fo barbarous. So far from itj that there inay be fome Cafes.j with Si Men. who are MP Lie ius*s Comment. when once they are perluaded. ( though more harden'd too than People who indulge themfelves in Etfeminacy and Eafe) but becaufe they thought it their Glory and their Virtue. it is evident. when they are converted to higher and more excellent Purpofes for our own feives. when fueh things are much more eligible. when he difpofed of all he was worth to the Publick. What prodigious Inftances of Patience were iht Lacedamonian Youths. that no Pain is fo terrible to Humane Nature as Death . and better for us: I mean. that Pono fuch formidable Thing neither becaufe he can produce the Example of Crates the Theban to the contrary. Epi^etus would tell you. muft needs be of Opinion. The only 'Expedient. to fu tier manfully and refolutely. by tending to the Advantage and Improvement of the Reaibnable Soul. can harden thcmfelves againft what they count very dreadful. and all this. who. That Moment pat an End to his Slavery and his Freedom commenced. of their own Accord And the Reafon why they held out fo obftinately . to fhew. merely for a little Olkntation and Vain-glory? thii. as almoft to expire under the Rod. for they otier'd themfelves to the Tryal. that proceed from the Want of fach a Regulatiort^ his Wealth. to poilefs our Minds with juit Notions of them. and meet it withacompoiied Countenance. fame Reafon. and faid. to retain an lEven Temper in the midft of thefe Accidents.

as to Bodies that are Now able to bear it. for the Soul's) Honour and Advantage. For if it be not in my Power to prevent Defamation or Difgrace. neither They. is the Honour arid Advantage gained by them. : pleafe. add Adivity fo the Mind too muft be put upon Iharp Tryals fometimes. the greater ftill in Proportion. By being well prepared againft them. and diftant Expedation of them. if neither Death nor any of thofe Things we dread moft. to confider them. by accufloming the Body to Hardfhip. to qualifie it for fuffering gallantly. or. Now. nor the Perfons thatinflid them are the Caufe of our Trouble. to have behaved ourfelves gallantly under AfRidions. which is all one. makes him think himfelf never the Worfe. and our own Opinions. or Fear. not only as not Evil. And all thefe Things we may certainly do. that every Wife Man will allow it more for Our (that is. and hath enabled even Ignorant and 111 Men to flight Blows. or any Pnflion our own. yet thus much is in my Power. bring the this upon ourfelves. and. which •we commonly think intolerable. have any Thing formidable in their own Nature . the violenteft Motions exercife them beii. if we . as though they were. NO . And this may be accompliih'd thefe two Ways By getting a right Notion of them .6^ is "Epictetus's Morals in our own Power too. and nothing but our Opinions. than never to have been afflided at all: And the greater thefe Afflidions were. which indeed is of general ufe. And I take it for granted. the Lofs of my Goods or my Eftate. it is plain. but we ourfelves. and Strength. when any Accident gives us an Occafion. fuch an Opinion as this. are accountable for fuch Diforders. And This is to be done. For. and partly by fixing the Mind in a provident Fore-caft. partly. and make greateft Improvements of Health. but iometimes the Better for them. to poiTefs my felfwith ri^Ht Apprehenfions of thefe Things. And one great Advantage to Perfon> thus diTpofed will be. the Learning how to manage thofe Things that are not at our Difpofal. when they do. but fometimes the Inftruments and Occaiions of great Good. as if they did not happen at all. When therefore the Mind feels itfelf perplexed Blame is with Grief. makes it almoft the fame Thing to a Man. Affronts and violent Infults upon my Peribn . and other Pains.

And when this happens. does indeed fometUTjes mifs of his Defires. That he himfelf. and all his Difafters. m ' it. or Diforders. For JiuMe but Ignorant and Und'ifcipUn'd People tax others vjith their Misfortunes^ we it had given a very goodReafon. That our own proper Good and Evil depends upon our own Power and Choice. and One who hath attained to a Maftery . that behim. and is never difappointed in his Purluirs and Deh'res. is fo clofe. Since this Young Philofopher kno'. The Young Proficient blames himfelF} but he who is a Philolopher indeed. fals ^ The and none but he. perhaps. and placing a Man's proper Good and Evil in them. comes from want of being taught bet-And then to this Charadter of the Ignorant and un^^}• difciplin'd . always prefently fubmic to Realbn. becaufe he lives up to the Didlates or Nature andReafon. why ihould never lay our Troubles. the firit tlements he learn'd. nor ever overtaken with his Fears.I with S LI c I s's Comment. perfeii Philofopher never thinks any Thing. but our own Since this Way of proceeding. or charges any Body with being the Occa"on of his Misfortunes . And the Occafion of them all was ^his miftaking the Things without us. 6S but Ignorant and Undifciplin'd Peowith their Misfortunes. nor futfer ihemfclves to I 2 bs . blames neither others nor himple tax others felf.vs. teach him too. to any Thing. and weread thus. (and the acculing himfelf implies» that he knows thus much) how comes it to pafs. becaufe the brutiih Inclinations move too iirongly in him at fuch times. this being the proper Ad of R-afon: But the brutifii Appetires do not. he adds thofe of One who is a Beginner only «n Philofophy . and fall into the Mifchiefs he would flee from. Evil. which taught him to dirtinguifh Things In and Out of our Power. or Fears. : or any Body's Charge. NONE Connexion of It this with what went before. But you will fay. and renders himfelf liable to this Blame? Probably. ihat he takes wrong Meafures. or any other Calamity we fanfy ourfelves in. he fays. that if a Conjuiidion were added. He that is but Raw and Uniiniili'd. is the true Caufe of all his Difappointments. becaufe the Knowledge of Good and Evil is the firll iUp to be made toward Virtue.

though as yet they feem to have but an imperfed Notion of it. that our Body is : properly ourfelves. not being at all feniible. and uCurp an abfolutc Dominion.Nor does it take them off from Brutality. and perpetually in Motion . there are feveral Accounts to be given for our doing amifs: do it. So that for fome time it is pretty tolerable. Though in truth. or charm and win them over fome Ibfter way For. they accufe Themfelves only. And when they do ib. Thought only. when this \s done. and their Reafon does not operate in its full Strength. and the Irrational Part a£live. which hath not yet learn'd to diilinguifh real Good and Evil. that they. while we continue thus ignorant. muft needs commit a World of Errors. or. But they that are Ignorant. what is properly the Happinefs or Unhappinefs of Humane Nature. then the Knowledge of the Intelligent Part is more : clear and inftrudive. Remorfe and Senfe of Guilt pull bach my Suul^ Bui flroyiji^er does her Povfrs controid With Rage transported^ ^ boldly on^ . from what is fo in appearance only not fo much as in . This was' the Cafe of her in the Play. that Reafon is Nej^ligent and Sluguiih. and fanfy. both becaufe of that violent Agitation which their Paflions are continually in. are the real Caufes of all our Mifery. as having admitted that Diitinotion of Things in and oat of our own Power. happens. or that bring upon us any of the Calamities we wou!d avoid. if Reafon can work upon thePafllons. and abfolutely Untaught. neither thofe External Advantages whicii we ell Now We •«i^ Good . by which means the Paffians gather Strength. when we think our Riches io^ as the Covetous do. wonder therefore. and proceeds without any Diilradion at all. or whence it proceeds. if Men but little trained in No Philofophy m?Jce fome falfe Steps while their Pa'Tions are not yet totally fubdued. becaufe we think all our good and Evil conJifts in Things without us. And fee '' the Precipice I cannot pun. where .66 be It I c s 's Morals eafily reduced and tempered by it and cfpeciallv. and our Nature. as perfuade us. which is yet worfe. and of the ignorance of their rational Part. By Brutality I mean fuch low and mean Notions. who obilrudl or deprive us of thofe External Advantages we fo eager! purfue. we fall foul upon other People . and either draw them by Force. and. as it does very often.

which Education bears to the Manageqient of ourfelves For this is properly the Training up of a Child. upon an Erroneous imagination. indeed. dj Good. who hath attained to the firft Principles of Wilciom. who makes a wife ufe of them. And indeed it is eaiie and pleafant. They caufe none to themfelves. for Their Underltanding is fufficiently acconiplifhed to direft them. is Reafon . firlt gave Birth to it. I 3 icribes . does not iter. So that here is nothing butHirniony and Compliance. who cannot endure their Maworft Enemies. Thus Ep'idcius hath given a fliort but exad Charafler of The Perfett Philofophers are thefe three forts of Perfons. and fie for ignorant -Wretches. may prove the direiQ• contrary. This Metaphor is fo much the . for indeed. but. and therefore he Door. as Circumftances are fometimcs ordered. are what we take them tor. though he be guilty of fome Mifcarriages. its know own Good. Neither their Reafon. and what lays it was that and then into Evil. like all oand is violently bent upon Pleafure and Pafiime. to fhuttle otf their own Faults from themfelves. and the irrational Part readily lubmits to thofe Diredlions. ttom the Refemblance. preis the Child in us.more warrantable and pertinent. The Mafter that has the Care of it. This fafliions our Defires. the Rude and Untaught. the Accompliih'd Philofopher. butvalueand love thofe as their Friends. jull like that of (illy ilers. that invite them to Play and Pleafure. guilty t)f no Mifcarriages . are rightly diipofed. but think them their : . and the ung Proficient. And thefe Marks are fodiilinguifhno Man. and it fall it< now Itands wherein confifls. that : Our Senfual Part ther Children. yet he underand from whence it is derived. that it proceeds from Things without us. and throw them upon other People. under the Care and Correction of a Mar at the right ing. they have no Body to lay any Mifery to theChargeof. and. nor thofe Calamities we call Evil.wirh S I LIc I s's Comment. and the Caufe of aWorld ot Mifery . and confequently. The Young Proficient . can be in Danger of confounding thefe three Clalfes of Men. for this were a Contradi£tiun to the PerfeSion of their Wifdom and Virtue And nothing elfe caufes them any. for they do not fuppofe any External Caufes capable of doing it. they cannot labour under any Thing that is truly and properly Mifery. For our Folly in this cafe is Boys. nor their Paffions. They lay all thtir Unhapp'nefs to others. The Ignorant and Untaught err in both thefe RefpeSs.

then you may be allowed to pleafe yourfelf. XI. and accufe no Body but and heedlefs. that is. they are prefently fenfible who hath been too blame. this is being exalted with feme Excellei^e that properly yours. DIredion. Epictetus's them them their Morals Bounds. to blame. COM- . That you are not proud of an excellence in yourfelf. as being heady minding nothing. right Ufe of his Ideas. not yourfelf to be exalted with any Excellence not properly your own. confider. and brag of his Beauty. Correding and Inftruding them. but the gratifying their own Inclinations.6 fcribes diredls felf. reduces and reilrains them. and abfolutely at his For the proper Virtue of a Child is this Readi- nefs to receive and to obey InQrudions. and which is beft for them. and hath attained to the Perfedion he was intended for . thefe Men are at any time in the wrong. C SUfFer A P. and fo thefe Men never think themfelves The Young Proficients have their Mafter at hand. But the Perfeil and Accompliih'd Philofophers are fuch. whofe Mailer keeps a conftant Eye upon them. but in your Horfe. and But when boaft of it. : What For is is a Man's own ? I anfwer. and begins to fubmit to Rules. verfe Spirit. So that the Ignorant and Untaught live the Life of a Child left to himto that. If your Horfe ihould be tranfported with his Beauty. And when you manage thefe as you ought. the being obfervant to the Mailer. this were tolerable in him you value yourfelf. are perpetually in Fault. and hath conquer'd the Child's ftubborn and per-' So that now he is corredcd and improved'. rungiddily on. and the Child in them is So that if pretty towardly. You will fay then. and the Offender himfelf.

we muft not think ourfelves ever the better. and not to Us. 'tisacktiowledged they do. and the Goodnefs of the Inftruments. that another's Excellence adds any thing to ours For every Good belongs to his own proper Subjedt. but which way does this make for our Commendation? is this the Excellence of a Man ? Or what augmentation can the Virtue or the Happinefs of his Owner receive from it? Yes. That the Things out of our Power are Feeble^ and Servile^ and liable to Oppojition^ and not Ours^ but Another''s. belongs to the Horfe himfelf. when any calamitous Circumftanccs from without threaten our Peace This diredls us. By this Exaltation. and imagining. upon the account of any Advantage whatfoever. which now we have. be^- 4 tween . For if he be Bold. he forbids us to be : THE exalted.Cgmmenr. how to preferve an Even and Compoftd Mind. for inftance. though never fo truly our own) but. According to the common Opinion of the World. And upon the being conl'cious to ourfelves of any fuch feeming Advantages. he hath indeed the proper Excellencies of a Horfe . that we are Becter or Happier upon the account of fome additional Good. to the benefit of the Artificers that ufe them. is the Excellency of an Ax. nor imagine. though never fo real a Good. able to make him a good Carpenter. or Arrogance of Humour. what Method muft be taken to deliver ourfelves from Grief. 69 CO t. this Exaltation fignifies the being fatisfied with ourfelves. and Fleet. Now theie Advantages he calls None of Ours^ in Agreement with what he faid at the Beginning of his Book. and Manageable. fuppofe. and Fear and Confuiion. for that Good which belongs not to us.^ In this. the Excellence of any PoiTeffions. as I apprehend. So thathefays. of a tend to any right in it Horfe. re- How dounds to the PonTeiTor. I underftand here. and no other can preThe Goodnefs . or Haughtinefs. cafe therefore I we would diftinguifb. But pray. in which it fubfifts. when any External Advantages would ihake our Moderation. but had not formerly. you'll fay. and whofe Quality it is. who was not one before.with S I LI c1 s's . as the Word is fometimes ufed in an ill Senfe. not any Infolence. foregoing Chapters acquainted us. (for fllre we are not allowed to be exalted in fuch a manner as this.

this renders it For fit for Service. Ft>r we judge of things by the differetit RepreCenrations oi them to our Minds. Woen we we think to be Evil. or Twenty other profeiTes. conlills inobferving . whic•' is. and . that Ep'tBetus may intend fomething farther Uill. and thofe peculiar to the 'rk-man. fo that Opinion in that place. and thofe Jud^meius are lometimes true. is a ways in our own power . from fomeDefed. becauie the Regulation of our D^lires and Averlions. and : . agrees exadHy with the nature ot things themfeivcs and when we proceed upon thefe Appearances fo. . But the molt proper Sen fe of this Ufe of Ideas. that the Judgments w. thai liitemperance is Good. culative Notion. wiih relation to the Trade he W proper Excellence of an Ax is to carry a to be made neat and true. and Rulis of Art and he is judged by this. for his Excellence. and decline . Ufe and iManagematt of Ideas . carry as it would nothing in them that is falle and inconiiileiit be if we (houid affirm. the firll tning he mentioned of this kind. Temperance Evil.'Proportions. as Nature and Reafon direft. and proper Commendation. and Ideas in this. and for the Work to be cut out by it every Inftrument is commended by its Work.JO I c s's Morals tween the Excenencies peculiar to the Tool . and not by the Work done by him. Th&t PUr Practice and I3chaviouj: ihould exprefs a conftant Con•» . though the f!xerting thefe. by this right ufe of Ideas. becaule that niay happen to fail. but dewhich we think to be Good. is not always fo.. 1 look upon to be a Deiire of thofe things that are Good of thof" thit are Evil. eichcr in theStuff he wrought upon. according to Reafon and Nature. and fometimes falfe. 'wsL'^ajufi and true Opimon but here he calls it a right . or the Tools he wrought with. But whar is properly our own Excellence. upon the account of wh'chwe tnay be admitted to look upon ourfelvts? as better and huppier than we were before ? At thebegintn'iig 0\ this Book. Well. And ihis may very well be called our own proper Excellence. what lire and purfue that and abhor (hat which and an Averfion and DtteOation have not only a barefpcis Good and what is Evil . And yet it is highly probable. Now the right Management of ideas is^ when what appears to Us. (ignifit one and the fime thing. But this contributes nothing to the '^eriedion of the Carpenter. The good Edge. form upon them. accidental Obftrudicns. and making them eifedual by outward ASs.

which are rightly difpofed. no nor with a few faint and feeble Defires of this Virtue. This is the Cafe of Impotent and Incojuinent Perfons . is his working according to the Rules of Art and Proportion fo the peculiar Excellence of a Philofopher. So then. that a Man's Judgment is rightly informed. and Regular Delires That we fliould not think it fulficient to declare it our Senfe. that the Commendableneis of his Pradice hold correfpondence with the Truth of his Opinions. (Irike in. Their Reafqn difcerns what fliould be done. and this we may think our own peculiar Excellence . coniidered as a Carpenter. and make all our Actions fpeak the Conceptions of our Mind. is : . Remorfe and Sen^e of Guilt pull back my Soul^ Butftronger Paffi'tn does her Puw'rs controul \ lVith*Rage tranjported^ I pujh boldly on^ And fee the Precipice I cannot jbun. and the regularity of our Delires upon this occafion: Not to fatisfie ourfelves with the empty Commendations of Jurtice. they dcfire Virtue. to thele LIc I s's Comment. that Temperance is a Virtue. and demonftrating thtm to the World by a Virtuous Converfation. CHAP. depends upon the Ideas and Affeftions of the Mind being Juit and Good and the exerting this Excellence is the calling thefe out into A6t. and that his Delires be virtuoully inclined in many Inllances. For. and whatever we apprehend as Deiirabie too at the fame time. and drive him to what is moll agreeable to his prefent heat. and for awhile ilands up in its Vindication . unlefs he take care. but' fliould be adually Temperate. it is by no means fuflficient. and take its part. as the particular Commendation of a Carpenter. like an Impetuous lorrenr. This is jurt the Deicription I gave before of Aledea.with S I Conformity. 71 : rue Opinions. though not fo clearly and powerfully as it might and ought. and the Virtuous Defires and Averlions. but no External Advantage can ever be fo. but weak and confu' fed. This the right and beft ufe of our Ideas. which I have fo oft had occafion to repeat. . which inclines to Pleafure. bear down all before them. but that Defire is overborn by a llronger. but prefently the brutiih Inclinations.) and yet allow ourfelves \ Ails of liijuilice. (for this is what follows of courie. unlefs he be all of a piece. diAradand divert the Man from his cooler purpofes. when the Tragedian brings her in with thefe Words.

endeavoured to draw us off from the purfuit of thofe External Advantages. without Referve . inftead of Fifti or Sallad.72- I c s's Morals CHAP. when the Mafter calls. HE by (hewing us. and then. Bat now. he acquaints us in the next place. nor any fuch Happinefs as can be properly called Ours. as to bethought to debar us of Marriage. when he gives you the Signal. none of thefe Matters muft be fuftered to detain you. and carried away by Violence. But if you are in Years. and the belt of your made to the Ship. in So here Way be fure you never ftir far from the Ship. to light upon a Beloved Wife or Child. if it be your Fortune. hath by a Short but Ingenious Difcourfe. and with what Limitations we ought to enjoy them. and not be bound. and abfolutely to forbid us the having any thing at all to do with the World and its Advantages . : the Affairs of the World. or Sallads upon the Coaftj this is an accidental Advantage. But when the Mafter gives you the Signal. viz. which give an agreeable reliih to Life. all muft be left. or wrefted beyond its true purpofe. you happen to meet with ShellFiih. and other innocent Enjoyments and SatisfaSions. Thatwefliould leave ourielves and Them at the Difpofal of God. upon which we are ufed to fet fo great a value. that all thefe things are neither in our Difpofal. in fuch an Humble Dependence as . for be out of the way. and it ihould be your great Care to attend the Mailer's Call i that fo. li S when a Ship lies in Port. Xll. left this Argument of his fnould be fofar miihken. fear you C r. which he allows the Enjoyment of. and befide your main purpofe but ilill your Thoughts muft be fixed upon the Ship. you may quit all readily. and you go cut for JlJl Freih water. and refign all this to his Providence. as Sheep muft be ferved •. what things thofe arc.

Thefe things therefore are allowed to be a part of our Care. By the Shipmny be meant. of an Additional Advantage. to the Necefluies of Life. we are to receive and ufe them feafonably. Eftate. he told us before. muii be wholly laid afide: But the Enjoyments of Marriage. for the old Moral ifts in their Fables. But asfor Pleafures. the Tempeilupus Weather to which it lies expofed and the fuifocating all thiit fink into it. while Men were Young and Unexperienced in the Study of Vjrtue. The Roughnefs of its Waves. and Riches. but fuppofes them Inconfiftent with a ftridly Rational and Virtuous Converfation. or whatever elfe you will pleafe to ca^l it. whether it be Fate. and fuch other things. and fuch other Convenieacies of Human Nature. 8 commands . and Preferments. For thefe are what. he will not fo much as admit thefe into the number of his Accidental Advantages. and fuch other Impertinencies. its frequent Ebbs and Floods. who look no farther than juli needful Supplies. and with lubordina- tion to a Higher Good.ows thefe upon us. and failen upon the Mind. when Men have made fiir As ^4 ibme progrefs and are arrived to fuch a degree of Perfefiion. and the like. And for this Reafon. fatisfie themfelves withal. feems to be exceeding proper and pertinent. and . the AlluOon he hath made ufe of for this purpoie. and brings her into this Mortal State. he advifed to have fufpended for a time only. and Honours. have commonly chofen the Sea. as they. When a Bountiful Providence befl. as may qualifie them to ufe thefe with fafety then he allows them to enjoy them. fuch things. but only the Conveniencies of Life. which Epioietus here hath expreifed. and to value them as they deferve: That our Concern is due in the greateft Meafure. and not Now a Principal Defign. y^ as this is. provided Itill it be in the quality . Children. who governs and difpofes all things . 'J'he Mailer of this Ship is God. and Raiment. to reprefent this Mortal State. but he fure to keep our Mind ever fixed upon our Chief and mort Deh'rable Good. as a Wife. to ufe them moderately. do abundantly juitifie the Metaphor. Food . that fo their firfi Beginnings might meet with no-Interruption. and Dwelling. by a Ship's Watering: meaning by this. provided it be but in the Second place. and fuch as Humane Nature cannot fubfift without . thefe he calls Accidental Advamages^ and our main parpofc \ and therefore they are allowed the Third Place in our Eileem..with Si MP LI CI s*s Comment. that which unites the Soul to the Body. or Fortune. as are not abfolutely ueceflary. but take good Root.

like thofe Foolifli and Sheepiih Wretches. The going out for frefh Water. which \s^ That the Perfon. or SheliFiih by the by . which ever obedient to the Ma(ter of the Ship. and Relu6tancy. and an Eftate. and thrown under the Hatches. like Sheep. is the Care we take for fupplying the NecefTities of Nature. and acquainting us withal. that when Providence is pleafed to beltow them upon us. that's moft certain . and give or'der for our returning back to Himfelf. and Family. to vvhom the Enjoyment of Marriage. we are not to refufe them . fome are born in one Climate and Nation. and Country. and fuch World. be ready to obey his firll Orders. but look upon them as addititional Comforts only. and to that which is our true. or indeed fuch Chief as are properly ours.74 commands as his I c s's Morals the Souls into their refpefi^ive Bodies. Make the befl of your vjay ^ (fays our Native Country he) to the Ship. both for the making of our Meat and Drink. ever attentive to his Nor mufl we lay ourfelves out upon thefe Matters. for fear. Some of Virtuous or Hcaithiul Parents. what is there in this Oate of Mortality of fuch general ufe ? what that we can fo little want. without which it is impoliible that Life ihould be fupported And indeed. and thruif out of the Now : . your Inclinations (fill be left on Shore. and Unmanly Lamentations of themfelves and their Friends. when Nature cuts the Cable. and fome in another: Some are defcended from Great and Noble Families. you fliall be tied Neck and Heels. if this Mailer call us to the Ship. The bringing this Ship into Port is the affigning to thei'e Souls their proper Station. and therefore it is that he and tells you. by inflancing in a Wife. orncceffary things. For the is Firft and Good is that Difpoiition of Mind. as we were allowed to do upon Water. according Infinite Wifdom and tender Care fees fit. and do not loiter. Call. and fuch as help to make Life eafie and convenient. as either the principal and mnrt de: own firable Goods. who dye with Cowardice. Go you muft. and in proportion to their own Deferts. and torn away. if you do not follow readily and chearfully quit all of your own accord. that is. as Water? What is intended by gathering Sallads. but fo neither are we to receive or value them. leave every thing that relates to this Mortal Life. himfelf hath very elegantly informed us . or hanker upon any thing behind. by virtue whereof. and others of Vicious and Difeafed ones. you ihall be forced . But there is yet another Caution obfervable here. and others meanly born . .

lad Chapter inilrufled us. But if a Man be Old. THE Nature. -and live always free and eafie. that fo. And furely an Old Man. that things may be juil us yoLi would have thenij but be well pleafed they ihouid be. and his quitting the Shore. Now. than to en^ tertain himfelf with vain Projefis of fettling in it. without any Prejudice or Paffion. fo as to avoid DiuiUiet. when he hath taken as much of thefe as is fit for him. and the Mailer calls . he may remove without any delay. which are necefiary for the Support of Humane tages thoi'e are. and be forced. and failned down to Land.I with S LIc I s's Commenr.f thefe things allowed under fuch Limitaeions. what External Advanwhich we are allowed to partake of. CHAP. but that neither the One. juil as ihey arcjand the you will live eaiie. to leave a Young Wife. he will do beft to keep himfelf wholly difengaged and entertain himfelf with nothing fo inuch. with a great deal of unbecoming Concern . are allowed. hath much greater reafon to prepare for leaving the World. as is featbnable. XIII. nor the Other. and Pretty Children behind. and draws near his End . thofe. 7^ inch others as are the additional Advantages of Life. muil be made our Chief Aim. he prortecs here to dired us. . The great ObilruOlion to this is a perpetual rctfulnefs of Temper. and readily comply with the Mailer's Firft Call. Rouble not yourfelf with wiihing. when the time of his Return comes. for fear. which are convenient as x^dditional Comforts. and how we mud govern ourfelves with regard to them . he be retarded by his Burden. and only things by the bye. after the Enjoyment (. by what means we may ufe and enjoy them. and repining at whatever hMOpens . upon all Accounts. that thofe. COMMENT. muft be fure to indulge himfelf in fuch Enjoyment of them only. muil be ufed and valued accordingly. as the conftant thought and Eipe6tation of the Ship's Sailing.

that have driven them part all Senfe of God and Religion. and Bladings of Fruit. this may poffibly be cenfured by Some. but the empty Names . many other Calamities. Burning and Sacking of Cities. and ges remaining . and unbounded Lull. So that in effeft. becaufe we do not fee the Nature and Gonfequences of them Or the predominancy of our Paffions. either upon the account of our Ignorance. the Ravaging whole Countries. but by one of that Providence (hould order all things agreeable to our Humour. as Earthquakes. fiiould be matter Now ' of .) we have no more than fome faint Shadows. The Former of thefe. and the like. appoint. the Imprifonments and Slaveries. Or that we fliould bring our own Humour to be fatisfied with whatever Providence thinks fit to order. which thi: prefeiit Age is perfe6tly over-run with . and indeed an Impraoticaple Precept. for it often happens. that we are moil eager and fond of thofe things. and imperfeii Imafay. when he pretends to perfuade People. (fuch as Phyfick. and Architedure. the Rapine. . and immediate Difcoveries of Heaven. the Murders and Robberies. which are This comes to pafs. nor would it at all times be for our Advantage. can never be cured. that thefe. and inclines Reafon to comply with the Senfual and Brutiih part.7 pens to us. that Providence Ihould appoint every thing juft as we ihould have it. that they ought to be well pleafed^ things he as they are: For what Man of Common Senfe can be fo. fo refigned a Difpoiition. and have fo utterly ruined feveral Arts and Sciences. as to (it down well content with whatever Providence fees good to prejudicial to us. that fuch dire eifeds of Providence. and Fires. that we have nothing and of others . and monflrous Wickedneffes. and Friendfhip. and Mutual Faich. and Virtue. and that is. and Murrains of Gattel. is neither pofiiole for us to bring about. ought to be look'd upon as the efpecial Gifts. is it poffible. as an exceeding hard. which puts a Byafs upon the Judgment. thefe Epictetus's Morals And ways : this Two Either. which left of fome . for the benefit and fupport of Mankind.. and utterly deftroyed Morality. if we could. and Violence. and Peftilences. and that no Man can be in good earneil. there is but One way left to be eaiie . or that the Wicked and Barbarous Infolencies Men are guilty of to one another. which it hath coft many Ages to contrive and bring to maturity. to be of fo equal. and Famines. How. and Inundations. when he obferves the publick and genetal Calamities of Mankind? Is it poflible.

which give fometimes great Per^l^^llJl ". upon fuppoiition that thefe Accidents are really Evil. be pleafed to have them fo. notwithft-anding our dreadful Apprehenfions of them. thefe things ^ it naturally courts and admires. and direded to excellent Purpofes . 77 of Pleafure or Contentment takeSatisfailion. charge the Evil we :• ow^. no Arguments in the World are able to produce thefe Affedions . u will by ftrcnglmpulfes of our upon find in the ihele Occaiions. or the great Governor of all things be granted to order the World in Wifdom and Juftice l• or our Piety.I with S LIc ? I s's Comment. to Almighty God. But whatever is for Its Benefit. but fuch as is Thus much no means follow. and that If any Evil do indeed attend thefe Difpenfations. are generally efteemed to be. if either Epidetus be allowed to have any Au thoruy m what he fays. affure us InanfwertWoretotheObjeaion. and ruj away from all things that are prejudicial to it themfelves. certain. And who in feeing."^ °"'y ^" ^^^ ^^""^ ^"^ Common Man. For let pretend ^yhat they will. that any Good Ihould without forfeiting that Gharader. them ? nay . that can or bearing a pan in as endure the very hearing forfaken of all Humanity more fully hereafter. World his bur mufc acquit . ihall I fay. but to the 1 hinkmg and more Accompliihed Perfons. or pay Adoration to fuch a Deity. or the caufe of other things being fo to it. will be fure to terrain nate in the fame Objeft. this is whai the Nature ot the things is no way concern'd in. that he. if. as Epidetus himfelf will is there. but rather Good . as conducing very much to feme mighty Benefit. . it is notpoffiBlb. It is a Principle I fay. rooted you. and produdive of its Happinefs. and fuch as they which Man Men Men as Eptdetus will iliew in every Creature and decline. and our Advantage. theie deplorable Accidents. wnois well enough pleafed all things fliould be iuft as they are is either a Vicious or a Barbarous Man : nor can we. will receive fatisfadion. who can fo much them named except he be firft " and all Goodnefs? Such Doubts as thefe. to hate. they be in truth no fuch matter. That if all the Objedor hath given be really Evil. fo Tragica an Account of. nor could ever prevail with themfelves. or love. nor could the Providence of Almiirhty God be acquitted from the Imputation of being the caufe of Evil to us . But now. for the Author of Mifery and Mifchief. to honour. with any colour.M-L'''"^ own Minds In '?•'''' P'i""'' '"^ this caie.

But if we come nearer. thii Variety can be no 111 to them. their Office and Power extends no farther. and thofe that are contained within others. no Power of Determining the Deiires or Affedions of their Nature . Whatever Changes thefe undergo. are fuSjcd to the Motions of Heavenly Bodies. and an ElTence and Excellence diftind from their Bodies. of the fame Date and Duration with the Body. fliould depend upon the Eternal for their Subiiiience. Pirft ofal!. upon the Ambients that contain them. Juft as the Shadows of Bodies do not chufe their Sides or Shapes as they pleafe. or the worfe. and be obedient to their Influences: Mechanical Beings. and the various Alterations through which : Now they pafs. which ii fluence their Generation and Corruption. and are never the better. whether they be Compound or Simple Bodies. Now the Bodies belonging to thefe. upon fuch. in which all thefe feemin^ Evils are. being in their own Nature purely Mechanical. their refpcotive Bodies. and deriving their EiTence from External Gaufes. but are neceflarily determined by their Caufes and their Circumftances. and from whence they fpring . as are endued with a Faculty of Self-Motion. either as Bodies or Souls. that thefe ftiould follow the other Superior to them. and proceed in Conjun(5ion with. than merely the animating thofe Bodies to which they belong . as to Bodies. anddefcend to the immediate and Matetiai Caufes . And of thefe Souls again. P'or this is agreeable to all the Reafon in the World . This is the conftant Method and Rule of Nature. no Faculty of Chudng. and having none. but arc only Good or Evil. muft be confidered in this Condirion of IVIortality. and areabfoluie in the difpofing their own Deiires and Inclinations. as having no Principle of Motion in themfelves.becaufe it is what the Condi- Now tion . or but very little peculiar Excellence of their own. fome are irrational. Good. as undergoing theviciflltudts of Generation and Corruption. they move by their own Choice. Epictetu s's and acknowkdge it Morals to be infinitely Wife and the Things. in refped and proportion to their Caufes. then they are moved and affeded by a mutual Operation upon one another. no Merit or Demerit from Choice<ir Adions. But other Souls are Rational Thefe have an inward principle of Motion.78 hh Providence. and therefore all their Motions depends upon. for th Te Determinations. that Temporary and Corruptible things.

arefometimes ftrength• throwing off the corrupt Parts. by which bound in Laws ihe is enabled tpfubdue and over-rule them. and recovers itfelf from that Weaknefs. Nature throws them off from the Heart. nor the moft brutifli and extravagant Converiation. though Inundations. But farther. as each of the Ingredients in Compoiition made fome Impreiiion upon its Oppofite. or of the Whole. Secondly. and fuffered by it.with S tion of their I LIc I s's Comment. in the Elements which compoie the Univerfe. and given her a Power over thebrutifh Appetites. by Dileafes. Qualities.^ This is a Rule. nor would the Rational Soul be one whit the worle for either. fuch as are perpetually ftruggling with. For Ignorance would be no Evil. and mutual Strife of contrary Qualities in them And in this Cafe. and ufurping upon one another. was. each of the Simples is reftored to its primitive Mafs. or though Peftilences and Earthquakes Ihould dcftroy and daih in pieces the Bodies compounded of thofe Elements. the Corruption of one Thing produces the Generation of another . of contrary Qualities. l. in Comparifon of the Good Humours are redundant in the Body. or Fire. But now. or Bowels. according to the Changes of the conried by Decay and Death. how then can the Corruption of any (ingle part be Evil. which the> may ne>her controul nor relilt . no Power to do otherwife. in tfary flighting the Advantage of its Parts. when any Noxious . when the Simples are changed. by whatever they impole. had not Nature endued her With a Faculty of Dii'cerning and Underftanding the Truth. Becaufe the Compound Bodies. they return again to their own primitive Being. and every particular Creature praftifes it. and Exqefs of Humours. which was Occaiioned by this Oppofition of contrary Hurrlours. Thus. fo it likeWife continually received fome from it. and Air is turned into Fire. from whence it originally And I cannot fuppofe any Evil in Things of this Kind. For. which Nature itfelf haih made evident to us. when at the fame time it conduces to the Benefit of the Whole. and forrietimes by are delivered from all that Trouble and Pain. as having. which Gonfill of fimple Ingredients. fhould be the Effefl: of thefe Inequalities. Thus Water evaporates into the Air from whence it came. if by the infinite Revolutions of Matter and Motion. and cdnfequent'y can receive uo Ham. of any the moft violent Changes in Nature. 79 They are Nature hath made them liable to.f thefe Things contribute to fome good Eff^St . irrevocable.

From hence it appears. into the Hands. and whatever they endured had no relation at all to the Souls of Men. of a: Nature fuperiour to the Body. which he fuffers upon fuch good Accounts. and do that by Medicines. and are in infeparable Conjun^iion with. and is fubjed to the fame Cafualties with the Body: They have no Dignity. that if Bodies fubfiiled by themfelves alone. and cut off Limbs. their Power and their Operations (ub: . the Feet. and are not exercifed with thofe Motions. But Beafts are in a higher tables. the work of Nature. in a Capacity fuperiour to Vege. And therefore the Souls of Brutes. and want the Senfitive one. abundantly proved already. nor thinks thofe Pains Evil. by which they difpofe their own Inclinations and (All which hath been Defires. ading upon a free Principle of Motion and Choice.Agency.^ which accompany the Soul. we endeavour to fupply it by Art. I fay. Their ElTence . and all the parts that are principally concern'd in tbefundions ofLife. according to the Dignity of their refpedive Bodies and are as irrefiftibly difpo- Now . which have only a Vegetative Soul. This is fometimes. no manner of Tendency or Appetite from within. and are endued with This alfo. no Merit or Demerit of thtir own. For when Phyficians and Chirurgeons draw Sores. would be efteemed Evil So that. but are more or lefs valuable. and fear. to fave our Lives . if there be any real Caufe for this Complaint. and cup. and when it is not fo. or Brain. the Deiires.8 ' II Epictetus*s Morals I I I ( or Lungs. And no Wife Man blames thefe Methods. Some' of thefe are Irrational . none of the different Changes they ondergo. as Shadows are to their Subftances. fhe raifes Blifters. the fame Fate. . a Principle of their own. perfeilly of a piece 'with the Bodies. and fcarify. the Body. and is content to corrupt fome parts. But Others are Rational. they only imitate Nature. being conlidered in a middle State. and no more than the animating part of them. or any of the Extreme Parts . as they fee fit themfelves. the Skin. This is more peculiarly the Condition of Plants .) the Irrational Souls have not the leaflSignor Footftep of Free. and depend entirely upon. Now fiftin. which ihe was not able to do without them. and caufes Putrefadions. It is true indeed. for the prefervation of the whole. but are only the principle of Life and AdiviConfequently their Being was ordained by ty to the Body. and diftind from it. fed to their Motions. and vehement Impul fes of Form. to remove the Humour . it murt be upon the account of the Souls in thofe Bodies.

But if the Soul contract too Intimate a Familiarity with the Body. of Appetites and AiFcftioiis arifing from within . and maintains her own Superiority over it. and fometimes contrary to it.. that fo the lubCequtnt Pain in ihe very fame Inftances. derives its Dignity from Choice. and Honours. according to the Difpofition which Fare and Nature have given them . and. than it ought to be. and this is fometimes more. and hath an abfolute Dominion over her own Dt fires and Propenh'ons. and the like. fary^ that whatever is placed between two Extremes. and^rowfond of it. Thus. 8i and yet inferiour to fuch as Nature hath made free Agents.(iied with' muft in I From whence it was . But now the Rational Soul. As when a Lion hath that Courage and Fury agreeable to its kind. but hath all its Appetites and Paflions at her DeThis Soul therefore. Body. lonie Foot-ltcps at leaft. but a part of itfelf then it communicates in all its Afflictions. and Foils of Authority. to fay. to cure thefe DiitemFor it is a Ruleia Application. only as an Inftrument of A(9ion. may corred and challite ihc Excefs Of Pleafure We formerly took in them» And this is no where R 2. it ilands in need of Phyfick and ftrong Remedies. when ihe makes ufe of the votion. Sheufes the Body indeed. fhotild in fome nleafure partake of each of thofe Exti ernes. allReafon have fomeRefemblance.ai Socratei thofe Pains. how to compais external ObjeSs. and loinetimei And in this rcfped. the Dignities lefs. when the Defire is depraved by cured by another. there is a neceflity of meeting with iifed CroiFesand Difappointments. by the Love of Senfual Enjoyrnents. whichisfuch. and is eternally contriving. and fuch as ihall be moved. the Anguiih was in the Leg. which is a Free Agent. bur not in the Mind. that the gr. by the Suiferings and Difeafes of the Body. that they are ftil moved For it is neceftnechanically. and hath conformed itlelf to the Body too much.' and Riches. and efteems all the Extravagancies of Ai ger andDeiire its own. is enilaved to them. and Degrees of fuch Souls are different. is obflruded in all thole Optrati-r ens. and Preferments. with tables SiMPLicius*s Comment. Jjufcioufnefs and Pleafure. defcends to little Trickings. as if it were no longer or rather its very felf its Inftrument. in luch manner as a Soul is capable of being difeafed. and by external Impreffions. fometimes in Agreement to the Nature of its p>articular Species. that one Contrary is pers. degenerates into' Brute. being thus corrupted and difeafied. in which the Body bears a part. and their Lives are fotoo. WLOtt- . but it is not itfelf at all att't.

than miferable in it . And this is the Reafon . a Wifli. and faften'd down to thefe Enjoyments. and forfakes her own Reafon» abandoning herfelf to theBody and the World. do the Soul . to wean our AffeQions. and thinking Their Enjoyments and Their Happinefs her own. In fuch Cafes then. of putting her oiit of Conceit with thefe Things . and by this means grows vitiated and difternpered. or is otfenfive to hi» Stomach. that it gives him Gripings. and prevent the much more lafting Pains. or fixes Things clofer. there feems no other way left. which they are fatisfied ought not to be in: : ! How dulged . which no Man would ever make if he were always eafie and profperous. and puts Wormwood and Muftard upon theBreaft. he deals with us as Nurfes do with fucking Children. to become naufeous and painful to us . ihe continues fond of. is content afterwards to forbear the gratifying his Palate. This only can take off the Propenfity of that Pleaixire. and expeft all her Happinefs from an Obedience to thefe) but by making her fenfible. and of the Smart that follows them. who loves any at firft by a Principle of Fear Meat or Drink prejudicial to his Health. than in Pains and Pleafures of the Body. than Pleafure and the Allurements it brings . This is the Cafe of moft of us For alas very few are content to forego even thofe Pleafures. fo long as ihe continues to find this. and hath found by Experience. and return to God and right Reafon. and makes what we are fondeft of. by a Profped and Dread of a much greater. and make us loath Things which are no longer convenient for us.Epictetus's Morals morerequifite. provided that Abftinence will but fecure his Eafe. (that fo ihe may defpife them. why our skilful and tender Phyficiati mingles Bitter with our Sweets. to the Objeds that occaiion it. which (lie hath felt in and by them : For. again. atid more complicated Mifery that attends it: As Children are brought off from what is hurtful to them Or a Man. both of the Evil of her former Courfes . the firll Choices of our Minds are determined to the lefs of two Evils . and condemn herfelf. And no Nail takes fafter hold. "vfrhich that ihort Pleafure ufes to bring after it. For this is neareft to the Soul . When therefore the Soul hath revolted from her Supreme Gommander. they%)refer Death before Bodily Pain and Afflidions. And thus. and poifing the Byafs that carried her to them . and had rather be quite out of the Body. by Degrees. and its Torments are received with a quicker and more tender Senfe than any other. we are wrought up to an Hatred and Averfion of prefent Pleafure.

This abftaining from Pleafure for fear of fome greater Pain. than the Pleafures they afford and fo returning to Reafon. and the like.3 with from them? Stmp Lie lus's Comment. and the Rod. as Cutting and Burning. and his tender Care over us That the Soul Ihould neither cling too faft to the Body and its Pleafures. as the exchanging of one Paffion for another. and reverencing his Image in our Souls . we chufe a wife and good Life. could have driven them to. So that all the healing Methods of his Providence are direSed to no other purpofe than this . But yet this is a very good Method tobegia with. and the Enjoyments of the World. do it only with a Defign. Co long as they find no Trouble or Inconvenience i Now the Truth is. come iat laft to decline. and to enable the Parts which were before obftruiled. which : . when they proceed to fuch fmarting Severities. For even Children. andexpeded in vain from the Ddights of the Body. confifts in our own Choice. that we may grow jealous and fearful of thofeThings. And this is the Defign of our good God. and all our Evil. which at firft nothing but Fear. and when this Diftafle is once given. Puniihment is the beft Cure fo^Wickednefs . but from its own free generous Choice. or the Advantages of the World . is not fo properly the fubduing or deftroying our Paflion. as confidering. befides their being Vicious the very Uneafinefs and Troubles that attend them. while we retain our filly ChildiihDifpofitions. that our Happinefs is really within our owa felves. and to the Preferring a Virtuous Life. that. when driven only by Principle of Fear . by confidering their Nature. to perform their proper Fundions again. 85 dulged. then. that all our Good. nor yet abftain from them. and finding. . For we are willing to make a faving Bargain. and our own Averfions. but from the more generous Principles of a virtuous and well-inftrufted Mind. now no longer out of Fear. and barter the Pleafure of Enjoyment away for the Pleafureof Eafe and Security And thus one Paflion rifes up in fucceffion to another. andobferving. . thofeThings out of Judgment and Inclination. and this is fhc peculiar Ufe and Benefit of thou Calamiiies. are more exquifite. Now iv 3 W§ . Juft as the moft eminent Phyficians. when they grow wifer. and to do. to which our Inclinations lead us moil. by Degrees growing confcious of fome Refemblance between Us and God. to reftore the Soul to Reafon and Prudence. to reduce the Body to its natural and healthful Temper. and more various. and thus .

thofe Things which are fo ordered. as the Phyfick applied to our Bodies is of One Reftoraiive. to purge off our Difeafes. Two the : and . upon Occafion of the feveral Accidents that befall hlin. due /ii^/wf•». that dofo. and correfi the Noxious humour? py E)rugs of contrary Qualities. the Other Perfervaiive . Bur. but Sloth andlnadivity waftes it. For whoever will givehimfelf the Trouble. the Other to continue and confirm Health. Put thofe that are not thus continually. and renders their Virtue more confpicious . That AffliSions are generally the firft Occafion of Mens conquering their Inclinations. The Reafon is plain. And.w we at I c s's Morals account Evils. and moderate Ex crcife: And as fome Exercifes require great Lar hour and Adivity. and are continually employed in fuch Operations. when any urgent Occafion calls foe the exerting their Ppvyers For whatever is fomeiimes in. That Motion gives Strength. And this is but neceiTary . or (as our great Author expiciTes. that they are continually as perfed as Nature intended them. and takes Notice of the Difpofitions of his Soul . and coming up46 a due Contempt of the Body and the World. do Men likewife generally take it ill. the Souls of Men. The One. and by fo doing. to have thefe (harper Remedies of Providence applied to them. by convenient Diet. he. Ana Hippocrates' s Maxim will hold good upon this occafion too. adds to their Strength and Vigour. muft imitate and fupply the Want of that perpetual Motion by their own Pradice . even the Good and Virtuous. of making a diligent Obfervation of himIplf and others. and find themfelves at a Lofs. I make noqueftion. and are fit only for hardy and robuil Bodies So this excellent Phyfician of our Souls does not only adminifter to the Sick and Difeafed. when they torture and put us to Pain . no lefs than healthfui Bodies do. (land in need of Exercife to confirm them. as we are commonly very angry our Phyiicians. that fo they may not forget by Difufe. perform thefe Operations with great Readinefs and Dexterity.himfelf) of all thofe things that are put of our bwn Power. as Nature appointed for them. but he exercifes the Sound and Healthful. and recover them by Sufferings and Misfortunes . But they are only the Ghildiih and Effeminate.u "springs they are moved. a Patterp to others. and a Provocation to be good. and how they are correded and changed. for. will readily acknowledge. by wh. for. the Fooliih and unthinking i'art of the World. forts.

Now all Exerdfe conlifts in the lame A6ts frequently repeatother nefs. do not differ in Nature and Kind. but in Degree and Duration only. and affi^ned them to the Condition in which we live at prefent. we muft imitate the Patience of the Noble Laceaamonian Youths . is the inuring themlelves to Blows. fluggiih. as Salujl ia our Times did. For thefe Tryals. This which hath made fo many Illuftrious Heroes . and exercifed themfelves in every Thing that was painful. and engaging one Party with another. when they train together: And' the more luily and ftrong the Perfons are. iSo as to receive no Injury. and they that would conquer Pain. and their Excellencies loft . to learn and pradife the Contempt of them. that laid a red-hot Coal upon his Thigh. This-made Hercules^ and Thefeus^ and Diogenes^ and Socrates^ to become is it Perfons of fuch eminent Virtue and Renown. 10 what wonderful Perfedipn K. . I (ay. to qualifie them for it Or do. and puts the Soul upon meny Conflids. and blow'd the Fire. of ed . and to flight Torments. comeilcs its own Weakwhich this VicilTuude is the Effeft. and that in order to the Cafius and Cuffing. 85: Times out of Motion. Their Charaders would have been little. when he difpoied of Mens Souls in Mortal Bodies. who perform thefe Exercifes. it is neceflary. as thefe ar? ealier and lighter. the more effeflually does this pradice attain itj end. Since therefore Almighty God. muft ufe themfelves to endure it.with and ac SiMPLicius's Comment. to try how long he was able to undergo the Smart. and Strength acquired by Adion. fame infinite Wifdom that they (hould not grow and flack for want of Adtion fliarp keeps thofe Faculties in Exercife. who plai4 Prizes of Scourging. endued them with Faculties capable of managing every Accident. the very fame. and to mafter our Fears. whenever any entertaining Objeds offer themfelves. So that if any Man would get a Maftery over Pleafure. with that principal Ad. the Excrcife ufed toferied them in Wreftling. for the fake of which we ufe this Excrcife. Thus Meri learn the Art of War by imitating Adion . and confequently feeble. and the principal Adions they are intended to perfed us in . is WreftUng very often . or from the Terrors and Difafters : of the World) and of fetting the the Mind above them all. we mull make danger familiar to us. either from the enticing Pleafures. and may be defifted from at Plealure. nor would Mankind ever have known. that. when there is Occafion for exerting her Powers. Thus in the Olympick Sports. ihe may not be found Unexpertand Uefcilive. ^ . and that Weakncfs muft be worn off.

or as Tryals» and Exercifes to confirm our Health and Strength. nor Cruelty. Again. deferve to be thanked and rewarded for it. and whatever is Juil.lted Virtue can carry them. for a due regard to this is Juft. and makes thtm a perfect Sport and Diverlion. though they be grievous for the prefent. how harih and unpalatable foever the Application may feem For at this rate. confidered abfolutely and by themfelves. who put us to thefe Pains for our Advantage. and enable Men to difdain thole Calamities. and fevere Abftinence. is Good: Nay.c"T s *s Morals if an ex. when we confider AffliSions. that Exercife fhould fail in Matters of lefs Difficulty. are not Evil. 86 feftf. that. no Man that confiders the Matter well. which none erteem infupportable. who have not hardened theml'elves by Pradice? From all vvhich we may conclude. nor Revenge. either in the Quality of Remedies to cure our Difteinpers. .md add infinitely to their Fortirude and Patience. why do we find Fault with Almighty God. Whether Afflidions do'noi better thofe that have fuppont'd them as they ought. which receives fuch mighty Benefit both thefe ways. how can we itnagine. tha: Ufe rtconciles Men to the moil formidable Dangers. Since thenweallow. as Nature and Choice both require. and Lopping off of Limbs. infomuch that they enter the Lift cheerfully. there had beeii no !uch Things as Wild Beafts and Monfters. N/w. Since wethink. . For fince we fee by the Initances of Giidiators and the like. and condemn all thofe Medicines and Exercifes as Evil. we muft run into another intolerable Abfurdity. are infeniible . to perpetuate the Memory of thefe Worthies. even Cutting and Burning are not Evil to our Bodies for thefe Bodies . and » lay their Prizes for a very fmall Confideration . cannot be Evi) . but they only. that Phyfick and Exercife. to which. and provdke the Pi oofs of their Courage and Refolution. when they turn their own Executioners. think. it is not Anger. when He proceeds in the fame Method? For alas.)!) F 1 . in refpeft of the Body. and the Refolution of a Compound into its Simples is not in Nature Evil to that Compound. Burning and Binding. nor any Defign r : '•of' . Tyrants and wickfd Opprcflors Mortification. nor Injuftice. but Good. and recommend their Exairples to Pofterity. they cannot be Evil with reiped to the Soul. thePerfons. will doubt.. whatever is done in fuch Proportion and Manner. and all the Tortures that Men ufe. all our Recovery and all the Continuance of our I Health is owing.

Which yetfurely is aCenfure too Severe to be jultified. or Difgrace. For there is no Man fo fottiih and fenfelefs. Now the Remedies he adminifters upon fuch Occafions. but yet we do it from our Deiire of Health. fo far as iTiuft make ufe of for it. Operation. to Qur Happinefs. If any one ihall fcruple the calling of thefe things Good. to fay all in one Word. though indeed they be fo in a Qualified Senfe only. the Philofophers have with great Propriety ftyled all thofe things neceifary Expedients. that puts him upon thefe Courfes. Some. all t/iefe. becaufe that other is not to be had without them. In Order to which. or Poverty. but are Necellarj. as come immediately froiTi his own Hand and Others by more remote gind diftant ones . are divers. and for the fake whereof. but Good. or Earthquakes. and fuch as we Thefe very Things then. that we may feel in the . and fo think them comparatively Evil. and much inferiour in Dignity and Value to thofe Things it is that are abfolutely Good. for their own fakes .wich SiMPLicius's Comment. 87 of Tormenting us. as to chufe Amputations and Searings. but he aSs with all the Skilt and prudent Care of a Phyfician. . if Phy-r lick and the Methods of Cure be not Evil . with the Faithfulncfs and Tendernefs of a Friend. and in that refped. with the kindcft Intentions of our greater Benefit. and rather call them neceifary Expedients. (as all things abfolutely. And indeed. Some with the more publick Calamities of Famints. Some he humbles with Difeafes. But ftill. and Inftruments of punifliing one another. which thefe Means muft be affifting to us in. as they contribute to the Health of the Body. and Others to that of the Soul. that the Generality of People look upon them. or Inundations^ or Shipwrecks. are themfelves (aood. Some he cures with fuch Medicines. and truly Good muft be) yet at leaft let hini forbear Itigmatizing them with the Name of Evils. making ^en the Minifters of his Juftice. potwithftanding any Unealineis. for the attaining what is truly Good. and. or any fuch violent Remedies. becaufe they are not eligible purely for their own fakes. with the Bowels of a Father. which are fo ordered. which is any way agreeable to the Nature and Perfe£tions of a God. as to be preliminary to our Good. we chufe thefe. or Wars. with all that incomprehenfiD e Love and Goodnefs. and all other Remedies muft be allowed to be fo too. they conduce to our Good. And with regard to thefe more excellent Things. if they do not only Contribute.

Calamitous Circumitances are a fort of Remeof proper Phjfick. yet it (till appears to be for the Advantage of the Soul that owns that Body. and Rertoring the Simple Elements to their proper MuiTes. this miferable Condition that renders fuch painful Applications nectflary. and the Recovering fuch as are Diftempered. and that the Adminiftration were injurious to one particular Body. 88 If then the in that all PicTETU s*s Morals Objedor's Arguments are fufficiently refuted» Things that happen are fo ordained of God. . which was by Nature corruptible. and that the Author of it is not theCaufeoi Evil to us ? To this j)urpofe. and the Better Ends are ferved. and as is mod beneficial to Mankind. and the Eternal Revolutions of Things are continued and kept up by this . 1 fhall briefly recoiled what was obferved before. as that Nature and Choice have both their due. and to the Conftitution of the Univerfe in general . himfelf obliged are^ (unlefs . and honour.. Neither can the Difeafe of the Body be Evil to the Soul . is Good and not Evil. which are therefore Infinite becaufe the Defiroying of one thing becomes the Produdion of another. the Releaiing them from a Ibange place where they were kept in Bondage. Every Wife Man certainly will think . for it hath been already ihewn to be its Phyiick. and tending to a diflblution of the Compound. and need (harp Remedies. that this very Dillemper ilfelf of Soul or Body. no Body I prefume will take upon him to dil'pute. and putting an end to the perpetual Combat of oppofite Qualities among them. to be well content things pould be jufl as they you will fuppnfe him to envy the Giving every Thing its Due. and adore this Excellent Phyfician and look upon him. Well therefore may the wife Governour of all things not value a Creature. That Difeafes are not Evil to the Body itfelf. and its Cure: And thus Experience often Ihews it to be. as the World's great and only Benefador. means. But what courfe (hall we take to perfuadeMcn. that Sickneis and Corruption that dies. and the infinite Revolutions of Matter and Motion. Bat perhaps you will ted with regard to the fay. But granting. where the cafe requires it. Refolving each of its Parts. Now. as being by Nature made fubjed to them. and difregard a particular inconfiderable Corruption confined to a fingle inltance. though yet all this ihould be admit- Body how ftall we account fop^ the . is good both to the Body and Soul .) he will moft iiiicerely love. of the Elements of which it is formed. when the whole Creation is benefitted.

concerning the Caufe ofEviland Viceiothe Soul . with what was difcourfed before. if thefe Matters proceeded from any External Caules this Virtue or Vice would be no longer Choice. which is Almighty God. fuch as So the Virtues proper to HuTemperance. while we were explaining £. but is itfelf. and fees and futfers her SickneiTes. above the power of Frailties and Difeafes. Now?• in anfwer to thisScruple. would be no fuch thing. And confequently our Evil and Mifery can. I hope the Delires and Averiions have been fufficiently proved to be in our own Difpofal . as our Bodies. and Pru- dence. in fome degree. with no colour of Reafon and Juftice. or fatal Neceffity. muft needs be the Caufe Author and Ordainer of this (fate and he that is content (he ihould be thus depraved. unlefs the Soul were of fuch a Nature.with Simp LI CI s's Comment. then we ourfelves are the Caufe of our own Vices and as to this particular. which bears fome Atiinity to that. becauie in truth. viz. muft needs be an 111 natur'd Being and therefore. under in it. And for the fame Reafon^ Wicked Men are condernned and reproached. be charged upoa Virtues. not indeed drive this Argument a great deal far- and urge. common. for which re^fon the Greeks call Virtue by a Name. neceffary to the very Being of Virtue among Men? For. I beg leave to refrefh yourMemory. if Nature had not made them capable of Sicknefs and Infirmities. this would not be Health. and vjkat is not in our own power. and if fo. which is properly the Difeafe of the Soul. when it is in their own Power to be otherwife. could not properly be faid at any time to enjoy a ftate of Health. That the Good and Happinefs of the Soul confifts in Prudent and Regular Defires and Averiions. but a fimple and fix'd Difpoiition. Now This is the true ground of all that Commendation. which imports Chuling. May we ther. and all the reft of that Glorious Catalogue. becaufe they are fuch through their own Sloth and Bafenefs ot Soul. the Difficulty remains ftill . as is . is not pofitively and in all refptols Evil. So that the .'/V?ii/^i's Diftindion between what is. but blind Chance. the fame. fuch 1l% the Celeftial Beings enjoy: mane Souls. and Juftice. nor does it contribute any Advantage totheCreatioa o\ Evil to her. But now. that even Vice. and that the Evil and Mifery of it proceeds from fuch as are Vicious and Exorbitant. 89 is the Difeafes of the Soul ? The frail and diftempered State (he can neither be for the good of her felf that languiiftts . thought due to Good Men. that their Happinefs and Excellence is the Effeot of their own free Choice.

be yet Good. or a God. the exceeding Goodnefs of God is very remarkable. For which Reafon it is. and indeed the only thing. Becaufc acquits himfelf. (hould derive ihemtelves from the great Original and common Source of all Good. that He hath ordained the Diffolution of the Body. But as for Vice. then here was likewife a neceflity. as I ihewed before. by reafon of that infinite Succeffion of Changes and Motions. caft into ihofe that brive. Becaufe. Secondly. which. it depends wholly upon the Choice and Determination of the Soul. are renewed. even after all thefe Limitations. is in fome Senfe an involuntary Misfortune to (he Soul. This Diffolution he hath made even a good thing. proves to be Evil. as they are cured and made better by this Means . and Fix'd Beings. And in this. If then Hamane Virtues in the Soul . andean have no Being at all. and hath no part in it at all. without our own Conient and adual Concurrence. and alfo to the Univerfe in common . but only a fort of additional one. but as being itAnd felf a necelTary Expedient for the promoting of Good. keep continually on Foot. and be corrupted. For the Soul never i chttfesi : . and fo the Simples out of which they are compounded. to be depraved. both of God and Man. And indeed. and if the Order of Nature required.) and with regard to the Souls that own and ufe them. though neither of them abfolutely Uniform and Inflexible. to go unpuniihed. and that not in the quality of Evil neither. whofe peculiar Excellence it is. all Evil whatfoever. that there ihould be De. fuffer fuch Aftions as are done involuntarily. when well confidered.9 is liable I c hor s's Morals would be graced). does as neceffarily follow upon Matter and Motion. (as they are reftored back again to their Primitive Elements. which as I fai i. that. of this he utterly Firft. and if the Health of the Body. but it is a Quality rooted in the very Nature of Men and Humane Virtues. pravations of fuch good things as are fubjicl ti• be depraved. at this rate Ihe . the Evil of the Soul . but with the Perfections of not Avith the Virtues of a Man an Angel. Simple. or deviate into Vice. both with regard to the Bodies fo Difeafed and Diilolved. as the Shadow attends upon its Subftance. that they can never be feduced. which thefe DiiTolutions. he only permits to it an Additional and Accidental Being. Others of a Middle and Inferior Nature. that »ll the Laws. that they may degenerate. befide the Firil. which h^ve not any poiitive and abioiute Exiftence of their own.

a greater and more valuable Good. coiiiidcred as Evil. than that which God hath made him? Though at the fame time we mud allow. a Great. both of its own Good. is (in my Opinion) a in proportion to the Now. what account can be given. in a lower Degree. as fometimes Riches. than even this Accidental Being in the Now Soul. is thereby made . and underftinds at all wherein the peculiar Excellence of a Man confifts. than all the Advantages of the World beiides. ing. 91: chufes Evil. or elie they are leflen'd and iiifled.with S 1 LIc 1 s's Commenr. an Arbitrary Prince. or under any Reftraint not to aft as we would have them . when confidered in all And that. why then (hould he. then he who gave this Faculty. that God is the Caufe of Evil. a moft Magnificent and Royal Prerogaand the Perfon in whom it is lodged. and V7e have the fole Difpofal of this Matter. the Mifchiefs attending Greatnefs. and can chufe whether it will fo deviate or no. with any tolerable Juftice. fince tive in . and a qualified Senfe. indeed. of the Soul itfelf .laid. be in our own power to be Good and Happy. fo that nothing can poflibly bring our Defires or our Averiions. but to the charge. or Honours. as an abfolute Evil. But if fuch a Power inuft be confeCTed the Caufe of Evil be Good. may fooner be. a Happy. and Abfolute Power as this. and chofen as Tuch. and in fuch Cafes. if it Glorious Privilege. be. which never had any Bethe Circumftances of it. and of all the Deflexions from it. and other Irrational Beings. by that prevalency of Paiiion which bribes and fways the Soul : So that there cannot poflibly be any fiich thing in Nature. which is the true Original and Caufe. thefe. if the Soul's being indued with a Faculty of acting freely and abfolutely be Evil. Ufes they are defigned to ferve. why any one that is a Man. or any other Irfational Creature. are either wholly overlook'd. fuch a Free Nature. fometimes Scnfual Eiijoyments. is alio moft eligible and defirable. are Good in their Kind and Capacity that is. can be entirely Evil. who hath given us the Good. vvhere can any Mifcarriage of that kind be . Some perhaps may imagine. but under the DiTguife and Pretence ot fome Good. that even Plants. for fo doing. .• as having given the Soul this Freedom to Virtue or Vice. under any Comf ulfion to i^d as we would not have them. But if fuch a Soul contribute to its own Deviations. or Preferments. charged with the Evil ? Since therefore that which is moit agreeable to our Now : Nature and Reafon. to the ill Management whereof. fliould rather wifh to be a Plant. and . that Evil is owing.

and needed only have given this Anfwer to all the Objecbions. and in no degree the Caufe of any manner of Evil. which fit by them. he hath endued this middle fort of Beings with fuch a Tendency .' to* . utterly incaof it. fometimes to the one and fometimes to the othtr of thefe Beings. becaufe they are proper for the explaining what Epidetus hath delivered upon this occaiion. oi being ruined. Behold therefore the Goodnefs and the Wifdoin of God For. that when EpidetHS advifes Men to he vjell pleafedy that Things pould be juft as they are^ he does not intend it of Vice. as that they may ftill remain Untainted and Undopraved. things that fhould bear a Refemblance. without its own Confent. the diftant Extremes Since alfo this tendency to things below us is but an accidental and additional thing. that Men who are pleafed with their own. pablt. or other People's Vices. in which all our Good and Evil confifts. were moft abfurd and foolifti. are ealie and happy.: Epic in us's Morals and by tor» who Ruin. For we might have made very ihort work of the Cafe now before us. however they are ordered . iuch Deflexions firil began? For the Great Creahath thus made it. foolifh and ignorant Men with may be conformable to their own Wiihes and Deiires . fo as to be the Caufe of its owri did not abfolutely ruin it. or that which is Evil to the Soul. and the more Crofs and Difficult they are.and the Order of Nature. and that he himfelf might be clear upon all Accounts. Not only.) but that we muft reftrain it to thofe Accidents. the more ftill will he proAnd thefe are the things he means. be an internal Motion of her own. or Confent. but alfo in regard they give us a great light into what he tells us afterwards. made a middle fort of Beings neceiTary. by partaking of. iince the Conftitution of the AVorld. that affed our Bodies. and thofe that are always below . If therefore this Volition. if they will do fo. jnd yet at the For they are in our own power it make them. but only made it capable it fame time too. Confequentiy juft what we pleafe to .. and knitting together. concerning the Nature of Evil. Thefe Arguments I have inlifted on the more largely . and this Tendency is the very thing capable of Depravation. which Ihould Itand between thofe that are always above. and thus make the whole perfeft. and not the Defires and Averfions themfelves. and be conformed. ihe is the fok Caufe of her own Sin and Mifery. (for he could never have faid. yetfo. or our Fortunes. For thefe are things which a Wife and Good Man will be fure to make Advantage of.

HE had told us immediately before. nor would it always prove for our Advantage to do it. was for a Man . if each ot" them ttrrminites in fomething elfe. The fame Confideration is applicable in proportion to every Accident of Human Slcknefs Life. intended to be deduced from thence. he lavs. though they were much more Difaftrous. yet even upon thisSuppoiition. not to wiih that things might be juft as he would have them. that might be : Way railed ajiainft it. is . but to be well pleafed. But he advifes. that they (hould be juft as they are And now he proves the Argument. that even thefe are for our Advantage. But if they be not indeed ours. not an Evil.) . and we as often decline what is harfli and unpalatable. but it docs not enfeeble the Mind. and not only fo. but he removes (as! conceive) anObjedion. that though thefe may prove Obitruolions to fomething elfe.with S to wiih they that IMP Lie ius*s Comment. to be diilurbed which are none of our own. and cannot extend to The Argument lamities.> Hindrance to the Body. or from any External Caufes. and he fays very well. : If thofe Ca• itfelf feems to me to be thus wnich happen in our Fortunes. as 93 were we would have them. ikm ii is a Hiudrauce only. That all outward Misfortunes are to be entertained with Temper and Moderation. would be the laft degree of Folly. we would forbear wiihing thus of Things out of our becaufe this is what we cannot compafs by any . then ar (he M'sriirtune<!. yet they cannot or need not. unlcfs ihe pleafe herfelf : And Lame* nefs is a Confinement to the Foot. but it can put no Rcftraint upon the Will. if we could For we often are paffionately delirous of what is pleafant. power : is a Hindrance to the Body. nor make that one jot the lefs Aftive. which is. were properly Ours . and deiign our mighty Benefit in the Application. when it is remembred. For you will find. Sicknefs. we ought to fuifer them with great Patience and Rciijnation. ever be fo to You. than really they are. though at the fame time it be prejudicial to us. tho' Providence intend it for Phyfick. that the to live Eafie and Happy. us. For we have feen it already. nor can it obftrucb her Freedom. Strength of our own.

but neither the One.94 c s's Morals already. as Lamenefs likewife does.• this Argument. . or our Eftates. that Sicknefs and Poverty cannot poffibly be for our Benefit . it Pofleflions only . we (hall fall into an properly ours.s otirfelves. This take to be the Force . Thus Lamenefs is an Obftrudion to the' Parts affedted. as Poverty is to a Man's Expences arid way of Living. upon the account of fomething riot fo For Difcontent^ and a Difturbance of the are truly our own Evils. for how is it poiTible. if the Body. fince our Bodies are no rftore than Inilruments by tus's Conveniences for miand fince all our Good and Evil depends upon the Choice of our own Mind. which we ad. that a Man. and. is only to put a flop to Us Operations. and Poverty. . as if they were our own Evil. that : we ourfelves are not hindred by thefe things For no outward Accident whatever cin put iny Confinement upon Us. I confefs.j put the Will under no Confinement at all . unlefs they voluntarily fubmit to be obftruded by it. but only upon fomething elfe. then thefe Hindrances would be truly and properly ours. md all their Good and Evil depends entirely upon it. is under an abfolute Conftraint^ to bend all his Care and Pains to the relief of his Wants^ and furnifliing himfelf with neceiTary Supports? This Objedion now he takes ofl^. And therefore we muft not fnfneither fer ourfelveis to be diforderedat thefe Misfortunes. were our very EiTence and Nature. that the very Being of Men confifts. and confequently cannot be reftrained or obftrufted by them. and the Mind. becaufe by this means. that a Difeafed Man (liould perform all the Fundions of Nature as he ought? or how can we deny. fooiething. that that is is Mind. which We are not. and the Rational Soul only . which was Ep:^eown infirmity . and our niftring to our neceiTary Occaflons is evident. by (hewing. or the Foot. that Sicknefs. nor the Other is fo to the Will. and all Hardftiips and Inconveniences of that kind. For how is the Sick Man tied up from chufing and defiring fuch things. but all that it does. when reduced to extreme Poverty. For it may be faid upon this occafion. Ab UtHt^x from the point of Advantage and Convenience. befides this. drawn he removes at the fame time an Objeas the Rhetoricians ufe to term it. that neither the Difeafes nor the DiiTolution of the Body is Evil. fo that he does not fpeak to us now in a Formal Speculative way. but from his own Pradice and Experience. and Connexion of But £lion . but lince we fubfift in none of them. that in this? free Principle it is.

with
clining

SiMPLicius's Comment.
Or what

^5'

and Reafonaole, and hating and deViolence can Extreme Poverty put upon a Man, which fiiall be able to cotnotl him to a£l contrary to the principles of Honefty and Honour ? Were not Diogenes, and Crates, and Zeno in thefc Circumirances? And did They ever Oiew themlelves more trtily Philofophers? Did they ever give more illuftrious Proofs of Virtue and Greatnefs of Soul, of Contentment and Satisffldion, and even of Abundance in the flendereft Foriune, than when they chofe to fore- go their Plenty, and thought Jt Wifdom to exchange that for Want, and to have no Poffeffions of their own at all ? And indeed, who is there fo Wind and Brutiili, but would be pleafed and proud to iuftaiii
the contrary?

things, as are Virtuous

luch
ter

a

Mani^is

Obligati» and Honour
?

Neceffitfes, and think his Liberality a greato himfelf, than to the Recei-

ver

what need we go fo far for Examples of this kind, when even Epidems himfelf, who makes this Declaration, was fo eminent an inftance of it? As to his Fortune and
_But

Co^ndition, he was a Slave; Infirm in his Body, Lame from a Child, and one who was fo much exercifed with Poverty, and made it fo much his Choice, that his little Got» tage at Rome was not thought worth a Lock or a For alas! there was no Temptation within, nothing but a coarfe Coverlet, and a hard Mattrefs, upon which he lay. And yet this is the very Man, that tells us, Lamenefs may obftrua the Feet, but the Mind it cannot, except we pleafe to let it. Thus you fee, he did not make it his Bnfinefs, as a great many do, to fay fine things, and entertain his Readers v?ith fublime and airy Speculations ; but he made the Experiment himfelf, and fpeaks from his own Knowledge and Praftice. And for this Reafon, his Difcourfes are the more valuable. For they manifeft a truly Great Soul in him-

»

felf,

whofe Minds

and will make the deeper Impreffion upon are well difpofed.

all others,^

t

G

A P.

.

95

Epictetus's Morals

CHAP.

XIV.

every freih Accident, turn your Eyes inward } and examine how you are qualified to encounter it. If you fee any very Beautiful Perfon, you will find Continence to oppofe againft the Temptation. If Labour and Difficulty come in your way, you will find a Remedy in Hardinefs and Refolution. If you lie under the obloquy of an 111 Tongue , Patience and Meeknefs are the proper Fences againfl: it. And thus, if if you do but prepare and ufe yourfelf by degrees, no Accident whatever will be able to furpnze or fubdue you.

U'

rP

COMMENT.
AFter
having advanced feme ftrange fublime Notions, and required Men to do that , which the generality of the World will be fure to think Romantick and Impoflible; As for Example, to flight the Difeafes of the Body, as no Evil of ours; and to be well pleafed, let our Circumflances be what they will, that things Ihould go juft as they do never to fuffer ones felf either to be caught with the Bait of Senfual or Worldly Pieafure, or to be dejeded with any
;

outward Calamities It is bc reafonable, that he fliould apply himfelf in the next place, to fliew, that thefe are Perfedions not above the Powers of Humane Nature, and that he enjoyns us nothing, but what we are capable of dif:

charging.

To this purpofe he proves, that the Great Creator to whom the Soul of Man owes its Being , was pleafed to give it fuch a Frame and Temper, that it ihould not be conftantly determined to Sublime and Heavenly things, nor always dwell above, as the Blefled Spirits, the Angels, and thofe other of a Divine and ftill more Excellent Nature do; but hath ordered the Matter fo, that this ihould fometimes be degraded to a State of Matter, and Motion, and Mortality,
be

with

SiMPLicius's Commear,

97

be joyned to the Body, and converfe with Frail and Corruptible things. Bur, though he hath fubjeded the Soul to thefe Haiards and Tryals, yet he hath endued her with particular Faculties and Powers, luitable to each occafion; by means whereof, ihe may engage with all the Accidents, that can-alTault her, and come off without Lofs ; nay, and van= quiih, and keep them under too. Again ft fuch, as tempt us with an Appearance of Pleafure, he propofes Continence; (and this he father chofe to mention, than thofe higher Degrees of ablblute Chaftity and

Temperance;

in

conlideration,
ftir

that

the Perfons

now

ad-

dreft to, are but

Imperfed and Young

Proficien^.s in Virtue.)

i^ow
,

thefe Obje£ts

the Paffions up to Rebellion,

beget a

Cpmbat between Reafon and Them.

and But by Dif-

cipline, and a ftrift hand over ones felf, they are fiibdued and reduced to Obedience again. And this is a true Defcription of that which we properly call a Continent Life

as

on

the contrary, that

Man

;

is

properly faid to be Inconftrug-

tinent,

whofe Reafon is Impotent; and, thoughit may

Wifdom and Virtue, the Paffions and Appe(which as I hinted before, are the Child to be trained up in every one of our Minds) are in abfolute Subjeiiion to R,eafon, without any Difpute or Mutiny at all fo that they are moved and direded, entirely towards fuchObjeds, and at fuch Times, and in fuch Meafures as this fees fit to' prefcribe them. And this is truly Temperance, which the Greeks call ,,-^-^ ; As being that, which fecures the Reafon, and preferves the Government and Prerogative of the intelligent Part in us. For when this is brought under, and
Perfeaion of
tites
;

gle for a while, yet yields at laft to the ftronger Infults of Paffion. But now in Perfons, who have attained to the

Mind is torn in pieces, and demaintains its own Superiority over the Affedions, it continues vigorous and found. So again, to Perfons that are Mafters in Philofophy, Fortitude is always a prefent Security againft all Difficulty and Pain. It keeps the very Outguards of th6 Soul, and fuffers nothing of this kind to get the leaft Footing there; but perfeveres without any Perplexity or Difturbance, and looks Upon all the Hardfliips that come in its Way, as fo many Tryals to exercife it. But the Proficients, who are lefs expert, muit be content with Hardinefs and Refolution ; Such' as may maintain its Poft, and make a gallant Reliftance, aiid L" 2 prevent
diftraded by Paffipn, the
ftroyed.

But while

it

:

98
the Fight, and

Epictetus's
ward
againfl:

Morals
it

prevent the Sinkings of the Soul, by enabling
the

to

continue

Blows, when Trouble and

Pains affault it. For a conftant and vigorous Oppofition , and hardening ones felf againft Difficulties, will conquer all our EtFen'iinacy and PaiTion, and make Reafon and Virtue triumphant and, by fuch Conqueih frtqucntly gained, and prudently mana>:ed, our Pafllons will be ufe to the Yoke, I'ubmit to Difcipline, and, obey without Reluolancy. And, when a Man hath brought hinifelf to this pais, there will be no farHe is now above it ther Trouble to exercife his Patience. all; for he neither defires any Thing, capable of giving him Difappointment, nor docs he make any Thing his Averiioj^ which can overtake him whether he will or no. And confequently, he can have no Trouble and Pain, wiiich always muil proceed from one of thefe Caufcs. Againft Scandal, and an 111 Tongue, he tells us we fliall Fi)r in truth, Scandal, find our beft Defence in Meeknefs. in its own Nature, hath nothing that can afflid us; and all that ufes to do Co ^ is not what is laid , but the Judgments andReftexions we pafs upon it; which we evermore aggravate toourfelves, according as we are blown up with Vanity, or tranfported with Anger. For all that Scandal can do without this, is only to make us condemn the Defamer. And for the proceeding regularly in this Condemnation, without Heat or Prejudice, we fliall do well to conlider, wherein the Defamer is really to blame; and that it is upon one of thefe two Accounts; that he ilanders and afperfes us, either the Scandal itfelf may very falfly, or out of Malice. well be born with , becaufe it is not capable of doing us any real Injury; and fo, in truth, may the Party, who raifes or fpreads it too, when we confider, that the Injury is done, not to Us, but to Himfelf; for fo it is, in reality, when his own Mind is the Sufferer, by doing an ill and a bafe Thing. Nay, if this be too little, we may confider farther , that Scandal is always capable of being made an Advantage to us. It is manifeitly fo; when falfe; And when it is true, we gain this by it, That it difcovers our ov/n Faults and Failings ; and either fliews us fomerhing we did not know before, or which, though we did know, yet we were apt to to indulge, upon a Prefumption, that no Body knew it but And this very Confideration is of great Imporourfelves.
i

Now

tance,

to reftrain

young Proficients

in Virtue.

*For fuch,
thoughl•

I

with S

JL I

c

I

s's

Comment•.

99

though they are not come up to that noble Principle of pradiiing Virtue for its own fake, will yet give check to many exorbitant Paffions, and abftain from grofs Evils, outof Shame, and Tendernefs to their own Reputation. And indeed, this mud be laid in behalf of Ambition, and a Define of Praife; that, though it be a Paffion itfelf, yet it is of excellent Ufe, iorthe moderating and correding all the reft. For this Reafon it hath been called, by a pertinent Allulion, the Shirt of the Paffions becaufe it fits clofeft to the Soul and, when the mind hath by the help of this put off all other Paffions, it diveils itfelf of this lad of all, that fo it may come to Virtue naked, and ftripp'd of all its former Prejudices and Incumbranc|S. For t^pReafon (fays Epioietus) wemuil not fufFcr ourfelves to be furprifed, or over-born by any Accident, which would engage our Minds, and draw them off to any External Advantages or Calamities; fo as that we fliould be difcompofed with any falfe Ideas of its being Good or Evil. Nor mud we give too great a Scope to our Defires and our Averfions, or let them be too hady in their Motions, but call up the Powers within us to our Affidance and, when we have found, which are the Succours proper for each Circumdance, then rally them together, and enter the Lids with Refolation, ^nd ward off every Accident accordingly.
; ; ;

La

C HAP.

-

Epictetus*s

Morals

CHAP,

XV.

'Ever ufe yourfclf to fay upon any Occafion, That you have loft any thing, but rcftored it. If your Wife or your Child die, you have returned them to the Owner. If your Eftate be taken from you, this too is paid back to the Giyer. But you'll fay, he was a Knave that defrauded me of it. Alas What's that to the Purpofc? Or how does it concern you, by what Means, or what Hand, he that gave it refumes it tJWimfdf ? Trouble not yourfelf therefore about thefe Matters j but while he permits the Enjoyment, ufe it as a Thing that is not your own, but anothersj and let your Concern and Aifedion for it, be juft fuch, as Travellers have for an Inn upon the Road.

'
_

!

COMMENT,
[E had inftruded us before, in the Nature of External Accidents and Advantages: Which of them vi^e might profecute, and how far, and by what Methods we are allowed to do it: How we ihould entertain both our profperous andpleafant, and our adverfe and lefs grateful Fortunes; and vyhat Improvement is to be made of each of them; and here he comes to fpeak of the Lofs of any Advantages we have, and dire<Slsus, not only how to enjoy, but how to part with

them too. Now every Man, who lofes what he efteems his own, muft needs apprehend himfelf injured, and naturally
out, not only intoExcefsof Grief for his Lofs, but into reproachful Language againft thofe that depriv'd him of it. But he, who reftores upon Demand, what he knew and confidered was none of his own, muft be thefenfleifeft Fool in the World, to be troubled at its being taken away froni him, or to fall foul upon the Proprietor that requires it. This then is our Cafediredly. The World, and its Enjoyments, are not ours; and for that Reafon, not within the Command and Difpofal of our own Wills Nothing indeed is properly fo, but our Defires aod Averfions, and the Inclinations
flie
:

-

with
..

Sim PL I CI us's Comment.

-..

loi
.

>

'

nations of our own Minds; and all our Virtue and Vice, So all our happinefs and Mifery, do depend upon thefe. that we (hould always keep our Minds ftrongly poiTeftwith this Confideration, and be affeded accordingly to every Thing without us, as that in which we have no Propriety at all. And the way to keep our Minds thus poiTeft, and thus affedted, is, not only to fay fo, and content ourfejves with Verbal Diftindions; but to (hew it in our PraSice, and behave ourfelves, like Men, Who are convinced they have no Title to them. Suppofe then, upon the Death of a Child, that a Maa gives himfelf over to Tears and Groans, deplores his Misfortune, and complains of his Lofs ; is it not evident, that this Man,» while his Son lived, look'd upon him as ftridly, and by Right, his own ? If it were not fo, with what Pretence does he call this being taken away, a Lofs, or refent it fo deeply ? The Man that does thus, 'tis plain, would go farther too, if he could; and revenge the Injury he fanfies he hath received, upon the Perfon who took him away, if it were in his Power. But the Man who confiders this Child, as one in whom he had not any abfolute Propriety, and that Death hath only paid him back to the Perfon that lent him, wfU neither afflid himfelf upon the Occafion, nor accufe the Owner that demanded him again. And here the Attince of Epialetus is Very obfervable. For he inftrufits us, not only to adapt our Words to our Thoughts, and corredt our Expreflions by more juft Apprehenlions of Things; but contrives, that even our Expreflions may reotiFor to this purpofe, he fays, it is neceffie our Notions. fary, that we fpeak of the Enjoyments of the World infuch Terms, as may not flatter us with any Imaginations of Property in them, but fuch as may wean our Affedtions, and make them fit loofe about us ; that fo, from calling and thinking them anothers, and not our own, we may bring ourfelves to ufe them as fuch. And, fince nothing adds more to our Tendernefs for any thing, than the Care and Concern we are in about it ; he advifes us to moderate thefe, and to beftow only much upon them, as we think worth our while to lay out upon that which is another Man's. Some regard indeed muft be had to them ; nor may we fo negled them, as to give ourfelves up to Supiuenefs and Sloth ; bat yet we muft not fo fix our Hearts or our Endeavours upon them, as if they were our

own, and

that

which

is

never to be taken away from us,

L4

And

=

Epictetus's
'
'

Morals

-

»
all

-—

us in this Cafe, is only that of Travellers in an-Inn; who confider, that they are not at home, and that their Stay is like to be very ihort; iind are iblicitous for nothing farther, than only to get the bed Conveniences the Place will afford, and be fatisfied with what they can get, for the little Time they do itay. For this Reafon he hath added very conveniently, ivhlle he permits us the Enjoyment^ to put us continually in Remembrance, that all our Enjoyments are Sutferance, the Effect of a pcrmiflive Providence, what we cannot give Durfelves, but derive from the Bounty of another, and that no other, than the very Perfon who takes them away from us. Now, becaufefome People are apt to aggravate their Miffortune', by tragical Accounts of the Circumftanc'es th::t attend them, and the Manner of their being deprived of their

And

therefore

the

Concern allowed

Comforts: As,
there of lofing
it

if

I

mult lofe

my

Eflate, yet

what need was

by fo

gratitude?

Or

if

much Treachery, my Child or my Wife
;

or Injuflice, or Inhad died of a natu-

ral or lingring

Death,
it

have fupporred

a Fever, or a Gonfumption, I could but to be fnatcb'd away all on the fud-

den, to die a violent, an untimely, or a fcandalous Death, pr to be lack'd with Tortures and ftrong Convulfions ; this is a dilmal and an intolerable Affli6iion. All thefe Complaints favour of Difcontent, and at the bottom are a finding Fault, not with the Manner'but the Thing itfelf For, as we could not prefcribe to our Great BenefaiSor, the Methods, or the Inftruments, by which he bellowed them upon us; fo neither muft we find Fault with thofe, by which he recals them; and it is but fit, that he who gave as he pleafed, ftoiild take away as he pleafes too. may take Notice farther, that 'Epidetus chufes to inftance in the tendered Points, the Death of a Wife or a Child ; becaufe thefe fit clofeit to our Hearts ; and any other LoiTes, if compared to thefe, are no more than every vulgar Virrue can fuilain and flight. But ftill, as he told us before, and will do again in the following Difcourfes, we ihall <Jo well to begin with lefs Tryals, and by rendring thofe familiar and eafie, to harden ourfelves by Degrees againft (harper and greater. The fame Rule therefore holds much ftronger, and is more prafiicable, when any one hath taken my Purfe, or fpirited away my Servant, or defrauded me of my Houfe, or my Eft;ite ; to fay, (and we may fay it with as great Truth in thefe Cafes too) 1 have not loft thefe Things, out reitored them to the Owner, and Lender of ihem to me. '

We

CHAP.

or a Pint of your floln. XVII. or elfe I and I mult take Pains with this challifehim. hath a good Bargain. and ijnce nothing can be had Free-coft. F you _^ I dom low the self in fuch XVL are indeed defirous to improve in Wirand Virtue. US Wine yourfelf therefore to little Tryals firft . that ty with it. coniider. your Servant or your Child were Vicious. and be the Eafe and Quiet of his own Breaft. So again. than that yourfclf fhould be perpetually unhappy with an anxious Care to prevent it. and unworthy a Philofopher. and preferve his Mind from immoderate Fear and Concern j. and continual PerplexiAnd it were a lefs Evil for you. he that gets thefe fo cheap. refle6t immediately. that this is the Purchafeof Conftancy and acompofed Mind . If a Cruife of Oil be broken. . C . When you call your Servant. if you put it in his Power. which you give him over yourfelf. that he may not do what you command him. I muft fol- Bufinefs of my : my Family iball itarve Calling clofe.with SiMPLiGius's Comment. whofe firil Care iliould Boy of mine. CHAP. whether your Mind iball be eaiie or no. you muil never allow your- mean Thoughts as thefe -. For a Man had better periili for Hunger. And it is too great an Advantage. that it is poilible he may not attend to you j or if he do. 103 CHAP.than live in the greatell Plenty. or he will be ruined. Thefe are the Mifgivings of an anxious Mind.

or our Fortunes. to fuch as are in a State oi Proficiency.104 I c s's Morals COMMENT. It might very probably be objeded That this Contempt of the World will expofe us to vaft Inconveniences. if I neglecl the looking after my Eftate. For there is a this rate. and if for the the avoiding this Anxiety. if They do look abroad into the World fometimes. In Anfwer to both thefe. That all our Good and Evil. in fo prudent a manner. and fuch Things as are within the Compafs of our own Choice. or to be the leaft taken off from the bed and fevereil Studies. or ihould be any farther folicitous about them. and are ftill upon the Ferment. and the Management of their Wordly Concerns both at once. or unfafe for the Perfon himfelf. Thefe Men iland firm. or the Peace and Tranquillity of their Souls at all difturbed upon that Account. as ihould qualifie them to attend to the cultivating their own Minds. I omit the chiding and cor reding my Servant. reduce my felf to Want and Beggary . he infifts upon that eminent Diftindion in the Beginning of his Book. truly fo called. not being yet duly tempered . and . I fhall be acceifory to his utter Ruin. wonderful Affinity between the World and the brutiih Incliand thefe. that the Things of this what we ought not to think we have any Propriety in. which they have abfolutely fuhdued: Nor is there any Danger. But at prefent he addrciTes himfelf principally. by the fixt ftanding Order of their own Minds. than Travellers are. But where the Paflions run high. and fear no Storms from thofebrutiih Appetites. depends entirely upon the Ufe of our Natural Liberty. For this is the peculiar Perfedion of accompliih'd Philofophers. and have not yet attained to fuch a Maflery in Wifdom. Advice laft given. and colleded withia themfelves . that thefe Cares ihould not be prejudicial to one another. and that no Condition either of our Bodies. by which he hath proved. that they ride fecure. whatever Confufion they meet in the World . and give themfelves a little loofe. there it is dangerous to engage a Man's felf in Bufinefs at all. the UPon World fays one. they manage and compofe it all . nor reduced . which you fo ftri£tly forbid. can make Men truly Happy or Miferable. For at are . that their Affedions ihould be feduced and perverted by any thing they meet with there. to accommodate themfelves in an Inn. I (hall nations.

which •can never give him that Perfedion. whofe Wants and Wiihes will be eanly fupplied. and pronounces peremptorily. and the Reafon of the Thing would have born him out in it. for a Wife and Good Man to ftand in any need at all of any thing without. who jf either them . might have replied the Prejudice a Man's Fortunes would receive from negleding and defpifing the World. and the Improvement of his own Mind. as too effeminate and indulgent . he runs the Comparifon up to the higheft and boldeft Extreme. which. But he paiTes fuch Comforts over. fuch as were likely to enervate our Virtue. is or muft not fure to nouriih. To this Difficulty Epioietus ^ That a great pa« of if he had pleafed . with an Anxious Care to prevent it. That a Man had better die for Want. it may fairly be prefumed. be not granted a fufficient Cure for the Difeafe. one that in truth receives more hurt than good. till at laft (he ftrand herfelf . for you. by the ftriot Temperance. that your Servant or your Child were Vicious. though he had the greateft Plenty with it. and Abftemious Life of a true Philofopherj the ealie Contentment and confined Defires. will drive a wild and fatal Courfe. which are an eilential part of his Charafter. might be made amends for. that there are People enough . and utterly imnierfe it in Cares and Pleafures. and by that means attain to the peculiar Perfedlion of his Nature. not himfelf. for the Exercifeof Virtue. like a Ship without Rudder or Pilot. and all be loft. if you put it out of his Power to live at all. when he negleQs and fcorns the World. cannot his Difeafe. For what does all this World fignifie to a vicious and a difordered Mind. This Reply. but reliih. as to preferve . and who muft needs attraft Love and Efteem. than live in continual Perplexity. who would preferve fuch a Man from periihing. or he do. if this . and therefore. So again. But. drag down the Mind. and rich Sauces gratify a Sick tafte Man. Epidetus might have made .with Simp LI CI s's Comment. If indeed Matters could be fo ordered . Such a one. and preferve his Mind from immr 'erate Fear and Concern. than that you yourfelf ihould be perpetually unhappy. irom the Enjoyments yet at leaft Remedy of it? Juft as fumptuous Entertainments. 105" duced to the Obedience of Reafon. and fully its Brightnefs . and 'tis to Proficient take? po Purpofe to give him Rules of Living. But in the mean while. what Courfe ihall this Young For Neceifaries he muft have. It were a lefs Evil. I fay . I fay. as if it were a Blemifhanda Difparage^ ment. he fays.

than Plenty and Solicitude without them. and undo himfelf. ox Diogenes^ or Zeno^ or fome other Eminent Philofopher. that this Perfon fliould not immediately repent.io5 Epictetus's Morals what were is Reafons. but yourfelf in the mean while. as having not made his way up to it gradually. would needs. but take care at leait to fave ferve him and yourfelf both. may perhaps have made a fudden turn. had he not flighted them. or previous pradlice in Matters of lefs confequence. and attend to for each of you. and. and voluntary Poverty. Neither to be a Match for what he encounters. this eligible. Craf^i himfelf. But this can never be. becaufe by this inordinate Concern. and advifed rather to chufe Poverty and Death with Wifdom and Virtue. Becaufe a Man . and not difcompofe ourfelves. without any preparation. and brought themfelves to extreme Striflnefs. that the thing were undone. and below one's Notice. Nor to receive the Benefit and Advantage he might have done. would have qualified him for the Combat he hath loft. than to lofe his own Happincfs. all upon the fpurt. or his Wine floln. void of Wifdom and Virtue himfelf. of his Oyl being fpilled. and condemn himfelf. and which. he advifes them here to begin with lefs and gentler Tryals. take upon him to rival Crates ^ and diveft himfelf of all his PoiTeiTions at once. by trying to preferve another to fhew. . rather to over-look the Vice and Ruin of one under his Care. that a Man. without fuch leifurely advances. he will fall under this double inconvenience. For let us imagine. But when he had propofed the higheil pitch of Refolution. will never be able to make another Virtuous and Wife. For Exercife and Praftice in Matters of lefs Moment and DifBculty is a fafe and a fuccefsful Method . So that in fuch a cafe the beft courfe we can. without Diftradion. . and he in his former Circumftances again? For though . and Virtue. and a Man fcorns the inilances here. if a Man be driven to that hard Neceffity. but when fuch things are look'd upon with Difdain. and that he had a juft regard to the Abilities of his Scholar. yet m . and fuch as the Condition of Young Beginners are capable of. Firft. for want of them. from thofe others. and attempt great Hardfliips at firft. for neceflary riiuch more Two one. take. and wifli Ten Thoufand times. an infinite deal of Hurt. and will needs fly at all. how is it poiTible. you do him no manner of Good. And then. is to let the Incorrigible Wretch alone in his W\ckednefs. that Men muft be wound up to this pitch by degrees.

But Premeditation keeps the Mind firm and cool. hand to reprefent to ourfelves. not to our Minds is Commands give And that we fiiould fettle him fo great Advantage over us. it preferves our Thoughts. every Man's own Confideration and ExpeNor is this the cafe of Misfortunes rience will inform him. by Firft defpifing thofe that are fmall and inconfiderable. but even of Pleafures and Good Fortune too. ihocks the Conftitution equally. we ought beforebe apt to caft us into. he inftruds us. and cramp up the Faculties of Reafon. that thefe were themi'elves very extraordinary Perfons . Accident. Afflidlions immediately overturn our Thoughts . that it is very poffible your . in that the Inconvenience is in a great meafure For it is the fuddennefs of an defeated. and them from their Poils. that the Negligence. Servant that if may not give his Attendance he anfwer to your Call . is no Rule for us to follow . and that -which is ftill this is a thing that very efpecially too.with SiMPLicius's Commen» 107 rarely happens. that is moft apt to confound young Proficients. be. . Now what a mighty Advantage this Preparation Is. and enervate both Body and Mind. when fudden and furprizing. would And this fettling very confiderable. that thefe Caufes. as the putting us into Diforder. From hence it comiCS to pafs. and how much better we entertain any Accident. by Ufe and Cuftorn. For an Excefs. when we are not furprifed. to govern themfelves by. extraordinary when we confider. prepares and arms the Mind againft all thofe things. tho' fo verydiftant in themfelves. and gives us the power and leifure to recoiled. and the fame Symptoms plainly prove the Difeafe to be the fame. when they come upon usunexpe£ted. But i . . puts them out of their Biafs. he : when called upon. which way to get above all the Difcompofure and PaiTion. only. are yet attended with the fume Efiedts . which our Fears and Ii«aginations reprefent moil difficult this and infupportable. and Sweats. either of Joy or Grief. for the improvement and confirmation of our Virtue. or may not obferve your our Minds. fcatter and diifolve them. and the lofs of Senfe fometimes even to Death itfelf. may For he tells us. how to make great Loifes and Misfortunes in our Eiiates eafie and familiar to us. beats breaks their Meaiures. and. and confequently no proper Meafure for the common rate of Men . by being fore-feen. or the Saucinefs of our Servants. After he had direded us. and throws us into Swoonings. and Pleafures and put both Body and Soul out of Temper and Good Fortune.

is to joy both thefe Direftions together. feem to be. and apply them to either of the Cafes indifferently. it will turn to very good account to recoiled. or any other Provocation of that kind. And on the other Hand. and the Improvements any Lofs or Difappointment in our Afiairs hath happened to us. that we would compufe ourfelves with this Reflexion. and not obeying them . the Remedy in this cafe. as Conftancy and' a Compofed Mind. a Man has it in his power to receive a thing fo valuable. For indeed. that they need no enlargeand therefore I rather chuie to obferve the Method E- pioieius hath taken occafion. of Oyl fpilt. and ihall find them infinitely lefffinea to us by Expedation . but to gain the Handing Difpofition and Habit of it. and not only to procure this for once and no more. but the Improvement ihould make of it. would not be proud and pleafed to make that Exchange. that thefe were things is the Method he prefcribes. we are to purchafe them at.8 But * Epictetus's Morals ment . he advifes. But when our Servants provoke us. is to prepare it a Compofed Miad^ our Minds. and a Compofed Mind.' This we Now Who . is abundantly enough to prevail upon the Soul. which will not come for nothing. to need the folemnity of any fuch Preparation . fufHcient . the Rfafons. by way of Exchange? Nay. when we are incenfed by the Negligence or the Difobedience of Servants. and manage his Market with any Skill and Dexterity. or by being Inlblent. after the thing hath happened. and not ready to receive our Comimands.>. That the Inftances produced by him. we are no lefs obliged to receive any LoiTes whatfoever with all that Premeditation. when. very likely to happen. that thefe things may very probably happen to us. and that in Matters fo fmall. are too mean and trivial. That Conrtancy . either by being out of the way. When are Treasures which muft be bought ^ at?d this feems is the Price we muft fay for them. provided he drive a wife Bargain. That Conftamy and this upon we may make of It. a ihort Recolleftion is And not only . the profpedi of the Gain. and a little paltry Wine ftuln. and comparing the Price with the Purchafe. For what occafion can there be of Grudging or Difcontent. and this is the Price. which may be ready at handy and' ferviceable upon every occafion. and confider before-hand. but becaufe in things of lefs Conlideration. why Epiiietus himfelf did thus apply both indifferently. and a poiTeffing our Minds early with the Thought. theie things are fo evident. for fuch a Trifle as a little Oyl or Wine loft . are Treafuies.

who would be wife in good earneft. and fo not be fenfible of any Lofs at all. not to jet fo poor a Pretence prevail upon him. and neglefl: the true and inward Advantages of his own Mind. and all the Drones. to abandon himfelf to the Gates of the World. . would not gladly fore-go any advantages of Fortune. for fear of being thought fo. when the Matter may very frequently be fo ordered. which Homer thought and preparation. confidered as a Rational Creature. as not properly to fore-go them neither. not to make what idle and filly People approve. or rule to walk by . when he bartered Brafs for Gold? And who. why many of us lay out fo much of our and our Pains upon the World. than to reiolve not to be a Slave to the Opinions of the World. for XVIII. any meafure of our ASions. Reafon. to think That a thing of no cern to him.with SiMPLicius's Comment. that hath the Senfe and Reafon of a Man. and Speculative in oppolition to this Principle. but to ufe ones felf to defpife both their ComHiendaiions and their Cenfures. you would indeed improve in Wifdom you IFmuft be content to be thought Fooliih and Stunegleding the Things of the World. but. there is nothing contributes to a Virtuous Life. in return for them? EJfpecially too. but to avoid the Genfure of being thought Singular. and Infenfible. pid. For what a Monftrous Abfurdity is it. Con- CHAP. and to keep our Eyes fteady THE Thoughts Now Ad upon 3 . and to commit the moil defperaie of Folly. Difcouragements fuch Apprehenfions give us . by a prudent fore- Exchange. 109 tells us Diomede did. is not always a Defire to be fupplied with what is neceifary and convenient for our Circumftances. left he fhould be called Fool. he advifes every Scholar of his. and fuch a Behaviour as is every way fuitable to the Gharadler of a Man. by thofe who are no better than Fools themfelves? And in truth. for a Man to be really Mad. more. if he can obtain the greateft and moil defirable Advantages of the Mind. COMMENT.

and the Judgments of thofe few Good and Wife Perfons who live in Conformity to it . are the more apt to be infnared by them. let this make you fo much the more For be alTured . not that he condemns ihe moft Zealous 'Defires or Endeavours after ledge. not affcd to be thought exceeding Wife } and if other People think you fomething more than ordinary. and mifplace them abroad . (and fo much the more fo indeed. at one and the fame time. It reprefenis the Opinion of others. in regard they who are accompliOi'd Perfons . for a fuperilitious value for Reputation. For Reafon is the proper Standard. and live no longer to himfelf. and. that all his Care may be employed at Home. and all the Men. whofe Opinions are worth our regarding. and makes him tjsfied the People. and let thefe {^uide and govern us in the Management of all our Affairs. and popular Applaufe. to which all our Actions ihould be agreeable.e Other abate and grow cold. it makes a Man with the empty Shadow?. are but a part of thofe Temptations which engage the Affedions. will of courfe find his Concern for th. as the Rule of A£ling. fiafhy For this fwells the Mind. fays he. and have fome real Excellencies to recommend them to the World. which is worft of all. but only to fupprefs the Vanity of defiring to appear Do Know- Knowing. Deiigns upon your profecute to it is no eafis matter Virtue. will be furc upon .) he advifes to root out this vain-glotious Appetite by all means. and inclines itto the World. not affsd to be thought Wije. TpPioietus hath taken a great deal of Pains. upon the Improvement of himfelf. and other external Advantages. and the Cares of the World. but to his MafterS. and puffs it up with Imaginations. to confine *-' the Soul of his Youn^ Phiiofopher within a narrow compafs. when he firit enters And fince the Defire of into this reform'd courfe of Life. and ouiward Appearance^ OP the Didates of a Man's own Confcience . rather thari Duty. is every whit as dangerous a Bait . efpecially. Riches. But he that lets his Heart upon either of thefe. U . approve whatever is fo. Diftruftful and Jealous of yourfelf.I Epictetus's Morals the Dittates of right Reaion .

and fays not. nor can we make them think as we would have them. Reputation and Applaufe. Every Accompliihment. and being fond of fuch a Charader. At only to this . and negligent of the Subftance. and intim. whether we feek it or no . as they are. that qualifies us for Bufinefs. and makes us ufeiul to our Country and to one another.phers. but the courting that Efteem.. inilead of the thing itfelf. comprehended here in this ihort Exprefllon of being thought fometh'ing more than ordinary. to profecute his Defigns upon V/ifdom and Vinue with Succefs. For this will be a moft excellent Prefervative againft the giving yourfelf up to be governed by other People's Judgments. For the Vainmuch concerned to be really Virglorious are not half tuous or Wife. Befides . and. applicable not Chapter. 6r any and at the fame time to grafp at PJches other Worldly Advantages. let their Commendations make you. let the Ground of it be what \ Now it will. is a Duty particularly feafonable for young Phiiofo. as they do not think the better. of every CharaSer. in feeming fo. when the World extols one moft. of Juftice and Fortitude. m of things. pafs juft and impartial Judgments upon their own Adions. is entirely our own KQl and Deed. but to thofethat went before. that a Learner in• Philofophy will find it no ealie Matter. is not the Attendant of Knowledge only . For they that are Mafters in it. but oi Temperance and Moderation too. and indeed of every V'^irtue whatfoever. he fhuts up all with a Conclufion. fo neither need they think at all the worfe. fays he . becaufc the keeping our Minds tight in the profecutioii of Virtue conlaft. that the fufpeding and thinking more meanly of ones felf. For this Reafon he exprefies himfelf very prudently here. which extends to every kind of Opinion. to impofe upon themfelves and the World . fince the World will fometimes have a great Opinion of our Abilities. hut fo much the more difirufiful and jealous of yourfelf. of Prudence. for our Advantage. concerntDg the Care that is due to our own Minds. or Tame. in fuch a cafe . of any All thefe he hath extraordinary Eminence in the World. Bo not be thought IVife^ but Do mt affeoi to be thought fo : For in truth. And the Reafon is. of themfelves.ues. and taking up with the Fame or Falfe Images of Goodnefs. the Efteem other People have of us. M fiib . fit fecure above Breath of Fame. is a thing by no means in our own Power . for what the World fay of them. Since therefore. with Simp Lie lu s's Comment. we know very well .

becaufe fome exalted Minds exert themfelves to the Wonder of Mankind. But if you will needs be wifhing. carelefs for ourfelves. utterly overturns this whole frame of Mind . an extraordinary Vigilance and Concern for ourand rhe regulating our own Wills. IFFriends may never die. and makes us cold and Therefore it can be no eafte matter. but he dares not it impoffible.iix fids. That he who propofes to follow One of thefe. But as for the reft. muft wholly lay alide all Concern for the Other. live is it to wifh. to reconcile thefe wide Extremes. this a Senilefs Wiih> you would have what is not your own. and in making all without us. all that are called the Goods of Fortune. But now an eager purfuit little or no part of our Concern. and be no longer what they cannot but be. C M^ . pronounce CHAP. to Them the Rule in the Clofe holds good. this is Foolifh too: that Vice and Corruption may change their Nature. and would difpofe of that which is anothers. So again . he declares it difficult. with what Caution the Author delivers himfelf. this may be done j and therefore the beft way is to praotife upon that. which is in your own power. and would wiih fo as not to be difappointed. for it engages our AfFeSions upon Foreign and diftant things. who are of the fame Mould and Tempering with their Neighbours. or any other external Advantage. But ftill you may obferve. in good earneft and to purpofe. for XIX. and confequently mufl: be admitted for Exceptions from the general Rules of Nature. and manage both at once. if you defire that your Boy may for without any Faults. in Epictetus*s Morals felves. of Fame. to be in your own power . and Children. and is you defirc that your Wife.

They muft be poflible. And he had ftiewed at the beginning. frail and periihing. in whofe PoiTelTion and Difpofal they are. which another will always retain the propriety to. fliould be. 'tis plain. of what value the Prize we propofe to curfelves will be. And. and the Enjoyment of them ihort and uncertain. that all external Advantages whatfoever. nor fubmitted to the Determination of ourown Wills. of what conftancy and continuance. or fuch as are Hkely very foon to decay.^ Or who would engage his AiFefii2 ons : A Who M . and things that will turn to no account.with SiMPLiciu s*s Comment. for fo Jew. and Friends. for when things are not entirely at our own Dif^pofal. and thofe that deferve to be thought fo. to call off his young Philofophers AiFeQions from the World . muft have the following Qualifications. that his Wife. and whether we can be fecure of keeping it. or to be extreamly folicitous for obtaining that. for none but Fools lay THE Man themfelves out upon what can never be compaiTed And they muft be decent and proper for the Perfon that takes pains for them . than to concern ones felf in other Peoples Matters. it is not for Us to make ourfelves Mafters of them . that whatever is Anothers. but we muft depend upon the good pleafure of thofe Perfons for them. to fconfider what firft Cai-e of a things are worth his Pains . are really not Ours. 113 COMMENT. When a Manthen is defirous. may never be taken away from him. but anothers. then would give himfelf trouble. For nothing can be more impertinent. Third Confideration fliould be. therefore in purfuance of his Defign. and negled our own . and Children. and of no value at all. and Such as he may call his own when he hath them. this Man is folicitous for a thing in which his Choice hath nothing to do. Beiides. but they are really mean. when we have 'got it. fo poor a Recompence. nor coafequently a proper Object of our Choice. cannot be any of the things in our own power. and to drive on his former Diftindion of 'Things that are^ and Thirigs that are not in our own power ^ he proves. or forfake him. a thing that it is not poflible for him to beftow upoa himfelf. there are not any of thofe Advantages we are fo fond of. Something that fuits his Charader and Conveniences. For no prudent Man will give himfelf trouble about Trifles.

as Muft not Men needs they fail were difficult m the of their hopes. when : have attained them. but to lay thein out For thefe can never fail our ExpeSaupon thofe others w& tion.(appetite. elfe that is fo. and as be \Mragain. who tion of the Mind . Now power. hov/ can it polTibly be.) or to in the Lives of our tendereft Friends. where fo many Accidents concur Againft all a Life of Sorrow and perpetual Torment too ? effeaual an is and that Remedy . And therefore we fquander them away ihall do well. Vicious from proceeds Knavery Man. as (he hath made neceffary and expedient for us. ones fix to it is vain him of? So inftance.1 14 I c s 's Morals ons upon what fo many Cafualtics may. that his Servant may himfelf. thefe Miferies there is but one one indeed : 'Tis to make Ourfeves. and what Nature hath our Care put within our own power. provoked by (as many of us are apt to do fometimes. and wilhes an idle and impoffible thing. that a . not to be too laviih. If a Man wifti. but Brutiih his reform or govern care to takes no otherwife fubmits and lives according to it. or poor and perifting. nay.. in the they to difappoint them? And lead neceffity of not they muft lead a Life of Difappointment. when is a Epaetus) {{^^s Man. be to impolTible either things upon hazardous other Perfon. and daily do conand rot> fpireagainft. or upon vain and unprofitable Matters . of confining our Defires to fuch things. and what they muft at length dettroy . and will -be fure to turn to good account . with every thing or mercy.. hnce all fool. (for Wifhes of their fond and Hopes. them fummons Death whenever . vain with ielf delude ones when at the fame time they are Mortal. G A P^ .) of the Knavery So m fome and unfure acquiluion. which is. ones or Happinefs. and living alwavs muft fubmit to the fame fatal Neceiiity. Dehres. when they place their Affedions or at the difpofal of had. than Man better and Honetter an even tuous. Enjoyment. to depart without delay away. ihould ad any Succeis exped to Men for it is vain So Viciouily? than and Concern thefe Matters. the fole Objed of Nature hath given us an abfolute and Concern.. this Servants. For the Corrupand Principles.

every Paflion. or to take away what we are loth to part with. not to one. to give again the HERE on we meet World. when any of thefe Enjoyments lie at their Mercy. we fink Jnto a date of Slavery. ro ieep their Countenance and Good Graces? and how pitifulJy do we flatter and fawn upon them. 115" C A P. tyrannizes over the worldly Man. or Preferments.with SiMPLicius's Comment. or to take from me what I am loth to part The only way then to preferve one's Liberwith. when our Deiires are fruftrated. For by this means we do not only betray our Minds to Mifery and Trouble. With what humble SobmifFioa do we cringe to thofe that have the Riches. and to have neither Defire nor Averfion for any thing in the THAT who power of others : For he that does not as fo . is fure to be a Slave as long he lives. XX. that Perfon is m. which is more. and prevail for the Advantages wepropofe to ourfelves from it? And again. and fubmit. in their Difpofal How fervileare allour Applications. without Reliftance or Controul.oft truly our Lord and Mailer. with what Terrors and mifgiving f>ars do we approach them? What mean A6ls do we make ule of. to gratify our Defires. Peifon is properly my Lord and Mailer. that we may incline their Favour. at this rate. hath it in his power to gratifie my Wiihes. to a thoufand imperious and mercilefs Mailers. is to reftrain one's own Paffions. fays he. or to infliot my Fears. that hath it in his own power. or Honours we defire. ty. with another fevcre Reflexion upa juft Cenfure upon thofe. to give what I defire to have. and every Accident. who abandon themfelves to the Love and the Cares of it. but. to fecure the Continuance ! 3 . and what we would fain have. So that. but to many Mafters . and the Misfortunes we fear. or to bring our Fears upon us. and how obfequious all our Behaviour. C NT.of . overtake us. For whoever it be.

Our fo.. and iiarafllng us. but the meaneft and moil abje<St of them all. Other Servants have fome Intervals of Freedoin and Leifure at lead. and fo little our own. To this we may add another Obfervation too. and extravagant Commands of our cruel Tyrants. they are upon the Level with other Men at fome times . and break our Chains the Courfe we muft take. which is the outward Objed of our Pafllons So that we are not only Slaves. Defires are our Matters. when we fear Dangers. and our PolTtffions. to contain them within their proper Sphere. or fix them upon any For if we do thing within the Power of any but ourfelves. fo abfolutely anothers. to contract our Fears and Defires. a moil defirable Thing and if we would aiTert our own Freedom. (that is. they are not always confined to their Mailer's Prefence. after once we have fubmitted to them butthey are perpetuajly teazing. when we fall into them. is. Nay. unjuft. and employing us either with wicked AQions or Words. and the Inftances of it infinite. is properly His. and not fufFer them to rove abroad . but what falls entirely within the Compafs of our own Power and Choice. ever remit or difpenfe with our Service fieeping and waking we ftiil drudge on. fubmits both Reafon and itfelf to another Mailer. and are ever labouring to fatisfie the iufolent. under the hardeil Go- vernment. then diftrading us with idle Thoughts and fantaftick We . But Our Attendance is without any Intermifllcan neither fly from our Mafters. . No Moment of Reft is allowed us. 11(5 I c s's Morals which they may deprive us of whenever they pleafe? precarious are all the Goods of Fortune . or when there is an Opportunity for neither of thefc. That every Man in thefe Circumfiances is fubjeS to two Mafters. . which another can beftow. and another abroad For the Brutal Appetite withwhich moves our Pveafon . Imaginations. and nothing is really Ours. ourfelves. : the Slaves of Slaves. So poor and . If then Liberty be. when we would obtain them. tunes. our Slavery is fure. when we dread the lofs of them: Our Averfions are fo. one home. For That. nor will They on. whofe very Efience confills in this) and carries it away captive. or call back again. even at : in . Night and Sleep fets them free . and they obtain Leave and Eaie now and then. and our Misfor^ of that. Befides . as certainly it is.

nor fnatch at it greedily. and the moft deplorable Aggravation of our Mifery in Other Cafes. and be Tent to anotherj do not with-hold it from him. the better fort of and owe their Servants have a Soul above their Condition Bondage to the NeceiTity of their Affairs . are perpetually contriving to bind our Slavery fafter upon us. which is yet worft of all . Such were Dio^cnes^ and Heracliius. exceeding Induftrious to make ourfelves miferable. If the Dilli be not yet come down Co low j fhew not yourfelf eager. complying with fuch Commands. or Riches. till it comes to your turn. Divi-ne it LET felf in all : Perfons. as are never obeyed. IF any thing be oiFered you. in order to it. Manage yourfelf with the fame good Manners and Refervcdnefs. or Preferment. or keep what was not intended you. . in cafe of a Wife. and the Rigor of •a penurious Fortune: but Ours is nor our Fate. but our Choice. or Honours. but to our infinite Damage. hug and are fond of our Chains. and ingenious in finding out new Methods of ruin that is. But if you ctin conquer Appetite fo far. 4 CO AU . to behave yourthe Affliirs of Human Life. be your con ftant Care. This will render you vi^orthy to be entertained by the Gods. receive it with Modefly 5 If it pafs by you. who by this generous Scorn were juftly cileemcd. or Power. with the fame Decency that you would at a publick Enter^• tainment. CHAP. as even to refufe and difdain the delicious Meats that are fet before you This will not only qualifie you to feail with the Gods. and. and in reality were. but wait patiently. ever feeking out feme frefh Objeft of Defire or Fear. andthofe other renowned Hero's. if not our utter Undoing.with S IM PL I CI us's Comment. or Children. but exalt you to the fame Dignity and Perfedion with them too. 117 Nay. XXI. We .

like well-bred Perfons many Arguments Now . without fuifering our Aifeihions to be over-power'd by . but then we muft take it modeifly and decently. but kept our Minds and Eyes conilant'y intent upon the Ship. if they were once ours and are taken away (for thus I underftand that Expreiiion of paffing by. but decently and gently. as additional Enjoyments^ and did not miftake them for our main Concern . nor repining at the Lofs. that it is not his Intention to debar Men from all Communication with the World. he tells us. and ufe thel prudently. or Advancement. the Condition of Men in the World is here reprefented . to feed our Wifhes and Imaginations with them. where Almighty God makes the Invitation and the Feaft. that fo we may keep ourfelves above them. we may receive it. He had before indulged us the Ufe of not only theNeceflaries. but the Conveniencies of Human Life. and (as he expreft it there) were ready to come on Board. and wholly immerll: in them. and how they ought to demean themfelves with regard to to them. and therefore he inllruds us. provided that we accepted of thcfe.iys. and Sail at the Mailer's Call. neither ilruggling to keep them . what Advantages they are allowed to partake of. for being thought too fevere. Icfl hisDifcourfe ihould prove lefs perfuaiive. that whatever of this kind is prefented to us.8 AFter fo peniities Epictetus's Morals COMMENT. that is. and being lent to fomc body elfe) we muft by no means detain them. And now he tells us. as to forget both Virtue and ourfelves. whether it be a Wife. before it is otfered. we ihould part with them patiently. Some feehave themfelves with a prudent Referve. and every one of the Guefts partakes of the Provi/ion. or Riches. and redrain his Scholars from too eager aPurfuit of the Goods of Fortune. and not fufFer our Appetites to grow impatient. he f. When they are given to us. or Children. by People met together at a Common Entertainment. and be fo taken up with thefe. So again. and fnatch ox reach at it rudely. ufed to check the mighty Proof Human Nature. If they be not yet come to us. we mult not receive them even then voraciouily . according as his own Appetite Hands aifeded. and with too much feeming Tranfport. it will ill become us to defire them before our Turn.

But the efpecial Excellency is yet behind. Thus then the Good Providence. are infolent find unruly. For. that when Alexander the Great faw him basking in the warm Sun. and exercife an abfolute Maftery over them then the fame Providence calls up thofeSouls. tobei)/o^i'«ij•. greedy and gluttonous. like thofe Beings a^bove. and can deny yourfelf what the Maimer of the Feafl offers to you . . but if not.with SiMPLicius's Comment. when they get quite above thefe Things. and mingles Mens Circumftances in it. which the Generality of Mankind dote upon fo infinitely. This was the Cafe of Crates and Diogenes ^ the latter of which exprelt fojuit a Contempt of the World. up to fo near a Refemblance of. and order all Things. according to the Diredions githat he ven us. if that ivere poifible. injure themlelves. Others again. this is the utmoft PerfeQion Mortality is capable of the World is no longer v/orthy of fuch a Perfon he hath tranfcended Humane Nature itieli. but even to decline and flight thefe worldly Advantages. with fuch undifturbed Security. which he hath wrought himfelf : . what he fhould do for him. advances thofe Perfons to the Table of the Gods. 119 Perfons. while they fit enthroned on high. and is not only fit to be a Gueft of the Gods. as ifthemfelves were . Which An* fwer gave fo true an Idea of the Gallantry of his Soul. and look down. but. and temper all their Adions with Prudence and Moderation. as not only to wait with Patience. 'P . who manage the Incumbrances of the Body and the World. and in a manner acceptable to the the Mafter of the Feail. but tranfcg^id. and thofe Divine Excellencies. But when Men do not only manage. as it fees moil fuitable and convenient. what can we think lefs of them. arid faid. and fo Imperial a Sway. but to be admitted into a ihare of that Dignity. foas to ieeniGuefts worthy of the Gods. than himfelf in all his Triumphs. than only that he would ftand out of the Sun-fliine. he deiired no more. which conftitutes this mortal State. For if you are a Perfon of fo exalted a Virtue. and accept WiihModedy. the World and its Enjoyments. then his fecond Wifiiiliould be to CQ\unxxtAlexa?ider. and asked. which fo well imitate the Divine Excellencies into a fort of Partnerfiiip and Government. and difpleafe the Great Lord that receives them. no longer a part of this Univerie. that this mighty Conqueror thought that Philofopher a Braver and Greater Man. as the Diftates of Reafon and Nature direft them. could wiih. and makes them (as it were) its Affiftants in the difpofing of Things here below.

and diveft themlelves of all Concerns for the Body and the World. CHAP. as if this Man were really miferable. you may be allowed. you fee a Neighbour in Tears . nor betray you to an inward and real Sorrow. Not with ftanding all which . or the Lofs oF his Eftate j keep upon your Guard. and in reality are truly fo. They are fpiritualized already. ftances. bove. furprize you into a Miftake. upon the Account of thofe outward Accidents. were diftincl and feparate from and governed their For this Reafon Epidetus fays. which he hath formed to himfelf concerning this Accident. they live up to the utmoft Pertedion of their Nature. that the Thing. and tell yourfelf immediately. who is the Source and Sum of all Perfedion. who had a generous Difdain jor thefe Things^ were juftiy ejieemwere Divine Perfons. as far as Expreifio^s and outward Behaviour go. xxir. and whatever is abfolmely perfed. who . is Divine becaule it is of God. the Hazards of his Voyage into fome remote Part of the World. which really aifliobs this Perfon. ( for other People. This is the utmoft Perfedion of a Humane Mind . But be fure to diftinguiih wifely. HeracUtus and Diogenes. that this Compliance do not infect your Mind. But then you mull be fure to take Care. for fear fome falfe Ideas rifing upon thefe Occafions. to bear a part in his Sighs. upon any fuch Account. and Tears too. and him lament the Abfence of his Son. is not really the Accident iifelf. to comply with himj and if Occafion require. and have no more to do with any ImpreiTions of Flefli and Senfe. under his Circumhear WHEN with it) but mereOpinion. And indeed . are not equally afilided ly the C - .I20 own World edj ? Epictetus's Morals it.

So that we will grant the Ground of this exceffive Grief to be not only a feeming. and carried into an Erroneous Opinion of his being made miferable by any of thefe Difafters For. Confideration ASWorld not. all Perfons that lye under the fame Nature. would ried to an equal Excefs of Grief. . our Author urges the following Inftance. And the Caution he gives upon iuch Occalior the like. fo that other Reflexion. that Natural Qualities have always the fame Operation . the Death or the Diilance of a Darling Child. but the Man's own Notions of this Accident This is the Root of all iheDifeafe and our Opinions are properly our own. and confider. made Anfwer. and yet Anaxagoras^ when News was brought him of the Death of His. is. though we ihould fuppofe a Man nevef fo prolpeious. and make us entertain them with Courage and Refolution To this purpofe. that the defirable Things of this be our Happinefs. will feel fo to every one that touches it. ons. but a real Evil. how comes it then to pafs.6 felf.with Simp Liciu s's Commcar. and being reduced to extreme Poverty. every one who buries a Son. for it is nor in any 2i. But what then is the true Caufeof all this Melancholy? Nothing elfe. Well. and check our too forward Defires after them. or ever can. with all the Bravery and Unconcernednefs in the World. and what feels hot to one. : Misfortune. fhould retrain our Eagernefs. that the Spe^Stators would not fuffer themfelves to be born down by the Torrent of this Man's Tears. and be carFor this is a Rule in Nature. At this rate then. it is plain. depend upon his SucceiTes in the World. they are to recoiled themfelves. or any of the Good or Bad Events from without. but then the Mirtake of the Perfon Hill remains . I^I COMMENT. I knew my Child could be no more than mortal. that no Man's Happinefs or Unhappinefs does. to buoy up our Spirits. as if fome real 111 had happened to him? The Accident. feel the muil mourn and lament. cannot this . the Lois of an Eftate. that thisPerfon is fo infinitely afflided. But if this be fo. of a Man in great Grief and Lamentation for fome Calamity. cannot be Evil in its owa Were it fo. ihould be an Arguare ment no lefs prevailing. . fame Impreifions.ccid©flt from without. that no External Misfortune can make us truly miferable. but rlfes entirely from within him: .

Nor is all thisito be put on merely for Oftentation. CHAR . what Behaviour proper in fuch a Cafe? Is no Compaffion due to this afilided miftaken Man ? And muft I only. and void of all tender Impreifions. own too. This Deportment is unfuitable to theCharader of a Good Man. But your Trouble may be real and indeed. He that appears infenlible. Affiftance of fome third Friend. will be fo far from ferving his Ffiend. He that would be ferviceable to another's Cure. Man who ftands ftiil upon the Bank. and the Truth and Faliliood of thefe dc• pends purely upon the Will. Infirmity. condemn his Error. but He that fuffers the fame Paffion to overcome his own Reafon too. you muft fet Bounds to your Pity and Condefcenfo is . for Grief and therefore be fure to take care. can never draw his Friend out when he is drowning . Epictetus's Morals and is owing to nothing elfe but his own wrpngApAnd this is both a real Evil. You are allowed therefore to pity and comply with him. and fo you fall into the fame Difeafe of a real Concern for the Accident itfelf. and chide or fcorn his Folly? By no means. will never be able to compofe another's Paifion . and falls within the Compafs of our own Choice. in the next place. and bring him to Reafon . and will not fo much as ftep into the Water. and quiet the Anguifh of his" Paffions. to drop a few Tears for Company. there is but too juft a Pretence for it. with a fallen Magifterial Pride. do not faften upon your Mind. becaufe Opinions are fome of the Things within our own Power. when you fee fuch an Inftance of Humane : . can as little do it. to condefcend in fome meafure to his Frailties. to fpeak kind and tender Things. that he himfelf muft be beholden to the A . You is will ask perhaps. If once you fink fo low. fion. andfomeCompliances . but he muft be fure to keep out of the Reach of Infedion too. or to ihew Good Nature For Diffimulation and Trick is what no Circumftance can render excufable to a Good Man. and properly ones prehenfions. muft make fome Advances indeed. as a Man who catching thinks the Misfortunes of the World worth But «hat it ftill immoderate a Concern. and a Man that jumps and lets the fame Stream carry him away too. you are for the future incapable of doing the Sorrowful any Service. and if you fee Occafion.% felf.

make the whatever obfcure Man.the Diibes fet before us. or private For confider. and we cannot^ change or decline itv There are infinite Inilances of this kind. depends upon. and chufing the Adors Yours. in which every Man breathing bears a part. Upon him it muft depend. that the XXIIL World is that your Part in this Play of Life a Theatre. from the former. and to inftrud us. and is deter- mined by the Poet. but the giving humour : out of the Parts. who left us at Liberty. whether wc will accept what is affigned us or.with SiMPLicius's Comment. before. feeds on what is fet before hiin.. how we ought to govern Ourfelves. prefent. it be. but another Perfon's. was eompared to aPublick Entertainment^ and the Maker and Mailer of that Entertainment was faid to be Almighty God. and future. or a it well 5 if a Cripple. that in it we are not left to our own Difpofal. : : or a Prince. and his own Judgment Jireds him. REmember. one of the Chapters a prefent Life^ IN and the Diftributionand Enjoyment of the Comforts and little this Advantages of it. not. and our Choice. at Feails every Gucft vents. or to refufe. paft. . yourfelf This is your Bufinefs. that the playing of the beft of it Part affigned you eommendably . But here we meet with another kind of Reprefentation Life is refembled to a Play. Providence hath appointed our Charadler. according as his own Palate ftands. that fuch Pains were taken to correft and form our Appetites aright. whether you ihall aft a long or a ihort one wheIf therether your Charafter ihall be high or low care to take fore he affign you that of a Beggar. with regard to all External EFor. and Difpenfer of thefe Parts For in this rei'peil the prefent Similitude diilers is God. but theCompoier.. is COMMENT. . CHAP. either to accept. For this Reafonit was. 1x5.

The Beggar behaved himfelf as a Beggar ihould do. He takes notice of their Qualifications and Abilities. it is He that gives out the Parts. though the How chufing. and the other did not fo. but by the juft Proportion. fuitably or unfuitably to our Condition. or a King hifled ? The Reafon of which is. (for this laftdoes not fall within our Sphere) but in fuch a Management. though we cannot avoid Poverty or Sicknefs when we would. and embrace a voluntary Poverty . (for every one is not fit to play Urefies. and the natural Reprefentation. clapped. And all the Fate in the World cannot tye us up fofar. in behaving ourfelves decently or otherwife. the Happinefs or the Mifery. but that the husbanding and making the beft of thofe things. and the King 'funk beneath the Grandeur of his Port . yet when Poverty or Sicknefsis laid out for us. For. and maintained the Charafter he was to appear in. and this Behaviour was thepropcrEufmefs of the ASors themfelves. which we cannot help. or not. which we chufe and procure for our own felves. and. as is ftill left at our own Liberty. For though. and then fuits the Perfons to the Charaflers they are capable of. and he is anfwerable no farther For the Perfons.) Thus far His Care goes. it is not then in our PowSo again. The Choice of the Players. accepting or refuling. we may chufe whether we er to decline thefe. that is. or a General. is the Poet's Work. or a Servant. but we cannot chufe whether we will be Servants or Subjefts. when Riches are offered us. a Rich Man. mufi: account for the doing them Juftice in the A£tion. another a Servant. by the Greatnefs or Quality of the CharaQer. or a MadMan. to whom thefe Parts are affigned. as of thofe. and at the fame time. For this Reafon it is. can carry ourfelves handfomely under them. which feem to carry a plain Fatality in them.: 114 Epictetus's Morals kind. often do we fee a Beggar. according to the particular Humours of the Adors . another a Mad-Man. in defiring or not defiring. Thus it is in the praSice of the Stage. One he appoints to perfonate a Prince. or not . All then that is left to our own Liberty here. of a Man in fuch Cafes. . that one hath hit the Humour of his part. it is in our Power to rejed them. will be Mafters and Governoiirs. and the Blame or the Commendation. yet we can make a Virtue of Neceffity. (hall be ftill as much in our own Breads. that Men do not judge of the Entertainment of a Play-Houfc. is the Management of what falls to our fhare. if we pleafe. does not coniift properly. and the Gracefulnefs of the Adion itfelf.

and Wealthy. How many Emperors. or a Beggar. but the Manner of ading it. if you pleafe. that every Man diftinguiihes himfelf by. That nothing of this kind can Bode 111 to You To your Body. let not any Superilitious Fancies diftuib or affright you: But have immediate reeourfe to this Diftinftion . or your Eftate. the Defpifed EpiBetus^ performed His. WHEN the Ravens croak or any other Ominous thing happens. was not. Honour or Infamy.with SiMPLicius*s Comment. the Slave. or your Wife. who deftin'd him to it. but' what falls within his own Choice fo neither will any Wife . and to the wonder of all the Spedators? For though his Part had lefs of Pomp and Shew than theirs. Man allow. whether they fliould perfonate a King. no Man's Happinefs or Mifery can confift in any thing. 'tis in your own power to make every thing aufpicious to you } becaufe whatever Difailer happens in any of the fore-mentioned Refpeots. and For. belongs properly to any thing elfe. for the quieting your Fears. or your Children. XXIV. ii5• chufing. and kept it up to the very laft. and Strong Lufty Men. you may. reap fome very confiderablc Advantage : : from it. And confequently. have fpoiled their Parts. or your Reputation. and anfweredtheDefign and Directions of the Poet. 'tis poffible it may but as for yourfelf. it is not the Part. while the Poor. that either Praife or Commendation. yet he ftudied the Gharafter throughly. This was his proper Bufinefs. Juft thus we find in this vaft Theatre of the World. as therefore this Commendation is due to him for it. C ilf- . with the approbation of his Great Mafter. CHAP. the Lame.

except you confent to your own Wretchednefs For all your Good and Evil : depends wholly upon yourfelf. though weihould fuppofethem to carry any ill portent to our Bodies or our Fortunes. this ought not to terrify or difcompofe us. Now it is plain from hence. and all the moil direful Significations of Misfortune. to your own mighty Benefit. that fuch a one is really Miferableupon anyof thefe Accounts. or Die your Reputation may be Blafted. Your Body. nay. the more confiderable will the Advantage be. yet we muft diftinguiih between thefe and ourielves. to Chapter feems THIS be more Methodical. and the PraSice or Negledb of what God and Nature have made entirely the Obje^ of his own Choice and Power) here he adds. 6 Epictetu s's C Morals r. Nay. and would if fet before the former. For. having told us there. it muft and will be Happy. And the greater thofe Calamities are. that is your Reafoning Mind. and ihould coniider. and the greatefl Security imaginable. that our own Happinefs and Mifery depends upon our own Difpofal.Will. for the lofs of any of the Comforts of this World. (fince a Man's Happinefs or his Wretchednefs does not confift in any outward Profperous or Adverfe Events. as to imagine. But. that if any inaufpicious Bird. or other Omen feem to foretel Mifchief and Ill-luck. your Wife or Children taken from you. for whuiever is io^ muft always do hurt.. provided you manage them prudently. but ftillall this does not reach yourfelf. that thefe are not Evils. me to be mifplaced. 'tis true may be Sick. your Ertate Deitroyed or Wailed. and all the Misfortunes confequent to thofe Significations. that a Man ought not to be too feniibly affeded with the exceilive Paiflon of thofe. and . who think themfelves unhappy. which is more. This can never be Miferable. iliall never be able to do it. Do but refolve then not to make yourfelf unhappy. and can come from nothing but ourfelves. in defpight of all thefe Ill-bodings. and im- mediately after that which begins with If you fee a Neighbour inTears^ &c. properly fpeaking. nor fympathize fo far. For out of this Bitter you may gather Sweetnefs. and behave yourfelf decently under them. and convert what is generally miftaken tor Mifery. thefe very Misfortunes fhall confpire to render you yet more Happy. but purely in the ufe of his own Free.

had faidjuft before. will be determined COMMENT. un'. HE be . your power always to come oiF ConquerIT or. to you. never to enter the Lifts with any External Accidents . that is. as to become fubfervient to your Good and fince no 111 can come to you. as Nature hath put in the power of our own W'i's. as not to concern ourfelves with them. becaufe it is in the power of eveiy one not to be Miferable. that all Omens. reft fecure of Danger or Difappointment. ate not. except they brought the Evil upon themfelves. is XXV. and you ma-. and Opinions. or bears fome diitant Relaiion. This he had ihewn at large formerly. and all the Evils threatned by them. but fuch. And this Chapter I take to be a farther Profecutionof that Argumtnt. we muft needs retire with Lofs . and added by way of Proof and Confirmation to the former.inprovided you will never engage in any Combats. we may fo reftrain our Defires and Averfions. that no Ominous PrediSions ded any ill to Men. as to contribute to any good EffeS. and Averiio!'iS. becaufe fuch Defires win m^et with fr-^qut-nt Difappointments.with Simp Lie lus's Comnient. Since then'thefe may be fo ordered.efs you pleafe to make them fo . If we ftake our Happinefs upon the Succefs of fuch an Encounter. and that all they can pretend to. but what yourfelf muft be inikumental in. cannot be Evils to you yourfelf. you muft of neceffity grant. For it is in our own power. and to fuch things. for'whrn you ftrive with your own Defires. 117 and can never change its Nature fo far. and this is in eife^ the fame thing. and fuch Averfions cannot always deliver us from the Dangers we fear. . whofe Succeiles by your own Choice. the Prize is in your own Hands. ^4^i'^<i<4'*{'^^'i'44'^4444'444'ii^444^44444'•^ 4^^4•4 4* t 4444» CHAP. is to affeit foniething that belongs. Let all our Combats therefore be confined to ourfelves. and acceiTaryto.

that peremptorily. but thing. as he is not qualified for. fo pronounced he when tus had reafon.8 Epictetus's Morals Man fliall never' be vanquiihed. is to free and eafie. as to fay. and every thing that is heed. who overlooks and places his Happinefsand Unhappinefs. go to fure if not leaft. and the Affairs of the World. that a . Man Subdued that is Miferable. our Muids deall the Happinefs and Tranquilhty ot there pend upon things within our own power. and raihly pronounce him Happy. Events ot in the Fortune. out ot the World.2. then it is no lefs evidently fo. and And againft him. or any other kind of Profperity. CHAP. And Emulation. hinriunleis Man. fee TAKE ' any Perfon advanPowced CO an eminent Station of Honour or be you that er. when you be to but Conful. or can be no room for Envy to defire not do confider. And if this be true. mens So that Epiiieor Prediftions fnall portend 111 to him. vou yourfelf. Breaft own his in be needs then it muft is in a Man's own Power never is : a . or a Senator. that it For he to be Miferable if it depend upon and. Conhis of Idea not prefently furprized with a falfe Ff'"'/^ dition. alwaysirome off triumphantly. is his own Mmd. no fnaufpicious Events are fignified to any That is. one's own Choice. nnlefs he engage in felf confpire to make them fo where the Vifuch Difputes. Now the only way to be fo. whether any Evil iliall happen any Uwhether too. COM' . when you defpife your own power. at doubtful ftory is : this done by every one. a or be a Genera!. XXVI. to hjin.

and if the Perfons who are promoted to Power and Honour. and Happy. have not in all this any of thofe Advantages. that fo they may rife upon Their Ruins. And to fucli ungenerous Ten)pers no confideration is fo affliding. in refpeCl of their Birth. which we take for Happinefs. and Emulation. as the good SucceiTes of their Neighbours: And in this Vile Dif•^ polition the very Eifence of Envy coniifls. Hence it is. and by the Envy and Emulation that ufually follows upon fuch occalions. is an impatient Defire of railing ourfelves up to an Equality with others. who makes the real Happinefs of a Man his ferious Study and fincere Endeavour. and upon thofe things that are fubjedledto it. that no body. But becaufe we are exceeding apt to be drawn into fuch Confli<&s .^ For Envy is properly the repining at another's Happinefs. others of better Defert. the lafr Chapter told us. or thofe that are efteemed fo.therefore he Ihewsus here very briefly. THE For if the proper Happinefs of a Man depend upon the ufe of his Free. For Envy Iteals in upon the Profperous. attained to any degree of that. 1x9 C T. the Original Gaufe of thefe Paffions is rooted in our Nature and Conftitution . and Vulgar Attainments. which Nature hath put in our own power. and fuch as defpair of advancing themfelves by the ftrength of their own Worth. and by nothing more indeed. than by the Examples of other Perfons^ who feem Profperous. which determines us to thirft after Honour andEfteem. nor have they^ by this Advancement. is never to engage with what is out of our own power. endeavour to undermine. and detraii from. What occaiion then can all thefe flattering Appearances give for Envy or Emulation. only Method of infuring a Conqueit upon all Encounters. to be guilty of either. that Men of mean Souls. but efpecially. which is the peculiar and true Happinefs of Humane Nature. and that it were utterly inconfiftent with his Principles. if thofe Perfons are upon the fame level with oarfclves. or Foriuue.Will. thatthefe feemingly Happy Men are not in reality fuch . when we come behind any of our Equals. it is manifeft. who exceed us in fomething. or Pio- Now N i fcilioa ."with SiMpLicius's Comment. is capable of Envy or Emulation. and courted with popular Applaufe and Admiration. and is uneafie.

than Envy. and bear away the Prize. ftrive to excel in little better . from thofe external Accidents. are the Prize we contend for. that in Men. buttoouting theirs : - Nay.ich fubdued and enOaved his Mind. he does likewife exped to find his Hapthis pinefs. quently. or very much below ourfelves. and Envy is a fequent to them. we the thing into Vice.I30 feiTion. a Man. And flight only way to deliver himfelf from this Bondage. and oppreiring him Upon thefe it is. and Since therefore Good is the proper Objed of Envy or Power. without any invidious Arts of not only to comeup with them. and no Qualification can render nearand commendable. Other probut the one fort excite our Admiration. For Perfons either very much above. clinations all ^ . and gettmg the loofe from all the Incumbrances of the World. But where Nviiure hath given a greater ftrength of Men feel and a more adive and generous Difpofition. or Honour. the by fuch for miftaken only is Reputation. fometimes thePradicescon- wife. Fortune. in that ought to be firft thofe Chains his PalTions have bound him in. or other Ep I CTETUs's Morals Accompliihments. that it otherVicious Paffion. But Emulation ly related to is theLove of Goodnefs. is inand Philofophy. thofe Rivals in his AffediFor thefe only ons. by virtue ilruggles to come up to the perfedion of Others. when the Advantages of and the World. of Principles firft contradidsthe very wuh- For the thing confiftentwith the Charader he pretends to. Becaufe thcle are not a match for us. that our Brutilh In-^ Calamities he fears. are not the Objed of our Envy. Emulation and fince Preference in but Vulgar. and is can really be no fuch thing. becaufe noneof thefe fall who examine in our own Choice. which exerts itfelf vigoroufly. his Virtue and who makes Wifdom worthy of his ly argue. have the power tovanquiih and captivate him. them in the Race. the breaking Liberty is hisDefires. there and a gallant warmth of Soul. that while he accounts fuch Perfons Envy or Emulation. From the difference thenof thefeTwo Tempers. and Matters nicely. moR unbecoming plainthey becaufe Study. by diiappointwith the ing his Hopes andExpedations. in thofe Advantages which they enjoy. we may plainly perceive. . is to end difdain the World and to affert his Native Freedom. it is plain. as Envy GonfeAccounts. and the voke our Contempt. w^. leilenof ones Own Merit. thcfe of any upon excited Emulation. when Virtue is but it degenerates . thefe are 'Refentments. t'arts. there can be no fuch Paffion.

and iubmit themfelves to Reafon. as to gain time for cooler Thoughts. •:• a• « •:-. CHAP. 4• ** jK * « * « « Sr •:• jK •:•. that makes it fuch to you. for if you can but fo far fudue your Pailion. When therefore ybti are provoked. and all thofe Calamities. this is owing entirely to your ow'tj Appreheniions of the Thing. And efpecially guard yourfelf well againft the firil impreffions . Perfecution.« CHAP. and fo arbitrarily exercife. 131 all clinations let themfelves loofe that and from hence comes remorfelefs Tyranny. conftantly before your Eyes. REmember. *' s• . be fure to keep Death. J^i BUT . any Man Reviles or Strike^ not the Tongue. that gives the Opprobrious Language. and a powerful Reitraini: to all immoderate Defires. as an Injury or Affront. it is XXVII. or the Hand that ^eals the Blow. •:• •:•: « •:• ** * «« •:•. over us. And whe)i oince thofe Succours are intercepted and cut off. which Mankind are moil afraid of. and let them be very familiar to your Mind. . let Death be ever prefent there: For you will find this a moft excellent Remedy againft bafe and mean Thoughts. for by a brave and juft fcorn of thofe outward Objeds. and Baniihment. But above all. •!• 3 C M^ . you will eafily attain to a good Government of yourfelf afterwards. thefe cc^.with SiMPLicius's Comment. but it is your own Refentment of it. when you. which they ufurp.nnot (land alone . but fall in of courfe. we weaken the Defires that lead to them . that injures or affionts you. The Contempt of the World therefore is the moft effedual Method of reducing all into Order again.

which Men depend upon the World for. are yet really attended with many Inconveniences. I c s's Morals C AFter having t. is this That fuch a Contempt and Negleft of the World. there is nothing they ftick at . is the only poffible Courfe of fetiing our Souls at Liberty. the only thing that carries Terror in if. as to prevent done them tyFlattery. there is no Indignity. while they are neither in a capacity to repel the Wrongs that are them by Force nor can defcend fo low. again expofed the Vanity of all thofe imaginary HappineiFes. offer Violence and Indignities to their Perfons . which Men are apt. how Great and (jay foever they may look at firft. treat them with all manner of Contumely and Scorn. that provokes the moft barbarous injuftice and all manner of Affronts. and lay them open to all the Infolences and Injuries imaginable. Who would chufe to be thus trampled upon. as if all this were too little. Bet in truth. but make a Virtue ot it too? Virtue. .132. they wound fuch unreftiling Philofophical Perfons in their Reputation. of having recourfe to the firil Principles of Morality. drive them from their Dwellings clap them into Prifons. all the World would agree in efteeming For it fo. opprefs them in their Eilates. and Servile Applications. When People fee this. that they will not give themfelves Nor Tongue. and leaves a Man naked and defenceleis to them all ? To all this Epioians replies in ihort. if• there were. he proceeds in the next place. that they have not ill Nature enough to offer no Liberty. that a Gallant and Generous Difdain of theie. The Sum of what the Objectors have to fay. while they are yet but raw and untrained in the Difcipline of Wifdom and Virtue. keep them Impotent and Low. make them fly their Country. or ufed to feel the difcouraging effcits of in themfelves. And thus we fee daily. either to raife merely for Difcourfe fake. and not only chufe. that there is nothing . and living eaiie . grievous or terrible in all this difmal Reprefentation. and (hewed us. . fometimes take away their very Lives too. for they render Men Defpica: bleand Cheap. and. Now. to take off all thofe formidable Objedlions. that when Men have got the Afcendanr. nor Hand will know any Reilraint. with Slaaders and Reproaches . is the Uptnioa . And in this he obferves his former Method.

we expofe and injure ourfelves. which expreffes a decent Contempt of the World. theymuft be either true or falfe.'^ . not from the ASion of the Perfon that offers the Opinion of the Perfon that refents it. by a true Elevation of Soul. upon any fuch provoking Occalion. and difFor. and refufing to give one's Palfion vent. So that entertain of thefe injuries being fuch. This Pradice is recommended to us particularly by the Example of Socrates^ who was taken notice of. to conclude. And is Now ftom. it is the Reporter. nor what ought to move our Indignation. that neither your Happinefs or Unhappinefs cati depend upon it. till we feel its Heat abate . with Opinion SiMPLicius's Comment. vet you have it in your Power to convert it to an excellent Ufe . as if you thought yourfelf unhappy upon this Account. and all its Malice. For ifyou once can gain time. and not let loofe the Dog. that Reproach and Slanders are no fuch mighty Afflidion. that are the worfe for it. than in hating But if what is faid of us be ialfe. Not to let this Affront make too fudden and feniible Impreffions upon you. and not We. What Gourfe then is to be taken in this cafe ? He tells you. nor provoke you to Lamentations and Complaints . and your Mind will be in a Condition to weigh and apply the Principles of Philofophy. when any thing auger'd him. the Refult of this will prefently be. till he have done fnarling. the Remedy is. there rate And the beft Expedient for Evennefs of Temper is Cutherefore. like Silence. but to give yourfelf Leifure to recoiled. and though it may boil and foam within. and confider the true Nature of thcThing calmly and coolly. to reap great Advantages from fuch crofs Accidents as thefe. why fo very loth. for never fpeaiiing a Word. whether this Accident be any thing within your own Power or not. is no Prefervative againft falfe Notions and immodeRefentments. to be told of it afterwards. when you find it to be fomewhat that your Will cannot command. and that. for thefe Opinions are our own Aft and Deed. Now. 133 we the affront but from confequently. and defend yourfelf againit the Surprize of the Thing. And. quiet our Minds. and to diftinguiili. in hating to commit the Faol. and. yet ftill to ftifle the Fire. yoa will live ealie and quiet. be it as bad as it is poffible tofuppofe. andfo very much difpleafed. 4 What . to hear the Truth? Our Shame in this cafe comes too late . If the former. and weftould have done much better. will very eafily be made appear.

that thefe Things are not really fuch. and livein Expeilation of them every Moment. and when cuflomary Meditation hath reconciled us to them. but a very fignificant Conjunition in this place. and rendred the Thoughts ot them eafie and familiar to tne 3oul. that they ow^hi to be connedcd by that Particle Biit^ which feems to me by no Means redundant. as Things that may come at any time. and fuch Misfortunes. and weaned from the Pleafures of the . But he direds to another fort of Application. even the difmalleft and dreadfullelt of them all. concerning External Events in general. as Things frequent and common. and cooler Coniideration. For when once Reafon hath convinced us. as the beft Remedy againilfuchlmprefljons. aiiy Vexation or crofs Accidents. but that this is entirely owing to Mensown JSiotions and RefentmentsotVthem. in my Opinion. as for Death iiKdExtle^ and fure all thofe Calamities 'which Manktnd to keep thefe confiantly before are nfnally afraid your Eyes . CHAP• . and particularly againit our being enraged at. and Exile. at one time or other. as are of the which is. taken off all their Terror. or dejefted under. fo clofe a Coherence. or the worfe. Thus then the Author carries on his Argument .134 Epictetus's Morals What Epiiletus fays upon this Subjed. to bear them confirftand moft formidable Kind tinually in mind. But. that there is not any thing formidable or injutious in the Nature of trie Things themfelves . andLeifure. . have. and fo on. and fome of which molt certainly will come. having proved. all of^ be For. as make a Man one whit the better. he prefcfibes Caution. World. againft Death. we prefently look upon the moft dreadful of tnem all. and that which follows in the next Chapu-r. and by this means we feel both our Spirits fupported againft the Terrors and our Afteofions much moderated.

all Mankind in general. that you fliall attend this Refolution. But now he takes another Method. and areafieded with a real Love v. againft all the Inconveniencies and Difcouragements. that all its Happinefs and Mifery depends upon itfelf alone. thofe very Men. C r. But if you give way to their Reproaches. that a Man muft look at home for all that is properly Good or Evil . only ftick cloje to wh^itever you your Judgment convinced is virtuous and be- coming 5 and conilder this as your proper Station. This being the peculiar Prerogative of a Rational and Free Agent. diiTuaded them from and all the Difquiets and Superftitious Fears about them. What Gravity. ridiculous. many meet with with turning Philoyou upbraid will People that fopher all on the fudden 5 and ask in Scorn. and addreiTes himfelf particularly to fuch. you will then render yourfejf doubly. And here . and. that are Hke to Imagine._v. aligned you by God . and and Scoffs. will afterwards turn your Admirers. THE former Advice them and concerned extended to as Men . that thefe are remote and foreign. Virtue the muft be fure to arm yourfelf before-hand. there he had very largely engaging in the Affairs of the World. who derided you at firft._ -— with SiMPLicius's Comment. much Derifion . which you muit not quit upon any Terms. in confideration. and is the meaning of all this affected But be not you affefted. XXIX. That ifyouperfevere in Goodne fs. out of our Reach and Difpofal . and moil defervedly.nd Deiire of it. you or iupercilious. thefe difdainful Looks ? are in you refolve to make Wifdom and IFStudy and Bufinefs of your Life. 135 CHAP. and are va'iquiihed by them. as have made fome Advances in Wifdom and Goodnefs. And remember.

and relapfe into their former Follies. at leaft as good. Some of thefe Derifions are exprell in con'temptuous Looks and Gertures. and Their way of Converfation defpifed. as thofe they ufe with fuch rude Infolence and Contempt And this is commonly theTreatment Men who take better Courfes meet with. and they are properly Mockeries. and firft Efof fuch aDeiire. and partly out of a Refentment. and partly from Envy. merely to deliver themfelves from fuchTeazings. And indeed. for many Perfons are overcome with thefe Reproaches. Nor muft it bedillembled. whofe good Difpofitions and happy Temper incline them to Wifdom and Virtue. to fecure the Approaches. Sometimes they do it. Thefe do it upon an idle Pretence. to which they have been long accuilomed. inAnd if this were to real Difficulties. than for Men to take it ill. fometimes by expofing and ridiculing them. but their own Friends and Relations have oftentimes the greateftHand in it. that this will make Them. it were fomething more tolerable. and valuing themfelves upon their Philofophy. this fpightfu! Dealing does but too often meet with its defired Succefs.136 here his forts Epictetus's Morals firft Care is. but only big with the . but run Men upon Precipices. and great Dangers. That a Philofophical Retirement renders Men ufelefs. Now nothing is more ufual. and loft to the World and Others do it. and break its Meafures. ( while they are not arrived to anyMaftery or Perf^dtiou in it. and draw both thofe that would fain be good. by giving timely Warning of the Difficulties it may probably encounter. that there is fometimes too juft ground for the latter of thefe Reafons. for we very often fee Men. And this proceeds partly from Anger. and all that take their part. And the Method they take for expreffing fuch Refentments. is. by reproaching them with Arrogance and Pride. Hope . Others do not content themfelves with Apiili Figures and ill Language. fo infinitely more happy and commendable than their own. more than they ought to do. and a malicious Defire to obftrud : their farther Progrefs. when any of their Companions leave a way of Living. partly out of Envy againft a Life. left the Surprize of any fudden and unfore-leen Oppofition fhould difturb the Mind. from their old Cronies and intimate Acquaintance. that fo the World may think their own Courfes. and defert their Poft. done by Strangers only. by thofe that have exchanged it for a better. and afTift them in fo neceiTary a Reformation.

the firft Principle. ^ . thatthefe good Refolutions andDeiires are the Mo ions and Impulfes of a Divine Power. Againft this Philofophy their Study. anExcrefcence. When Men behave themfelves with fo much Pride and OJentation. 137 this mighty Opinion proceeds only from want of Difcretion and Judgmenr and is the moil undeniable Evidence againft fuch Men that they really have not that. and preferves a due Temper. is diftributed equally and regularly through the whole Mais. and mutual good Affiaance. For this Exaltation does not proceed from any true Gallantry or Greamefs of Soul. «^^i^'T^hing is who. likethatof the Body refults from a good Difpofition of the Parts.oprofefs himfelf a PiiiloVopher on a fuddTn. between the Parts within. and that fwelling Vanity . when they reproach "^' it : confeiTed by thefe very us with pre- «gany Man ^^^^ expreis the high Efteem they have for SthVhliTr^'r^r '« - th"efrmet?me and bv not allow. and ex! pofes a Man to all the mifchievous EiFeds of ir. the World think the Charader of Philofophers funs very ill with them. But when all due Care hath been taken to get clear of this Folly . which is in truth. and fwells to an unnatural Bulk. and other People none at alL When. and then to perfevere in the Choice of Virtue in defpight of all Oppofirion to the contrarv and in a full Perfuaiion.. in tru h *Ph . tur/'a^J and vvhat what ^°i'^'^'"'°? is decent and agreeable to fo excellent a Being. but it is a vain Tumour. a Man ought to harden himfelf againft all Scoffs and Reproa"^ ^^^ ^'g"'^y ^^ Humane^N:. than an haueh\yJ]^perciUom Carriage. as if They only had all Perfedion. ture. For there is not in the whole World any thine more inconiiaent with Wifdom and Virtue.^ with Hope of Simp Lie I s's Comment. and thofe without. For. ScIffers^tiprnM"' bcofters themfelves. which draws ill-Humours to it from within. and the laft and higheft Precept in it. Whereas true Greatnefs and Strength of Mind. lofophy IS the nobleft and moft valuable Bleffing Ta ever ^' God bertowed upon Mankind Diaemper he cautions all that make Tn . which they with fo much Confidence pretend to. as againft aThing detefted by all Mankind and that which gives a juft Provocation to Malice. the Sum and Subftance of all Philofophy. which difda-ns and negleds that excellent and mort divine Rule of Knowmgonc'sSelf: Rule. they . which caufes Deiormity. in truth. and proceeds from fome Difeafe. attaining to it in time) exalted withlelf conceit and full of Difdaiii.

abundantly fufficient. and great Application. improves. Which could one off from that Port of Virtue. Authors the all upon return muft Reproach the proand none of their Afperfions would nick. and upon that Quiet defiftsfrom his good Puipofes. The Jells and Scorn. and exprefs their Honour of Philofophy that way. by But the Man. refent the Vanity ot bold Pretenders with fo much Indigna- Now tion. when they behold itseifeds.. ethe and commence good Difpofitions. apd falling fo low. not utterly and with generous Refolutiohs to perfevere in Goodnefs. affigned to him. Effeminacy. to draw him off. upon this very Man hath after Honour and Fame. that of being fubdued by fuch or a madefpicable Enemies. will difcern the Beauty and Majefty of it much better. which requires much thefe very Men. and which in defpight of all the Scoffs and Difcouragements. which paiTed upon fuch in . there this in And OppoGtion. but returns upon him with double Force. fo long as he was degrees by and them. beat which God does therefore MoQjuftly and Wifdomhad Portion of Scorn. yields tamely to their Reproaches. in cafe hehadperfifted in his is Duty. and compounds for his doubhimfelf renders by returning to his former Courfes. but a one at firft. 13 8 I c EX s's Morals the they expofe indeed the Arrogance and Forwardnefs of ^erfons who prefume to do fo . after looking fo high former with a meaij (thus vainly attempting to reconcile Philofophy upon Contempt provokes alfo But Temper. and letting a fenf^lefs Flear. were what he had really no Concern themfelves. in vain. becomes and ViStrength It adds Occafion an Affiftant to Virtue gour : . hold out That even our Paffions is one very confiderable Advantage. their by vanquiihed felfto. preparing to change their Scorn into Admiration and Malice.be ones Butthefuffering our does not only junifie their 'firil Infolence. of Negled generous in a ceeded Efteem. who Time. but then withal they acknowledge this to be an Attainment.. licious Jeft. in themodeftConverfationof one who conftantly perfeveres in being refolutely and obilinately virtuous. againft all manner of ^ render'd moft reafonInconftancy and Defertion. natural Ambition. and Feeblenefs funk into any Mind. by quitting Preteniions. and admire it ten thoufand times more. Account. Harm at all.) it and fordid bafe and another Account. this poor fpirited Wretch deferve a double fubmitted to the Scorn of wife and good Men. and able and due. by his own to inlpirp Tiiefe Confiderations dre. that they attempted. after having have done him no that of Fools and Knaves. ly ridiculous.

without any Danger of being kd into falfe Mark and Teftimony of real . and a double Shame upoQ . you ever happen to accommodate yourfelf to IFthe Humours of the World. to look upon this. But if you will needs be thought fo too. For thus to a true Notion of Honour . and Charaoler. upon the Account of the Perfons who pay the Rcfped.i. COMMENT.'i^^ith SiMPLicius's Coininenr. which a Man ought to be fatisfied with. gain the Admiration of their Enemies and Deriders. and in time. And therefore the Honour. however Men may run down Goodnefs for a while^ yet the Refolute and Brave break through all that . and we come : Virtue and Defert. Judgments by it. who often mibut that which is founded ftake iVlen and their Charaders upon the Commendation of the Wife and the Good. were told before. And the Teftimony of fuch is what may be depended upon. CHAP. but the Tame and the fckle. as the particular Poft. and that will be fufficient. Thar. which Providence hath appointed him to fill. that this is below a Philofopher. which comes irom the Applaufe of the Rabble. draw downajuftScor. for the fake of Reputation and Applaufe . is by no means that. with really being what you would be thought. For Thefe know how to difcern between Perfons. i^^ is refined and exalted by it. XXX. we covet it no longer for its own fake. and their refpedive Merits. as a pinefs upon fomething without us gour to Reaibn. he ought conftantly to perfevere in it.. deferve your own good Opinion. take notice. That. nor are proud of it. who fink under the Reproa- WE ches of ill Men.. and fo place our HapBut we value it. and unthinking part of the World. And therefore content yourfelf upon all Occafions. when once a Man's Judgment is convinced of his Duty.

than if he appealed to the Judgment of the World. in truth. to being a tix'd Rule to all inch. and confuir. But if the be- Name ing fo alone feem too little. was Do not affcH to be thought Wife Becaufe Perfons in his Circumdances. and let the Senfe and Confcioufnefs of your own Virtue fatisfie you. There headdred his Difcourfe to a Young Beginner .«j applies himfelf to atprefent) willbefure. as the Humour of the World. and he will alfo fecure a moredifcerning and impartial Judge of his AdiOns. Therefore^ fays he. to pafs any true Judgment upon themfelves. are drangeiy fond of Fame and Applaufe. when they are confpicious and acknowledged. you muft obferve £/'/<f?i'?. Now lofopher mud not be guilty : It That their only Care ought to be. And to Almighty God. tranfporied beyond Meafure with Noife and empty Breath. That. and not only too creduloudy vain upon the falfe Judgments ot others^ but unqualified. of which aPhi- upon themfelves. but if he will needs be thought fo too. fays he. For a Man who hath attained to fome good meafure of Philofophy. and that your Virtue (hould be known and ob• ferved. both to ail: confidently wich his Principles. to difcover its Beauties and fhed its Lullre . one better difpofed to ad upon Principle. as yet. thereby to render himfelf acceptable to others. depends upon the Difference of the Perfons : concerned in it. ail which. and to Him the Counfel thought fit to be given . he ii now in a Condition to make a jud Edimate of himfelf. do not tix your Eye upon the World. and a Man can with better Confidence take Satisfadion in his own Virtues. when they are to be tried by his own Reafon. for a Man to forfake his Principles. (and fuch a one. recommend themfelves '. nor be folicitous to pleafe the Multitude . how different this Advice is from fomething which was laid before. (As indeed it is the Nature of Goodnefs. But at prefcnt he hath a good Proficient : to deal with. that your Light fnould ihine.i^o Epictetus's Morals to all this he adds. That he would content himfelf with being what heiliould be. while he' makes it his Bufinefs to approve ht'mfelf to his own Confcience. to their own Gonfciences. is a Weaknefs. not fo much his own Judgment. One but jud entering upon the Study of Philofophy . content yourfelf -tvith being a Philofopher •which is but another for a Good Man. . and And therefore to follow the Diixates of his own Reafon: to fuch a one his Advice is.) then. And here it may be proper to take notice. and you defire. for thefe are but very incompetent Judges of fuch Matters But rather drive to approve yourfelf to your own Bread.

SiMPLicius's Comment. to tuous.: ^. he would have a Man gain his own Apmakes of himfelf. And in Oppofition to this. and commended by Wife and Good Judges. probation. than For the being approved that of the World can poflibly be. to which his Expreffions may be liable. For this Great Man. and upon this Prefumption I imagine it is . care to prevent any MifconftruSions. that he fays in the Clofe of the Chapter. and make a more induftrious to pleafe others than himfelf. as that vs^hich is apt to corrupt her Principles . and of greater Ufe in the Encouragement it gives to Virtue.with himfelf. fatisfied 141 Appro- and therefore may be with his own bation. and Prejudice..) Now by faying in the former Chapter. is the moil fatisfaftory and convincing Evidence. principal to Goodnefs. but the Men who yielded to thofe corn' d he might be thought to Reproaches deferve to he doubly f as the to propound the Opinion and Efteem of the World Though \ . CHAR . fuppofed to be fuch a Judge . and Vanity. very probably^ defigncd it (As indeed he generally takes as a neceflary Caution alfo. Motive Man Man Now whom Place. Do but deferve your own Good Opinion^ and that is enough in all is Confcience. by calling away the Soul from the Purfuit of Fame and Reeutation abroad. for the Judgment a wife is lefs fubjed to Partiality. that a Man is truly VirEpiaietus fpeaks in this the Perfon. ^hat thofe who expofe Virtue at firji^ will afterwards admire the Refolute and conflant in it . And therefore here he retrains that. and takes off all fuch Sufpicions. This feems to be the true Importance of the Chapter poffibly there may be another very convenient Senfe of it too.

pray in the no more confider. XXXI. you ihould beitow that upon anotner. and for which confequently you have it in your own power. Ever perplex yourfelf with anxious Thoughts hke thefe j / lead a wretched obfcure Life^ "Without any Name or Notice taken of me. But befides. wich all my Heart. to be chofen into a Place of Command. publick Entertainments ? You muft allow it was not. you Ihall be defpifed. Yes. Was it any part of your proper Bufinefs. why ihould you fay. than it is to bring any Bafenefs or Diihonefty upon you. or to be admitted to. how I may attain thefe Things . and have no Name or Notice taken of you. which you are not poiTeft of yourfelf ? But your Friends will anfwcr^ Pray get it then^ that you may impart to us. to make yourfelf as valuable as you pleafe? But your What do Friends will be never the better for you. and at the fame time preierve my Integriniih to give ty» . For if you fuppofe (as this Complaint evidently does) that Obfcuricy and DiiVefpeot it is is an Evil . if you are not ? Befides.142. I will . And why iliould you trouble yourfelf for this } Who told you. provided you can dired me. that this was ever incumbent upon youj ©r one of thofe Things in your own power. which you ought to look upon as a Duty? Or how can itJpe expeoted . Epictetus's Morals CHAP. Where is the Difrefped then ? And what juft Reflexion can it be upon you. confider that power of any but yourfelf to bring any Evil upon you . when your Bufinefs lies wholly in Matters at the difpofal of your own Will. nor have Intereft enough them the Privileges of Citizens of Rome. you call being never the better ? You will not furthem with Money. or carefled at.

I '\vith ty. but what Rank then. What Advantage do you mean ? You will not build Therefore it would Virtue . COMMENT. and are convinced. when you do fo. fo thefe Objeiiions prefent themfelves differently. to fhake thefe Refolutions. virtuous. But if once you part with thefe. many Difficulties otfer themfelves. nor Exchanges ? And what if you do not? Does your Country expeot to be furniihed with Arms from a Shoe-maker. and the And which of thefe do greateft Folly imaginable. and modeil Friend? better become You to aifift: my pe6t fuch things from Me. S LI c I s's Comment. both to difquiet their own % Thoughts J . if you make an honeft and good Patriot? No fure. And. And ihall you then be thought to have done it none. You are very far from being an Ufelefs Member of the Commonwealth. invio- real But if you defire me to part with my own Good. late. upon a Pretence of promoting the Publick Goodj know. Well. Men apply themfelves the Stady and PraSice WHen of Virtue. or Shoes from a Smith? Surely. nothing fo well to that deferves their Care. ft^at your Country receives no Advantages from you. but ac publick Porticoes or Bagnioes. that you are lefs capable of ferving your Country . this is all that can in Reafoa be required. (you'll fay) fliall you but have in the Commonwealth ? truly. even juft fuch a one. as the Improvement of their Minds. as Men differ in their Circumftances. than to excannot be had. 143 my Modefty. what Place. or a true. that I may procure you fome imaginary only 5 Good this is the greateft Injuftice. when you are grown Kna- Why ' viih and Impudent. you efteem the more •. as is confiftent with your Integrity and Modefty. and true Greatnefs of Soul. valuable Money. as But it will be obje^ed agamy the Expence of that. if every one do it Service in his own Way.

Therefore when any Man is really in Difgrace . and think. and to evacuate the Good Advice of Others. and propofe to 'themfclves the Advantage of their Friends. this Objedion Epidetm takes off moil effedlually. that if a Man retire from the Gainful Em: ployments and Bufinefs of the World. will abundantly jullify fuch a Concern. and except I take the Trouble of punning my Servant ^ imy Indulgence will be his Ruin. F)ril of all. by the following Syllogifms Difgrace is an Evil. they are concerned for the difcharge of all thoie good Offices. or notice taken of him. I and my Family Jhall fiawe . This is t-hi? Sum of the Argument. So then the Difgrace from others. : . is what we have no jurt caufe to fear. which Epidetus here undertakes to examine. is fomething within our own power. he applies himfelf to that General one of ObfcUrity or Difgrace . thofe Objedions appear Defpicable and Lovs^ . this is in. ) wiihout any Refped paid. and while they are doing their Duty. : Goqd . nor indeed ought it to pafs for Di/grace in our Opinion. But then at the fame time.. . or quit ^l the Bar. . if Difgrace be allowed to be'Evil . 144 Young Epictetus's Morals Thoughts. • . his Pradice . can trnft Providence for a Provilion. But whatever is fo no other but ourfelves. which may be expeded from them . But to Them. or whether they do not. Difgrace or Obfcurity. For their Defires are Generous and Noble. they are above fuch trifling Coniiderations. they flart fome Objedions. and the Honour attending it. whether Others difrefped him. they aim at nothing elfe but true Honour . Firfl: of all. whofe Minds have not yet purged off the Drofs of the World. And now if you pleafe. and by. let us examine the feveral Propolitions whereof it confilts. for then it muft by confequence be our own A6t and Deed. can bring upon us. andEvilas Veil as Good. and to refute particularly. that both the intrinfick Goodnefs of the thing. To Beginners. fuch mean and fordid Reflexions as thefe are apt to ftep in . and the Service of their Country And from thefe Topicks.. (fays he) is an Evil: iiipvv if DC (as »ll Men fure will allow it to be) a Homer obierVes alive. they decline Infamy and Oblcurity. ^ Wisere Eloquence acquires a jufl and lofting Famct it muil be his hard fate to be buried . and from Himfelf. who have made any coniideraBle Progrefs.. If I neglea my Bujinefs and Eflate.

muft needs depend upon the Liberty of their own Choice. that no Man is really unhappy for the want of them. the other Contrary will belong to the diftant Extreme. to fhew. that it is what we account moft For properly to belong to the beft Peribns and Things. For there hath been fo much laid in the former part of this Treatife. properly fo called. whether the a Member of Parliament. that all the Good and Evil. and. if Difgrace. but this. that it is to be hoped. as their ftrid and juft due. But now. and muft ask you again. this excludes him from Places of Dignity and Refped. whether the City. as to the Meaning of what follows. and confequently that Oblcurity. But then Office of a Lord Mayor. Home. what depends upon none. and want of publick Honour. poiTible to fall upon Rational and Free Agents . or Now ther. without incurring any real Diihonour upon that accovnt. from thence I infer. Honour is attributed to God. is done already. and want of Honour. and any thing that is Diihonourable. be our own Aft. this very thing proves it to be Good. to BlelFed Spirits. The Next thing to be proved would be. with regard to Good and Evil. So that Diihonour muft needs be an Evil upon this Account alfo. there is no need of repeating thofe Arguments any more.Feafts. of which thefe are alledged as the difcouraging Inconveniences. it is more in the fovjer of any hut yourfelf^ to bring any Evtl rtpon yott^ tha» it is 2 t9 . muft needs be Evil For if it were Good. and be valued and efteemed. You will fay indeed. when we lye under it . a Man may abfolutely defpifc and negleft the World. for. Now. Good. or the^Careifes of the World. there feems to be fome difficulty in that ihort Sentence. But. befides the confentof all Mankind in this notion of Honour. and comes from none but ourfelves. are things in our own Difpofal. that it hinders I him from making that he fits at a Figure and Intereft in his own Country.Vith SiMPLicius's Comraenr. : 145* Difgrace. can in true and ftrift Speaking. I prefume. and to the molt excellent of the Sons of Men . that this is a thing wholly in our own power. it would ceafe to be Diihonourable. is no Evil or Unhappinefs neieats in Private. as the beft acknowledgement we can pay. where one Contrary belongs to one Extreme. and fuch as any Man can give himfelf •when he pleaies: You muft grant me they are not. for their Merit and Goodnefs. and this is the Cafe of Honour and Diflionour. be call'd Good or Evil . that nothing which does not fall within a Man's own Difpofal.

and Good and Hurtful. precarious. much more fo. and if he can no more be brought into Evil. and thus the ftrength and ftrefs of the whole Argument. But poffibly the place may be clearer. Now Vilenefs or Turpitude is properly applied to an undue ufe of Pleafures and Senfual Delights. than he has. that. for a Man has no more povver to engage us in Vice. that Virtue reand invites us to its Embraces. and a more full and expedient Senfe found out. And this Conjedure. Now according to Notion. that he cannot be brought into Evil at dices . which allows makes Diihofo much to the Commendations of Men. and of the diflike and Condemnation the nefty to conliil ia World. as well whole Interpretation grounded upon it. as Turpitude and Diihonefty: So that. nay. . ( for it is by its commends itfelf. to engage us in bafe and unbecoming Prahis and Evil. becaufe the indulging thofe Pleafures It is therefore no more in the power purely our own Ad. as the Decency of an Adion is more eafiiy difcerned. is other thing but Choice. if a Man cannot be brought into this latter by another. upon which the Mafters of Reafon and Oratory proceed in thefe Matters . they tell us. feems to carry a great deal of Truth.) fo alfo the Vilenefs and Diihonefty is inore vilible than the Immorality and Evil. than to bring Vilenefs or Diihonefty upon him. by that which Praifc or ijlame. than the real and intrinfick Good- Comelinefs and Beauty. if we tranfpofe that Negative Particle. both of Crime and Mifery. own ther. of things Profitable or us a very diiferent Account . Morals For this. have diilinguiihing Charader founded in Nature. and engages our AiFeaion. if we attend to the Notions. for thev define Honefty and Turpitude. for thefe.worthy. that To the Sentence may run thus: It is impoflible for any Perfon to be made Miferable by any other. and are not fo ii. to hr'wgPJlenefs or D'lfjoncfly not being m the p'jvjsr of any other Perfon to bring any Evil upon a Man^ fcems to be urged from a proof more evident than itfelf. is as much in free Difpoiiil. of any other Perfon. than to be made Vile and Bafe by him. and this abufe can be the effed of no nefs . as to depend on the Opinions or Determinations this of Men. all by anoit follows. to bring Evil upon a Man. and Evil it is plain he cannot. and the Infinuation here is. than into That.1^6 Epictetus*s upon you. give they Evil. and fo make Decency and But Vilenefs to depend upon the Judgment of the World. will lie up- on that note as the of Comparifon.

and aft. that it is 147 im- fays. This now is a Pretence. but allowing. it feems. that is utterly impofTible to be done at all. calculated for one. the ASions of your Lile. And if.with World. (fays the Obje£lor) that I may nalize my . becaufe you have not yet unlearned the Folly. to prevent his being an ufelefs and unprofitable part of the Creation. you may render yourfelf highly valuable and confpicuous. viz. Well. The Defires and Averfions of your Mind. the Management of your Freedom. thefe are theLills which you muft enter. but in kindnefs to his Friends. and to value the World and its Advantages no longer for the fake of himfelf. But then again. for that Prize And this is a Combat. . Man muft admit. and therefore allows himfelf in the purfuit of Wealth. yet ftill this is Friends are never the better for my Merit. that this is not the Field. much lefs can That. and my Own This Gbjedion too. you have forgot. as you pleaie ? Why indeed ? Bur. Epidetits removes by Two Arguments The Firft proceeds upon the diftinotion of things : 3 within . and whar is lei^t to itsDifpofal. fuch as it is a neceiiary lification of everyone. who would be a Philofopher in earneft. a at leafl: as it is pofllble for another to bring evil upon him as to bring Difhonefty. where Humane Good and Evil. in which if you behave yourfelf Gallantly. It argues the Man to have got above all fordid feekings of his Intereft. when you have the Port of Honour within yourfelf. as uncorrupt Nature and right Reafon would direS. but by appearing in fome Office of Authority. to negleol Quagood iig- and defpife. What occaiTon. as a Good and Gallant Adion . as difl'ufive as may be. ( as was proved before. and to render the Good he hath. and fothe Conclufion is ftill the fame. the proper and peculiar Happinefsor Mifery of our Nature. of placing your Happinefs in Fo: reign and External Advantages. he Sim PL icius's Comment. is to be contended for. Why then do you complain of Obfcurity and Contempt. ^fays he) is there for (hat Complaint of living without <?«y Name or Notice taken of you\ Is there no way of becoming Eminent. and Intereft. The Ailifting of Them he looks upon. and in a word. and Power. who hath made feme competent Proficiency in Wifdom and Virtue. and may become as Signal and Eminent in it. felf it never fo much tisfadion gives me no but a private SaCredit or Influence in the World. ) This crmnot be done. and being advanced to the Adminiftration of Publick Bufinefs ? Alas! poor Man.

which : From he is your Friends. or unbecoming our Character. than to the Perfon who receives it from him. thefe things ^ fay Now more fuhftantial Good : . let him impart toothers liberally.) to procure ihem a Happinefs which is but imi>ginary. He is not one whit the worfe Man in himfelf. at the Expence of thofe good the Diftind^ionof Qualities. Things in our Power. is more ferviceable and beneficial to his Friends. by this Anfwer our Author feems plainly to allow a Liberty. that a Man whd' retains his Virtue and Fidelity. that Riches. and I will not fail to follow them. and all thegood Qualities. which Nature hath left within theDifpofal of our owri Wills If therefore it happen at any time. give your DireSions. that he would part with a Happinefs that is real and his own: (that is the Good of his Rational Soul. and Preferments. what do thofe Friends who importune a Man to make them do fo too. what do they. that create and preferve a true Friendihip.) what Madnefs is it to expeft that a Manpottldgive that to i/j. a greater kindnefs to himfelf. and not bring any afperlion upon the Chara<2ers I pretend to . both of endeavouring to improve an Eftate. and to embrace publick Offices and Honours . that a Man. and Honours. nor the lefs a Friend to others. do at the fame time bring himfelf under a manifeft hazard. that we may parYes. without being engaged in anything inconfillent with Virtue. that I may itill retain my Fidelity and my Innocence. But if this be an impoffible Condition. this is no Reflexion upon his Virtue. the Otht-r urges.my Heart. and when you have thus fmoothed the way. But if it be not his Fortune to be placed in fuchCircumftances. are none of thofe. in ex- change for them Then. as it too often proves . and canrot . if not a fatal Neceifity» of parting with fomething that is a greater and take ofthemvjithyoH. with all. Nay. when the power of doing fo was purchafed. he argues. Do but order Matters fo. provided thofe Riches and Honours may be acquired and enjoyed. and not lofe my Self. If the Corruption of the World be fuch. a Good more properly His. that a Wife and Good Man be poiTeiTed of thefe Advantages. For (as Epidetus fays. I fay. or any Difparagementto his Kindnefs and good Intentions. If I can get Them. get not pojeffed of Himjelp. who makes it his Bulinefs to acquire thefe Advantages. let him efteem the Opportunity of doing Good. but defire. viZt Thofe of a Friend and a Philofopher .148 Epictetus's Morals within our own Power. than if heihould enrich or promote them. But pray.

that a Perfon thus qualified. have no relation to the Rational Mind. becaufe they tranfgrels true Friendihip: (for the Pythagoreans. only to fatisfy fome unreafonable Defire of my own. but a great and fore Evil. as to impofe fuch an unreafonable Trial of his Kindnefs. why he ihould call fuch Men Fool iOi andSenlelefs . and is fo. fure the Reafon holds much ftronger. than for to engage a Friend in fome great haxard. than others who are of quicker Parts. there may ftill another very good Reafon begiven. that it very often proves to be none at all in the Event. which is not. their efteeming Money to be of greater and more valuable Coniideration to them.far from being a Great Good. For if among Servants. in cafe he did fo? He facrifices his All forfeits his Greateft. thofe who are honed and refpedlfnl. than the Modefty and Fidelity of a Friend. The Folly of it is double . would be fo barbarous. infinitely before what the World calls a gainful one: And that Prefererice they will have. that he is really much more ufeful and beneficial. why a Faithful and Virtuous Friend ihould have the Preference. and the Gain themfelves ihould reap. in which the very EiFenceand Nature of a Man confifts. For we feel the Benefit of thefe upon every Occafion . and the Affiitance of feafonable Advice . though they had it ? For the Advantages they are fo eager for. "This therefore is the mofl uneqtial Dealings ana the greatefi Folly imaginable : They deal unequally. by gratifying their Requefts.with SiMPLicius*s Cominenr. who feed them w'lth the Drofs they fo much admire. than even they. they give us the Sweets of good Convcrfation. made Friendfliip to conlill in Equality. you know. as not to difcern the mighty difference. (and confequently all the Happinefs he is capable of. and expofeHimto certain and extreme the Laws of Me Mifery. and particular Friend ? And Who but fuch. recommend themfelves more to the Efteem of their Mailers. 149 not be truly called their own. And to this purpofe. cannot be Their proper Happinefs. his Own peculiar Happinefs. is fo far from being unferviceable to his Friends.) And Nothing can be more unfair. the Opinion of all wife Men. and more dexterous in theBulinefs of their Trade. eould be fo blind. confidered as a Man.) but they are the ObjecS of meaner Appetites. he proceeds to (hew. to purchafe that for Them. But beiides all this. in. they are : 4 a per. for Who but Fools.- . and that is. upon an Intimate Acquaintance. muft needs depend upon that. between the Lofs their Friend would fuftain. and all this.

Who ever told you. upon thisOccafion too. for Us to apply. for the Benefit of : . Nay. but takes care to do his own part. But thefe Coiiliderations he hath left in the general. Thus alfo that other Argument might be anfwered. and interrupts no Body elfc in the Difc/iarge of His. as to defire any Thing for their Own Sakes. by robbing their Friend of his Honeily. they are Phyficians in our Difeaies. Thofe therefore. what was faid before. that it was a Duty incumbent upon you or a Thing in your own Power and Choice. would ferve to refute what follows. much more pertinent. and the Shoe-maker does not hQSMih think himfelf obliged to furnilTi out Arms. to provide Cloifters and Exchanges for your Country ? does not think it his Bulinefs to fupply his Country with Shoes. and hath fupplied us with another clear and full Anfwer. and a fare Relief in Dangers and DiftreiFes . upon all Occafions there is a perpetual good Correfpondence.joyned. and does not intermeddle with the Concerns of other People . in Tendernefs to their Intereft . noDifcord in the whole Courfe of their Lives. and particular to the Matter in hand. Get themyourfelf. towards the preferving the Virtue and Fidelity of their Friends.ifo Epictetus's Morals a perpetual Guard upon whatever we efteem moil dear. which he never had himielf ? And if to this it ber. but conftant Confent and perfed Harmony of Souls. to procure Pcrcicoes and publick Buildings. and cannot be guilty of fo great an Abfurdity. as we fee rcquifirc. will ierve every jot as well. Who can be expedied to beitow That upon others. and rendring him incapable of doing them any farther Service. Tor. and properly beiungs to him to do. when every one attends firiajly to the proper Bulinefs of his Calling. And fure every Commonwealth is ferved in beft Order. will contribute their utmoft Endeavours. but with Arms. and tomoft Advantage. that are Friends indeed. that you may have it in your own Power to give to your Country . which muft turn at laft fo infinitely to their Prejudice. jour Country? To this may be replied again. but Leather and Shoes. and the obferving what is in a Man's own Power. and (as if Life were too fhort a Space for fo much Goodnefs to exercife itfelf in) we find our Account in fuch Friends. as it was in the Cafe of your Friends . r Well. Wnat need this trouble you ( fays he ) ? Is it Your Concern. a mutual Agreement between the Giver and the Receiver of Favours . even after Death And. . they will find themfelves obliged to it.

is. To this the Author replies in general Terms. have not you been beneficial to your Country? Is not this a piece of Service. And now you defire to know. than the Profits every mean Artificer brings to the Publick? This would bethe Advantage. fays the Philofopher be expeded. and the Pains he is at about them. or the Artificer in the Shop. . Himfelf and Others. a CorreSorof Errors.. or theMagiftrate of the City. and ought to be refpefted. that it be confiftent with Virtue andHonefly But if you make Shipwrack of thefe. butyoulofe your Magnificence. but what is L1c 1 s's Comment. by this Rule. One who frames and moulds them into virtuous Perfons. and this the Thanks and Honour due to you. of much greater Confequence. like the General in the Army. what Rank or Office ihall be affigned you. 15£ and wherein will my part then. and more beneficial ftill. What Place or Eiieem is due to a Philofopher. What of making a good Man. as a Former and Maker of Men . and have fome Station or Bufinefs. You may have any that will fall to your ihare. the Philofopher may claim Precedence. and exalt Ihem to a Life of Reafon and Virtue. if you have been the in another . And. He is liberal of his Care. or adorned with fumptuous Halls and fplendid Palaces? But. And. it is great odds. by appealing to the Man's own it Judgment fays he. only with this Provifion. who know their refpedive Trufis. that I fhould contribute to the Publick Good ? The feeming force of this Queilion he obviates moft excellently. andaCounfellor and AfiTifiantin Goodnefs . to refine and purl fie their Nature. with S I Well. as a Common Father and Mafter. according to the Dignity and Value of their Work. if your InftruSions and your Example from them Lito the fame good Principles. in proportion to the Numbers you have an Influence upon. and ufeful honefl Subje6ts. while you pretend to venture for Monuments and (lately Buildings . He is indeed. Military or Civil. to come nearer to the Queilion. at the fame time that your Modefty and Fidelity is caft away. is. Whether of the^ two is the greater Grace to a Commonwealth ? A City well (forcd with true and good Men. you are then a Publick Bleffing. or what Regard ihould the State have 10 him? Surely Men lliould be efteemed. The Matter he hath to vtOrk upon. for making your Self But if your Wifdom an honeft Man and a good SubjeS and Virtue have a kindly Influence upon Others too . I pray. makes every other Man's Be! Means : : 7 nefit . and would fain be. which they can properly call their own.

MarjU. you fome one his vernment. trtius • This Aftion Socrates is particulirly taken Notice of by Diegtues >^i/jin. Socrur. and hath He adds to the Ena Hand in all the Good that is done. Pag. capaciHis Learning and tates him for a Shepherd to the Flock. by miniftring feafonable Comforts. would needs have this wondrous Man faftned down if this Now. fo much fuperior to the Common Sheep. we confider them particularly. when Unhorfedat the Battel of See alfo Platen. by one who thinks no part of the World exempt from his Care. EtM. [oltg.x^z PIC us's Morals neftiand Improvement his Endeavour and Concern. Lugitm 1590. Labrought him cff.<t«j and The Battel mentioned here.. but to Employment do not fatisfie. upon fall lo in the great Body of Greeks^ and had his Praties celebrated Olympick Games. 53. in which the latter won Socrates is faid to have retreated very and the fotmei being put to rhe Rout. as we are told. 23. and look'd back. little any of his k Sec Xenophon in Exftiit. Mcibom. s<Sj. becaufe Eminence and Ufefulnefs mufl. His Prudence. and kind Intention. and feveral Times to have ftood Enemies would dare to purfue and attack him. Segm. ftill. but feels in himfelf a conftant Delire. and ^mphipoU. He will do all thofe part in their Afflidions. He is alfo faid. flood fo univerfal an Awe into his Enemies. uten. Things. SeeC/oj. ^mfl. And if he had applied himfelf at all to that an Army. joyments of the Profperous. and caft. by lar Condudh his Bravery at the Battel oi Delium. This . by congratulating and rejoycing with them . needs give him the Preparticular Profeifion this And indeed. for fo noble an Atchievement. to promote the Good of general all Mankind. through a whole Body of ihem. to be done. Edit. to fee if leifurely. 1692. none can be fitter to command becaufe he muit needs excel both in true Courage and regua Thus Socrates gain'd immortal Renown. Go. was fought between the Deitum. and lightens the Burden of the Wretched. his Qualitications . that they all amazed at his Courage . Pag. a U- to have before this Fight to have faved the Life of Xenophon. and himfelf bearing a In one word. if ference before others. without b Xenophon brought off that likewife So him. Cyri. and he made good his Retreat Antheir daring gle. feemto deferve no lefs. in a wife and well-conftituted Perfon would be chofen their Head. Edit. under the Command of Panuades. or can be expefSed. that are poflible. Wifdom entitle him to the Degree of a Senator or PrivyCouncellor. Boeotians. fort of Difcipline. 22.

that Place muft be confeft very improper. and lead us by their Examples. who have the Wifdom to chufe Things with Judgment. contribute exceedingly to the Increafe of Virtue. after fuch good Beginnings. that all the Traverfes of Fortune. fome One be found of a happier Complexion than the reft. One. the more perfeft and illuftrious it will appear. And. and this vaft Variety of Accidents in Humane Life. which Heaven hatli given us. if ia themidft of fuch perverfe Converfation. 1 5-5 This. to manage them with Dexterity. and obftruft the good Influence of them. in the mi'dft of fo much Darknefs. caft a Blemiih upon the beft Employments. and that both Profperity andAdverfity work together for the Good of thofe Men. either for Men to lay the firft Foundations of Wifdom and a good Life in. or to improve and confirm themfelves in. and have deftrudive Effeds upon the Minds of Men . they llifle and quench that Light. difregard the Perfons. But then we muft obferve withal. who teach us by their Dodrines.with S I LIc I s*s Coramenc. that. I lay. So true it is. and the more Tryals his Virtue is exercifed with. . whofe Soul a particular good Genius hath made proof againft all Corruption . and ihed abroad its Rays with greater Advantage. diicourage the moft ufeful Sciences. : CHAP. the greater fuch a one's Difficulties are. would be the cafe. this the Refpedl: paid to a Philofopher. But we mult take notice. where fo much wicked Induftry is ufed to damp theLuftre of Virtue. and. that wicked and licentious States do quite contrary They are moft inaufpicious Places to dwell in. in a wife and well-conilituted Government.

IT carefled is . I pray. commend to U not drain a Point his own with up him blowing afite. than rather followed advife with. be to it te Evil. . eternally cringing. a Lord's Tram . who thinks the trouca if be expeaed. with one that ftould have the fame He. and His Counfel But are thefe Refpeas Yours. will not And how do Th ngsTdefer've them that Others He. deferve to be eare they Evil ? If they or Things. how Let- S-„^. and cannot now.ec. that is ever ha is -V'7'"S'/"^/ I Praife Fol le At this rate you are Man . of Joy to matter be fteemed Good. For rniliiVone. this ought to . that that Perfon is that troubled. 4 Epictetus's CHAP. how unreafonable is Befidcs. Or there ? Devotions ftantlv pays his Morning Another with ovvn Bufinels. you obferve fome other Perfonmore Entertainthan yourfclfj invited to you before faluted ments. hat only mi"ds his : paid him Good Pa ^S". waiting at a great Man's bc conIntereft. that it is you in the lame degree to have thofe Qvilities paid Profeffion you have the that others have. when you are left out. to proper thought more are taken any notice of. and which is really and indulging all his Vices.s hi Nonfenfe ? vou expea graUs.t they But them happy m vou. hat oi He.to!d^heyareaHalf-penny^a^p. and to ufe a very fainftance the Price. fot unreafonable moft a a very uniuft. Morals poffible. you ihould Confider.<-4. that Levee below him. and admiring h. becaufe fufFerYou to do the fame taken upon you. Share? own your they have not fallen to not poffible. into himfelf eling with a him. to receive that S be obtained to Sale. without paying You enquire in the Market.

bat being geneially found in I have inftrted them in a different Chatader. and you may have it 5 but that Price. though you have not his Lordihip's Dinner. 155' Suppofe now. yet you have fomething as good in the room of it } for you have the Satisfaction of keeping the Price in your own Hand ftill j that is. And if it be thought too dear. think the Thing for your Advantage.with Sim Lie lus's Comment. COM- . and you will neither bid. Juft (o it is in the Cafe before us. You were not invited to a great Man's Table 5 thcReafon is. another Perfon bids. you are very unreafonable. and pays. and you know the Market Rates. •Thefe Words are not in StmpUcius's Copy . and takes them . and go without them Is there any Wrong done ? Or hath the Buyer a better Bargain than You ? He parted with his Money. but you have kept your Money. But if you expert it ihould come without making Payments. becaufe you did not buy the Invitation. nor pay. If therefore you is Commendation and Flattery. then fure you have no yeafon to complain 5 for. Pay the Price. it is fet to Sale. and hath the Salladj yoU have no Sallad indeed . of not commending a Man againft Truth and Confcience j ^ [and of avoiding his formal haughty Reception ofyou^ which carries in it a thoufand times more of Infolencey than : Civility?^ xheieft.

if he had thought fit. which he chufes to infill upon. Many of his Equalsand Inferiors fhall be invited home to Entertainments. and that are not. and ral. fo much their . then ought we not to fuppofe our HappinL-fs at all toconliii in them. have taken »fF in one Word. partly becaufe it is geneother Cafes as well as this . andconfulred in all their Affairs of Importance. But this Solution of theDifiiculty he takes no notice of here. who have the Wifdom to make aright Uie of thtm. and hath difengaged himfeli from the World. is fomething. and the Things here mentioned are not fo . ' thofe Things that conduce to our real Hippinefs be at our own Difpofal. and that That therehis Reader was fufficiently perfed in it before. within the Compafs of our own Choice For. of the Things that are. Continuation of the for- feme Objections Hill bearife from the fame Habit and when a Man hath turned all Thoughts and Care upon his own Improvement. For. that the Inilances in which of inferior Qualifications have the Preicrence and ReIped. To this Purpofc. ro court the Countenance of Great Perfons.. and proves. and fuch as ieem all to Difpolition of Mind. nay many lefs capable of adviling than He. who have made a ttrict Philofophical Life Now : mmy . and Honour.Superior in Worth and Wifdom. to thofe. fore. and applicable to partly. ^• . that he be flighted and difregarded himfelf. his ft r. when he thinks it unbecoming his Charader. and Popularity. he tells us. fliall be admitted into the Secrets of Families. as to defpife Riches. that the Inconveniencies here alledged minifter an Occalion'of much greater Advantage. all the feemiiig Hardihip. by remitting us to his uiual Diflindion. before ihoie. that appears in fuch Ufage. follow this Inconvenience Ihall upon it. by all the means Arts and obfequious Attendance of Slaves and Sycophants . and its Incumbrances when he hath arrived to that Largenefs and Sufficiency of Soul. there will. is indulhioufly neglefted. Ep'idetus might. iliall be more particularly addreft to in publick Places. and receive all outward Marks of Refped . while this Perfon. as preiiuning it abundantly enlarged upon. 156 I c s's Morals C Difcourfe feems to be THIS mer. that comes clofer to the Matter in Hand. proceeding to obviate hind. in all liiielihood.

and befides. he hath condefcended to make us like himV"' ^^".: with Simp Lie I s's Comment. or Indifferent \ for in truth. fo his Will .on ^^'^'^ °"^ Conilitution cannot re^ ^'ITc^^''''^^ ceive. what amighty Good he makes this feeming Evil to contain.s infinitely Good. it ihould add to your Joy and Satisfaaion. that he hath in infinite ^"^ ^' ^'' P°^^^ i^ i"ii""ely Great. (fays he) this ought by no means to be matter of Difcontent to you. From hence it comes to pais. for this is aPerfea. which brings us to the trueff and neareft refemblance of God. are yet m^ch fipenor to Us . 'tis true."^•^ °^ ' W''^^ ^''^ ^"d unbounded. and not any thin^ evil fo far as that can be. that he would have all things good. and adorable Goodnefs. tho' much inferior to God.n the oThefpa^c of his Excellence. as the Condition of each Creature is capable of enjoying it the Soul of Man. For This indeed is the very Quality of the Mind. that thofe which are indifferent. a Will trsT " capable of extending its good Wiihes. to For being indeed the only Source of all the limited Powers communicaifi ^". according to Him. but communicates to every Creature of his own Goodnefs. which. that they are all in Exal- Ph'lofophical Virtue . to make the Divifion perfed. either Good or Evil JvJow if they be Good. and uncontroulable Power. there are many Degrees of intermediate Beings. muR be either Goo^^ or Evil. and this h^does not niggardly and grudgingly. And for that Reafon. But quite contrary. provided we have but the Grace °^ ''• therefore an inftanceot h's wnniVl'^x^rS^"^' wonderful Wifdora. in as large Proportions. If you pleafe. does not refemble God w^lru^'^T^^ Now "^" • Wm « made . any of his Creatures can poflibly attain God IS himfelf of abfoluteand unbounded Power. the Author feems not to have thought this Branch worth any room in this of many Things Well. we will fay then. can neither be called Honourable nor Diihonourable. one of the Extremes.n point of Power. and kind Inclinations to all the World. that of wiOiing well to all Mankind. and rejoicing in the Profperity of others And here we fiiall do well to obferve. and how prodigious an Honour this Difrefpea derives upon us. And becaufe his Will can intend nothing but what his Power is able to accomplifh. his Divifion. there are a great middle fort. But ftill . which is the greateil Happmefs. But then it muit be confeft too. that another Perfon is haptor this calls for the Exercife of a very py in them. . therefore he does really make all things Good. 157 Life their Choice. I will take the Confidence to add.

to Plants. the Refpeds denied to the Philofopher. as a Want. then theBeing Deliverance. For this requires the Co-operation of many other Cau fes. who have them not. But if on the other hand. if it it will. And thus you have the force of this Argument. . the Willing is a Perfedion given us by Nature. to afyet it to our Hat)piners.1^8 mide This caufe this Epictetus's is Morals to be his Image and Similitude in our Souls. For that by wifhing that Good. And hence it is. And though the Soul cannot punctually make all things Good. which command. and all the Faculties affift and concur with it for we have the abfolute Difpofal of our own Minds. to Brutes. At this rare. but a frefh occafion of Joy His account indeed who hath them. or diminution of his Happinefs. And indeed a truly Good Man goes farther than all this. of which himfelf is a part. and for the reft. if he pleafe. for though Men withthey rather tend to make usMiferable. when the Perfon willing. it does its part. the Permiffion of the Gods. but is fure to be pleafed. exerts. yet it goes as far as it can in making them fo. to all that makeup this 'Tis great Body of the World. here can be no ground Not upon of diliatisfaaion. gives them of themilTing . and fo the wifhing well to all Mankind. he cannot make thofe Willies eifei51ual to all. and if do to opportunity an . or for his own Efcape. but the power of Eftefting is not. nor look upon : as any difparagement to his Perfon. and does . to even Inanimate things . let the Event be vvhat of Others. which it cannot give them. but upon your Own. be Evil . taken are Refentments all angry it Advantage we allow thefe things to conduce is a much greater Happinefs. And Intereft and of point in off. the Good Man can never be Melancholy at the WMUt of thefe things. which pire after a Refemblance of the Divine Perfedions. that all we cannot our Virtue coniilts in our Will theMerit of all our Aftionsismeafuredby That. and paid to others. bethe true and proper principle of all Operation and ASion. becaufeas I faid. proceeding upon a Suppoiition that thefe things are Good. and he flops not there. true. he wiilies the Profperity of all Men whatfoever. but extends his Kind. as God can. either for the good Succefs thus be Good . properly a fo out them is not Aftec . is what any Man may do. is perfect and true Volition. his whole Strength. and that all theHappinefsand Miferyof our Lives is made to depend upon the Good or 111 ufe of it. refs to Creatures of different Species. that is. if it be Evil. and the Concurrence of feveral Agents. in a word.

the Commending all he does. but in point of Juflice too. is. which you would have thou'Jht much too dear. to have Dined with his Greatnefs. it argues you greedy. you are miftaken. fhould have the fame Privileges. that one who never makes his Court. the Court. what he hath already bought and paid for For though he left no Money under his Plate. and Servile Submiffions imaginable. it : Now kind. the Pofllof obtaining them. and all Places of publick Concourfe.) you who went without the Dinner. and ingrofs to yourfelf. with thofe who proftitute themfelves at this rate for them. and ftiif Formality. you were not the Subjed of his haughty Negligence. And this Charatler is not confiftent with that of a Good Man . 15• this he proceeds to Two other Topicks. It argues a Man greedy and infatiable. From the former of thefe he argues thus. without paying as others do. It is defiring to invade anothers Right. nor bear the afFefted Coldnefs of his Welcome. and admiring all he fays though never fo Senfelefs. the waiting at the Great Man's Rifing. as to laugh at his Lordfhip's dull Jefts. and if you exped it. cringing and bowing in the Streets. . not only unreafonable upon that account to expeft them. you did notenflave your felf fo far. CHAP. and a Man of Honour and Truth. as he that was admitted to it: He had the Varieties indeed. yet he gave that purchafe. and an unfair Chapman. fo that you mart change your Temper. and the Realbnablenefs of expetling them.with After bility Simp Lie lus's Comment. And therefore. and Marks of Kindnefs. and yet will not confent to pay his Ordinary. who cannot fubmit to thefe unworthy Methods of infinuating himfelf. to meet with the fame Countenance. when he expeds his Meal. This Labour muft confifl: of all the Ceremonious Fopperies. nor to commend what your better Senie could not like. have as good a Bargain at leaft. as the World is goes. expefting his coming out. If youexped it upon eafier Terms. but then you have your Liberty. nor the tedious Attendance in his Anti-Chamber. for it will come no cheaper. with one who is eternally labouring to ingratiate himfelf. abfolutely impoflible. nor the Jefi: of his Sawcy Servants: all this you muft have been content with. And confequently (as he ihews by that inftance of the Lettice. for a Philofopher. and be more moderate in your Expedances of this Nay. It is not to be imagined. tho' never fo bafe. In fhort.

Now we the Application to be from hence is. and in a Senfc highly agreeable to the left of the Chapter. that all Men are Mortal. and indulge our Lamentations and bitter Complaints. reafonable. Now -. and this is what all Men have therefore Reafon to expeft. that. *'l. For Inftancc. that all the World. with the Reflexion. XXXIII. if a Neighbour's Child happen to break a Glafs. But when the Misfortune comes home to ourfelves. which our fclves hive no latejeft. And Example. ° The Condition of Nature and our own Duty. to be broken. thefe things ought quite otherwife to awaken the fame Coniiderations and it is but Temper. is plain to be learn'dfrom thoie Accidents. that what we thought a good Argument to moderate the Refentments of other People ihould be applied with the fame Efficacy. with Regard to them For thefe are things fo plain. nor how Men ought to deport themfelves. at one time or other. ihould prepare us for bearing Cafuakies of greater Confequence. upon the place. are univerfally agreed about them. every Body is ready to mitigate the Lofs. m t COM- . to reftrain the Exeelies of our Own.i6o Epictetus's Morals CHAP. by :i peculiar Notion of thcWoid Jietiigs^. So Cafaubon. that this is a very fit common made Accident. what her Laws and Methods. : W wc prefently anfwer. nor fuffer bance. what the Condition of things is by Nature. than when this trivial ihould no more thipk it extraorit to give us any greater Dillur- it was another Man's Cafe. or a Wife. with the like When any of our Acquaintants buries a Child. then we give a loofe to our Pafiions. when one of our own happens dinary.T'7E cannot be at a lofs.

there is none of this Diforder . he then looks upon it as it really is. Now thefe are what Men argue differently upon. and the Methods of Nature. that many times theTruth lies on the contrary are to the fide of the Pleafure Good.with SiMPLi cius's Conimcnr. i contidsrs . . are things. and whatever is truly Profitable. that all Admittingof Arguments before they are well weighed. becaufe it appears fo to the naked . and he is quite ^ another Perfon. and howfirm and unalterable thofe general and acknowledged ones. to the particular Ideas andDodrines of fingle Perfons. in one and the fame Cafe^ For let any Accident happen to a Man's felf. and all his Reafon proves too feeble to fupport it. as thofe. i6i CO THERE them. how exceeding fickle and unfaithful particular Opinions are. by inclining too . iranfported with the Vehemence of his Concern. there we very often find ourfelves miftaken. But when we defcend from thefe general Truths. which EpBetm rneans here. But when the very fame Misfortune happens to another. for the Knowledge of that true ftate of things. And it can never be fafe for us to de- pend upon iuch particular Ailumptions. the Laws. Some we are is prepoileiTed in favour of. and they are fo far from being always true. is NT. Some owing Queftion. than the Variety of Behaviour. But nothing can be a more pregnant Proof. much to our Senfual Inclinations as when we fay. which advance the Belief of the World being made by Two Principles. anduot anyone That whatever is confidering Perfon ever pretended to contelt or contradift Such are thefe that follow. as when we pronounce the Circumference of the Moon. fuch as long Experience hath con: Good firmed. by the Condition. And thefe Erroneous Opinions are of different Sorts. in which fome Notions concerning the Nature of all Manidnd confent. to be as large as that of the Sun. is profitable. Good : Good. and fuch as carry an exadt i\greement with the Truth and Nature of things. and that the Soul is Corporeal. Some of them deceive us by two credulous a dependence upon the Report of our Senfes. Eye. That Twice Two make Four: And thefe Notions are fuch as right Reafon hath recommended and riveted into our Minds. That all things are carried by a natural Propenfiun to theDefire of That Equal things are neither lefs nor more than one another.

him in what hapthing throws then too. and withal. to Matthis (fays he) you may. if you pleafe apply Acquamtants of our any When ters of greater importance is there. For ot HuCondition very the . how hard is it to of Paffion do immediately follow? Nay. and the plain to die. whv fliould not fuch a Neighbour in fuch himfelf affea'ed. which they find agreeable to them. then we rage and ftorm. there Nature. To be Man. what Lofs happens in a Man's own Family. how often they let things drop out of their Hands. we are apt prefently to excufe. conftant Courfe of ciples in their own Minds. without Paffion or Prejudice. becaufetheypafs this Reflexion. as if fome new thing had happened to us. when he faw his he felt ? ^^^ . that hemiExceifes. and the clear Reafon df the thing. and not fubjeft to this Fate. But when one of our own is broken. that.102. this is: by putting that it is Mind. when our Difcourfe is Sober and DifpaiTionate. which fticwed him tile violent paffions of his own Ihe thing in a falfe Light 2i when fuciii a imply a Contradidtion. and with the fameSuccefs. and this Diforder. but it cident it felf. Extravagances wild what Tears what loud Exclamations. but regard only Truth. this is every Man's from the common Prinis. before > Now. confidering how little a a Child down. ought to offer itfelf to ourMmds. the fame Conlideration of the Accident being fo ufual. • Ep I c US 's Morals confidersitcalmlvand coollv. and paiTes the fame Judgment upon it with the reft of the World who have no partial Atfedion. which could create all apprehenlions and Was owing entirely to his own mijaken Mind. that does not preburies his Wife or his Child. that the leaft Blow in the World daftes it to pieces. or particular Concera to pervert them. that fuch things happen no oftner: Thus we fay. And yet in all Reafon. This he illuftrates by a very trivial Inftancc. 'iis is a NeceiTitv unavoidable mane Nature. and how wifely he could tell inevitable. it is rather to be wonder'd. that of breaking a Glafs Which when done by a Neighbour's Child or : Servant. howexxeeding common pens every Day . and noftook his own Cafe? That Death was nothing in the Acwas there that thing more frequent . how. for all this. And yet for all this. would Now : Who him then. of how exceeding brittle Matter the VeiTel is made. And the Reafon of it Cafe? fently fay. or Caufe juftifiable a perfuade Men that there is not fuch an Afflidion that any other Perfon living ever fuffer'd one recoiled. what Groans.

why the making fuch a Separation familiar to us beforehand. betweenthe Rational Soul. that Die we muft. we ourfelves ihall ihortly follow if this Separation. that theGenerality of People have their Minds faftened down to their Fortunes. 163 indeed there are Reafons. the thus partial and paflionate in our own Cafe Exceeding Fondnefs. when a little Time and Cuilom hath rendred it familiar.with SiMPLici Two s's Coramenc. "nor accuftom ourfelves to themfo effcctuaUy as •we might and ought to do. and tender Sympathy. is much more clofe and moving. and fo thefe Two dear Friends live together. which confideiing that this Part muft Die. and moft abfurd it is to fuppofe any Man can be exempt from the common Fate of his Nature. and all their Imaginations formed. and in which them. whenever it fhall happen. that the Condition of our Nature is Mortal. and made familiar to our Thoughts by long Expeftation. thofe violent Difturbances. Now there is nothing that gives a Man fo much Difturbanceand Confuiion. That other People are liable to it. that this is no more than we fee daily come to pafs . why we fliould be One is . which all our Fore-Fathers have troden. never gives us. that our Friends are only gone a little way before. And the Reafon of this again feems to be. and have born it as well as They. when they come to be ufed to the being without what they lament the Lofs of. in the beaten Road. and the Mortal Body . I would fain know. and perpetual Expefitatiohs of it. yet within a little while. The Other is. as if no fuch Misfortune had ever happened. by frequent Thoughts. This I take to be fufficiently plain. from what we fee in our Behaviour afterwards. than in : Now Reafonit ought to be. as if they were never to part. according to the Model of their prefent Concition. For furely the true Caufe of all immoderate Concern upon thefe Oct Now cafions. what at firft they could not endure to hear. become fo very fupportable. is that we do not reprefent thefe things to our own Thoughts. as the being furprifed with any Accident. whatever we have forefeen. what Reafon can bealledged. yet we do not care to think of it. for. after the thing hath happened . Ihould not enable us to bear it with great Everinefs of Temper. ^ 3 U^mQ . and all is quiet and eafie. Then they can fuggeft to their own compofed Thoughts. return to themfelves and their Reafon again . that though we know and are fatisfied. For even Thofe that are molt intemperate in their Griefs.

Difputes. : We . and efpecially from all fuch Atlions in our Behaviour. though we could. This Fondnefs is the thing we iiiould guard our felves againfl. CHAP.pincfs. at leaft cut off all the Exceiles of it. is the unreafonable Fondnefs of thefe Things. as tend to endear thefe things the more. which are wont to arife concerning the Nature and Original of Evil. by refleSing ferioufly what we are ourfelves. which Men lament the Lofs of fo tenderly Tijey pericdly dote upon them. as AS the Evil. and brought within fuch Proportions as are confiftent with Decency and Moderation: And in all our Converfation. with ihoot befide fo neither World formed in COMMENT. which we fo paffionately admire. and cannot therefore admit any Thought fo unealieas thatof parting wiihthem. and what that is. are as commonly Difpirited and Diffident. fliould confider. and better Days.164 Hence as Epictetus's Morals it is. and ferve in Truth for no other End . no Man fets it up : a it Mark. that the Profperous Man is always Gay and Bi>(. as to cloy and weary us with long Enjoyment. And thus People alio under unhappy Circumiiances. while they have them . proved Occafions of grievous Impiety towards God . it will be great Prudence to abftain from all Expreffions and Difcourfe. for no Man alive cares to dwell long upon Meditations which are troublefome and affliding to him. which conalbures to this Fault as much as me foriner. yet it is fo imperfecl: a Blifs. and never dreaming of any poffible Change in his Affairs. Our Kindnefs therefore iliould be reduced. depending upon the Continuance oi his Ha^. a Defign to hath the Maker of any fuch real Being. But another Caufe. and can entertain little hought ot a Deliverance. XXXIV. that it is what we cannot call our own. than to cheriih our own Folly and make our Paffions more Exorbitant and Ungovernable. have by being unskilfully managed . and that.

which is One. all good things whatfoever proceed and in like manner all Truth. And Hot and Cold are Contraries. cannot be termed Contrary to that which is Hot or Cold . perties. So exceeding irrational and abfurd it is. and will have Two common Principles. and refolved not fome fubordinate and particular one. as thefe are in their own kind only . othervfife nothing could ever have been at all. with fuch Limitations and Abatements^. fubverted the very Foundation of \^irtue and good Manners. that thefeTwo ihould be Contraries unlefs they be ranked under one common Genus ? For we muft diftinguiih between Dherfityzna Contrariety \ that which is White. communicated from that firft Being. from the Divine Ori- Good. yet in. it is attended with a Thoufand prodigious Abfurdities. are Contraries. As to that Opinion. into. One that tranfcends. Some fingle Original Being there muft needs have been. one Principle and . for they likewife meet under the Genus of Tadile Qualities. White then and Black. with feveral dangerous Scruples. before Many . So that. whence fliould this Power of being a Principle. and is imparted to both thefe Contraries in common. but Contraries are properly thofe things that are aioft diftanc from one another. that Contraries cannot poffibly be firft Principles. by virtue of its : Eifence. yet ftill under the fame common Genus. 165• God. conneds.with SiMPLicius*s Comment. or they could not be contraries And farther. and inextricable Difficulties. Again. and from which thofe Properties muft have been diftributed among the Many. which muft have been a Foundation for particular Properties. as their refpedive Natures require. whence I fay. from the fame Divine Fountain of Truth. And this is Reafofi enough to ihew. For. for Each of thofe many Beings muft fublift. For. though there be feveral Principles of feveral Proginal . and perplexed many unwary Perfons. from whence all things whatfoever derive their Being. and communicates to each of them its Caufal and Produdive Power. becaufe One muft needs have a Being. a Good and a Bad one. to think of advaU' 4 ftill thefe all are at laft . comprehended that. Firit. but a Principle fron) whence all the reft fpring. becaufe both bear tt" i\t Genus Qi Colour \ for they are both Colours alike. contains them all. which makes Evil a firft Principle. ihould it it come? Or how them both ? fliould one and the fame Caufe give to And how is it poiTible. becaufe there muft have been fome common Geiius antecedent to them.

or any of the groifeft and moft flagitious Enormities of a diiTolute and wicked Converfation. though it be not exprefs'd in the very fame Words. what Miferies thofe wretched Spirits muft endure. or to fuppofe itpofthan One. contrary to all Juftice. One who. by parting with thefe. but are ftill parts of God himfelf. and Fryed. to gain an Opportu- nity of bringing off" the Other. he that delivered up thefe Souls.) that fo. and yet deny. to eafe himielf of thefe Fears. and buy off' his Enemy. and arefo far from afcribing all Power to him. cafting fome Souls away. nor are from thenceforth in any poffibility of returning to Good. and Tormented all manner of ways. (Only here it is fitwe takenetice what Souls thefe are. an evil and a good one) ly the denying of In tery or Two . and Interelf. ciples God. and the other Evil . for indeed they have clipped the Wings of his Omnipotence. (which are fo many Parts and Parcels of himfelf. and never merited by any Offence of theirs to be thus deliver'd up. And at laft they tell us. that it into halves. They tell us.66 advancingTvvo fible that there Epictetus's Principles of all Morals fhould be more things. unealie with continual Apprehenfions. and Honour. And. for they do not admit their Crimes to be AdulMurder. if any fuch Souls happen to Apoftatize. one of thefe PrinBefides. and this too. and Degenerate into Sin. had fure forgot. facrifices in Diftrefs. or commanded them to be delivered up in this barbarous manner. For the Senfe of what they fay amounts to thus much. or at leaft did not duly confider. that. Like fome General him. For (according to them) they Now are Burnt. ons does reprefent this what opprobrious Reflexi- DoQrine call upon theMajefty of God? They him as a Feeble and a Feariul Being. They that Two Principles. but onPrinciples. they do not allow him to be theUniverlal Caufe: They cannot worihip him as Almighty. they never recover themfelves . when in the Hands of that Evil Principle. they divide him Now what horrid Blafphemies. they call the Good one but yet at the fame time. and Spring of Light. but continue infeparably united to Evil for ever. will have this Univerfe to proceed from are driven by their own Tenets into aThoufand wild Inconfiftencies. and how they thus degenerate. when the Enemy attacks part of his Ari«y. is Good. notwithftanding they were never guilty of any Fault. that Evil will invade his Territories. he may compound for the reft of the Good ones with him. or to fpeak more properly they call the Source of Goodneis. that all things receive Light and Goodnefs from him.

committing an of fo much unneceifary Fear. and ever fince. (in Their Hypothelis I mean. that White maybe Black. and here they tellsusof Woods. and though they are faid to be immortal. and flill thefe remain contrary to one another? May we not as well fay. or the NaIf he did . and ftill be Light. in the Name of Wonder. yet could it be done however. and yet retain its Whiterefs ilill . they alfign the Eaflern. fuch as frequent both Sea and Land. if this Impofilbility be evident and unavoidable. it ieems is left maimed and imperfeft. that Evil hath five Apartments. be done before the Creation? For the Diviiion they make is like this upon Earth. and immovable Barriers fet between them how fliould Evil Good pofieifes . that they are devoured by their Five-formed Monfter. fo far be it to entertain fo irreverent a Thought) for he underfrom ftands nothing at all. and referve only the South for Evil. bytheLofsof fo many of his Parts . Welfern. as you fee. what Occafion is there to defcribe God as they do. before They made the World. Afterwards they go on. Being which had Authority over both thefe. as being originally Good. this God. fince their from all Eternity ? For this they fay too. he is ilupid and fenilefs 'too. with SiMPLicius's Comment. and that Light can admit Darknefs. as is the caliing away Souls to Evil for his own Security.. and Injuftice. from the Beginning of the World at leaft. or ture of Evil Me : enter into any part of that Province which Natures are fo very diftant and irreconcileable. fetthefe Bounds and Barriers? Did Chance? Then it feems Did any other they make Chance a Common Principle too. that thefe are at eternal Wars with one another . and prefcribed to them as itfelf thought fit ? Then it feems That had aSubBut how could that fiftence. like fo many Dens or Caverns . what Dread could he be under. Or. that they cannot run into each other. yet they pretend at the fame time. and ftill continue perfed Evil? And. and fanfy. But who. either of his own Intereft. and all manner of Animals. labouring to no purpofe (for fo they \m'u\ needs have it too) Now Two Ad . and each aifigned and accommodated to its peculiar Inhabitant I would tain be fatisfied. and Northern Regions to Good. which way Evil ihould make an In^• curfion into the Dominions of Good. then. 167 In the mean while. but their Bounds are fix'd. as that perfed Evil can make Approaches to perfeit Good. fince thefe diitindt Regions have been fet out. if we ihould fuppofe this pofllble. and Folly.

they tell us. and twelve Windows. or what can we fay more in Honour of That. and laid his Stratagems accordingly. But their marvellous Wiidom is not more eminently feen in anyone Inftance. They tell us. iiderableObjeftion. And this indeed is aconternal and Immortal. Their Scheme certainly had been much better contrived. and no End. than Good. by their juftling and diforderly Motions. (for they fcorn. which we cannot but love and admire ? Let us now proceed. not like thofe : A of the Poet. as always employed and taken up with the Contemplation of it felf. And when thefe glorious Attributes are given to that which we cannot but deteft. and fo muft abide under the Dominion of Evil to all Eternity And all this they will not allow the Good to have had any Knowledge or Forefight of. One of which is conftantly opened every hour. what Diiference is there left. if you pleafe. Thea . That when in Framing of the World the Evils that were in Conjundion together gave great Difturbance.i68 PIC us's Morals to redeem thefe Souls from Mifery? Defign never to be effeded. fliould be allowed a place in their Philofophy . to ihelter them from the ill Influences of that Diforder . that Eclipfes are nothing elfe. and a juft Reproach to their whole Syftem. beciufe. or the leaft fabulous Circumftance. had they reprefented the Good Principle. the Luminaries drew certain Veils before them. that Eternal Exiftence. Pillars then there are. as well as to Good. though with the fame Breath they pretend. no Beginning. and Incorruptible Duration. but the Sun and Moon hiding themfelves ftill behind thofe Veils. that the Evil Principle knew perfedly well what number of Souls would fall into his Hands. fome of them have lapfed. to take a ihort Vievir of the Account they give. If^h'ich this laji Globe of Earth and Heav'n juflain. upon fome extraordinary and threatning Emergencies. and not engaged it in perpetual War. are allowed to Evil. with an Enemy never to be vanFor they make Evil to be no lefs Equiihed or deftroyed. that any Poetical FiSions. and. concerning the Creation of the World. ) but (as one of their greateft Mailers hath informed us) of folid unhewn Stone. than the Account they pretend to give of Eclipfes. as I obierv'd beibre.

LIc I s*s Comment. is do not fo much a Monfter. are fuppofed to make a very ravenous and formidable Compofition. How odd and unaccountable of fo many Heavenly Bodies which give light to the World. a Fifh. and.badCaufe? The Light of the Moon they do not agree to be borrowed from the Sun. ' and . an Eagle. hath difcovered nothing in its whole Management. fliorr. and deriving them from a. like fo many Vapours from the Earth. I do not well remember what. together. nor do they ufe them as Figures or Hieroglyphicks. with S Then again. Thus the Image they give us of Evil. and. they have found out a particular Principle and Caufe of all Evil . but putting all the Stars into the Pofleifion of the Evil. would fain compound the Matter. compounded of five feveral Creatures. They could not bear the imputing any Evil to God . and mingles it felf with Evil. is it. aifigning the Sun and Moon to the good Principle. a Principle equal in Honor and Power to the Good. great ones in Veneration they fliould hold only the and contemn all the reft . Evil feems plainly to have got the better. to avoid this Inconvenience. but will needs have them believed to be ftrfSly and literally true. but Fear. This is conftantly the bold and daring AggreiTor while Good. or rather indeed Superior and more Potent than He.I . in the mean while. while they abhor to call God the Caufe of Evil. Thus. 1 69 that. profefs to take Sanftuary in thefe Opinions. which fhe draws up. who advance them. foasto fignifie fomething elfe of more fubftantlal Goodnefs. For they reprefent Evil upon all Occafions taking Advantage againft Good. and contriving all manner of Ways not . to corrupt the World. and render it miferable. and yet (which is ftill more amazing) the Perfons. but think it a Colledion or Conftellatioa of Souls. and Folly. for any thing that yet appears. than the reft of the World (as they think) exprefs. between Change and Full. For in all the Attempts made hitherto. from the Full to the next Two New In Moon. and then tranflates them by degrees into the Sun .to let it go. but all thefe. And yet they are by no means content to have them looked upon as fabulous. they make him nothing but Evil in the moft exqailite Degree . and Injullice. and a profounder Reverence to the Divine Perfeftions. gives way to. and fome other two things. which as deferve to be reckoned among Fables. a Lion. they have a world of Extravagant Fancies. Such abominable Impiety againft God are thefe Notions and Principles chargeable with . out of a more than commoa Refpeft.

if our Souls are violently thruft and born down into Murder or Adultery. and. and fet up fuch a Principle of Evil. as you have heard . tear up the very Roots of all Virtue and moral Inftrudion. how pleafant a Concluiion they have brought their Matters to For the Confequence lies plainly thus. where to fix the true Caufe of thefe things. they have done their own Bufinefs effedually. Syftem of Philofophy does. and fo upon the whole Matter. . then there is no fuch thing as Evil in the World. then are they clear of all Guilt. to refolve the Difficulty. befides thofe Attributes of Eternity and Immortality. nor any Evil at all. And this is a Matter fo evident and acknowledged. belldes thefe vile Profanations of the Majeily of God. then obferve. as much as in it lies. fuch a Conftraint put upon the Wills of Men by that Principle) that nothing they do is any longer Evil. they have left themfelves neither a Principle of Evil . where |he Minds of Men are fuppofed to have no Concern. fo very abfolute and ftrong. that all Law^s. and where . if thefe wife Philofophers. bethought themfelves of this Remedy. and fuch as could not be refifted by them. that this is a very idle and extravagant Imagination: For. whether we will commit Wickednefs or no. if it follows likewife. and that. it is is Now : ? . but to proceed upon NecelTity and Conlkaint. and if there be no fuch Thing as Evil.7 this I c s's Morals of the and (according to that vulgar Proverb) leap Frying-Pan into the Fire. by deilroying and utterly taking away all that Liberty of Choice. by a very pleafant Blunder. acquit Perfons in Cafes of Violence. both Divine and Humane. and commit thefe merely by the Impulfe of fome iironger Power without any Confent or voluntary Concurrence of their own. it does alfo afcribe to this Principle of Evil a compul five Power over our Wills. but fuch as even God himfelf is not able to controul or over-power. And indeed there plain they aded againft their Will. nor can be any Sin at all in fuch Adions. while they were at a lofs. In the mean while it muft be confeft. which God and Nature hath given us. Bur. (upon the Suppofal of at once. and fuch a Force as they could not refiit. not. over-turned their whole Scheme For. then there cannot poffibly beany fuch Thing as a Principle of Evil. or any other that are reputed the moft grievous Crimes . If there be fuch a Thing as a Principle of Evil. confidered as Evils. that it is not only out of our own Difpofal. For.

du61:ion of another? Beiides . Now and contrary to it. which way can one conceive. that God is the Author of Evil as well as Good. 171 Since therefore this is difcovcred ro be bur a rotten Fou"" datlon. So that the Promoters of this Opinion feem not to have attended to the manifeft Diihonour they put upon God . iliall prefume i<> affirm. who profefs to believe a common Principle of Evil. it mull needs have fome fort of Per. as to that Evil . or a Horfe. and will no more endure any Mixture with it. that God. the Falihood and Impiety of this AlTeriion will ask but litFor how indeed can we tle Time and Pains to evince it. for the Caufes of Things will very h::rdiy be found. without a Caufe. as Good hath. as our Adverfaries themfelves can we imagine one Contrary to be the Progrant. by having the Caufe within himfelf. confcious of its Weaknefs. than White will with Black. which really and adually fubfiils. that it hath a Power equal to Good. the Author and Caufe of it. what Account ihal! we give of its coming into the World? For it is impofllble any Thing ihould have a Beginning. that there is no fuch Thing in Nature. till their Natures are . by being the Caufe of its exifting. or any other Species.with SiMPLTcius's Commenr. it you refpeat him as the Caufe. But if there were any fuch real and fubiiantial Evil like the Subflance of a Man. or Hot with Cold. does it. which who is the Aucafts fuch unworthy Afperiions upon Him thor and Giver of all Truth? And firft. and then to enquire into its Original. And the beft Courfe we can take for this will be. Ihould produce Evil out of himfelf? For. and fo. if any. that its Elfence is incompatible with that of Good. by making him not only the Caufe and Author of Evil. feoiion . but to be the firfl: and Original Evil in his own Nature. and the Produced. we may be bold to pronounce. Since therefore there is no fuchThing ns a common Principle of Evil. that that Opinion ilinuld be true. the Producing. How • firil known. and many of thofe who difpute this Queftion underftand . fuppofe it polTible. nrft to explain what we mean by Evil. and fince God is not. he that produces any thing out of himfelf. whofe very EiTence is perfed and immutable Goodnefs. For they pretend. are in fome degree the fame. iince Evil and Good are contrary to each other. and by having fome Likenefs to it in his own Nature. which They fuppofe. that this Evil hath a poiuive Subilftence of its own.

what fubfilb. And as the Walking ftrong and upright is the deiigned and primary Adion of an Animal. and are puniHied by God and Man for contraobing the Guilt of it. is. which is the true Oppofite of Evil. and not Evil. and natural Perfedion of the Form to which it belongs. that is. being a Motion. Jull thus v/e may conceive Sicknefs. and hath no real Effence of its own : For we find that it both is . of Good. Moral Good. that Good is that Quality of its rendred agreeable to Nature. which is the very diftinguiihing CharaQer of an Accident. and love to partake of it. For. without being the Evil. it Good this. it Subjed. but is only an additional Thing fuperinduced upon Good.. and ceafes to be . not of Na- Only herein they differ. and miiiiag the intended Aim . and diftinguiihes it from all oconfidered as iiich. to impofe upon us a Thing which do's all this. that Evil And of indeed they are fo fenlible of theirs deiire and embrace and court it . make Good abfolutely Evil > But then. in this Senfe is merely an Acci: dent too. Nature. So that from hence we may conclude againlt any primary Nature and pofitive Subfiflence of Evil. 172. and receive Advantage by it . of fome Perfon who committed it? And fo in like manner. and atBut Evil is the Depravation or tains its proper Perfedion. by which is ture's . it never For. is Now every Form. the Privation of. with regard to Health and the Vices of the Mind. for a Being fimply and . if Evil were the right Difpofition. for it is not in Nature as good is . becaufe culiar to as to its is endued with the Perfedions pe- Nature. and the end which it propofes to itfelf when it moves . but Stumbling or Halting is an Accident befide the purpofe. with refped to Virtue. and Fall from it. Epictetus's its Morals fedion in proportion to which makes it what it ther Beings. this is purely accidental. Indifpofition of its Subjed. without the Deftrudion of the Subjed. that is. by which it fwerves and departs from Nature. but by Inheritence in fome Subjeft Evil of this kind was there ever in the Abftrad. and lofes or falls fhort of its natural Perfedion. the Crime. andlikewife. then would it by this Means change its Name and its Nature. and happens through feme Defed. if we confider in the next place. that Evil. And how very ridiculous an attempt is it. and a particular Form. and ufe all poffible Diligence not to part from it. by the Commiilion whereof Men are denominated wicked. and commence Good.

as Limping is in a Man's Gate. that is the proper End of it. and the Other contrary to it . one is not the mere Privation of the other. and confequently . for. not Evil firft. but hits upon fomething elfe. and that which is contrary to Nature. Sometimes indeed it happens.with cure's Simp Lici s's Comment. One of the Extremes is agreeable to Nature. Whereas. when compared to its oppofite Good. as its Contrary. for Good was firft. it is manifeft that the obtaining fome Good is the primary End of all Operations a Defed ginal Form Now . but that Purpofe can with no good Propriety of Speech be called fo. in betweet) really . to give us found Health. and neither of them can pretend to a greater Perfedion in Nature. 173 direflly fo making. But now each of thofe Colours hath its Form entire. nor agreeable to her Operations. or are equipollent to one another . Thus alfo it was the original Intent of Nature. which happened afterwards. . and Accidental to the Original Purpofe of Hitting the Mark . nor attain the End at firft propofed. But now the miffing the Mark happens afterwards by Accident. whereby the oriis not fully come up to. but quite otherwife. If then all Things naturally defire Good. As no Man can iay. belides and againft the Man's Purpofe. may very truly be faid to be Additional. fome Real . yet no Man can maintain. And. the Prefervarion and Continuance of the Creature. vvas the very End fhe propofed to her felf in forming it. nor Sicknefs before Health. and a good Gonftitution . we may affirm of Evil. or fome Seeming Good . And though thefe be Contraries as White and Black are. and as much of what Nature intended iliould belong to it. that Evil fteps when the Defire is fix'd and truly good. in a Phylical Conlideration. or in order to. aSs with a profpect of. and afterwards Good. that they do equally fubfift. in general Terms. . that MiiTing the Mark was antecedent to the Hitting of it. is an accidental Addition to that part which is agreeable to it. and he Ihot on purpofe that he might do fo. and every Thing of any kind. whatfoever. but fuch in upon fome Obje£i: not outward Appearance only . a Privation is properly or kind of falfe Step in Nature. which comes in afterwards and by the By. whatever any Action is direded to. when the Operation does not fucceed as it ought. For it was the Archer's primitive Deiign to hit the Mark. and then Evil. in the Cafe before us. with regard to that. For. than the other . then this Difappointment. fome Difappointment infteadof ir. as White and Black are For thefe do both fubfift alike.

or greedy of Wealth. whatever it did. which fo dazles our Eyes. he is forced to take the Good and the Bad together. ia that Health which they re: itore to us. that either we do not at all difcover the Evil it is attended with. For no Man is willingly deceived. their true and real Advantage indeed but all their feeming Benefit.^ a Man in purluit of Pleafure. conlidered and apprehended as Evil . But this Misfortune happens genera'ly. fuch a? -uagnifie the Good. would confefs.174 ly. For if it were the Principal and original Caufe of thofe Things which proceed from it . to counterbalance the Good there is . and account the Evil of thefe Pains much too little. no Man chufes a Fal- Ihood before Truth nor Shadows before Subftances. and beft. That all Things deiire Good . that is. turns a Robber. that Evil. For no Man alive was yet fo unnaturally profligate. not all. as to be guilty of Lewdnefs for Lewdnefs fake. it would become Good. but. can never be the Obje£h of any Man's Defire. that it purfues after fain detain it. or a Pirate. or indeed. inthisCafe. for they pretend. and fuch as they at that time take for the true. or if we do difcern that. then would it be the End of all fuch Things: As an End it would be defirable to them. that all Things whatfoever do defire and purfue their own Advantage. and ceafe to be Evil. plain yet. and that is the Spring. when we are content to take a greater As for ItiGood with the Incumbrance of a lefs Evil ftance. is principally fixed upon the feeming Good . For Good and Dtfirable are Terms reciprocal and convertible and confequently at this rate. Epi c s's Morals Thus when and which hath an Allay and iMixture of Evil with it. in other Words. . who knows and is fenfible cf the Difference between them. . hisDefire. is farther from hence. When we fuffer an Incifion. and a Power of Acting. . and leilbn the Evil to the Eye. would be for its own Advantage. No\v it is a frequent and a reafonable Choice. from a blind Admiration of fome apparent Good. . and ufes ail poilible Endeavours not . fuppoiing Evil to have area! Being. for its own Good. upon which all thefe AQions move. as Good. Becaufe it is pail all doubt. when he does it. 'Tis moft certainly true then. difpofed to any manner of Evil. y?T we fee the Thing through falfe Opticks. or a Cupping. And thus much they W'ho afcribe a Being and Ope- Once more ration to it Good. That. as Matters ftand. or to Rob any Man merely for the fake of Stealing. purely for the Satisfaction of doing Evil.

and alfo. in producing good things of all forts. that Evil is only an Accident. a Defed. Trouble not yourfelf *vjith vjijhing . And what of all this? are we advanced in the Queftion before us ? For let this be own. to be an Accidental and Additional Thing. How. as many as were capable of fubfifting. fuperinduced to fOmething that did fubfift before . according to the Defcription here given of it. it is moft truly faid. ilill it muft have Otherwife . Others were created fubjed to Change and Decay . after thofe incorruptible Bodies. As^ able to Nature. God. and that briefly. did not only produce the higheit and moit Excellent nor only thofe Things. that "Things may be jufi as you vjould have themy &c. to that which we call Evil. fuppofe. fuch as are capable of falling. Well ( fays We How what. and yet you tell me. and alfo in the Comment upon the XIII. which a?e always regular in their Motions. or did it after : ' fome Caufe you what manner you pleafe. But. Chapter.. fuch as are good in themfelves that are of a Rank fornething inferiour to thefe. and fo ever find the get out of this cannot be that Caufe. but to have no Subfiftence of its will the Obje£tor ) 1 allow what you fay.with Simp Lie itjs's Comment. way into the World ? How then will Maze? You allow God to be the Caufe of all Things. 175* And if Evil be the Objedt of no Dellre. This Objedion hath been already confidered. fince the Condition of it is. both at the Beginning of the Book this Author's Diftlndion of the Things in. in all Particulars. not to let it go then is it not any primary and defigned Nature. and immutably good. and not in our own Power. and apt to be perverted from that which is agreeThus. Q . . and an Additional Difappointment of the firft and original Intent of Nature. fo likewife it was with Souls^ The fame Order was obferved with thefe too. that God is infinitely Good. upon Occafion of thofe words. who is the Source and Original Caufe of all Goodnefs. you muft grant that Evil hath fome Caiife. as follows. and of a middle Nature. in the Name of Wonder. Others were produced liable to be feduced from it. and fpoken where we explained lo . but the Extremes too. And this was done^ both for the greater illuftration of the Wife and Mighty Creator's Glory. a Privation of Good. that the Riches of his Goodnefs might be the more clearly feen. But however I will fpeak to it once more here too. for after Them which were unalterably fixed in Good. that the Univerfe .

when Beings of all kinds. lower World Mortal Bocies. . iimple the thus. as to their Subilance. where only can Good. of Region made. if the Corruptible and Mortal things had not been Created. Hence us there is no fuch thing as Evil in the Regions above alfo. For it could never be. of which Elements. For there 'vvas a Neceffity . have a Being too . For this Reafon the that Soul. and putting them into unnatural Diforders. conlidered by herfelf.lyo 1 c s's Morals Univerfe might be full and perfeS. (for fo the good Providence oi our great i Souls a Father and Creator hath ordered it. and fuch "thefe had'been. it could not be. that Reiidence. that while the Firft. to want nothing of any kind. which. while the violent Revolutions of the Heavenly ones were perpetually changing their Subftance. ) Decays. For thefe Reafons certainly. and all Proportions. come to be parts of Matter great Coriiineinent . making thefe together. and perhaps for a great thefe. both as to their Nature and their Operation . ftridly fpeaking. and fuch is ihould Good of the loweft fort hath its which is liable to Change and Depravation. to vindicate the Highefl: and the Middle fort. and fevered from other . Others Immutable indeed. (For This is a Perfeilion. many others more important than . while alone m a Nature. But being fo contrived by and be intimately united to to dwell in thi. but Mutable in their Motion. but rather Good . Some Immutable.) And likewife . which are Secrets Thefe Sublunary Bodies were too dark and deep for us where the Pervertible Mortality. by their own want of it. being nothing elfe but a fubfift. and the Middle fort of Bodies continued as they are . is a Generous and Immutable Being. is tainted with no Evil . and this Good that. for Corruption of the nature of Evil . And'Corruptible they mull be. World Material and Spiritual Link to lye the it joyning the Extremes by the common Bands of Life. which always falls upon the Loweft of any fort. I fay. fince the to be Evil. For Effei^ of it' is fo: fet free from a thefe Bodies are compounded . which never decline or deviate from their Goodnefs. that the Loweft and Sublunary Bodies ihould ever hold out. as Stare of Separition. were contained in it. from that Conrempt. Feeble mnft the Meaneftand Mean and Mutable Good reiides. and Diftempers thofe all feems'to bear a part in which Evil fubjeds our Bodies to. by difturbing their natiiThough indeed I cannot thmk this ral Habit and Frame. and Supported the other's Dignify.

) do frequently negled a lingle Part.. By this perpetual Round it is. getting loofe from the perpetual Combat between contrary Qualities. what was at the : Now . in the grofs Senfe. as often as our Rheums and Ulcerous Humours . this hath been fliew^i to have more Good than Evil in it. but produce great Good. that Matter and Motion have been fuftained all this while. and the Caufe of them Good and not Evil Events. The former does it. by making the Corruption of one thing to become the Rife and Birth of another. in order to acquiring new Life and Vigour.. and Art imitates this Method of Nature^ as oft as a Limb is feared. 177 of a different Conltitution with which they were interwoven and entangled before. or lopped off. contributes to the Advantage of the Univerfe in general. are not Evil. And if this Proceeding be the occafion of perpetual Change. Art. and common Acceptation of the . with S iMPL I CI us^s Comment. For Water. becaufe every thing is refolved at beginning. thei'e Shocks and Corruptions of Bodies deferve rather to be efteemthe Caufe of ed Good than Evil . that both Nature and it is obvious to any obferving Man . (as was urged heretofore. if taken with refpedt even when conlidered in it felf . and fo. may conduce to the good of the Whole. but to the Benefit which other Creatures reap by it. . then it is So that the Diftempers and Decays of Bomanifeitly Good. which is confeifed to be no better than a perverting of the Courfe of Nature. both in Simples and Compounds. which ought to be a Confideration of greater Moment. are reftored to their proper Places. fuifer no Injury . But that. for the prefervatiyet neither into is that Evil it . So that upon the whole Matter. even particular Beings lofe nothing by thofe VicilTitudes. and turn'd into Sores or Swellings in any of the extreme Parts . take them which way you will. that the Diilolution of Compound Bodies. becaufe they are fubwhich are Simples And for the Evil which je6t to no Decay or Deftrudion the Parts feem to undergo. though evaporated into Air. dies. when the detriment of that in particular. For thofe Sublunary Bodies. let not this Nice Caviller take upon him however to call it Evil. are throwa ofFfroiu the Vitals. : . laft. is. yet is by degrees congealed into Water again and fo. and their Primitive Mafs again. But if any one ihall be fcrupulous upon this occafion and quarrel with our calling Thar Good. on of the Body. . . and the mutual change of Simple ones into each other. Qa Word.

But let him call rather it a NecelTity or Hardfhip. were it limply and abfolutely Evil. Thefe. And the Evil. and That which can become a proper ObjeS of our Choice. but a neceilary and meaner Good. Now they bear fome Refemblance to the Humane. though embafed with fome Allays and Abatements. and Burnings. Word. it could never be an Inftrument of Good to us. that the Creator of thefe things is by no means the Caufe of Evil. as the Lapfes and Vices of the Soul of Man. and the painful Operation . but however we will refume the Difcourfe on this Occalion . yet does it deferve to be accounted Good. which dwell in the Regions above us. if we thought thefe things Evil. are immutably fixed in Goodnefs. both into the Nature and Caufe of them. that which I mean by NeceiTary . and enquire afreih . under any Circumftance. to which Bodies are fubjcd. and Amputations. as not defirable for its own fake. and acknowledge ourfelves obliged. is in proportion the i^nne. between the Vegetative Souls of Plants.it One of thefe will be fufficiently explained. All which were moil ridiculous to be done. fo th. is fo far forth Good. and wholly unacquainted with any Evil. which Bodies are concerned in. There are alfo the Souls of Brutes. though a Good ftill . but only in a Second and Subordinate Senfe: Yet fo. for leading us to that which is Good. much hath been faid before . nay. And of thefe too. Thus we chufe Incifions. I hope. may be thought fufficient. not llridlyand properly fo. we are content to pay dear for them. both by the Prefcription. That the Souls of a mope excellent Nature. fince it is derived from the fame Univerfal Fountain of Goodnefs. but having fome tendency . Now . and {landing in the middle as ir were.178 Epictetus's Morals by which we underftand fomething. and contributing. And yet I own. for fuch we ought to efteem it . by gii'ing an Account of the Other. though it have not Charms enough of its own to recommend it. in Vindication of the Nature and Caufe of that Evil. . fo far forth as they are Corporeal. they are in this Refpett obnoxious to. are liable to that Evil. to that which is fo: For. Nothing indeed can fo truly be called Evil. but fo far as concerns their Appetites and Inclinations. And here we fhall do well to take notice. utterly repugnant and irreconcileahle to Good. And thus much. this is but a Qualified and Inferior Good. of a bafer alloy than ours. and our Rational ones.

yet it is not iorced but ads purely by an internal Frmis ciple of wards or downwards. which Nature hath this to feem incredible. it ielf with Noentertains and long as it dwells above. and is in perfed Liberty. 179 between middle Station the Quaof partakes It the Souls above and thofe below. more thofe Of both lities of . in a • . and upon making the belt Defence in Provifion he can. it affimilates bo one fort and fometimes to the other of thefe Natures. of all its Mifery and either upan Amphibious Dilpolition . were he not endued with Senfual Faculties Conlidenng. Concupifcence.with S I LIc Soul is I s's Comment. upon dry dwell foiTietimes in the Water and fometimes Ground. „. fince even thi)fe Brutes that are Amphioious. begins it when is fixed in Goodnefs. to fill the Place leave it. of Corrupt 1Region this into itfelf voluntary Deprefllon of . have. by its Vital Union with the Body. on and Mortality. But when it finks' down from that blifsful Lite. as They are capable of. m and ledual Fart degenerates into Senfe and Imagination. the buolim ones excellent . Caufe. and by itfelf fometimes to the its Habitual Freedom. Mifchief. and Its Intelfuch Operations only. and as puts upon continuing of one who muil by Pofterity. mon Band. and proper be of Soul the though For. without being determined to Either. and the Excellence of its itri6t Affinity by ones Inferior and Brutal the Of ine Of Both thefe it is the comto the Body and Animal Life. Such feeking frelh Supplies for a jull of the fame him upon Body continually walling. then it leads the Life of Brutes . enters into a near Intimacy with the Corruptible Flumane erteems this to be the other Conftituent of the Now when j and and Na- exerts it felt ture. By thele the its AflTeaions into Anger and wretched Mortal attains'^o Knowledge. its Underftandmity of its Nature. pitch with that of other Animals. the true Beginning. . any othertheir wife than by own Inclination. Body. in an Agent made Free. and Nice thing any is who Man. then it falls into all manner of Evil. and ble and Divine Speculations. which by Nature So that^its own to do. mean the and Pailions. and grovels in Now the Humane . it is equally apt the Filth of the World. it preferves to flag and droop. for his own Prefervation and Mortal would no what are Cares thefe For while. what For the would endure to fpsnd fo many Days and Years upon the World fliortly ^ Q 3 fupport . us Innocence. Nor ought its own. the Soul debafes herfelf to the World.

if vehement Delires did not perpetucomes ally kindle us more eafy to in new Flames. when fiie finks down into the Dregs of Fleih and Scnfe.) and enters into a ftrift Union with the Brutifh Part. and converts all its Funflions to her own Ufe and Benetit. not owing to the*more Excellent and Rational Part. Evil. as being neceifary to their Confiitution . and this Animal Life. and there But when once ihe forgets. Dignity and Power fo long as ihe preferves . then Reafon ads againft its own Principles. But ftill all this. the Caufe of Evil. but to the inverting of thefe. while it maintains its own Station. and hath This a commanding power over them put into her Hands. though Libsrty abufed. and gives away the Rtins out of her own H:inds . before the mild and gentle Perfuafions oi Reafon. though our Paffions and Appetites be the Caufe of Moral Evil.i8o fupport of ter this Epictetus's Morals to Body. even thefe cannot with any Juilice be called Evil. rather than forming ones felf after the Similitude of the Excellent Spirits above us. that. and bafely fnbmits to be governed by its And this Contufion in the Soul is the Root of all Slave. and the tame Subm'flion of the other is. nor God who infu fed them. keeping her while flie ufes Subjeois under. is Choice. the violent Ufurpathat tion of the one. 4 And . The Soul is by NaBut the Truth of the Matter is this ture fuperior to this Body. and giving a Reliih to fome of the moR indifpenfable of Lire. while that keeps vi'ithin its due Bounds. The Perverfe Choice of Degenerating into Body and Matter. . and at their due Diftance ih•^ Body as her Inftrument. Adions : . and be warmed the ProfpeCt of Poiierity make have been them? Thefe Arguments fome meafure infilled on before. (by preferring the Impetuous Temptations of Plcafure. than always filling. nor to the infeiiour and Senfual. in which Nature hath implanted them. as I laid. and always emptying ) if Senfual Inclinations did not whet his Appetite? Or who could undergo the tedious Fatigue by which Succeflion is kept up. ( when the Burden of the whole Matno more. Upon all which Accounts. it is iiill Liberty. fo long all is well . and I take by them to be abundantly clear in this Point. Divine linage is ftampt upon her. when flie lays by the EniJgns of Government. yet they are extreamly Benefic al to the Creatures. and not Confiraint. an Evil. diverts itfelf of its Dcfpotick Power. that the is no danger ot Evil.

but the For. But Evil difguifes when wechuie deludes us with an Appearance of Good . were too: willingly and freely that produces Evil. Guilt the and doned or acquitted. or caa itlelf. the Blame on there would be a colourable Pretence lo lay And now. and Puniihments. i8i a lutle here I would befpeak the Reader's Attention and Choice why give. it is not the Caiifeof it. and be chofen. we take at the fame concealed under it. I allow. thePaity to not imputed. charge Evil upon. . ads purely upon the Principles of her own Native the Better Part. who was born down by it. our^wn Choice is the Caufe ot Evil . the Governments. in the Choice of the Worfe. their Genfures and their becaufe this alone is are all proportioned to the Intention conrequently. from Determinations the Example of Almighty Godhimfelf.^'^'ld. fo juillyas upon the Soul? But. That God is not chargeis fit we proclaim to all the W. for nothing ever is. or the Events of things. but And accordingly their Rewaros Intention of the Perfon. From and Irrefiaible Coniiraint done by is whatever pafs. be meafured not by in this. did it Voluntarily but he it. an Volition muft needs be the Soul's own any CompulInternal Motion of onri. Motion._it is the entirely in a Man's own Power. that Thus much I to is yet parForce. no lefs than of apprehend to have been plainly proved. the Soul under any Conftraint to do amifs. and that the Soul only is concern d Freedoir. had no Will of his own concernEfttamg ed in the Fad. Commendations. And thus much in Eftcd was faid before ' too. and well Conftituted Who all agree the Judgment of Sober and Knowing Men. it. and not the Clearneis ot I have already urged the fion from without. and Truth at large. but became the mere Inftrument ot . and hence it comes only thing he can be accountable for.with And SiMPLicius's Commenr. him to the doing of that did it. conildered as Evil. That the Merits of Men are to by the vVill and the Faa itfelf. but to the Perfon that forced For he who ufed that Force. having thus difcovejed the true Origin ot Lvil. to about am I to weigh the Reafons and Deed. it Soul which able with any Sin . and then. under that Notion. and time the real Evil that feeming Good. and lince owing to no manthat Choice is the Soul's Voluntary Aft. becaufe it is not He. /^ • • r t? Q4 God. what meer internal own its but ner of Compuliion. though the Crime be never fo grievous. can yet againit the Inclination ot his own Mind. Since then we though the Soul be the Caule of Evil. this . and of all Wife Laws.

hov' many things there are in the World. who had luffered her to lie under fo fatal a Neceffity and had not left her free to relcue andfave herfelf (Though. : : : foThisi how iaconiiftent would it have been with that 4 bounty . That all this does not yet acquit Almighty God. It mull be remembred in the Firil Place. that the Choice of Evil fhould have been naturally impoifible. Then we are to confidtr. and fometimes Evil. the Former of thefe is manifeillyabfurd . he muft have chain'd up hisWill. capable of chufing fomefimes Good. to be fure. astowiih. nothing that the Soul was forced to do. was afterw-ards to be debarred it ^ This would have been utterly to take away the Power of Chullng. one thing. And there is no Body fo ftupid and loft. in this lower World. that no Evil is ever choien. lince the Soul is left to her felf. Things the Obje£lor muft fay. that he were a Brute.) But now. in truth. And therefore. when the Mind apprehends it to be Evil But the Objeoior iecms to think. rather than a Man. which is fo Abfolute in the Determining of itfelf fometimes to real Good. that one of thefeTvi'o Things muft have been the Confequencf of fuch a Proceeding Either Firfi. accounted exceeding Good. for thatitis ftill his Adl. but to have been fo framed at firft. it were very convenient to have this Freedom of the Will. or he fays One of thefe nothing at all to the Purpofe. : It it fhall be farther objected. upon this Prefumption. and made it impoffible for him to chufe any thing but Good . could be ftridly Evil. and leave them to themfelues . and perhaps fome great Evil But alas he docs not conliiier. finceGod difplayed the Abundance of his Goouneis and Power. Orelfe. for Choice and Njceffity are things Inconliflent and where the Mind is fo tied up.! i8i I c s's Morals God. after he had given Man a Rational Soul. That. there (properly fpeaking) it can chufe nothing. fo delirsble. there is no Thing.ce of being fo. and that he ought rot to permit them in the Choice of Evil. flie muft be content to bear all the Blame. if the Detei mining it felf one way. that it can chufe but . For in truth. quite taken away Good. for to what : Two Now Purpofe was the Will left Free and Undetermined either way. and ads purely by her own free Choice. to allow Men this Liberty. or a Plant. and fometimes to tnac which deceives it with a falfe AppearImagining it to be no ap. which yet are not really in any degree comparable to this Fieedom of the Will. in giving Perfe61:ions inferior As to the Latter. no Privilege. that the Soul ought never to have had this Indifference at all.

or Humane Virtue. no fuch thing as Humane Nature. (as bath been intimated formerly. no Man the a things he takes thefe Methods to iTiake his Patient worfe. and yet we conlider withal. or any other Virtue. to bring us to a better Senfe of our Extravagance. but fometimes connive at their Follies. in fuch Circumftances . or Cuts or Sears any Part of our Bodies.it. and how many good Effefts it hath. if you fuppofe it impoffible to be perverted to Vice. or lops off a Limb. do not think themfelves oblig'd to be always thwarting the Inclinations of t. There could have been no Medium between the Bleifed Spirits above. we can by For no means adm. by which it inclines itfelf to Good or Evil. and in Effedt deftroy the Nature ot Man. or a God. fuffers thePaffions of the Soul to rage and fwell fo high.with e SiMPLicius's Commenr. are never to be cured by leis painful Applications. becautb he knows thd Condition of our Diilemper . So then we allow. but better. in his deferved Vengence. not to have beftowed viledge upon Mankind? moft excellent Pri- Befides. becaufe Reafon tells us.hofe under their Charge. and of committing all that Evil coniequciit to fuch Depravation. and to recover us of our Frenfie. that this Self-determining Power. and give them a Loofe: There being no Way fo effectual for the Purging of ihefe PaiTions. as to let them fumetinics the Thus .) takeaway this undetermined Propenfion of the Soul. becaufe otherwife a Gap had been left in the Creation. you have no longer any fuch thing as Juftice. Divine Juftice. we fuffer little Children to burn their Fingers. left in the obferving Moral Duties. From whence it is plain. in the World. and Brutes below . and that the fmarting fometimes under the wild Suggeitions of our ovvn furious Appetites. that vi^e may deter them from playing with Fire. 'Tis thus. that Men. this 183 Bounty of his. but impeccable and indefedible Goodnefs can never be the Virtue of a Man. is a thing of God's own Creation and Appointment. of being corrupted. When Caufe Surgeon Jays on a drawing Plainer to ripen a Swelling. that there was a neceflfity of leaving the Soul in a capacity. that God ftiould be traduced as and Author of Evil upon this Account. many wife Educators of Youth. This State of Purity may be the Excellence of an Angel. way. and you undermine the very Foundations of all Virtue. is the only. how necelfary this is to the Order and Beauty of theUniverfe. or Temperance. In other Refpecls. And for the fame Reafons. by which Men are depraved.

but by . God does not by any Power. not from any Conllraint. I cannot fuppofe there needs any proof. infinitely ro be preferred above whatever clfe the World thinks moft valuable. of deviating from Goodnefs . and the Operation of it conilils in receiving Impreiiions. but then this is a Hfippinefs and a Privilege. For whatever tends to the Reformation of Manners. and pretend that it is a part of his very Elfence. and many good eifefts might follow. from the End to which they are direded. or Confirming the Habits of Virtue. and determining icfelf thereupon. and naufeate. how di- own mere Pleafure. notwithftanding all this.. and grow Sick of them. but fo as to be vitiated by itfelf only. that either thofe Parents and Governours. when it Sins. For this is the manifeit confequence of their other Tenets . becaufe they cannot think God the Author of Evil. but they talk big. which the Soul is guilty of. could never have been brought about. whether we vvillovercome Evil. and thefe very Men do not only acknowledge the Soul to be of his forming. Now.Epictetus's Morals fometimes be indulged. as thofe things that are done. they talk at this rate. they own it capable of being vitiated. it becomes me to enquire. which. we have the Confeffion of our Adverfaries themfelves to (Irengthen us in the Belief of it. or be overcome by it . and yet. that a Nature Now jS. ForAdions do principally take their Denomination and QuaSo that. becaufe all this is done with a Virtuous Intent.. And in thefe Cafes. in order to the Recovery and Continuance of Hsjalth. they do not well conlider. who fut." is the Caufe of Evil.upa Principleof Evil. caufe that Averfion from Good. and the Vigors the truth is. may be called wholefome. the Caufe of our Reflexion from our Duty. For even they. really . its tlms qualified is Good. or the Juilice of God. or immediate A£l of his own. it cannot be faid. that the vanquiflied in this Combat are very juftly punifhed. declare they do it. may be as reafonably called Virtuous. God indeed is truly and properly the Caufe of this Liberty of our Wills . that fo the Perfons may be cloyed. I (hall now think. that it depends upon our own Choice. yet cannot MoBut how far he is really ral Evil bejuftly laid at his Door. whea largely and defjirvediy rewarded. without fuch an averiion. allity. that ihe might turn herfelf to Evil that fo fuch a Species of free Agents might fill a void Space in the Univerfe. though God were in fome meafure the Caufe of thisNecefllty we are in. but he only gave her fuch a Power. but rather of Good.

or whether by fome fatal Violence upon it from without. as are alfo the other GoodneiTes. In the meanwhile. in the next degree of Perfcdion to him. but neither the the Other. and in fome Senfe it is denied to have any. for both fides confefs it to be adually depraved. becaufe His Nature is above it. without a natural Capacity of being fo. No Man ever propoCcd it. but came in by Chance. no Artificer ever drew his Model for it 1 TheMafon propofes theHoufe he is Building. be not the miiling of tqe Mark. In fome Senfe it has a Being. . if vvh?. that the Nature of Evil was fomething very odd. becaufe Nature never made it Hers. they profefsGod to be the Maker of and yet it is plain they it. and the Refuiingof Evil. this ffiews. And this I think may very well fuffice. Therefore they tell us.t made and dtfigned. they are yet fuperilitiouily fearful of afcribing any Evil to him. becaufe at the fame time that theyafcribe this Freedom of the Will to God. and a very untoward addition to Nature.and obferve. only that hemny v. how artificially £yi/if?i?Z?/j hath comprifedina very few Words. it was never brought in by Delif. For in regard the Choice of Good. ftill the being naturally capable of fuch depravation. whether the Soul be depraved by its own Foolifh Choice. it has no Exiltenceof its own. nor Door he is Plaining. for his End. ]>iature really is the hitting of the Mark. and to have fet it in this Condition think the nature of the Soul depravable. ever works. which we have here drawn out to fo great a length. and not Evil. and inconfillent with any fuch Defeft . But however. andthccompaffing of that. 185• reSly thefe Notions contradi6l that irreliftible neceiftty to fin.with SiMPLiciu s's Comment. the Subilance of thofe Arguments.!). : Let us nowapply ourfelves to confider the PaiT^ige before us. it was proper for him to (hew. and whenever it got into the World. is the Mark . that ought not to make it Our Choice. and out of Courfe. as it is Good. and the Car- We penter the One. as the End of any Action .-orlc ill. which they elfewhere mjike the Soul to lie under. is agreed on all Hands . : Epidetus his Argument then lies in the following Syllogirm' Evil isthe milfingor tiie Mark For vvnat Nature hath given a real and adefigned Exiltenceto. the Firft Original Good is never tainted with Evil. for the Nature and Origin of Evil. So then thefe Men acknowledge the depravable Condition of the Soul . fuch as in their Cant are called the Mother of Lifc^ the Creator^ and the Mones. and yet it is a fort of fupernumerary. Now. which it could never be. are the Objeft and Ground of all Moral Inrtrudions whacfoever.

of the Mafun and the Carpenter. is no lefs evident from the Inftances 1 gave. which is contrary to common Senfe. to which Nature deiigned and gave a Being. then it i$ plain. For if there were fuch a thing. and fo add the Concluiion. For. Novjr. it would follow. As no Man fets up a Mark iv'ith a Defign to Joot befide it. which have a real and a defigned Exiilence. becaufe Evil of any Adliou iu Nature. Therefore Evil is none of the principal Deii^ns. fuppofea Man makes Pleafure his Mark. and the PraSice of all Mankind. So that at this rate. or real Works of Nature. he lets fly accordingly. 'tis plain this Man is worfted. but as a thing to be declined. there is no fuch real Being as Evil in the World . that Nature never formed or deiigned any fuch thing And then.) without mentioning the Major. that Evil' is properly the miffing of the Mark. is not capable of being the IF . you may take his Minor Propofition lingly by itfeli. is from w^hat hath been fpoken to this point already. that the principal Delign. : : in £nd Nature as Evil. and real work of Nature. is conftantlythe Mark every Man aims at. "which conliils af thofe Words. that Evil can be none of thofe things. but the hitting it indeed) and if Evil be the mifling of the Marii. But Evil is never propofed as a thing to be produced or obtained. his Imaginations I mean. But if he do not attain the Good he defires. which is this. only that it may not be hit. It maylikewife be put all together into one iingle Hypothetical Proportion thus If no Man fets up a Mark on purfafe tofljoot befide it^ then there is no fuch real Being as Evil in thelVorld. which indeed fly fwifter than any Arrow out of a Bow. and hath milTed his Mark. And again. (For this intimates that Evil is a miffing of one's Aim. Now^ when the Author fays. And therefore there can be no fuch thing plain. for Evil is always the Obje(9: of our Refufal and Averiion. but the hitting of the Mark. as the End or Produob of Adion. or ftiort of it . you are to underfland. he aims at it as a Good and Defirable thing. is never the miffing. if you pleafe. that Something.. but (hoots wide. Epict s's Morals Mark ( as it is not. which implies. and the obtaining thofe things.i86 . then it would be propofed. the hitting of his Mark. that there is a Mark fet up.

Crown. and confequent upon it. win the OJympick wiih the fame for my felf tooj and But not fo as an Immortal Honour. you will afterward be difcouraged j and what you began with Eagernefs and Vigor. and the Accidents like to follow upon it . 1 87 any one ihould take upon him to expofe your Body to be abufed by every Man you meet. the Circumilances preliminary to. when you put it in the power of every Malicious Tongue. look upon it : XXXV. for enilaving and expofingyour Mind to every one ? who is difpofed to take the Ad- For fo indeed you do. whether you be difpofed to it or no. are extremely defirous to I Word^^ . fail Confider the Preparations neceflary to fuch an Undertaking. but in fuch ProIn a portions as Ihall be thought proper for you. and then let me hear you fay you'll attempt it. For unlefs you come well fettled with this Confideration. you will deilil from with Cowardice and Shame. You muft Be confined to a iirid: Regime» j mull be cramm'd with Meat when you have no Appetite j muft abftain wholly from Boiled Meats j muil exercife. F And ought you not then to be much a- ihamed of yourfelf. the feveral Difficulties it is like to be incumbred with. whether it be hot or coldj muft drink nothing but what is warm. weigh diligently with yourfelf.with SiMPLicius's Commenr. before you attempt anything. vantage CHAP. you would refent it as an infupportable Infolence and Affront. to difturb the inward peace and order of your Breaft. nor any Wine. For this Reafon.

and each of them does not doubt. as it may happen. by your takuig Things upon you Hand over Head. How excellently did Sofure no Man was era! e:\vvkc: on fuch a Subjed ever like him. and play Prizes i then they turn Trumpeters. and become the Jefl and Scorn of the Speolators. i. and after that a Philofopherj but nothing long. and go to War i and by and by build a Stage and aol Plays.i88 Epictetus's as abfolute Morals Gover- Word. but thefe Hotfpurs mull needs be Philofopheis too. without being feafoned and duly prepared for them j -. a mere Ape. And all this is occafioned. CHAR . Thus it is with many People. to a Phyficiaft. you muil nour. But if upon conlidermg them well. perhaps. to be billed and beaten. or hear him quoted with Admiration and Refpcd (as. And here it is many a Man's Fortune to break an Arm^ or put out a Leg. Lay all thefeThmgs together j and then. by and by anOrator. refign yourfelfup to your an Obedience. but flicking to none. you then are you neverthelefs retain your Refolution fit to fet about the Parfuit of what you fo much deOtherwife you will come oflflike Little Chiliire. • but either with a raili Heat. when they fee an Eminent Philofopher. dren. your Courage may be cooled. to be thrown by his Adverfary . Juft fo we lli. and venturing at all Profeffions. except a ridiculous WhiiHer.ill have you. or fickle Inclination. one while an Olympick Fighter.) nothing will ferve their Turn. with ed. and get nothmg but a -mouthful of Dull for his Pains > and. mimicking all you fee. and another a Gladiator . as you would When all this Hardiliip is mailer- you have all the Chances of Combat to go through Hill. who in tlicir Sports aft fometimes Wreftlersy and fometimes Fidlers j now they are Fencers. but he ihaii make a ! Socraies in rime.

and to have others. and an Excife-Man the next .with Simp Lie I s's Comment. or the World your Care. Sic down now . and a Statefman to Morrow. content. NO W fider perfeotly be as niqe in all you Eat and Drink? Alas! you muft prepare for want of Sleep. for hard Labour. and refpeoted more in Converfation. you have but One Man to make and you may make him either a Good or a Bad one. when you apply yourfelf to Philofophy. 189 C HAP. and thy Sinews 5 for. iiril of all to conthe Nature of the Thing thou would'il undertake. In ihort. In a Word. Thefe Things are not for your Credit. XXXVI. and ask yourfelf. like thofe ridiculous Boys I mention'd . for Contempt and Infolence from your Inferiors. not built for the Olympick Exercifes. whether this be what thou art cut out Examine thy Limbs. Friend. countenanced more than you in Courts of Juftice. is Man every Do you imagine. you muft be either a Fool. a School-mafter to Day. perfeot Freedom. if the Whether you can be Prize be worth all this Pains. for Abfence from your Family and your Friends. You muft either make yourfelf. leave them for fome other Purchafer. put over your Head in Preferments . or a Philofopber. lefs worthy. and then thy own Qualifications for it. at fo dear a Rate to purchafe an equal Temper. and unmoveable Conftancy. C ' . and I advife thee. a quiet Mind. by being a Philofopher this Hour. or no. and do riot expofe yourfelf. If you think the Price fet upon thefe Things too high. that you can be allowed to live at the fame rate you do now ? To indulge your Appetite.

and heighten the Provocation. If we think it an infupportable Infolence in any other Perfon. the Conlidfrations of intimate Acquaintance. by telling us we had by the . to be in. but thofe that ourfelves are guilty And furely of. whether it lliall be done or not . becaufe fuch a one. but Shame. For the Injuries which come upon us from another Hand. If the Affronts and Injuries done to the Body. with much more Impatience. upon this Occafion he changes his Expreifion. but by our own Choice. for expoiing our own felves. when the Soul is injured and abufed? Again. how much more is the Ina Man does any Thing to his own Prejudice. when we ourfelves have been guilty of injuring ourfelves. and the Soul to the Body. as it was in oUr Power to prevent. to expofe our Body to Abufes. and which too. be a Thing which depends purely upon our own Choice. to that which is a real Evil. and that Evil fo much the worfe.ured by ones own felf is much worfe than if it were done by another. For. If we are apt to refent an Unkindnefs. for taking a Thing ill. and then. when done.190 Epictetus's G Morals r. Efpecially . we rcfled upon with Shame and Remorfe.^ And again. between the feveral Branches . is very much illuftrated he ufes here. was rot ftriitly Evil tons . and does not call it Indignation. than the fame Thing from a Common Man becaufe. Now . by fuffering ourfelves to bedifordered at the Calumnies of every malicious Railer. when ihefe Injuries need not have befallen us. And this is the proper Notion of Shame: the being out of Countenance at the Folly and Foulnefs of our own voluntary Mifcarriages* And what can more deferve a Blufli. we receive with Refentments of Anger . THE Thmg Comparifons juftice aggravated. Eil•etus drives at. there is much greater Reafon fordoing fo. der ought we to be. when yet his Affronting or not Affronting us after this manner is a Thing not in our own Power and if the expoiing our Minds to be abuCed by the next Man we meet. vvheti coming from a Friend. indeed could not have done fo. and former Obligations liep in. Ufage. are fo deeply refented how much more tenReafon to exped better when . then we ought to be aihamed upon a double Account: Firll. than the not difcernin^ the mighty Diiiereuce there is. fetting ourfelves in Oppoiition to Others. which was not in our Power to help.

IT may of the Perfons we conveiTe : not to imitate what mif-became Him. and pay him Service and Refpeil upon ail Occafions . That the Quawith. what is fit for you upon all ocFor it is but confidering yourfelf under the cafions. unlefs you think yourfelf fo. aPerfon. this Obligation to Duty. does not arife from the Confideration of his Goodnefs^ but from the RelaNo Failings of his can make tion he bears to us be Father. in each of thefe Stations relpeotively. generally fpeaking. with patience and fubmiffion. R C ' . Your Brother hath done you an Injury j but do not fuppofe. lity XXXVil. You are not one whit the worfe. Befides. you'll fay. feveral Qualiries. or a Subjeot. what Behaviour is proper from. He is a rigorous and unnatural Father. After this manner it will be eafie to difcover. Thus my Duty to a Father is to afiill and take care of him . or a Military Officer. and the mutual Relations they bear. than not toad ac- cordingly? CHAP. 191 ches of fo lively a Comparifon as this? And when one does difcern it.with Simp LI c lus's Comment. to fupport his Age and his Infirmities j to yield to him. or a Civil jyiagiilrate. of a Neighbour. or to. and to receive both his Reproofs and his Bun Chaflifements. are the true Standard of a Man's Duty and Behaviour towardsthem. What is that to the purpofe ? You arc to remember. without your own Concurrence. to a And confequently none ceafe him can abfolve you from the Obedience of a Son. no body can do you a real Injury. Avhat can be more icandalous. that this difpenfcswirh the Kindnefs you owe him : You are ftill to obferve what becomes You j befaid. and you will foon difcern.

whom 1 am to conlider. in general. and another to a Son. as the Perfon to whom. For the Word is fometimes reftrained to one particular Virtue. one to our own Countryman. the Principal whereof Epdetus treats of. Father. have this for their proper Objeol•. which diftributes to every Member of the Commonwealth . and this alligns to every part of the Soul what belongs to it. Then. according to his Dignity and Deferts. one to a Friend. There is private Juftice. not as aCaufe . I owe my Being. according to the ieveral Pofts. how we may find out what is properly our Duty . and the Comforts of it. Laftly. beginning in this Chapter with our Duty to one another. and. to thofe Beings that are above him. or a Behefador. but as an Effed. to all his Equals. how he may difcover what it is. to thofe below him And. diftinguifhed from the reft . This is more peculiarly called the Work of Juftice. to his own felf. towards Men. And there is the Publick Juftice of a Country. as one f whom I have Now : Now : . as to include all manner of Virtue. and another to an Enemy who hath injured us. To this purpofe he gives us a convenient Intimation. of my felf. with regard to a Man's own Mind. Having therefore inftruded his young Philofopher. and another to a Stranger . Duty Man THE him do upon of a to very one what is <it is properly that which it becomes every occaiion. Thirdly. Firft. and to look upon him. and. And the reafon of this is. in which Men ftand There is one kind of Deportment due to to one another. concerns his Behaviour. and difcharge it upon all occafions And what others have been very prolix and voluminous upon. it is the bufinefs of Juftice to give everyone his due: Upon which account all Inftitutions. diriers from that which 1 bear to a Son. taken in a fenfe fo comprehenfive.^% Epictetus's Morals COMMENT. and fometimes enlarged and extended to them all. and laid before us with wonderful Energy and Clearnefs. both Moral and Political . Becaufe the Relation I bear to a Father. aftd the rendring to eto be expeSed from him. the Duty of a Man. next under God. that this differs. (as particularly Nicohus Dawajcenus) he hath heie reduc'd into a very narrow compafs. Each of thefe Heads have diftind Rules and Meafures . if you will branch it out into its feveral Heads. as you fee before (which Precepts have indeed fome reference to this kind of Duty too) he proceeds here to diretl him.

imply Proximity. "Where a Difparity is implied . This however is a general Rule. And this is a Refped inferring Diftance. there they owe the fame Duties too. this Relation (generally fpeaking) is the Order of Things. the thing my own Subftance. R 2. whether the Terra by which the Relation is exprefs'd. There is alfo a natural Refpeft. fo this which denies fuch a nearnefs. So that in we have to do. For this Relation is a fort of Common Band of the Perfons concerned in It . or Di- Now . There is another Relation too of Difparity between Things which feem Contraries. nor are the Denominations. does in that very Idea fet them farther afunder. is. and go by the fame Names. which proceeds upon Proximity. as.men. yet they fo together.. Both are Equals. and then to fuit our Demeanour accordingly. but mult con- it is tinue to have an Intereft each in other. Again. both are Country.. and yet that depends upon a kind of local Contrariety. That in all Cafes. . as Brothers and here both the Denominations and the Duty of each Party is the fame. though they be diftind in other recannot be abfolutely disjoined. as that which exprefsMnearnefs of Blood and Family brought them clofer together. to enquire into the Quality and Relation of the Perfon . becaufe. and likewife proceeds upon the like Names. which joins People upon unequal Terms . firft 193 have communicated part of Cafes. or the mutual Regard they haveto one another. that. There is likewife a disjundive Relation in Natui^. to another. as between the Right Side and the Left. or to Diflance. the natural Order and Refped.. as in a Caufe and its Effed. both are Coufins. joins fometimes Equals. And this may be the Effe6^ of Neceffity and Nature. as between Brothers they were faid to be. and that. the fame. This then is a natural Regard. . For which Reafon that Relatives are faid to belong to one another. either to Proximity. where both Parties are upon the Level. with all thefe SiMPL I CI us's Comment. there is alfo a mutual Refpeft founded in Nature. for thefe have a mutual Refped to each other. for both are Brothers: And fo likewile it is in other like Cafes. as there. or Foreigner. and this inequality is the fame in Proportion. flance. as . or of Choice it may have refped either to Similitude or Diffimilitude .which links Now them fpedts. between Father and Son : For here the Expedances are not the fame. and the like DutieSj as of one Stranger. which implies Diftancej and this regards People of different Birth and Countries. w^nich is between Difparates too.

or no. the feveral Relations Men bear to one another. as implies Difiance and DisjunSion too. is plies Diilance. wheninilcad ot Wealth and Power. The disjundive Relations of this kind which carry a Difparity. and partly the other. and are obliged to the fame Duties. But with this Caution.) It depends partly upon Choice too. That Charader. there is fome kind of natural Relation (for Nature intended. though this be fuch an one. But that of Neighbours. TheRelatinn upon Choice. is that ot Enemies. as when by f )me Common Agreement the Wealthy bear Rule. whether They make good Theirs. This volunciry Relation lies fomeiimes in Difparity too. and that which imDisjundive. and ceafe to be an Enemy. hath it in his Power to untie the Knot when he will. for this ftievi^s an IneTime. the Wifeft are advanced to the Chair by Confent. and let the Relation fall afunder That is. and the Mejner People fuhmit to it. and the Perfons we converfe with. feems to be fomething betwixt that by Nature. and that by Choice. and Things of that of Friends. there the Good Man who difcharges his own Part. and theie Relations lyinti between Equals. for thcfe Men are under a voluntary and an unequal Relation to one another. hath an equalityinDuty. The Relation between Husband and Wife. which implies Proximity. and it is a mixture of both thefe. For the fame free Choice which contraSed the Relation. where it is only founded in Choice. tor in Truth it is partly one. and infers a Difparity both of Name and Duty. have (as I obferved before) the fame Names.194 as Ep I CTETUs's Morals quality in lies laft Year and this Year . : in . that the Betrer fhould govern the Worfe. and Him under it. iiand. can as calily diifolve it too But the Relations founded between Equals. or the . We : . and to take our Meafures from Hill anlwer Our thence. For. condderedas theCaufc and the EfFecl between the Buyer and the Seller. For even Enemies are under a voluntary Relation to one another. he can withdraw his Affedion and Acquaintance from an unworthy Friend and he can melt down afpightful Man wiili good Offices. and efpecially where Nutuie hath made the Relation. are the Fleer and the Purfuer. And now that this rough imperfed Draught hath been laid before us. and prefcribed the Duty. in which We. in allher Produdions. Between the Perfon in Authoriry. -which is a kind of intermediate Relation too. it •will concern us to confivier. and the fameTitle. as between Mailer and Scholar. as contradiilinguifhed fri>m each other.

he and releafed us from all that Vi^asduetohim upon the account of Friencihip.with S lAiPLicius's Coramenr. though their Rcfufal mav and ought to be reiblute. t}. other Matters. is in a great meafure OAving to Him.eproaches and bard Ufage. the PerTons and the PoiTeflions of Slaves are at theabioluie difpofal trive that In all Fortune and Purchafe have made their Maought Ours to be at the Command of Them. to bring us into the World. or unnaturally. with much more eafinefs and pniience. The anciett Romans had a Law. r. yet our Duty continues the fame. but the Relation between us is not founded in Choice. it may be refpedful too. that his provident Ct-re and Tendernefs fuftained the Being he gave us. and payback all their Kindnefs.hr. becaufe they are under a higher Engagement to the Father of Spirits and mud not difpleaieHim at any rate. as well as our Produ6tion. and tender Conctrn . ceafe. awful Obfervance. except fuch as tend to the detriment of the Soul . Children ihould always look upon themfclves as Debtors to their Parents. to remembtrr. they fhould endeavour to give as little Offence as is poffible. And yet upon theie occafions too. with much Gratitude and large Intereit They fliould give moft ready Obedience to all their Commands. are bound dill to pjy him all manner of Duty. We : . and. than Servants do to their Mailers . to confider him. fo that though he be not fuch. we ought to fubm-t to Their Corrcdlion. we are to fervethem with our utmoU Power. yet Modefty muft temper their Zeal.:h. not as a good. upon the sbfolute Right ic gave. upon the Dignicy of this Relation. But if a Father behave himfelf vicioufly.nd that our Prefervation. in 195• Nature are Eternal. : .ite •Trouble Parents are at for the fake of their Childreii. hath broke the Bond that linked us together. and cona Friend ufe us ill. as the Means made ufe of by God. (grounded it ieems. and if to thtir Blows.ade theCaufe of our very Being? For this reafon. but in Nature and the Obligation lies to him as a Father. then certainly rather ftill to their Pv. or a kind Father. whom Nature ir. both in our Bodies and our Goods: For i. becaufe thefe are only the Eifefts of his own Choice . and choien to be our Enemy. the ii. . and in thefe cafes their Ccjmpliance is diipenfed w'. and no Ad of our own Will can ever make them So that if and become an Enemy . the Cafe is much otherwife Neither his Rigour nor his Vices can make him ceafe to be a Father.eunof thofe. becaufe he hath ceafed to be our Friend. whom ilers how much more R limited .

which Wegive our Parents now. can render him not only your Brother. andMeeknefs. ^^^ . hereby intimating. and to make good that Covenant. as almoft to venture to call them Gods But finding fome check from the incommunicable Devotion due to the Divine Nature. So again. indeed in the Difchargeof our Duty to Parents. if a Brother deal unjuilly by you. nor Brethren.•'.: J^6 Epictetus's Morals limited Subjeiiion due to them. You iliould not therefore fo much regard his Afiions. that we fhaM hereafter find the fame meafure from Our Children. when even their collateral Relati- ons were complemented with the Name of fomething Di- vine in them. is not in your own Power to determine. becaufein this confifts all the real Advantage and prejudice that can happen to you. And therefore. norKinfmen. andbyplaceAdd to all ing Happinefs an4 Mifery in things without you. yet you can have no other Parents. if they pleafed. And we have a great deal of reafon to expeS . prefuming favourably withal of the natural Aifedion of Parents) which gave the Parents a Power. and there is no remedy. which you cannot help. He can do you no harm. -/«<. fince you mufl: take them upon Content. to fell their Children . let him defign never fo much. the Advantage of^yinning him over by good Ufage. they called their Parents Brothers. which is very likely topuniih us in our Own kind. tor if your Forbearance. and the ailing as becomes Men who make Pretenfions toWifdoiij and Virtue. not by your Brother's Malice. provided you do but depend uponyourown But if you ramble abroad. let it be your part to anfwer all the Particulars of the Relation between you. you are theworfe then indeed. And the Times of yet greater Antiquity bore fo great a Reverence to Parents. as though you had made them your own Choice. and AiFedion. which Nature hath ratified and made unalterable For though the World be a wide place. this. but thofe you have. call'd them to no account for it. Confider too. if they killed them. but your own Miftakes. that His Behaviour towards you. what profound Refpeft belonged to their Parents themfelves. we fliould reprefent to ourfelves the Divine Juftice and Vengeance. the <5rit and principal Motive is the Equity of the thing. thefe Now : : : ' • ' ••. as what is agreeable to your own Duty. and fit for You to do. but Yours towards him is. and felf for your Good and Evil expeal to find it there. and which. which this is moil highly agreeable to And after this. behave yourfelf. nor are in any degree refponiible for. but your Friend .

the vineBounty. and like God. are much of the i^tme nature with thofe due to Parents : though infome refpeas. to inform us in true Wifdom and Goodnefs. The Choice of Friends : j How to is ufe and keep thofewe haveChofen: and upon theie Things all the Benefits of Friendihip depend. the Duties we owe to our Mafters. as the very thefe accounts. For which thefe Perfons nouriihand train is much more confiderable. like our Parents . that other be added ot being our Teachers too. r r- The Next thing that offers itfelf is the Duty of Friends. our ftruaions. yet vviU R 4 mukc . and joining Forces. which can be challenged upon both muft then look upon them. and Ncdifferent Principle. and Bufinefs it is toinftrua usinWifdom and Virtue. _ Likenefs of ral Temper and Difpofuion. but what tends to the furthering fo excellent a Defign. and obey nolefs than Men. theie Obfervances muft needs be peculiarly due to becaufe we ought to look upon their InInftruaors. our very felves. to be grea- Now whofe ter in the Cafe before us. For certainly. fo weighty and ufefulaSubjea will bear. The Firft thing we ihould look at in our Choice of l• nenuS. the Union wonderful clofe and ftrong. and confequently we Ihould fubmit to them. Thoy do it too upon a that is. will 1 97 two Relations meeting in one. reverence them as the Formers of our Souls. Image of God . not our Bodies. The Nexc. to be regarded here is. theCaufes. the Obligation feem-. to which not our Being only. We as well as of our Bodies. is perpetually retrieving thQm from their Mifery^ and reftoring them to the Blifs they have loft. but. aDefire to promote Goodnefs and Virtue. make Teachers. ascomingout of theMouth of God himfelf. itisnoteaiie to conceive. not conftrained to it by Nature inliind. •now. whofe End and Profelfion it is. And this makes Dia near Approach to. For there are feveHumours.I with S LI c I s's Comment. And this 1 (hall treat with all the Glearnefs. then we are to pay them all that Obfervance and Refpea. ihould impofe any thing upon us. how He. the Engagement of being our Parents. and is a'lively Refemblance of. But and thus to if our Parents take the pains to teach us. which takes Compaffion upon funk and lapled Souls. but alfo our VVell-beiiig ought to be aicribed. up. yet all the BreviThe Firft thing ty. I confefs. and by fuch an our Souls. as Brutes ceiTity. without troubling ourfelves to find out peevifli Cavils and frivolous Exceptions Now againft them. but they do it out of free Choice. which though very good when iuiijle.

fo dcltro\iijg that Equality. which kindles by the Sparks that drop fropi it . or Preferments. When this is done. A Third Rule. and fee which way the Bent and Byafsof his Soul lies . and Cold Temper .^uments which would draw them off from it: For Men of inch PaiTions are always hot and peremptory. Now . which is indeed of fuch moment. Or whether to vile and unmanly Pleafures. that it inay be juftly thought to include all. may be excellent Perfons.. Again. and ready toharktn to Reafon. and fuch Adions and Enjoyments as are commendable. For they are excited and kindled in tlie Breafts of the Perfons on whom we beifow them . and are delirous to engrofs the Whole. but lofes none of the Virtue it gives away. and are deaf to all Ar. but augmented. and by no means tit to make Friends of. and befiuing a Man or Piety and Honour. is plain beyond a doubt . that the hath them entirely to himfelf. hath behaved himfelf to his other Friends before. and the farther they fpread the more and larger they grow. The Next Conliderationis. . even when he imparts them to others. will fuit but ill with the Brisk and Sanguine .198 makebut Epictetus's Morals TheSour. Phlegmatick. which Friendfhip either fuppofes or introduces. it is the peculiar Excellence of thofe things which tend to the Soul's Good. Whether he be a Man governed by his Pafllons. and exped their Happinefs any where but from their own Minds. fuch as mind nothing but their own Gratincation. or his Reafon. by Communication. fuch as are fit to be fpoken with. when brought together. How the Pcrfon whom we make Choice of. and in all things of a communicable Nature.lldo well to obferve larther. Thofe alio that are fond of the World. and'fuch as none but ihamelefs Fellows and Scoundrels abandon themfeives to. or MillreiTes.aniI ill Muiick. So that the Light of Truth and V^rtue takes fire by Converfaiion. Or whether they be violent and unperluadeable. •whether thefe Deiires and Inclinations be tradable and ^ientle. whcthtrthey draw him to Goodnefs and Virtue. This in Riches . as a Match does by the mutual z\ttrition of Flint and Steel. Weihr. and yet each of theie alone. are very iir. is toobferve. each well coupled. we ihall find it very proper to examine into his Inclinations. they carve to themfeives too largely. and fucb Inftances.proper to fix upon : For they dote upon Riches. They are not diminiilied. and the Vain-glorious difcovers it as evidently in the Deflres of Reputation andApplaufe.

Upon this Account we muft never do any thing to our Friends. And upon all Occafions we lliould give them Precedence and RelpeoT:. as that a F'riend ihould not have an equal . Pythag. i It . is a Man's fecond Self. Now We : Own We But it is (nice.. fo you may admit him to aperfe£l and firm Reconci' liation . When Friends make true Good their End. in Obedience 10 that old and truly (Golden Rule. and to reprove what is done amifs with great Point is to be A Temper and Softnefs.-. and deliver him from the Remorfe of his own Mind. Whatever KindneiTes They receive from Us muft be extenuated. 199 Again. muft think nothing fo ftridly our own. they are fure never to differ in point of Intereft for they judge of Advantage by the fame right . and that a Friend. which we would not be perfedly fatisfied with. ought efpecially to guard Breach . The Courfe diredly contrary to this muft be obferved in Failings and Mifcarriages Theirs muft be leflened and excufed. Difputes and Quarrels are always unavoidable. but whatever Obligations receive from Them mull be very highly efteemed and rated above their juft Value. out a perfeol Agreement in thefe Matters .with Si Lie I s's Commenr. in one Word. That. And fo much for the Choice of our Friends. this managed very tenFriend in good earneft. or rather indeed a greater. Men and not give fome . muft make Reafon and Equity its conftanc Rule. As for our Behaviour to the Friends thus chofen . according to ihe Proverb. Gircumfpe£lion and Care. That. they have fecured themfelves againft For withthe moft dangerous and ufual Bane of Friendihip. JMeafure. our aggravated and feverely condemned. Share and Right in it. and judge of Pleafure and Profit. OccAiicm of Offence derly. and we ihould do it willingly and chearfuily. that Their Honours devolve upqn Us. ^ '. ^ Lofe not a Friend on ev'rj fl^'ight Pretence \ Ready to ^ardont fio'W to take Offence. after all our this niceft impoffible for us to continue . by leaving no ground of JealouOe. common when they are thus agreed in one Standard. and thought moderately of. as conlidering.. when done by Them to Us. and the Contraries to thefe alike . that he hath not ftill th? fame Place in your Affeotion aiid Eftcem. and Reafon their Rule .

Every Friend hath Bodies . from my perfonal Experience in a Friend of my own. his Advantages grow upon him ftill more. An eminent Inftance whereof I could give. fuch united Perfedion will find a more than ordinary Bleffing and Encouragement from Heaven . in proportion to the number of his Friends. fliould be as ready to ferve them upon His Account. vvhofe AfFairsand SucceiTes he thinks himielf interefted in. and he is multiplied into more Souls. as having more Heads to contrive. by mutual Conferences. our Kindnefs and Concern ought confined to our Friend alone. their Motions v. but at prefent I Ihall content my felf with a few Particulars only. andthofe. Nor have they lefs in the Excrcife of Virtue. -and In Eftates. than thofe can. iiot to be We Now Two Two : : and . as Teftimonies and Endearments of Friendihip. a more tender Regard to our Friend in his Abfence.ill be regular and well weighed . and it is as plain from the fore-going Rules. and virtuous Difpofitions. that can be expeded . Befides. but extend to his Relations and Acquaintants. when he is prefent with us. Our Concern and Affeftion ought not to be redrained to Place neither. as He would be to do it on their own. and how fruitful in the Advantages of Life. how rich a Treafure. and laid the Foundations of Friendfhip in an agreeable Humour. and their SucceiTes more probable.I c that s's Morals It is alfo certain. will follow of Courfe. and Bodies. the Aifedions. that he If thei) a Man have feveral muft needs have two Eftates fuch Friends. Souls. but we ihould have the fame. and joint Endeavours Thefe bring their Improvements into one common Bank . Souls thus united have an infinite Advantage . who itan^ alone. will not fail to conduit us in the right Method of Converfation. and fuch as occur to my prefent Thoughts. and more Hands to act. And. than we think ourfelves obliged to exprefs . what a Bleiiing Friendihip is. and eafily grows rich at the publick Stock. and upon fome Accounts. is a Subjeft worthy of a long and ftudied Difcourfe. when once we have made a prudent Choice. the Study of Wifdom and Nature. from whence every Man fupplies his own Occafions . and the Light of Truth difplays itfelf much more early and fully \o them. they are fecure of prudent and feafonable Advice in all their Difficulties. which naturally follow upon fuch powerful Attraolives . to conclude all . and in all the Duties and good Offices . and tried Conftancy . and Firil then .

when a Friend takes off part of the Burden. pointed to his Friends. we are told. This forms him for Converfation . who. For what Delight can be compared to that fenfible Joy. ^ Friendihip indeed is the beft School for training a Man up the his manner of Virtue and Prudence. of Heart tion. when of Duty. when he was asked where his vaft Treafures lay. A Thofe were Friend is they. much if it hath been our Misfortune to fail in point Our profperous Fortunes. And the Pleafures of Friendihip are not lets than the Profits of it. and to fpeak his Thoughts Without any Trick or Referve. that Abfence. and to learn World in. and Meeknefs. and Truth. as in the Cafe of a Friend. and all Want of him is made good to them by his Friend. and and the pleafure of doing them is upon no occafion fo great. or whofe Cenfure we fear fo . which runs through 3II our Spirits at the fight of a Friend > What Charms do we find in his Perfon? What Mufick in his Difcourfe ? What an engaging Gracefulnefs in all his Adions ? The Confidence we repofe in him. and living when dead. and the beft Cor- rettor that can be. than any Degree of Wealth or Power can make them. and feafonable Comforts. and their Force broken. as tie. por fo generouily put in Pradice.with SiMPLicius's Comment. For Reproof . and faid . and accuftoms oties felf to open his Mind freely. nor expofe his Perfon 19 i"eJy to prevent anothef'j Danger. Soul for Friend . For a true all poflible . by his tender Sympathies. Here we find a ftrange Inclination to be grateful. whofe Obfervation keeps us in equal Awe. No Man will run fomany Rifqaes. grow double by Communica: but are flat and infipid without a Friend to partake of the Pleafure And all our Afflidions are difarmed . and juft. is leaft commg from fuch a Hand Nor is there any Perfon. And our Minds are more at eafe and more fecure in his Fidelity. Thefe are fome of the Advantages. and all the Gayeties we feel upon them. and fits in all Accidents and Encounters: It teaches him Civility. is above what any Ties of Blood and Nature can give our neareft Relations a Title to . 2ei and muft encounter Fortune fingly. in Him he is prefent while living. likewife the beft Inftruaor. pregnant Inftance. For one makes no difficulty of giving Precedence to a Friend nor takes Oftence at every Slip or Imperfedion of his. oifenfive.. in returning Favours. Of which Alexander the Great gave a very . When fuch a Man is abroad from his Family and Acquaintanis.

why this Relation of a Friend is more facred and engaging than any other. follow i^Offices bepidetus his Diredion . were born But. There will be it areliih. when Pradice with Them hath not to defert one another. capable of acquitting Firlt to his ought in all Points. done. by their united Force. to . and by whom are all things are united. and by degrees himfelf as he find himfelf a Matter. and iti neareft approach to the Perfediions of that Great One. : are the Qualifications. that of Reafon make the we which by that. and Children. and not To much to oblige the ceiver. and give ot theeffttt Slavery. of our Uiuon with God . that it Our natural Relations we is notour Fate. to ture have commanded us mends their Company. and enclines us to do all that is ex- then to all Mankind.ip ties all other and NaIt endears us to thofe whom God fafter upon m. be regard for Friends too. This farther Confideration peded from us lefs Brothers. and have a particular kindnefs and one another. feems to be. and the Liveliett Image. hut our Choice. is .2or I c s's Morals Friend Icorns to decline any Difficulty. of all nerally ftroiiger than where Nature does it and Liberty the Endowments of the Soul . yet all their nothing of ces will come hard and arained. and difcharge the feveral Performanlonging to their particular Station. That the Union of Souls by an Innocent and Sincere Friendfliip is the Nobleit Contemplation. recomand fweetens it love. . as to avoid Guilt and Reproach. likewife worth our Notice. and Husbands. and binds them Relations That Friendn. a and Burden but alt is look'd upon as a would but NeceflTity. and fuch Humane Confiderations as abundantBut the i-noft valuable. thout^h at the expence of his own rout double would they Men. and. perfeded him. Thefe . it is geBecaufe. Now the true Reafon . as Occafions are offered.^ Pleafure or Alacrity. Friends . Thefe fome of the Excellent and Marvellous Efteals -nrr- a of Friendihip. Is. where ourfelves tye the Knot. to whet their Duty. World For un. is foftned by Affeaion. his Friend. and truly Divine ly recommend it: Recommendation is ftill behind. feems to be the higheft. fuch of levied be Army an Refolutions their Number. clofer. and pleafant Whatever feemsharih a Man will at firft. . with much ado. not becaufe they Rebecaufe they muft do it . though they may. and is ready to refcue Could Lite. with chearfulnefs and latisfa6tion. not Choice. and Wives. and firm and the exercile of them athat fit a Man for the mang Friends is ealie.

the Reader wil! be kind. when the Vices and Vilenefs of Mankind feem to have baniiVd it almoit quite out of the World. and then he is qualified to ftek a Mate in Friendlliip. with Him. and thofe BleiTed Spirits. in imputing it to fo good a Cauie. than any hitherto inliiled upon) there is between ail the Natives of it. for fuch fordid Wretches. muil• afpire to as high degrees of Perftftion. Iconfefs. as my Zeal for Friendfliip. he proceeds to inftance in that of a good Citizen. orDebauch'd Man. as the Frailties of Humane Nature will admit . and live under its Laws. It was not therefore without excellent Reafon . them. which it deferves. And indeed a few Iniiances would be fome Comfort in this miferable Age. to which it were a moil delirable thing to fee fome tew at leaft pay that Regard. thofe other Relations. too refined. and when he hath found fuch another as himfelf.I with S LIc indeed 1 s's Comment. which EpdetHs here hath thought fit to make exptefs men- tion of. lefs than any of fliip? there. he mult hold him clofe to his Heart. are in fome Senfe Brethren . And we cannot here upon Earth afpire to any better and more intiiTiate Conjundion. as his Dearer and Better Half. and all who are born in it. which this Chapter direds us to. No. oraCowaid. 203 God himfelf. capable of FriendAnd an obOinate perverfe Fool is fo. Friendfliip will not dwell For how can we fuppoie an Unjuil. : and this is very often obfervable in People. For this too gives us a fort of Affinity to all or Patriot our Fellow Citizens. But it is now high time to come otf from this long Digreffion. not only of the 6 fame . purifie and fub'imate his Mind. that the Confideration of feveral Qualities and Relations is the beft Rule of their refpedive Duties. or Subjcds. A Man therefore that pretends to Friendfhip. The likenefs of Diipofitiois fliews fuch a Relation to be of Nature's making. or an Intemperate. this Treafure is too rich. and called it. very Chain and Complement of them alL if any One Virtue be wanting. The For in Truth. and a manifeil Relation ( though more dilbnt. After having told us.. who are ever in perfcfi Harinony and Concord. that Pythagoras and his Followers gave the Preference to Friendfliip above all other Virtues. no. and return to that. The Country reprefenis our Parents . to examine fomething more briefly. If I have been tedious upon this Subjefl: .who are comprehended within its Privileges. which is. he muft work off the Drofs ot fenfual and bruiiih Paffions.

a this renders the a Fellow-Citizen and a Neighbour. and They of receiving them. who hath declared. as if they were a part of our own Family. or good Advice. due upon this account. both in refpe^l to the Almight^. who dwell neareft to us. And whatever have been fpecified as Duties to the One. So that thofe of our Countrymen. may be ferviceable by Man is capable of every Man in the fame way: their Pity and Compaffion. and the Family we are defcended from. we will ftand by him to our utmort . There is alfo a fort of Relation betwixt Us . while our Neighbour hath no Defigns but what are honeft and fair. as the State we were born in. that he bears a particular regard to Strangers. Relation fomething nearer ftill. though not One may be a Friend vsrith his Money. to the Other. and be heartily concerned for their Misfortunes . to have done for him. and indeed more fo.. s's Morals thofe of the to all fuch fame City or Corporation but extends itfelf to fame Nation loo. The good Offices therefore. are fo. ought very pur^» dually to be difcharged. imaginable for in this weihall confult our own Benefit alfo. and we ihould think it a lliameful Reflexion. if Now Man be both We I who . and affifted in all our DiftreiTes. we ihould make it appear to the World. of living among Honeft and Virtuous People . who come to fpend fome time in our Country . Care ihould be taken for their Improvement and Fathers. to be alTigned us by a wife Providence. Our Behaviour therefore ought to refemble that to our Kindred . that. of being fupplied in all our Neceflities. are upon that account allied more clofely ftill. are not the Gifts of a blind undiftinguilhing Chance fo are we to look upon that particular Habitation . and thofe^ who have nothing elfe in their Powrer. of which God is the Author. we muft endeavour to be ferviceable In all to them. and when any of them are fick or indifpofed. a Fourth by his Labour and Pains. and all . 4 I c . a Third by his Intereft and Acquaintance. Another by his Authority . a Relation. and of providing Husbands. for all our Orphans and \X7"idowrs : For every lending a helping Hand. his next Neighbours. and feel the Advantages. that he ihould upon any occafion ask or receive a kindnefs from them that dwell at a greater diftance. and part of the fame City where we dwell. which it was in the power of Us. as have Opportunities of paying. For . our Converfation abroad . and Foreigners. Therefore we are to rejoice in their SucceiTes.

jure or opprefs a Stranger . from the Injuftice of any other that ihall attempt it. that they fhould be executed fpeedily. which ought not to be confined within the narrow bounds of our own Acquaintance or Country. to give him our Countenance. and refcue him . A Private Soldier is likewife obliged to expofe his own Perfon for the Safety of his Commander. feverely. as a Debtor There is alfo another very weighty Reato all Mankind. that he allows us to look upon all our Endeavours and Anions of Kindnefs. and furnilli them with what conveniences they ftand in need of. if it be poffible. with Bravery and Refolution too . but quite contrary. what is due to his Superior Ofiicers. Above all things. 205• who hath taken fuch Perfons into his peculiar Proteftion. becaufe the Fortune of the Field may depend upon fuch Obedience. it is not enough obeyed . becaufe fuch an ones Life is of Infinite Coufequencc. are loft for ever. as fo many Loans to Himfelf. than any the moft Generous of the Sons of Men. For God hath charged his Providence with a peculiar care of Such . and Help. towards facilitating their return home again. and more to the Creditor's Advantage . becaufe they are more expofed and deftitute of Humane Helps .. but it is neceiTary . which we have given to Them without grudging. For fuch is his condefcenfion. thence inform himfelf. It is fit will be fure to revenge their wrongs more too. to exercife and enlarge our good Nature . fon (till behind. there is no Now great . in time of Adion. when we prefeut our AddreiTes before the God of Strangers and we may with a better Grace ask and expeft that Aififtance from Him . with SiMPLicius's Commenr. If a fingle Soldier fall. to conlider his own. which if not prefently And thiey muft be executed fnatch'd . becaufe. and he. that their Orders be in fuch a cafe. who hath promifed to protedt them more eminently. and he will be fure to repay them with large Ufury. and look upon itfeif. contribute all poffible endeavours. and from . that this will give us Confidence. we muft take fpecial care never to in. be allLfting to them in the difpatch of the Affairs they come about. when the ends of their Journey are fatisfied. that thofe who can do it. many favourable Opportunities prefent themfelves. Epioietus tells us moreover. which is. but muft ftretch its concern over the whole World. and alfo. and his That a Private Soldier ought Commander's Poft. that they be particularly tender of them in cafes of Sicknefs and.

or their . Governours. but are really what they are called. ' But . and the lofs of many Opportunities. mands. though the Soldiers under him were viSorious before. So that indeed. and feveral Duties which follow from that ReAnd here. and omit no care. It is no lefs evident. lies. as to Perfons. and Deference all fit as far as with a good Confcience we may. and to bear a part of their Burto be adive and vigorous in their Support and Deden. and to make them fome amends. (and Epioietus advifes they ihould not. between Civil Magi Urates. they negled their own private Affairs and Families. if thefe Governours be fuch. even in fuch cafes them that is due to the Dignity of their Poft. nor take the Care they ought . and greateft Benefadors to the Publick. Upon all thefe accounts. far as every Man is bound. they fet about it iealouily and heartily. as Sheep without a Shephtfrd run before Wolves. but the Fate of whole Gountrie« and Kingdoms is often brought into extreme hazard . What Hippocrates faid of the Phyficians. but it a General fall. next under God.2. as do by no means anfwer their CharaSer. and muft be content with perpetual Vexations and Interruptions. we muft ihew Comtheir with comply and Refped. their Order is broken. not only to be obedient. That there is alfo a Relation. but.o6 Epictetus's Morals great Advantage gained. fence. which might be improved thcmfelves and to very wife and virtuous Purpofes. For good Governours make this the Study and Bufinefs of their Lives. yet their Spirits link immediately. all Honour and Refpedl. is much more eminently true of Princes. which may any way conduce to the Benefit of the State. Wicked- we are obliged to pay them all nefs. to eafe them. by the lofs of one emi'nent Commander. in the account he gives of what happened upon the Death of Cyrus. they do not torment themfelves to no purpofe with the Calamities of other People. yet. and threaten the whole Conftitution. as looking upon Their Dangers to affeot the State common. if Men do not bear the empty Name of lation. and every one makes the beft of his way to fave himfelf. And. though in him m we are not bound to vindicate their Errours. the Authors of our Peace and Happinefs . ot which Xeuopbo» hath left us an Example. nor does tnis Lufs change the face of Affairs. and the Perfons under their Jurifdidion. ) but they facrificc all their Quiet to Care and Trouble. all ready Ooedience is due to them. not only the Succels of the Day.

For . for attaining to the good Difpofition I have been defcribing. fit loj is very I ihould now apply my it\i to the fol- lowing Chapters . to difpofe yourfelf for a ready and reverential Obedience. miferable. and not quit my firft Defign . that I have forgot my Own. which was to explain Epdetus^ and not to run out into unneceiTary Enlargements. that all Events are ordered by a moil Wife and Excellent Mind: For this is the only Principle. Acquiefcence in all their Difpenfations And this Submilion is to be the Effeob of Choice. he will be apt to fufped. or the Want of them. to believe that there are fuch fupreme Beings.ielves negleoled. principal and moil imis to poiTefs your . that there is no Happinefs or Mifery in any other thing. and be fully fatisfied . TAKE notice. for otherwife. but all : that they govern and difpofe Now what Nature hath put within your own Power and Choice.. you muil unavoidably blame the Difpofers of them . and their Merits over-look'd by a partial Deity. And in agreement to fuch a Perfuafion . fo long as you fuppofe any external Enjoyments capable of making you happy. and the Affairs of the World . That the in portant Duty Religion Mind with juft and becoming Notions of the Gods. while I teach my Reader His Duty. CHAP. as oft as you meet with S . and a perfefl. there is but one poifible Method 5 viz. with a juil and good Providence. XXXVIII. who imagine them. To difregard the Things of the World . and not Conilraint . upon the feveral Relations Men (tand in to each other. with But it Simp Lie lus's Comment. which can fecure yoii from a querulous Temper.. and prevent all the impious Murmurings of Men. as confidering .

according to your Ability. any more than in the Mifchief itfelf. making it our Buiineis to regulate our Deiires and our Aveiilons. when the Seafon is ui^kindly j and the Merchant repines at Storms. that you to : Nor € his Author of -. Hence the Husbandman cries out againil God. and direft them to worthy and proper Objedsj we do at the fame time moil effectually fccure our Piety. and nothing can change or remove it. in of your Country tation. no Man can have Religion. oF whofc Juiiicc and KindSo that. in which they place their Happinefs. and Loilcs at Sea nnd Mailers of Families.er ot Profufenefs and Ofteniliould offer Sacrifices. fo tcraper'd. at the death of their belovec Wives and Children. that Sons complain of their Fathers. Hence Polynkes and Eteocles engaged in that unnatural War . nor to run out into the Oth. This is a Principle iix'd in all Creatures by Nature. Hence it is. bccaufe they placed their Happinefs in a Crown. without mixing fome profpect of Advantage with' it > nor can we heartily lerve and adore a Being. but with a decent Application and Refpcd'j and that your Offeringii be. or fall into any Calamity you fear. to purfue and court the contrary. and to have an averfinn fcr the Caufes of thefe Things to us.2c8 Epic s's Morals ' with any Difappointment in your Hopes. It is neceflary alfo. and love and admire the Perfons we owe our Good a ^hn take pleafure in the fuppofcd Mifchief. Now and conform to the Cullom the Exercife of Religion j and that all things of this kind be performed with Sincerity and Devotion} and not flovenly and carelefly. and reproach them for not letting them into a greater iliare of their Eitates. as neither to betray an Unwillingncfs or fordid Grudging in One extreme. by ncfs we have not a good Opinion. C - . to run away from all that' that feems hurtful and deltruclive. So J3 it likewife.

as if all were ordered for the be ft. or fubmit vvith a refigned and contented Spirit. thofe of a Nature more excellent than our own. as Eifcds bear to their Higheil and Firft Caufes. Again. If then they are to be confidered under this Notion . but think' that God. of this kind. . but deny his Providence . and Juft. that Men to one another .. it is a very convenient Method.with S iMPLi C cius's Commenr. he proceeds now to inilruft us. a voluntary Submiffion to all they do. Or if he allow his Exiftencc. Thefe arfe fnch Qualifications. by redifying the Ideas oi our Minds. and Good. fuch an one can never pay him true Honour and hearty Adoration. by of our Lives. that they are the Appointments of AbfoluteWifdom and infinite Goodnefs. And in all Difquiiitions of AFter is. For if a Man be of Opinion. as may exprefs our Subjedion. bytaking ajufi the Relation between the Gods and Us. 109 "T. Now View of thefq Duties are likewifedifcovered. and that is fuch an one. are wife. and becoming Us as. to the various Accidents of Human Life. and Adoration . and a perfeS Acquiefcence in all Events order'dby them . The Ideas oi entertaining no Thoughts of the Gods.it is evident. \ : S :. and the Intent of them. The Inftances of this Subje£tion due from us. or unjuft in his Diftributions. That they are the Firft Caufe of all Things: That they difpofe of allEvents. that they (land not in any need of our Services. what we owe to our Superious . nor can we add to their Hippinefs or Perfefiion. That there is no God . the Duties expe6ted from us to our Equals. and all their Difpofals. and fo by degrees afcend to thofe above. Our Duties confequently. As being fully fatisfied . Or if he allow both thefe. and that Provide'nce. to begin with thofe Things that are neareft and moil fanailiar to us. And That all their Government.. defe£live in his Counfels. as we muft attain to. and concern themfelves in the Government of the World. but what are worthy of Them. and reforming theErrours Minds muit be redified. z'/^. and procure us a more free accefs and intercourfe with them: For this is the only Method of keeping up the Relation to PMrft and Higheft Caufes. are Honour and Reverence. and at a greater diftance from us. are only fuch.

and bear a trueAffefiionto. Or for infli^fdng fome Severities upon them which they think Evil . or moderate their Refemments. It is : Again and the Caufes of them to us. both to the Things themfelves. 2nd all our DeHres and Averfions retrained to the Objeds of Choice. he proves from hence . Morals •• 1 - I» I. and cannot from hating and reviling the Authors of our Calamity. as that a Man ihould take Delight in. for keeping th. But this muft needs happen to all who place their Happinefs and Mifery. to keep Men in Temper. the Perfon. yet that we ihall in our Notions of Good and proceed according to our apprehenfi- were really fo. and iuch Difappointments and Surprizes v/ill neceiTarily carry them to a Deteftation of That. Thus we thefe Things. For every Creature naturally delires Good. fo long as weexped Hnppinefs.2IO " " Epictetus's . But . or deny them their Liberty. There is no fuch thing in Nature. or thinking that Almighty God hath done us wrong in any of his Difpenfations. That the ftriSeft Ties of Nature. nor furprized by our Fears. Thus the two Sons oiOedtprrs^ Polymces aiid Euocksj forgetting 6 ^ that they were Brothers. nor can there be. courted and admired. which they look upon as the Caufe of fuch Misfortunes And they will very hardly refrain from fpeaking ill of that Power. are generally found too feeble Engagements. as when theychallife their Follies. Nay though we be miftaken Evil. ' likewife neceflary. And fince all Good naturally attrads Love and Defire. or as we apprehend them to be. and therefore not only the Things thcmfelves. we muil needs be affeded alike. or the Deceivers of our Hope. but theCaufesof them. 1 he Management of our own Will muft be our only Care . of any external Advantages . any more than he can be fond of that Hurt or Injury itfelf. and Duty. and dread Mifery. Good or Evil. which they account their Good . whom he looks upon to have done him fome real Injury or Hurt. and Affedion. in the Eajoymej/t. in proportion as they really are. and all Evil provokes Averh'on. and abhors Evil . as if they reilrain ourfelves ons of fee greedy and impatient Children perpetually railing at their Fathers. but took no care to do ir. from any thing but ourfelves. that the Life and Converfation of Men be fo difpofed. and then we need never be difappointed in our Hopes. quarrel 'd . are ihunned and hated.this is a Temper we can never attain to. as to exprefs this Periualioa of a Wife and Good Providence by not flying out into peeviili Munrurings and Complaints. which might have prevented their Mifery. or the Want".em out of their Ellates.

But the Man that gives his Defires a Loofe. and fo irreconcilable a difrefpedl. prefently rails and murmurs agalnft the Gods Or if he have the modelly to hold his tongue. and muft fail with different Winds. and a riling Price. or too little. Vicfories and Defears . Thus Mariners. and under no Temptations to accufe Providence. but when it is their turn to fell. when they want a fair Wind . becaufe he neither hopes nor fears any thing out of his own power . is his Mailer. in Ihort. and his Fears accomplifhcd. For this Man's Hopes are always anfwered. of Health and Sicknefs. another for a Southerly Gale. or if any other crofs accident come to his Crop. and. fo nothing gives fuch : an eiieclual j 1 difgull. when Men bury their Wives. Life and Death. And if either of thefe happen otherwife.iiiind^ his JDelires muft be fruilrated. they grow difcontented. for anything that can pofllbly happen to him. And in general. they grow angry at the Dtjpofer of thefe Events. yet he is fure to fret and curfe inwardly. J ' ouarreird. and expeds his Fate Irom external Accidents. they would have great Plenty. one perhaps wiflies for a Northern. for the Crown in which they wereRivals. or fall into fome difaiter they feared. does at the fame time fecure his Piety and Reverence towards God. "whofe Bufinefs requires . even the Wind and the Rain. or fo powerfully. if it rain too much. nay. and a Jow Market . ) A Man therefore in taking care to fix his Deiires and his Averlions upon the right ObjeSs. ^ . When they are to buy. and negled all Thofe. and. Poverty and Riches. except everyone of thefe fall out jufi according to his . or Children. For we are naturally inclined to honour and refpeft the Perfons who oblige and gratiiie us. and the fame cannot ferve or pleafe them all. as our own advantage. the Hail• and the iMeteors. . his Fears always vaniihinto no'thing. even though they are bound to different Ports. For. and kill'd one another. S 3 : . l 1. as nothing excites thefe Refentments in us fo foon. it ihould blow in the Quarter where it does. or have foraething very dear taken from them. every Caufe and every Eifed in Nature. He is confequently always pleafed. then they'wifli for fcarcity. is a Slave to all the World He lies at the mercy of every Man's Opinion. that any Perfon hath contributed to our lofs and difadvantage. as if it were obliged to take care of Them only. when his Seed-time or hisHarveft happens ill. So likewife Merchants are never content. as the apprcheniion. yet theyfwear and rant at Providence. and accufe Providence.1 with SiMPLicius's Comment ^1 i . Thus the Farmer.

having moreover ihewn thenecdiity of defpifing the World. And that he needs. in a contented Submiffion to all hvcnts. unh. wuh a gracious Ddign of bringing us better acquainted with himfelf.s Life! tedious and troublefome How How mufthebetohimfeli! impious in true Nothe Divine Nature.s Bounty. which can conduce to the rendring inch a one iniferable. e- Piety in general is vantage Tor. m How his tions ot rovidence. what methods wefhould take.^^^ pliihed. and in a hrm Perfuaiion of a Wife ^ diilati. and there devote a part of what God in his Bounty hath conferred upon us. which it may have contraded. and this. and. For it is highly reafonable and juit. and. and how Reflexions upon Providence! So that in fliorr no one Qrcumlhnce is wanting. fo. to his Service. he proceeds now to ciiredtus. to h.sfied in his Bread. we hold ourfelves bound. When the Soul and us Inilrument are thus clear from all their Stains let us come decently cloathed into his prefence. Having thu^laid the Foundations of Religion. in thefiril place. or is the better he lo indeed. fee.s Ufe and Service. for our own Ad- So do the - ferin^rs . to exprefs our Reverence and Honour for the Gods. he communicates himfelf to us. topuriik and dedicate this boay too. which came to us from the fame Hand and careiully to waHi away all the feen or hidden Blemillics and fOlIutions. all if it were ) a good one. and to confecrate this by refined and holy Thoughts bv worthy and reverent Ideas of his Majefty. would but it lie qually againft . and depending upon our own Will and theObjeasof I and Good it. foitlhouldbe our next care. eaiie Epictetus's Morals What and unfmled a Weathercock of a Man is this.r giving back a little. from whom therefore let apart • As we receive the ( for It: Lives. declaring (as fome Hiliories inform us he did) what Services would be moft acceptable to him. we that nerally prafiifed pmeis and Mikry we are capable of. to tnatSoul which we received from him. diipohng them as w. and become univerfal. in fuch proportions as we arc capable and worthy of. either for the Holinefs of our or the reverent and worthy Idc^is we have of him Whole: Not nor is fo this Objcaion. when we have thus qualiiied ourfelves for hh benign Influences. and a regular uncorrupt Life. that our Offerings minht invite his bieinngs and h. it is highly probable. Some of thofe that are ge- for all the Hap- God might receive the more. and likewife to fanditie and enlarge our Enjoyments. that a Part Oiould be given back to him. himfeif innuuted.

for the Honour extraordinary Efieft of the viviuQ Favour and Influence is frequently feen upon thefe Wo'rlliip of a^ God. and in all places. as Men. the Divine Bounty imparting itfelf to all the World. Some in one place and time. We. when by common Conlcnt fokinn try obferve Feftiv. and enfures his Favour and Affi'. though to diiferenc parts of ihe World. As therefore the . each Perion and Counwhat is peculiar to Them. and procure us fignal Teitimonies of the Power and Efficacy of his Providence. and Profeflions. and communicate are confined his Influences. and a decent txpreiTjon of Gratitude. yet ic muit be confcfs'd a moft equitable thing. to the Giver of all we enjoy: much more then. when the parting with fo imall a proportion iandiiies and confecrates the Whole. One Man hath found them thelnftrumentsof a marvellous recovery from ibme Epileplie.als are celebrated as they ought to be. We particular manifeitations of God are fuited to feveral Places. fo in the choice of V^idims'and Acknowledgments. which the Votaries often acquire by fuch Religious Services. And..tance in How eur Undertakings ? theKindandtheManner of thefe Oblations. For there is this mighty DiPrerence. that it is Winter in one. or other incurable Dillemper. beiides the Divine Favour and Illumination. when recommended by a pureConfcience and a good Life. to pay back thefe Acknowledgments. he would have us determined by tiie Cuilom of our Cuunrry. and do not grow or breed in others. and every Creature in it. out of many. But if there were none of thefe advantagious Eiiefts to follow. So likewife Fruits and Animals are peculiar to fome Countries. and Modes . are bur one of tiis many Species which God hath created. Our Habitations are diilinfl: and confined to one little Spot of this vail Globe . whole Night is our Day and Climates fo diftanr. between as to Now. and equally difpofed to exert his Power. and Some in another Thus there are Countries oppoiite to u<. in diiferent manners. God and Us He is prefent at all times.. and of the many. with ferings SiMPLicius's Comment. and fo we partake of the Divine Goodneis. 213 we devote out of our Fortunes. and Summer in another. But within a narrow compais. among others. at the fame time. derive dovi/n the Bleffing and Goodneis of God upon ourEftates. and Seafons. who partake of the fame Nature. have applied ourfelves to one Profeffion and Way of Life. Another of calming boKferous Winds and Seas. and proper for their Circumftanccs. a more S 4 Occa- . the whole World over.

And what is there indeed of fo great Confequence. as is contracted from lying upon a ditty Floor. the more advantage we ihall receive from them. or invert the courfeof the Letters. or be admitted. as Words are not the fame. For it is by no means fir. if you confound the Words they coniift of. through Idlenefs and Inadvertency. and the like. and fuppofing. nor Sentences the fame. or to confound the Order of any For. does at the fame time pollute and ftain it. and. than a fawcy irreligious Boldnefs. he fays. if the Prefence of God. at one time above another. as miraculous Cures. to make its approach to the Purelf and moft Perfed Being And any mixv ture which adulterates what is pure and fincere. And the greater Veneration we hold all things in. returns empty. fo the Negle£ls and Wandrings of a loofe Worfliip check theDivine Influences. and we prefent. and his folemn Approaches to fo awful a Majefly. that any impure thing fhould prefume. fo as. And the fame Succefs is no lefs obfcrvable. in the proper Choice and Accommodation ot the Places in which we worfhip. and the Word he malces ufe of to exprefs it. as never. for that is Epioietus his meaning.XT4 Epictetus's Morals Occafions. the Ceremonies we conform to. and not done in a flovenly and fordid manner. Urange and ufeful Predidions. the Religious Performances. you leave out. by forbidding Men to . that we areadvifed to addrefs ourfelves with reverence and fear . if part of our Woriliip. and gives them fuch energy and force. Such remarkable efficacy do we find. and difpofe him to Warmth and Attention. by humbling ourfelves before the Throne of God. by which we would Honour for God. and render all our Devotions flat and feeble. Therefore nothing of this liind is to be done flovenly and fordidly . have not the power to do it? Hence it is. the Supplications the Oblations Now all exprefs our we ufe. wrong Interpretation upon what he had be cold and fordid. ought. to be atten- ded with Holinefs and Sincerity. and fomuch morefignal Teftimonies of tne Divine Prefence and Aid may we obferve. a wife and fteady Zeal is the beft Pvccommendation of our Prayers. for nothing is more oifenfive. on the contrary. that. But. or of fo ftridl Obligation. as. ilgtiifies fuch Duftand Naflinefs. as to be able to rouzea Man into Thought. to leave out. Nor muft we behave ourfelves loofly and negligently. or put in. or change. which bear any relation to God and his Worfliip. we take the moil efiedual method : to be truly exalted. fearing fome faid .

And indeed. but Brutes and Plants. we can never be reconciled to. v/hich we confecrate to him. than intheBufinefsof Religion The very end whereof is to reduce all things to their jult proportions. not Mankind only. their Sacrifices. The Importunity of thefe Men is fo much the greater. Fartheryet. alas! all thefe things are done. than for JMen to proceed in the fame even courfe. and our trouble of refuting it v^iil be the lefs. That the World is governed by it. and what their own Circumftances will bear. therefore he prevents that Miftake in the Clofe of the Chapter. that they (hould. zi^ fordid. as to make it our daily Bufincfs. that all PoiitiveLav/s. or rather drain a point. or theMen that ftrain themfelves to be any other way to exceed what : profufe in others do. but our Own . Men indeed do ib the moft of any. I Thus have done him what Right and eve0 Creature in the pacity. . come up to the utmoft. not for His fake. he intimates. viz.acy. And iince fome perverfe and refraftory Men have neverthelefs the Confidence to oppofe them . do prefuppofe the Belief and Acknowledgment of them . as if God were to be bribed in their favour. are deiigned for no other than decent Acknowledgments of his Liberality. we will fo far comply with their Obftir. the thing is capable of . aO• declare their Relation to World. it cannot (hew itfelf any where to more advantage. and keeping up the conftant Pradice of ir.with Si Lie I s's Comment. and a fmall return out of what he hath beenpleafed to give us. becaufe. though moft unreafonable. do according to their CaGod. and. as to prove the Truth of thefe Three Points. and the value of the Prefent laid an Obligation upon him: Whereas. : . becaufe they arc early inllruded by their Parents. and go beyond their power. with as few Alterations as. feem to do it out of a very mean and miftaken Principle For this looks. and I could. and the Firft Fruits. in the Paraphrafe and Explanation of the Chapter now before us. is Juft and Good in all its Difpenfations. if Moderation be a Virtue. nothing tends more to the preierving of Religion. trod in the Steps of this excellent Man. upon all occafions. Befides. and keep them within due bounds. That there is a divine Nature and Power. and thefe fo fundamentally neceilary. and all Moral Inftitutions. for Cuftom and frequent Repetition make Men perfe6l: and eafie But whatever is excefljve and upon the llretch. That the Providence by which it is fo governed. But becaufe in the beginning he touches upon three Points concerning the divine Nature.

and other Cewhich thereiore were fo called from (•>£''•. That there is a I know of no Exception to this Rule. by inch Arguments as are proper. Word Bodies. and ii::t'. and occur to my prefent Thoughts. zi6 Epictetus's Morals Parents. and caryy a great Sway with them.. and that in allAges of the World too. without coniidering or underftanding theArguments upon which they aregrounded And partly. or any vicious one happy. which are apt to raife in them the fame Scruple. and the Profpcrity of fome exceedingly wicked Men. no Deity. if they did but follow Kpdetus his Method. but the Freedom and Ufe of his own Will. who ever pretended to difown this . as a punidimentof their Atheifm. yet have ever agreed univerfall> iii this. For the Barbarous as well as ihe Civiliijed Countries. ward extended to incorporeal Caufes. Thar eioswas applied to the Scars. And now. that a great many do not duly attend to thefe aniverfally received Notions. is to conil- Word the IcPiial GOD Name. Befidesl^hsm. and not imagine. by which fignifies. though they have difFer'd exceedingly in other Opinions. -we meet with no People. and but very few lingle Perfons. that cither the Htppinefs or Miferyof a Man can depend upon external Accidents. which are barely laid down by Ep'iSietus^ and try to prove the Truth of them. not above Two or Three.!e£lual Beings. But yet fo it is. with that in the Tragedian. from fome Difficulties in Providence. Now The der the firii frcp I fhall make in this Argument. fuch Perfons asthefe would foon be convinced. and . if you pleafe. from the beginning of the World to this Day. the Earth opened and fwallowed them up. and what the And here we muii obferve. For fiire that Doubt is moaefl^ when we jee iety 'JCr'mm^hantVice^ and injur' . and the Ideas common to their Species take root in. fuch as the Misfortunes and Afiliclions of fome very good. except thofe Acrotheites^ of whom Theophrafius gives an Account. : Pardon ye PoTvers // yet fuch Povjers there he . we will confider thofe Propolitions. Partly becaule they take them «pon Trail. But this Title was alterGre\. Religion grows up with them from their Cradle.k. or indeed upon any thing elfe. we call this Being. an. which lignines to Run. For at this rate it will not be polfible for any good Man to be wretched. that they owned GOD.d had that Appellation given them for thefwiftnefs of their Motion. but.

wirh

SiMPLicius's Comment.

17

and more peculiarly to the Firfl: Caufeand Beingof all Things. So that by this Name we underltand the Original of the Univerfe, theFirft, and Principal, andintellcdual Caufe of every Thing. For, whatever hath any exigence, muft either be derived from fome Determinate Caufe, cr it muft fubfift by Chance, and Mechanical Neceffity. But whatever fubiifts after this manner, hath neither any particular efficient Caufe, nor is itfelf the Final Caufe of its own Produition ; For both thefe Qualifications are abfolutely inconlTilent with the nature of Fortuitous Beings, and indeed no lefs fo, is the following any conftantRule and regular Method in the Produdion of them. that the it is obvious to any confidering Perfon, Works of Nature, and of Choice, are a final Caufe to the Doer, and the Exiftence of them is propofed, as that which anfwers his Defign. Thus the Husbandman plants, and fows his Ground, in profped of the Corn, and the Trees, Thus the Coition of all Animals that will grow upon it. propofes to itfelf the continuation of the Species. And in :1 the Progrefsof thefe Prodndions, there is a conftant Order, and fix'd Courfeobferved; SomeOperations which are proper to the Beginning, Others to the Promoting, and others to the Perfeding this Work, each perform'd conftantThe Seeds of Plants are firft call: ly in their proper place. into the Ground, then moiitned and impregnated there, then they take root and fprout, they (hoot up in Straw, or Branches, andfo on, till at laft they bloilbm, and bud, and bring So likewiie that of Animals is cheriihed Fruit to maturity. and enlarged, and formed into an Embryo; which receiving vital Nonridiment and convenient Growth, is at a ftatcd time brought to a juil Perfedlion, and then comes to the Birth. But ftill in thefe, and in all other Cafes of the like iviture, there is the fame Chain of Caufes ; and thefe genera' !y keep their fix'd Times and Meafurcs. Now, if all the Productions of Nature, and all theEffedlsof Choice, have fome particular Caufcto which they owe their Being; if the Exiftence of thefe things be the final Caufe of their Production; and if the fame Order and a regular Method be conftantly and duly obferved in the producing them the narur;il and necelTary Refult o.f this Argument is. That a.il the Wprks of Nature and of Choice, that is, all Things ia this '.vi^^e World^ which have any real Exiftence, are not ^

Now

.

tiie

paiiicular poiitive Caufes.

Eiredsof Chance, or Mechanifi)), bur are wing to fome And, (Ince thefe Caufes muft
needs

Ik.

xi8

Epictetus's

Morals

needs be antecedent to their EfFeils, if They be fuch , as had a Beginning themfelves, they mud be owing to feme Others who had a Being antecedent to Theirs ; and fo we may trace them up, till at laft we cometoCaufes which had no Beginning at all. And thefe being eternal, are moft truly and properly iaid to Exift, as having never not been, not owing their Subfiftence to any External Caufe, but folely to the Inherent Perfe61ions of their own Nature. So that the firit and Eternal Caufes of Things muft needs be Selfexiilent, or fomsthing more noble and excellent than felfcxilient, as the following Diicourfe will convince you. Tne fame Argument holds as ftrong with regard to Motion too.
find,

For

if

we

trace this

up to

its

beginning, weftiall

Bodies which made the firft Impreffions, were either fuch as moved by an Internal Power and Principle of theit own; or fuch as were fixed themfelves, and had no ihare in the Motion they impreifed upon others. For whatever is moved Mechanically, is moved by fomething elfe; and^That again by fome other thing; and fo on for ever But fuch an account as this of Motion in Infini^ tum^ is neither poffible to be, nor to be conceived. For at this rate, if there were no Beginning of Motion, the only Confequence from hence mufi: needs be, That there would be no Mover, nor any Moved Bodies at all: And if we will allow any Beginning, as allow it we muli, that Firft Mover muft be either endued with a Principle of Selfmotion, or it muft have no motion at all. But the Latter of thefe it cannot be neither; For this is evident in all motion, that fix'd Bodies are fo far from communicating motion to thofe Bodies v</hich have it not, that on the contrary they check and ftop it in thofe that have, and difpofe them always to continue in the fame State and Pofture ^ "without any manner of alteration. So that Free and Spontaneous motion muft at laft be refolved to be the firft Caufe, of Mechanical. the things concern'd in Mechanical motion, are fuch as are fubje;^ to Generation and Corruption, to Augmentation and Diminution, and t,o any fort of Alteration, whether that refer'to the Qualities of the Things themfelves, or whether to their Local Diftances and Situations. For whatever is produced could never produce itfelf ; becaule then it muft have had a Being before it was produced, and fo begin to be, both before and after itfelf. And whatever receives increafe is not augmented by itfelf; ioz Auguientation is nothing elfe, but the addition of fomethat thofe
:

Now

lhin§

with
thing which
ed,
is
it

SiMPLicius's Commenr.
had not before.

219
is

So

again, whatever

alter;

altered by
is

fome other

thing, and not

from

itfelf

foe

properly the introducing of a contrary Quality. So likewife Local Motion cannot be from the Body moving; forfince all Motions are fubje£l: to the Rales I have here
alteration
laid

down, and Generation, Corruption, Augmentation, and Alteration, are all but fo many EffeSs of Motion ; it is plain this muft be derived from fomething elfe, and could not fet itfelf on going. Thofe things therefore, which in the Courfe of Nature are fuperiour to thefe Produ6tions, and the Caufes of neceiTary Motion, muft needs be capable of moving themfelves. For, if we fhould fuppofe but one Minute's perfeft Repofe, nothing would ever move again, except fome Free Selfmoving Agent began the Dance. For whatever is once fix'd, is difpofed to continue fo to all Eternity ; and what ever moves mechanically muft wait the leifure of fome other.Body, and cannot ftir, till it receive the Impreffion, and is put into adion. Now whatever the iirft Principles of Things are, 'tis neceiTary that they (hould be of a fimple Nature. For all mix'd Bodies are compounded of Simples, and confequently the Ingredients muft haveaPjiority in Nature, before theCcmpolition made of thei«. Let us then confider fome of the grolfeft and moft ovious Bodies; and fo by degrees afcend higher, to try at laft, whether it be poiTible for us to conceive Body to be fuch a Principle, as Reafon will tell us the iirft Principles of all things muft needs have been ; Or whether
it

will not be impoffible to conceive, that thefe Bodies
fee

which we

move and fubfift,

ihould ever have had that

Mo-

tion and that Exiftence

from themfelves.

Whatever moves itfelf , is called Self- moving; either becaufe one part of it is adive, and the other paiiive in this motion; or elfe, becaufe the whole is aSive, and the whole
paffive.

Now

if

we

ima,s,ine

One

part to

communicate,

and the Other only to receive the Imprefllon; ftill the fame Queftion will return, as to that part ^vhich begins the motion v^hether this be done from a Principle of its own, or from any exttrnal Impulfe; and fo up, till at laft you muft be forced to ftop at Ibmcthing, which muft be acknowledged an entire moving, and entire moved. The is to be faid of Sclf-exiftence too. For whatever !S Or^inally and properly, muft be an entire Exiftence, and the fol^ and entire Caufe of its own Exiftence: And whatever
;

, ,

2-xo'

Epictetus's
,

Morals

whatever is fo, muft be indivi'lible, and without Parts. For whatever confifts of Parts and is capable of being divided , could never unite its whole felf to its whole felf fo as to be entirely moving, and entirely moved; entirely fubiifting, and yet the entire Caufe of fo fubfifting at the fame
,

time.

Again: It is no lefs impoifible, that any Bodies fliould be of a fimple Nature; for they muft of neccflity confift of Matter, and Forin, and feveral other Properties, which go to the compleating of their Nature; fuch as Magnitude, and Figure, and Colour, and fundry other Qualities, which are not original and caufal Species themfelvcs, but only participations of thefe, produced in fome Matter without Form, which partakes of them. For, where thefe Original Forms lie, there every thing is in its true Eilence and Perfe£tion and there is no need of any Matter unform'd to receive them. But, when thofc Originals are communicated, then there muft of neceffity be fome Matter to receive them

which,

till it hath done it , is itfelf void of Form. Since then the Firrt Principle of things are incorporeal and indivilibie; Since their Nature mufl be fimple, and that they are properly Efncicnt Canfes ; Since their Exiftence and their Motion muft be entirely from themfelvcs ; and fince it hath been fiiewed , that Bodies are not in any degree capable of thefe Qualificadons; it muil needs, I think be concluded, that Body could not be the Firft Principle, nor the Univerft owing to any fuch Original. Wnere then fhall we find fuch a felf moving Agent, as infufes Motion into the neccflary ones, and may be confidered as a Caufe with refped to them ? This fure muft be fomeching which moves from an internal Principle. But fiill, if this Motion from within were derived from fomething elfe, and not from itfelf; we fiiould not call this an Interna! Motion, but an External Impulfe, as we do in Bodies. For if I by a Staff that is in my Hand move a Stone, though both my Staff and my Hand contribute to that Motion more immediately, yet I my felf am the true and proper Caufe of it. Wh'at ihall we fay then inoves Bodies from within? What indeed but the Soul ? For animate Bodies are moved from an internal Principle, and all Bodies fo moved are Animates. If then it be the Soul , which gives an internal Motion to Bodies ; and if this internal Mover be felf moving it remains, that the Soul is a free and fpontaneous Mover, the caufe of Produ6tioiis and beginning of
i

;

6

Motions,

with

SiMPLiciu

s's

Commenr.

zzi

Motions, containing in• her fclf the feveral Patterns, and Meaiures, and Forms, according to which thofe Productions and Motions are modelled and proportioned. For, if
the conftituent Forms are not in Bodies originally, but derived immediately from fome free Agent ; then certainly the Soul is the efiicient Caufe, and affigns to each Body its partiihele Forms in the Soul , are escucding cular Form.

Now

As for Example: Beauty in the Body pure and untainted of an Animal coniiits in theFleHi, and Skin, andVeilels, and it does inBU)od, which make and fill up this Mais. deed, to the bert of its power, temper and adorn thefe things; but at the fame time it is fullied and changed by them, and Bat Beauty in the Soul is free links into their Deformity. from all thefe Allays, and is, not only the hiiage and Reprefentation of Beauty , but pure, fubftantial , unblemiihed, original Beauty ; not graceful in one place, and not in another, but perfedly and all over fo. From whence it comes to pafs, that, when the Soul contemplates its own or another Soul's Beauty, all bodily Graces lofc their Charms, and ap_pear defpicable and dtformtd in comparifon. And this in;

Now

ftance hints to us the Purity of all other original Forms as they are in the Soul. that as there are different Bodies it is very plain, moved by thefe Souls, fo there are likewife different forts of Souls which move them; Some of thefe are celePiial, and others fublunary For it were intolerable abfurdity to fuppofe, that Bodies lefs refined, and inferiour in Dignity and Duration, fhould have Life, and Souls, and that thofi above fhould want both. It is therefore in this cafe with Souls, as with Bodies, the Heavenly ones are the Caufes of the fublunary ones. And indeed the Soul is a noble and moft excellent Being, efpecially the heavenly one, advanc'd by Nature to the firif Prerogative of being a Principle, though not the Firil and Higheil in the Order of Caufes. For, though the fe'f-moving and felf-exifient Being, is fuperior to thofe, whole Motion and Exifience is derived from fomething elfe; yet flill even This is capable of being confidered
,

Now

:

double Capacity, as A£live and Paifive, as a Caufe and an Effeil; and 'tis plain, that Simples muft have been before Compounds , and One before Two. Again Though this felf-moving Agent depend upon no other for its Motion, yet Motion it hath; and Motion infers Mutation not an eifential Change indeed, but fuch as iefpeds its Operations; And neither are thefe Motions Loin a
:
:

cal

,

Epictetus's
cal and

Morals

Corpurcal , (tor in that refpcd it is immovable) but Spiritual, and peculiar to the Soul; fuch as we call Confideration, and Debate, and Difcerning, and Opinion; and, according as file is; moved by thefe motions, (he impreiTes corporeal ones upon the Body. wliatsver this Change be, yet that, which is mutable in any kind or proportion, mull have fomething before it abfolutely immutab.'c, that fo thofe things, which are mutable, may ftill be preferved fo. For all Motion and Mutation, both in the higher and our lower Regions , proceeds from the impreifion made by the Firft Caufe. But iince all things undergo fuch various Changes, and fince great motions are violent ; How come the heavenly Bodies to continue fo much the lame, in their Conftitution, their manner of moving, the Centre about which they roul, their mutual Order and Poiition? And whence is it, that, though the fublunary ones undergo more villble and frequent Alterations , yet ftill there is a perpetual Reftitution and conftant Return to their firii Form? Thus we obferve it plainly, in Elements, and Seafons, and Plants, and Animals: For, though thefe do not continue to be numerically the ilime as Celeilial Bodies do; yet they go round in a Circle, till at laft they return to the point from whence they fet out at firft. Thus Fire is converted into Air, Air condenfed into Water, Water into Earth, and then Earth ratified into Fire again. So the Year brings us, firft into Spring, then to

Now

Summer,

after that

Autumn, and

at laft

Winter thaws

into

.Spring again. So again , Wheat is turned into the Stem, then the Blade, after that the Ear, and fo ripe wheat again. So from Man proceeds firft the Seminal Principle, after that theFormation, and Vital NourifluTient; and this at laft comes to be Man again. I would ask any one, iince Motion is of itfelf always violent, and always tending to Change, how it comes to pafs, that the fame Species, and the fame Courfe and Conftitution of Nature is fo exatily preferved. Certainly this muft needs be the Effeil of fome Superior

Now

is itfelf Immoveable, and immutable, and remains for ever in all Points exa£tly the fame. For even in mental Motions, that Agent which is uncertain in his Motions, and a6is fometimes with eafe, and Freedom, and fpeed ; and fometimes flowly, and with difficulty, muft needs have lome other mind Antecedent to it ; One, whofeEflence and Operations are always the fame, who brings all things to pafs in an inftant, and at pleafure: And no Man need

Caufe, which

be

with

Simp Lie lus's

Comment:.

2x5

be told, how much fuch a Being as this, which is fix'd and unchangeable, not only as to his own Nature and Eifenoe, but as to his Influence too, is more excellent than that, which is ftill in motion and liable to chan^^e though that Motion be from it ielf alone. And will convince us, thalthofe Beings which are moft Noble and Excellent, muil needs have had an Exigence before thofe which are indigent and depending. we fhall do well, according to this Rule, to afcend the whole Scale of Cauieis in our Thoughts, and try whether we are able to find any Principle more Excellent, thaa what is already fix'd upon; and if we can do fo, then to
,

-

,

Now

drive that
loftieft

ftill

higher,

till

we come

to reft at

laft in

the

and moft mnjeftick Notions that we are capable of And this is a CoUrfe we may boldly take: entertaining» nor is there any fear of going too far, or overfhooting the Mark, by conceiving any Ideas too great, and above the
Dignity of this Firft Caufe. For alas! the boldeft Flights our Minds can afpire to, are too low and feeble; fo far from furmounting, that they fall infinitely fliort of, his Divine Perfections. This ConteiOplation upon God , as it is the moft Excellent, fo it is the only One, in which we are fure not to be guilty of any Excefs, or over-valuing the Objeft. And, when we have taken all imaginable pains to collecl all the Ideas that are Great, and Venerable, and Holy, and Independent, and Produeive of Good ; all thefe Names, and all thefe Perfedions put together, do yet giveus but a very poor and imperfed Notion of him; Only he is gracioufly pleafed to pardon and except thefe, becaufe it is not in the power of humane Nature, to admit any higher and better. When therefore our Confideration hath carried us from Self-moving Beings up to that which is Immovable, and abfolutely Immutable, always the fame in its EiTence, Jts Power, and its Operations; fix'd for ever in a vaft Eternity, out of which Time, and all the Motions that nieafure it, are taken and derive their Being; there we may contemplate the Primitive Caufes, of much greater Antiquity than thofe we obferved in the Self-moving Agent ; and there we fiiall fee them lie in all their Perfedions, Immovable, Eternal, Entire, United to each other; fo as that each fliould be all by Virtue of this intimate Conjundion, and yet the intelledual Differences between them fliould remain diftind and unconfufed. For what account can be given of fo many dif-

T

ferent

2
ferent

Epictetus's Morals
Forms
in the

World,

but only,

that the

Great

God

-i

and Creator of the World produces thefe, as he thinks fit to feparate and diitinguiih the Caufes of them in his own Mind ? which yet we muft not fuppofe to make fuch adual and incommunicable Differences bf^tween the Originals as we obferve between the Copies of them here. Nor are'the Diftin^ions of the differing forts of Souls the fame with thofe of Bodies. Each of the Eight Heavens we fee', and the Coriiellations peculiar to them, are a part of the whole Heaven taken together; a full and integral Part, and yet each hath its EiTence, and Influences, and Operations, proper to itfelf. So likewife the Forms of Sublunary, as well as Geleftial Bodies, which are always the fame, as that of a Man, a Horfe, a Vine, a Fig-tree; each of thefe are perfe6b and full; though not in Individuals, as the Heavenly Bodies are; yet according to the Various Species, with which they fill the World, and by the ElTential Differences,

which

diitinguiih them from one another. Juil thus it is with thofe more fimple and IntelleQual Coniiderations, of

which

thefe Forms are compounded, fuch as Eflence, tion, Repofe, Identity, Beauty, Truth, Proportion, and all

Mo-

thofe other Metaphylical Qualities, belonging to the Compoiition of Bodies; Each of which is perfeft in its own kind, and hath a diftindl Form of its own , and many Differences peculiar to it felf only. And if this be the Cafe in fo many Inferior Beings, how much more perfect and entire ihall every thing fubfiil in the great Soul of the World > Thefe are the fpontaneous Caufes of the Bodies here below, and all

According to this Patthings hereareformed ; but that Pattern isabundantly more perfefi , and pure , and exaS , than any of its Refemblances. Much more perfcol flill then are thefe Divine and
tern
all

their ditfercnces lie united there.

Intelle6lual

Forms, than any Corporeal ones, of which they are the great Originals. For thefe are united, not by any mutual Contadl , or Continuity of Matter, or bodily Mixture; but by the Coalition ol indivilible Forms. And this Union, being fuch as ttill preferves the Diftindions between them clear and unconfus'd, makes each of them perfeS: in itfelf, and qualifies it to be the common Principle
and Root of
all the Forms of its own Likenefs and Kind , the bigheft to the iowcft. the feveral diitind Principles of things derive their

from

Now
Caufal
ciple.

Power and
For
it

Dignity, from
that

is

plain,

fomeOue Suptriour PrinMany could not cxiit without
an

and confequently the firft Caufe of all muft needs exceed them all Power. by the mere Didates of . So likewife he muft be the Original and Supreme Power: For every Caufe hath the higheft power in its own kind . (for indeed we had no other way of coming to the Knowledge of it. Thus. which all things defire. is the free Gift of this Supreme Caufe ^ to all the inferiour and particular ones. is Good . . and all things. zz^ an antecedent Caufe. and the Honour that is due to them .with StMpLicius's Comment. but there is a Similitude in Nature too. and the God of Gods . and have all of every kind. as all Things and Caufes are derived at laft from One Caufe. if any Man think it too great an Honour of thefe lower and limited ones to be called Caufes^ or Principles. but not fuch a One. exiiied before them. the Whole it felf is too vaft for our Comprehenfion . . for thus all the World . Which give him a Being apart to himfelf: But the One before Many was the Caufe of thofe Many He comprehended them all within himfelf. the firft Principle of all Principles. For the very Power and Privilege of being Caufes. He muft needs be en- Nature. and therefore it is not an empty Name only. but by its Parts. by which every Caufe is allied to this Univerfal One. is the Caufe of Caufes . call and to adore him. as well as that Original and General one. For and is diftinthe One of Many is a part of that Number guiihed from the reft by fome particular Qualifications. and the Supreme Good. have agreed to He is Now dued with perfed Knowledge too. likewife the Supreme and Original Goodnefs. when compared with their Effe£ls . It muft be owned in the firft place. For this is the Stem and Root of them all. ^ we are at laft arri- ved to a general Demonftration and from the Parts have learnt the Whole. . by confidering particulars. were produced by him without any difiiculty at all. That there is fome Colour for this Scru- Now T pie. That. that. and our Under- ftandings are fo feeble. that the World . For all Effeds have a natural defire and tendency to the refpeftive Properties of their firft Caufe. as often to miftake a very fmall part for the whole) And the refull of the Argument is this. as was before thofe Many. and confequently the firft Caufe muft be the Original. for how can we imagine him ignorant of any thing which himfelf hath made ? It is no lefs evident too from hence . For which Reafon each of Many is One. fo they ought to pay all manner of Honour and Adoration to that Caufe.

and to exprefs fomething peculiar. Which. cannot poffibly have any proper Name. That there are Firft Caufes of Things. and would perhaps have made the Demonilration more gradual and complete. and Merciful. I prefume. the Firil and Supreme God. and fo likewife we may.| ealily be remedied. as i could. And thus we ftyle him Holy. fay by way of Eminence. take notice. Occu- . And. and Omnipotent. but that which bath no other before or above it. For this Reafon. becaufe this Epigtetus's this Morals But then fe?ms to argue an equality of Caufal Power. which was to give as compendi- GOD ous an Illuftraiion EpiSlctus. that foirie Perfons will think what is already done a great deal too much. And thus much (liall fuffice Three Points before us . and Good. derived from the Heavenly Bodies. the Firil and Supreme Caufe. which comprehends them both. we think applicable to fome of the Sons of Men. at prefent for theFirft of the which pretends to fliew.) yet in Truth . though it be. and that is the truly Firil and Original of them all. that each particular Principle is a firft and: general one. Moreover we mult fake. and Lord. For every Name is given for Dillinfition's Good. and fometimes take the Conas fidence to ufc fuch Appellations. as I hinted at the beginning of this Difcourfe. and then afcribe them to Him. the Greeks made choice of a Name for God . and do. Him. And. by calling Thefe barely Caufes. which is above and before all things. and itrift Pioprieiy of Speech none is the Firrt Principle. which might have been taken in running from Efieds to tiieir Caules. (as there is one Principle of Gracefulnefs with regard to the Body. and fuch as may give us an adequate Idea of his Nature. another with regard to that of the Mind. and That the Firft and Univerfal Caufe. That this God governs and difpofes all Things by his Providence. and are in. that this Firil Caufe. and Juft. to this Aifertion to be proved is. but fince all diitinguifhing Properties whatever flow from. with refpeit to others of lefs extent and power contained under it. yet I muil be content to enlarge no farther. and the fwiftnefs of their motion. though I have paisM over feveral Steps. All we can do.' though it be true.zz6 pie. is to fum up the molt valuable Periedions of his Creatures. largely demonitrated upon feveral Tne Next . and that thefe Excuriions are by no means agreeable to my firil Deiign. and the Firit and Supreme may . as being duly feniible. and a third of Gracei'ulnefs in general.

many Perfons. and Wifdom. as was hinted before. fo far as we can obferve. . And indeed the greater Temptation to this Opinion they frankly own to be miniitred by the^ery unequal Diftribution of things here below. and injured Virtue to perifli unredrtiPjd. bur. overtakes the OppreiTor. as to fufi^er infuiting Wickednefs to pafs unpuniihed. and the Perfeftions of God. in compliance with the univerfal Confent of Mankind. to extreme old Age. 2x7 Occafions in the foregoing Chapters. but can by no means allow his Providence. and made it enter deeper and more ienlibly. ill-gotten Wealth to fucceeding Generations. when it happens to be their own cafe. fiiall be in more general Terms. Efpeclally. as to deny his very Being but Others. wicked Great Ones. and tranfmit their . Thefe. which give Men the Confidence to difpute againil Some have been fo far emboldened by them. as for the Affairs of the World. which the Government of the World feems chargeable withal.ent. to fupport the Suiierer. In the mean while. or that can iniereiVHimfelf in the Management of the World. are content to allow his Nature and Perfections. they acquicfce in his Power. by deiiring the Perfon who propofes it. and the monftrous Irregularities. thefe they do not fuppofe him to regard at all . and Goodnefs. and no Ven- geance.wirh S iM PL I cius's Comment. their Health found and uninterrupted. as eminently virtuous and good. and yet do a thing fo unworthy his Juftice. that fo great an Inequality can be confident with Providence. toanfwermeto the feveral Paicsof this disjunctive Argum. go down to their Graves gently and peaceably and frequently leave their Pofterity Heirs of their good Fortune. are the Speculations. as being too little and low. For then they can by no means be perfuaded. are miferably opprefs'd by the Infolcnce and Barbarity of thofe yet for all this Injuilice. They obferve fome exceedingly wicked Men high in Power and Prefer. nor is there any Comfort or Reward. and their particular Misfortunes have given an edge to the Objeclion. nor to be in the leaft concerned for them. and fo contrary to his Nature. and thus they continue a Profperous and pleafant Life. their Eilates plentiful and growing. and in no degree deferving his Care. For fome People are ready enough to acknowledge the Being. 3 If . and the natural Intimations we have of Him. GOD. (hall yet be allowed a particular Confideration in this place. GOD ^ Now the firft Return 1 (hall make to this ObjeQion. ments.

Either God. admitting God to be fuch a Being. this may likewife be imputed to two Reafons Either. either from want of Power. This disjunolive Argument being thus propofed in the general . That thefe Matters are negleQed . than the want of Power. he Ihould be ignorant. to alledge . Ei- Burden and Difficulty of Governing the World is not able pundually to difcharge it. that tho' he could attend to the moft minute Circumftances of them. then the Reafon want of Knowledge. and yet does not make them fo . ) It is as abfurd every whit to fay. If the Sufficiency of his Power be granted . yet he does not do it. that they efcape his Notice. Or. to which it entirely ows its Produdion ? And no lefs fo . as was argued before. if he knows that they ought. then this muft proceed. to whom they give Birth and Being. in the Next place. that the Produds of his own Nature. and the Works of his own Hands. and will not take the pains. it is not poffible. than the wildcil and moft ftupid of all Brute Beafts (lince even thefe exprefs a very tender regard for the Creatures. had they been fo dehe would never have created them at all. to flight and overlook them. that the is fo great. For furely. and a due Senfe. that thefe Things ought to be his Care . and of Goodnefs incomprehenfible. To fuppofe this Care omitted. Obfervation. as follows: That. For the want of Power there may be two Caufes alTigned . That he indulges his own Eafe. and the Want of Will be infiikd upon . and withal. as hath been here defcribed. abfolute and uncontroulable in Power. that GOD : Myjefty . The want of Will is no more the occafion of fuch a Neglef^. greater and ftrongcr ihan the Caufe. Thirdly. M^d are not worth his Care and Obfervation. Or elfe. and above his Power and Comprehenfion For how is it poffible to conceive an Eftefil.: zzZ If there be a I c s's Morals muft be. if he fo pleafed . require his Care For this were to reprefent him more infenlible. onfor the indulging his own Eale. and to avoid the Interly his within ruptioi^ . That thefe are Matters fo very mean and inconfiderable. the feveral Branches of it may be replied to. becaufe too little and low to fall his : fpicable. Or elfe. That thefe Matters are of fo mean Conlideration . and not a Providence. the Original Caufe and Author of all Things. and fo thefe fo many parcels (as it were) of his own Divinity. Firft. produced from and by Himfelf. as thinking it more becoming the Greatnefs of ther. perfect in Wifdom and Knowledge. That this is a Care too weighty . or want of Will.

nor all them put together. For the more you dii'uara. as. But now. and cut themfelves off from taking any advantage of that part of iheObjedlion. or would feem to. who either do really. For not oninfufes an anxious ly humane Reafon . fuch as fufFers them to decline no pains . and in pretended Honour to that.ne 4 • Mankind. difparage and lower the Affairs of humane Life. and. I ihall apply my felf more particularly to thofe. but a Rational Creature too . Man is not only an Animal . . Bui withal I muft add. in the firft place. when you have made the moft of this Argument that it can poiilbly bear.. And here I muil take leave to vindicate the Honour of Human Nature. entertain a due fenfe of the Divine Majefty . zz9 roption of his Pleafures . So that. to think. he cannot think unworthy of his Protedion and Care. by telling the Objedors. lince nothing certainly is contemptible in His Eyes who created it and. to exprefs any Care or Concern for. which would iuppofe thefe things to exceed the Power of God. capable of Wifdom. above any other Creature whatfoever. as Things below his Notice. after this general Gonfideration . from a Conlideration of the Vilenefs of thefe Things. That Mankind and their Affairs are no fuch fmall and contemptible matters. a debafing of Himfelf. nay. of Religion . For. would be to fix upon him the Infirmities and PaiTions of Men . as they have thought fit to reprefent them. Nor can we in any reafon imagine fuch want of Will. and no one of thefe Confiderations. iince they are the Refults of a Thinking . that he does not now infped and concern himfelf for his own Produdions. and fuch as are peculiar to the worft and moft profligate of Men too. for the Provifion and Support of their Offspring. vvirh Sim PLi CI us's Comment. That God (houid undervalue and difregard fo very confiderable a part of the Creation nor are the Adtions and Afl^airs of Men to be thought defpicable neither. furniih us with another Argument in behalf of Providence. That they. his Soul is of exceeding Dignity and Value. ftill every part meets you with lome intolerable abfurdity . whatever he thought worthy the Honour of receiving its Exigence from him . and qualified for advancing the Honour of God. who believes that God created all thefe Things. There is no manner of ground then for fo wild a Suppofition. can ever induce a Man . Mind. and fuch as it would be an unbecoming Condefcenfion. but natural Tendernels into Brutes. which is more. who thus leifen Mankind..

all this Objeaion is built upon a vain Imi. for the fake of the Parts themlelves. which feeble Men attain to. and mailer thummuch more eaiily and fpeedily. •with a^deiign to We . by Parity of Reafon. and the fame may be faid of the Malter of a Family. promote the Good of the Whoie. diftraa his Mind. how Whole. by particular and private Misfortunes not duly as. fo that.2-3^ I c s's Morals Mankind . Which way indeed is it poffible to preferve the Whole from ruine but by confulting the Safety of the Parts. and a half Acre of Ground ploughed fooner and eafier than an Acre . He takes care of the Whole. at the fame time. confideruig . Now between the Frailties of a Alan and the Perfeaions of a For It is plain. ana not of its Parts? At tnis rate. and Trouble.? Far be it therefore from us to imagine. Again: They who deny. the more eafie flill you confefs it to take care of them. difcern greater Objeas Wiih more eafe than fmaller (as we find plain by the Proportion of thofe that affed our Sight . bear fmall Trials . the lefs ManKind is reprefented . does not think himfelf at liberty to negled the fevernl Parts . and the feveral Parts of it. and the Civil Magiftrate in a State. Wherepoor unthinking Mortals are often tempted to Impatience. the Commander of an Armv . in a great meafure. IheStnfes. But what Providence is that. That Providence defcends to every little Nicety (as they call it) do yet acknowledge a Superintendence over the whole World in general. we Oiall imagine the Almighty God ro come behind what almoft every Art and Science among Men pretends to. that Almighty God fiiould betray that want of Skill and Induilry. whofe Froieflion obliges htm to ftudy the Diftempers and the Cure of the whole Body. if any Man fhall imagine the Difpofal of humane Affairs to be a Bulinefs of great Intricacy. far thefe contribute to the Benefit• of the andConfuhon. quite contrary. Qod. 'tis true. but much more. And this moil wifely.» . and difturb his Hapnefs: This Perfon muft be taught to make a difference. Found weight is carried with lefs pains than a Hund^ red. which takes care of the Whole. of which it is compounded. For the Phyfician. the lefs troublefome • you make the Government and Care of them to be. . and the Loudnefs of thoie that ftrike our irs ) but the Faculties of the Xvlind and Body. and confequently that it muQ needs perplex the Almighty. and with the Ume trouble. than greater.

and his Portion. F^or it is in our Power. with SiMPLicius's Comment. and thofe that have done ill . And thefe Laws they contrive fo. and are exact in fuch Reiributions as each Man's Behaviour deferves. with worfe Soils. And belidcs this.. by the native Liberty of our Minds. what Rewards ftiall be given to Merit and Virtue. while he is employed in one Affair. He founded the World. and the Care they take of the State is not feen in perpetual Confuiion and Difquiet of Heart. . and . and fo effedual too. it is not pofllble for him to apply his mind to any thing elfe. as to extend even to the fmalleft matters. Now. he allots his Punifliment. ind by having Virtue and Vice properly and entirely the Obecl of our own Choice. and fixed wife Laws for the Government of them all: He confidered. with good. and refolve to be. 231 Imagination. and. what Puniihments inflidled upon Vice and Difobedience . what fort of Perfonsive will be . Some he pla:es more commodioully. without perfonal Anxiety. and others lefs fo. They ordain wife and convenient Laws. they do not give themfelves the trouble of watching and prying into every Corner. is abfolutely left to our ovn difpofal. and we may make our felves fuch as we chocfe. that there h a great mixture of Virtue and Vice in them. that our Adions are fuch as are proper to Souls. much more mu(i we confefs it poffible for God. that the Fundamental Caife of all thefe different Fates. tow . which nicely obfrve the fmalleff A6tions. and fuffer from one another. that God is iuch a Supervifor as one of Us and that He is under the fame neceffity of attending every part of his Charge diftin£tly. and hath determined too. the like. according as each Perfon exceeds in the one or the other of thefe. Now hereii is the Juftice of God vindicated. W^hen this is done. if Men can have fo general an Influence. but in the Eftablifliment and Obfervation of thefe wholefome Conftirutions. what Satisfa<Slion made for Injuries. God hath appoiited over Men particular Guardian Spirits. and formed every Creature in it. Methinks it were eafie for fuch a Perfon to refleol how lawgivers and Princes manage themfelves upon thefe occafions. Co that. they live and enjoy their Eafe as they ufed to do. fo far as they can forefee and provide againil them. and ranks us jccording to our Deferts thofe that have done well. what each of thefe (hall deto one another. and proceeding by fingJe and fubfequent ASions. and affign particularly.

than any Creature of th« moft general Influence can do it. that it ihould tire and besxhaufted. all Things. nor is his Gcodnefs any acquir'd Perfedion . (as we find our feeble Mhds are) that he ihould not be able to comprehend or mana^ fo great a variety of Affairs. Some ihew black to the Eye. with. Some bloiTom and bud. that this InfpeSion requires any laborious attendance. and make all Things good from its own exuberant Fulnefs. as Bodies and Matter only are fubjed to .32. thus Eternal and omniprefent. And that. and yet enjoy Himfelf in iheCoateiDplationoflhaiPerfeoiand Supreme Good. and imparting its Infiuences to every Creature. the Goodnefs of God knows no Beginning. for thefe are fuch Confinements. as if God were fometimes prefent. asthe Neceffities of each require. without any Trouble to the Sun. properly fpeaking. finds no difficulty in expanding itfelf. others of being feen . which are aded upon at the fame time they aft. in fuch proportions. nor dothitceafe from adling. and afterwards difpenfewith any farther Concern about them. ! . GOD. and fometimes abfent . That His Providence did not fatisfie itfelf . doth moft alTuredly know hew to impart itfelf to every Creature. and every thing partakes of them with different Etfeds Some things are made capable of feeing. require. nor is there any time when it was not. and the Deferts of each IndividuAnd as the Sun iheds his Rays of Light upon al. in all places. and infinitely Good. much more eaiily. without or giving the cnating any Perplexity to Almighty For God leift diflurbance to his Blifs. others are impregnated and multiply.2. And the Providence of this mighty Being. to conftitute Things in good Order at the beginning. For indeed. and fo fpend themfelves . PIC s's Morals Now in this. others are melted and foftned . Some grow ftiff and hard. whereas He is prefent at all times. the whole World. but it is natural and unbounded. is lot like the Works of Nature. or the leaft Interruption to whofe Gift hii Happinefs: So the Goodnefs of and Workmanihip that very Sun is. and all this by the fame Light and the fame Heat. and above. or the Condition of its Niture will admit. and when it did not communicate itfelf. by fo extenfive a Care. the Care of God differs from that of Men . and others white. adapting itfelf to the feveral Capacities and Difpofitions of theThings upon which it falls: and that too. which is 6 : GOD. Nor is he corfin'd to one fingle A6tion at a time. Nor are we to fuppofe. as the Law-giver in the State was fuppos'd to do. as the Dignity of their Nature.

They look for Happinefs from external Advantages. confiider'd as a Man. it be laid to converfe and dwell on high. So that. when the Soul of has form'd. That he who does fo. who places all humane Happinefs and Mifery in the Freedom of his own Mind. or the Afflidions of the Good. are of ftrength fufficient to iliake our Belief of Providence.rn Power and Choice. can never be difappointed in his Defires. under any misfortune which can make him unhappy. andHighBirth. and to difpofe and govern the World . as fall within the compafs of his oy. and fenfual Enjoyments. and Honour^ and Power. becomes Men.with is Simp Lie I Man s's Comment. and confequently can never have any Unhappinefs befal him. without any manner of difficulty or diftraQion. little purpofe. or lie . That the Author and Ini ufer of that Soul muft needs. I can never yield. ed men agree in their Notions of Wick- and do not Gourfe and Defign of Nature. and it is a very wrong Notion which generally prevails. That it is the Difappointment of fome Defire. How much more juit and eafie is it to believe. For the Objedors themfelves agree with us in the Notion of Evil. and Riches. x^^ For. fuch as Health. if and foars up to God. or the Falling into fomething that we fear. we wholly miitake the matter. Now. which is thediftinguiihingCharader and Prerogative of Humane Nature . For. it is to very ferable. That the Good Man is one. They forget the Privilege God hath given them. all their defiresarefix'd upon thefe imaginary Good Things. and iurprifing Calamities there muO and . which himfelf infinitely more excellent. Difapthat they pervert the live as : Men. even according to their own Rule the Good Man can never be wretched . and negled theUfe and Improvement of that Liberty. pointed Expedations. guide and govern that Univerfe. and Good Men miIf this obtain ilill with my Readers. and. and the direding this aright to fuchObjeds. and the want of theie they efteem Miiery Reafon. Now it is not poflible for thefe outward Things always to anfwer a man's Willies and Endeavours . in the firft place. Of Wicked Men being happy. nor opprefs'd by his Fears. that fuch pains have been taken to prove that Neceifary Truth. and the for which like . and above the World. That the Profperity of 111 Men. as to that Objeftion of the amaiing Inequality in the Diilribution of the Things of this World. aipires to Perfedion. All On the other fide. and all their Fears and Averfions upon the contrary Evil Ones.

by the Confeffinn of the Objedors themfelves. and alfoto furniih him with larger Abilities of doing good. and Opportunities to exercife a generous and charitable Difpofition. as to illuilrate the Juftice of God . I think. if this do not fatisfie. jiiuft be admitted for an unconteftable Truth. But. That whatever is contrary to Nature and Duty. For they only put them upon greater Extravagancies. But the very fame Things to the vicious man are fent as a Curfe. that the things we commonly call Evil. and that what paiTes for Good in the Opinion of the World. and Anguiil). are difpofed fo. but by moving and gentle Perfuafions. are not properly fo. I iliall endeavour to Vvin them over to this Opinion. or wholefome Trials to exercife a found Virtue. and refleS coolyand impartially npon the many Accidents of this kind which difquiet them. of the Perfons on whom they are bcftowed. and from whom they are taken away. of neceffity be •>. And what we term Good Things. and continual Fear. and fucceed above other men. of the o»ly feemtK^ Good and Evil in all external Accidents and Advantages. and are proportioned to the prefent Occafions. muft needs be driven toafenfe and acknowledgment of their own Mifery. becaufe they are plainly profperous. are made ufe of to excellent purpofcs . 2 greater Blemiih upon Humane Nature. Thus Riches aregiven to a wife and good man. and a Puniibment For the covetous and worldly m. notwithftanding all its outward Gaities and deluding Appearances. they are either iharp Remedies to cure a diftemper'd Mind. or to the Deferts. Sometimes what we call Evils. And this indeed is a moftjuft and a moli ingenious Revenge upoi^ : . Now becaufe our Auditors are to be dealt wiih•. both for his own eafe and comfortable Enjoyment. the very Ferfons concern'd. by reminding them of what was faid be- fore . bothaFault. he enilaves himfelf to Anxiety. and caft And this. is very far from being fuch. I fiiall make no fcruple to affirm. if they would but give themielves leave to be ferious.an makes his Life a perpetual Drudgery and Toil .• not only by dry Demonftrations.^34 aiid will I c s's Morals be^ and therefore thefe men cannot but be unhapAnd py. and never enjoys the Plenty he hath taken fuch pains to procure. and a Misfortune. notwithftanding the Troubles and Uneaiinefies ateending them . That thefe SucceiTes do but add to their Unhappinefs. in the Advantages and Interelts of the World . mufl. and are fo many frefti Temptations to commit more Violence.

ando- thir pubhci^Fiajh. SiMPLicius's Comment. So that all the Advantage they make of them. very often turn to the Prejudice of vicious Men. though it own both God and his Providence. if the Reader think fit. by Fear or any other fuch curbing Paffions which ufeto give vidence. Erafm Advtg. and the mercilefs Oppreflbr. And now as the old Proverb hath it. which. ' 6. To many of thefe their Riches are their Ruin. FortheTendernefsof that Good Profo aifiduous in promoting the True Hapnot fo much to reifrain us from the grofs and outward a6is of Sin. is but to grow the worfe. and is agreeable to the Dictates of Reafon. they may it lail grow lick of them. was difcoursM more largely in . by tempting them to ExceiTes. in reply to thofe who deny a Providence. a-ui P. that theyihould thus prove own Tormen- On the other hand. and would make us believe. The Subftance of what I have hinted here. throwoft their ill Humours. partly in vengeance to fcourge them for their pad Follies. and fuch a Converfation. deed it is a modern. is is but rather to fubdue the Appetite itfelf. yet does not profefs itfelf fatisfied with thejuftice of either. as one capable of being And inperverted and byaiTed with Gifts and Oblations. and become reform'd Men. which pinefs of Souls. check to them utterly waft and deftroy fome foregoing Chapters. for there remains only One Objedionmoreto be refuted. as befits the Dignity of Humane Nature. that had gain'd upon us by the frequent indulging of it before. that hath no Hand at all in the Government andDilpofal GOD of things here below. And thefe are fent. '^^ This is an Exprejfion ice taken. and XXXIV.iitjar. and gorg'd thenifelves with criminal Pleafures. the Luxurious and Extravagant are poorer than the very Beggars in the Streets.with ters. frum the Cuflomof ittf Oiymfiic\ Entertainments.) and there. and Preferments. and but too vulgar Imagination. and partly as Chaftifements to reduce them. he may refrcfii his Memory. Thus Health and Power. They reprefcnt Almighty God. XIII. and from grat'fying our Appetites. and fet themfelvts farther off from all liuch Improvements. The *Third Cup to Jove. their 235- them. in the Government of the World. 6 who . that when they have given a Swing to their Appetites. that the moil greedy Extortioner. and running them upon dangerous and deitru6Hve Courfes. and then we have done . (Ch. and all the evil Habits. Hymn. And fo much for my Second Argument. Ifthrn.

and that they have a iecret Faculty of inclining their Favour. and declare without any due Caution. and to him that receives the Injury. as that God lliould become acceflary to all this Mifchief. becaufe it refers both to the Pcrfon that does. and Extravagancies of all forts. that every good thing.7. and that no Punifhment at all ihould be infiided for them. and how each of them areaffefted and concerned in it. then all ftall be well.. of what kind foever it be. if he do but expend a very inconliderablcpart of his ill-gotten Wealth upon pious Ufes . than even the ordinary fort all Evils. And fome indeed there are. are but fo many Cor* ruptions and Indiipodtions of the Mind. they may periift in their Wickednefs fecurely. But if this would really be the worft and moft deftrudive of in pieces beft courfe will be to take to have their Wickedncis thus afllfted and encouraged . that he ihould connive at the Wicknefs of Men and who gards. and makes. becaufe it is moii certain. and let them go on till they are paft all Cure. then it is poilible God may remit and wink at them. or reno ditference between Right and Wrong.^6 Epic us's Morals minds nothing but his own Intereft. then how can we admit foabfurd a thought. who hath been fo largely and clearly proved. Error? The and. and diftribute a piece of money among thofe who pretend it is their Bulinefs to addrefs to the Gods. is derived down from that Original Source of all Goodnefs. if Impunity wou'd only harden them in Vice. Now of . to examine of what Confequence this Remiffion and Indulgence would be to both. they are contrary to Nature. who both entertain thefe Opinions without any Jud. if it be for the Intereft and real Advantage of the wicked and unjuft Perfon. up')n his Creatures here below. to have his vicious Courfes connived at. and no better than the Difeafes and Scandals. Now. as well as the Vices. this is fometbing more viie and mercenary . to have no hand at all in bringing any of our Evils upon us ? Injuliice. and Intemperance. of Mankind. pafsit by patiently. that they think ic no Reflexion upon the Goodnefs of God. and Avarice. and ihall never be called to account for it. and render them but fo much more bold and unreclaimable . If God therefore contribute to the growth of thefe Dillcmpers.ment. if Prefents and Bribes prevail upon him to do fo . What Anrwerfhall we find it nnw to refute this . if he add to their Malignity. But the Milery and Corruption will be charged upon him. and Injuries.

difdain and abhor. Who of a moderate Underftanding. can be reconciled with his Tendernefs and Care for the innocent What Opinion muft we needs have of that GeSufferers. that the Offerings of wicked Men ihould ever preyail upon God. will ftoop Men. and painful Applications. or any occafion he hath for them. 'Tis true. will fit down contentedly. and therefore we ihall do well to examine a little how this eafinefs to wicked Men. than thofe who commit it . and Bafenefs to his Charge. or the Interceffion either of his Friends. when he finds his Patient I'urfeited. or incline him to be propitious at all. Will he not only permit. who are opprefs'd by Injuftice. Indeed if we confider the thing only in the general. what monftrous Impiety that Opinion is guilty of. permit him to eat and drink freely of thofe very things which brought theDiftemper ? nay. and common Honefty. how can we fuppofeihis great Phyficianof Souls. it is moft irrational to conceive. who. who would fuifer himfelf to be corrupted by the Enemy. will fufFer his Charge to periih for H^re? Will any tolerable Phyikian. than only to refle6b. and fee the reft devoured ? And then fure this part of the Argument needs no farther Confutation. he will let nothing divert him from the moil ungrateful Remedies. but even brute Beafts. For. when they have recovered a part of their Flock from the Wolves. which is more. defire that. when they thus apply. but for the fake : of the Votaries. as not Men only. SiMPLicius's Comment. and the avenging Difpenfations of Providence. for the fake of their Oblations. which taxes God with fuch Infidelity. but procure them. not . What Shepherd's Curs. to carry in them the Nature and Defign of Medicines.with of to. and affift the fick perfon in that which muft prove his certain Ruin ? So far from it. whocanboaft of no remarkable Virtue. neral. or himfelf. for the fake of a good Fee. that if heat allanfwer the Charader and Duty of his Profefllon. are no lefs the ObjeS of his Providence. Since then the angry Juftice of God. than we think our felves obliged to be to one another ? But the Perfons. when the State of theDiftemper requires them. to diftempered Mankind . lefs careful of our Recovery. and this affifting and encouraging their Villanies. and deliver up his Camp and whole Army for Reward ? Or what Shepherd would be fo treacherous to his Flock ? Shepherd did I fay ? nay. have been fo fully Ihewn. he gracioufly accepts thofe of the Pious and Upright Not for any refped to the Gifts themfelves.

thefe things contribute very much to their Converfion. Thatj are duly fenfible of their Faults. and heartily penitent for them. without puniihing them. upon the Provocation they give him. That Prayers. as almolt every body does. how entirely their Minds. as even to render the Gifts and Prayers of wicked men acceptable to him. For . In order to fatisfy this Doubt. and Perfons. proclaims. and what Foundation there is for faying. There is likewife no d^ubt to be made. it is moil abfurd to fuppofe. as they have deferved. That our Sins turn God's Face away from us. and the like. and Alms. fuch as God peculiarly regards and delights in. But if the fecret and true Intent of their Devotions be only to avert his Judgments. yet this alone were fufficient to render them abominable in the Sight of God. as being decent and proper Teftimonies of a fincere Repentance. . bur the matter may be fo ordered. and beg to be reformed by his Puniihments. That they fuppofe him a Bafe and a Mercenary Being. be confecrated to his Ufe and Service. but tneir Eltates. i( it be unfafe. that is. That he is angry at them. they can ever be well received upon thefe Terms. and be ready to fubmit to the Methods of theif Cure. and believing. and Ofl^ences. and impious to be bepaifes by their lieved. fuch as carry no Congtuity with the Divine Nature. And nowlexped tohavetheQneilion this fo much Confidence. and to confirm themfelves Jn Vice. and Bo- where men dily Proftrations. and all they poirefs. pardoning mens Sins. came to be fo univerfaily received. Thefe Exprcflionsmuii not be taken in a iliiSt and literal Senfc. exprefs the dejeded Soul Sorrows and SubmiiTions of a and the Offering up their Goods . though there were no Guilt to be laid to their Charge. and hope by Bribery to foften his provoked Juftice. provided they come with a purpofe of growing better. They Ipeak thePaffions and Infirmities of Creatures. and to buy off their own Punifliment. For fure the World hath not taken all this upon Truft. or laying them out to Pious and Charitable Purpofes. and all they have are devoted to Him. and its immutable Happinels . to lay that ftrefs they do upon it. we muQ obferve. The Bending of the Knees. that God forgives wicked Men. have a power to make God flexible and propitious. or forfakes us. and yet they are much to blame. and leaves.238 not only Epictetus's Morals tneir Minds. For when we are told. and to propagate this Opinion with . may put From whence Notion of God.

and Devotion. renew our Acquaintance. And there is not. we often exprefs in fuch Terms. Or. and contrad a fort of freih Affinity with him. or complying with the Temptations and Tendencies toward them. we deprave Happinefs and Perfedlions. we muil perfevere in this method. and made Severity and a hariher Providence neceflary for our Cure. and Holinefs. not fuffer our Refolutions to be fickle and uncertain. And this Return of Ours to God. and make nearer Approaches to God. or any intermiffions to cool our zeal. Not that we can run away from to Avhich all things are prefent . till we haveaded a fufficient Revenge upon ourfelves. by reftoring that Image and Charadter of his Divinity in us. and doing fo no more. that they draw the Rock to Them. if that cannot be. And this is ouunCafe Repentance. or our Infolence. as if it were His Return to us . while they draw themfelves and their VeiTel to the Rock. we deface the Image of the Divinity in out Souls. mony That of forfaking our of a fincereandperfed Repentance. there cannot be. and debafe ourfelves. But. when we recover the foundnefs and perfeftion of that watchful Eye change the manner of our Nature. but we its Influences upon us. for now we have brought a Difeafe upon our Souls. and are admitted to a more eafieAccefs. are fo idle as to imagine. And if we would be throughly reformed indeed. Sins. Nay. and by our Wickednefs and Folly. anfwer exadly to that Cable For thefe things are the Inftruments of our Converfion. either the Perfons themfelves who have fuifered by our Oppreffion. but only this One.with Simp LI ciu s's Comment. and become the Companions and Friends of the Wife and Virtuous. When we decline the Converfation of naughty Men. and Works of Piety and Charity. and relieve thofe that are in ne- We . and when we are full of Indignation againft ourfelves. and content to turn our own Puniihers. whicli confifts in the imitation of his Juftice. Juft as men at Sea. we then return. who when their Cable is faftned to a Rock. 239 But the Truth is. and the beft Proofs of its being «naifeSed and real When we cheriih and fupport. and expofe ourfelves to a different fort of Treatment. any other certain Tefticeffity. and withdraw ourfelves from him. or our Slanders. : : When we hate Injuftice. and perfeded the Defign of our Amendment. I muft add too. and Wifdom . fall off. For in this Cafe we muft behave U ourfelves . make Satisfaaion to their Families. The not allowing ourfelves in any lefs or lower degrees of Guilt. by forfaking the Dilates of Nature and Reafon .

conlldering that Pleafure and fenly to be fo. as are intinitely iharp and flinging. nor makes fuch quick and fure Progrefs. both in this. becauie Goodnefs and Happinefs is Supcimr : to Exiftence. by the Suffering and Tortures inflided upon it. and always cleanfeand reform us by this Means. But a Man is never fo well difpofed to learn. as when he exercifes this Difcipline upon himfelf.4^ Epictetus's Morals fleer their ourfelves like Sailors. and a ftrange Aptnefs in the rational Soul. as this Objedion lays to his Charge Evil. and expel the Humours which brought it upon us. and may inflame her with a more fervent Love. the Caul e fro i whtuj . but only. its One iide. that they are defigned to change the Soul. can admit of no Difpute. to remove this Sicknefs of the Mind. than that heihould be guilty of fo much Treachery andBafeFor this is to be nefs. and impatient Defire of V^irtue? There is in<+eed fomething very inftruding inAfflidion. Repentance. and when they would crofs over as to the Efficacy of Courfe beyond th^- bear down towards to the Other. the Rule of curing Difeafes by their Contraries. and be taught by it. and no Concern in governing the World at all. than to allow both ihefe. and that is niucii worfe than nor to be at all. Becauie then thevery Puniihment is voluntary. It is the Principle. than any Smart or bodily Pain can poffibly be. and the Improvement is much more likeAnd indeed. which is indeed theworlland moit impious of all the Three. and more inconfolable. That Almighty God does in all his Difpcnfations propofe it as his End. And Repentance wants no Qualifications of this kind. no Being. when it is coniidered. l^hereofon is evident. and thofe dire EffeSs of his Vengeance upon us. who Point they would make. Thus much in oppofition to the Third Objefiion againft God and Religion. to deny a God and a Providence. of Bang. that a Senfe of her own Wretchednefs* may provoke her to a juft Dcteftation of the Vices that wercthe wicked Caufe of it. For what other account can be given of all the Puniihments. \ Now . and the next World. to harken to it. and feels luch bitter Remorfe. For it were a much more excufable Error. makes Sorrow and Painabfolutely neceilary. that he had ing him.: i 2. and yet advance luch Incongruous Notions concernI5etter it were for Us and Him both. fual Profpe<ils tempt Men to offend . whether Mtritand Power enough to reftore the Soul to it be of Primitive Purity this. for the truly penitent Perfon chaiiifes himfelf with the Scourge of a guilty Confcience. I think. and Anguifii of Heart.

till ihe return. when we ratidn. and the very End for which they have it. and.— with SiMPLicius's Comment. do not believe that he is? Or what Encouragement is the belief of his Exiftence. who does infpeii and govern our Affairs. tho' the Soul o£ 'Man be ('tis confefs d) a Free Agent. ihe lives and improves. while ihe holds faft by the Root. if we were poiTefs'd with an Opinion. - - - . and all Intelledual Virtue. the Certainty o£ his Providence. and. and fo recover her Life and Pernothing. . without a Perfuafion. the Firft and the Laft Step of all Moral. whenever we apprehend ourfelves in Evil Circumftances. concerning the Perfedions of his Nature. That all that Care and Infpedtion were direfted to Evil and Malicious Purpofes. Juft and Becoming Apprehenfions. chap. as the Effects of a moil excellent Wifdom. but merely upon the Apprehenfion of its being Good . v/e naturally wifh not to be at all. Thefe are the Sum of all human Accompliihments . can ever prevail upon the Soul to endeavour fuch a ReftoFor how is it poiTible to apply to God. and therefore. a regular and well grounded De- votion towards God . and ba united to the Root again . the Foundation and the Perfeftion. For. and withers.- — ^ —^ whence all things derive it. and the Juftice and Goodnefs of all his Proceedings with Mankind . ilie grows barren. and takes notice of us ? Leaft of all fliould Tve addrefs to a Being . that he is concerned for us. For Exiftence itfelf is what no Man would defire. and that he waited over us only for Mife•ry and Mifehief. yet ftil! this Liberty and Power of determining herfelf was the particular Favouc and Gift of God . in Truth. Now u a . and tears herfelf off. rous Senfe of thefe Three Points we have been explaining. but a firm and a vigofe£lion once more. and putrifies. and proceed upon Internal Principles of Good and Evil . a fubmilTive refigned Temper . difengages. me in it. the Importance of the Argument will juftifie For. and attains the PerfeSioti God made her capable of. confequent to fuch a Perfuafion . If I have here again enlarg'd beyond the juft Bounds of a Commentary. as it were. and therefore. But when (he feparates herfelf. and eafie Acquief* cence under all his Difpenfations . and fuch as are always beft for us .

or any humane Methods. But if you are in difpute . be all Compliance} for confider. remember *tis only the Event that you are ignorant of. Therefore. and neither good nor bad of itfelf. But. though all the World ihould endeavour to obftruot it. or Art. and fuch as are not capable of Refolution. it muft needs be indiiFerent in its own Nature. leave all your Hopes and Fears behind you 5 and do not approach the Prophet with fuch anxious Concern. . by Reafon. * you confult the Oracle. by good Management. To ask is the only mate- rial Confideration to be cleared in 3 They ihould be Matters of great Importance and Difficulty. whether you ought to affill your Friend in diftrefs. yet Philofophy ( if you have any) hath already taught you. but what the Event obferve Socrates his Rule. XXXIX. no Queftions.X42' Ei^iCTETUs's Morals CHAP. That if it be any of the Things out of our own Power. and come to be inftruoled in. impious a Difrefped it will be. when thefe Occafions call you abroad. come boldly. be converted to your Advantage. That no external Accident is any thing to You j and that nothing can poffibly happen. When therefore you addrefs to the WHEN Gods. and how it. as if you were to hear your Doom from his Mouth j but behave yourfelf as becomes a Man fully perfuaded. which may not. though you do not know what that ihall be particularly. of what Quality and Confequence it ihall prove to you: For you are fatisfied before-hand. not to follow When therefore you apply yourfelf to the Oracle. when they have given it. as one who asks their Advice j and withal. and expofe your Perfon for the Deieace of your Country > thefe are not Quellious fit to be put. whofe Counfel you have ask'd.

the next thing to be done. which refpedls both God and ourfelves. and if our Averlions are violent. But. That they are external Accidents . That.with SiMPLicius*s Comment. purpofe he divides his Difcourfe into Three Parts. we ihall be afraid of hearing that what we wiih will not come to pafs . lofs of Limbs. or lofs of Life j yet ftill Reafon and Duty will tell you. and tells us. What we owe to our Selves. or the confulting of Oracles. and from Divination. though the Sacrifice be never fo inaufpicious . before this could be methodically undertaken. though it ihould portend Flight or Baniihment. will be able to effe6t it: For we need only refleft . That w hat we fear moft . indefpightof all thefe Hazards. That the Mind ihould preferve fuch a firm and even Temper upon thefe Occafions. we Ihall be in no lefs concern to be told. it was neceffary to take notice of a fort ofmix'dDuty. ihall certainly happen to us. for no man is fo fenfelefs. If our Delires are eager. which Apollo gave fo long fince. and in Order of Nature. C AFter t. He begins with the Second of thefe. with What Difpofition it ihould be done. In this cafe you need no other Determination than that memorable one. was to inform us. when he thruft that Wretch out of his Temple. and tells us . But the Queftion is. you muft not defert thofe that have a right to your Service and Afliftance. What courfe we ihall take. who fuiFered his Friend to periih for want of Help. thinking it perhaps the Firft. To This he replies. upon What Occafions we ought to conlult them. and poifefs ourfelves with that Indifference. both in Confequence. : 143 put. and What ufe is to be made of their Determinations. That theConfideration of thofe Things we enquire about. to throw off thefe Paflions. and Things put of our Power . as to copfult an this arifes To this : U 3 Oracle . nor any Averfions along with it For at this rate it would be impoffible to xome without great anxiety and diforder. and towards God. having given Direftions for the underftanding and due difcharge of our Duty to one another. becaufe they anfwer thetnfelves For. as neither to bring any Defires .

or to fix them upon fit and Worthy ObJeQs ? The Queries ufually put. can be in themfelves good or evil . which are out of our own power. what is their Duty to the Gods in thefe Cafes namely. he takes occafion to inform Men. For Philofophy hath afifured us. that. and unneceiTary Scruples. are quite ot another ftrain . you have it ftill in your power to convert it to your own Benefit. dillurbs the whole method of Pivination. . That v/hen we have asked their Advice. From that Expreffion.244 liiuft I c s's Morals which his Oracle upon the Events of thofe. And you will efcapeall immoderate foiicitude. Whom will that Man be diredkd by? And indeed. be the Accident whatever it will. have a Notion. They that are skill'd in thefe Myfteries. own Choke ever enquired at a Shrine. as we ourfelves are not made Mafters of by Nature. there is not any more ppobable or more frequent ground for our Stifinefs and Difobedience. is we is want the Soothfayer's Work. to reduce them within juft bounds. we ihould be fure to take For he that confults God ^imfelf and yet refufes to it follow his Advice. than 'the PrepoiTeJTions we lie under. and the ftrong Byafs of our own Inclinations and Averfions. 'tis plain our Defires and our Averfions ought not to have any concern in the Divination. fo inconvenient and fo hazardous upon fuch occafions . and confounds the Omen. luhen you profefs to ask Coufifel of the Gods. This and out of the compafs of our own Knowledge: But the Quality of that Event we know as well as he. That none of thofe matters. The only thing Who fome particular Event. That an extreme Pafllon and Concern in the Peribn applying to the Oracle. when you remember. So that this Calmnefs will be of advantage in that refped alfo. Befides. and the more difaftrous. : . . fo much the more beneficial ftill may a prudent management render it to you: And therefore come boldly (fays he) and caft ufide vain Fears. being fuch things. and by confequence none of them proper ObjeSs of our Inclination or Avernon. So that from lifnce we have difcovered one advantage more of approaching the Deity with a difpafllonate and unprejudiced Mind: For this will not only deliver us from all thofe Anxieties and Fears. an4 to be fatisfied in. Whether he out^ht to regulate his Inclinations and Averfions. determine. Whether a Voyage (hall be profperous ? Whether it be advifable to marry? Whether the purchallng fuch a parcel of Land would turn to good account ? And thefe. but it will ^Ifo difpofe US eiceedingly to % ready Compliance.

and the fureft ^ulesofArt. do not always fucceed right. Or a Man may reafonably enough ask . or Sleep. things purely accidental." that even thefe trivial Undertakings are fometimes attended with very ilrange and very difmal Confequences yet generally ipeaking. (I mean) that Experience. . and which Plants will turn to beft account. no helps of Experience and long Obfervation. Thus much is agreeable to Reafon and common Senfe. and lead a virtuous Lfe. can enable us to pronounce what they ihalj be. efpecially if the Seafon of the Year. Nor . If it were not fo. and fall ihort of what is defigned. and his Schemes and Models are drawn by Rule and Art. what Seafon or what fort of or what parcel of Land Grain. The Next Enquiry he goes upon. But Itill 4 tural Caufes. fuppofal (hi I. Nor does he deiire the Prophet to refolve him . contribute to the rendring it hazardous for him. and deiire they (hould. they fall out ju(l: as we intend. and Choice does frequently miikke. for the belt concluding Reafon. and thefe he declares to be fuch only. . or any other Circumllances. concerns thofe things.with SiMPLicius's Commenr. becaufe this is the Buiinefs of a Surveyor. whether one fliould go abroad into the Marker. becaufe Nature teaches us the neceflity of thefe Refrefliments. for every wife and good Man fees and feels the Advantage of doing fo. or Drink. that no humane Prudence. Nature fometimes works out of her common courfe. \t it be proper to undertake fuch a Voyage. But he may perhaps enquire. have not : . . Nor would it be proper to enquire. fiil and we cannot poflibly fubwhether it be advifable for a Man to improve in Wifdom. or to li'eJlminfier-Hall^ or walk a turn into the Fields For tho' it be true. or fome other na- inlhuded him in thefe things before. to be governed by the Will and DireiStions of God. And where there is a very high Probability. there all Divination is needlefs. for this is a thing abfolutely neceffary to be done. nothing in the World could be exempt from it. which are the proper Objeds of Divination . Nor does the Farmer defire to be fatisfied whether he ihould fow his Corn. whether it be fit for a Man to Eat. and fuch as is moil commonly anfwered by the Event . what fcort of Houfe he ihall build. 245• and leave us free to refign ourfelves entirely. upon a without them. or not. For no body confults an Oracle. whofe End is perfedly dark and unknown: Where nothing but the Event itielf can give us any light. U . no Rules ot any particular Art.

and unreafonably. vouchfafe to communicate to any Man the Knowledge of Natural Caufes by immediate Revelation . ought For this will give us a clear and to be learn'd that way. and we fliould do ill. Doubt behind. and yet the making fuch or fuch a Judgment of Things is our own proper A€t . For the primary Talent. none of the moft eminent Reputation for Philofophy neither. An aiTurance from Divine Teitimony. and differs very much from Science. undoubted perception. I muft needs fay. and are not be few Exceptions to the contrary. that the Soul is immortal. the very Otherwife we ihall as we live. and proper Objeft of this. may give us a firm belief of the thing. fuch as improve every little Accident into fomewhat terrible and ominous. with SubmiiTion. and would make us utterly unactive. and fuperftitious Fears . but fuch as contented themfelves with credible Teftimonies. and the difcovery of Effeds from their It leaves no Caufes is the true fcientifical Knowledge. Whereas Qod Now *•'"• ' feems . the' fome Perfons have addrefs'd to Qracles for Myfteries in Nature. than to be at the trou|i}e qi attaining tp a demouilrative Evidence. but fatisfies ourfelves. yet they were but few who did fo . Becaufe feveral of the Ancients feem to have confulted the Gods about fome Difficulties in Nature. And. and afraid ever to attempt any thing fo long difturbed at the few. and confeiTed to be one of thofe Things which come within the compafs of our Will. in refufing Credit to fuch a Tcftimony. but ftill this is only And if God Faith. That whatever is attainable by Reafon and Logical Demonilration. But here Whether arifes a Query-worth a little confideration. and fuch as falls not under the common Rules of Divination. and chofe rather to take Things uponTruft. nor to be depended upon from it. What Opinion we ought to entertain of the Soul Whether it be mortal or immortal: And. this is to be look'd upon as an extraordinary Favour. It is.z^6 ftill Epictetus's Morals is there no difficulty worthy an Oracle in thefe matters . a fpecial Cafe. Whether we ihould apply ourfelves to fuch a particular Mafter or not: And the Rea: fon of this doubt is. the confulting of Oracles concerning matters with- in our own power be wholly difallowed: As for inftance. is only to inftrud Men in fuch uncertain Events of human ASions. and enables us to inilrud and convince others. becanfe we reft fatisfied in great Probabilities. as no Art or Confideration can bring them to any certain Knowledge of. and thofe. be over-run with idle Whimfies.

Two Perfons upon their Journey to Delphos^ were fet upon by Thieves. and expelling that Mifcreant out of his Temple. he introduces a God confirming this Opinion by his own pradice. Whether expofe a his . For the fame reafon. that the performance of This may It would coft us our Fortunes. P» . and Socrates heiore him. And upon that account. or our Lives. 247 feems plainly to have delign'd This tor the Soul's own Work and by infufing into us a Principle of Liberty and Reafon. Man ought to relieve his Friend in diftrels. that thefe things mnft bedone and no Hazards can be fo formidable. he gives us an inftance. After this Argument. which in comparifon of our Souls. for that which hath no difficulty in it . or our Eftates. bear but a diftant Relation to us. which our own Reafon will convince us is fit and neceiTary to be done. with SiMPLicius's Comment. we muft fet about without more ado.. though we are fatisfied. and ought to be dearer to us than our Bodies. wherein the Prophetick God declared his Difpleafure. ihort is thus. the Other was The Surviver continued his Travels. While One of thefewas no farther folicitous than to make his own efcape. : . and where we muft be loft to all fenfe. To what purpofe then do we trouble the Gods. came to the Oracle. intimating. but it is back'd with this invincible Argument. That our Duty ought to bedifcharged. even at the expence of the greateft Sufferings and Dangers . who did not relieve his Friend. that he might fave himfelf. feem a Hardfhip. in regard that the Soul is as impertinent and fuperfluous . and when he killed. fufficiently qualified to make ihofe Difcoveries by her own Strength. to have left the Contemplation or our own Nature as one of the Subjeds molt proper to employ our own Study and Pains. or Perfon in defence of his Country. and not raife idle Doubts. expell'd him the Temple and reproached his Cowardice and bafe Psferiion of his Friefid. That Virtue is our own proper Good. if we be not able to fatisfie ourfelves? And befides. Becaufe right Reafon cries out aloud. againft One who came to have this Scruple refolved For That. you feehe difapproves of that^^^ry. but fuffer'd him The Story in to be murder'd. as that the moft certain profpedb of ihem ihould juftifie our negleSing to do fo. or frame frivolous Excufes. in this following manner. both Epiaietus. feem to condemn and forbid fuch Queftions. the God rejedled his Addrefs.

^hyfiaughter''d Friend to Us for '^ufiice cries. That then. nay. which rtndred him unworthy to approach the Shrine oi Apollo ^ was the Difpofition of his Mind. yet that Uncertainty by no means difpenfed with him for not attempting it. fain. And that this is the true ftate of the Cafe. and gave him this following kind Invitation. as having Blood upon him . would he never fa might not have been able to fave his Fellow Traveller's Life. ^hat Zeal^ which Death and Danger did difdain^ difubedient IVeapon cannot fiain : Spotlefs thy Handy andgen'rous thy Defign.^ . Epictetus's Morals prefumpiuous Wretch^ thefe Riies profane^ with polluted Gifts our Altars : ISlor prudent Fears and threatnivg Fate pretend \ Falfe to thy God^ thy Honour^ and thy Friend. Thefe had got one of them at an Advantage. hemifs'd When he came to the his Aim. and to facrifice a Life which he ought to have defended . . pofed. hedurft not approach. which prevail'd upon him to betray his Friend. tho' it had he intended had been never involv'd himfelf in the fame Fate. yet polTibly he . that this Perfon. I'hej'e claim thy Blood in any danger near^ And muft condemn that baje and guilty Fear^ IVhich of a Coward made a treac^rous Murderer. who were likewife befet with Thieves.^ '^ A The Guilty mifgKi ding Fate's^ the Glory's Tkinff. His Inclination and Endeavour ihould not have been wanting tho' that Relief unfuccefsiul . Now. in tendernefs to That which he ought to have exit Now tho* Is plafn. JSlor ^ Henceforth dare Hcy to bejufl and brave \ for knovj^ that declines to ward it^ gives the Blow. They Approach^ brave Man^ the Gods are '^ufi and Kind only hate abafe andrntird^rous Mind. Oracle.^48 Do Kot. And his expiring Groans have pierced the Skies : Yet not jor Vengeance but Rewards theyfue^ Rewards to Courage^ and to Friendjhip due. is no lefs evident from another Inftance of twoPerfons. cleared him of the Scruple he lay under. and whilftthe other darts at the Rogue. and killed his own Friend. but the God juilified his Adion.

One Caution I think neceiTiiry to be added here. but have applied themfelves to the Study of it for fome time.{ f rSi r'. with yonrfelf ferioufly. and exprefs your fenfc in . hedid notonly contra6t was more pure. z^^ Now. and feveral of thofe which follow afterwards. s's Comment. Si S: ?K Si «if CHAP. difcouric. then to be meafurit is very plain. that Virtues and Vices are but by their ined by Succeis. and the Sincerity of their own Hearts. though it was his Misfortune. thofewhich I have laft Explained. for the Is. . if by the ihedding at all no Pollution but this Blood. one of your LET and when you fuch Subjects XLI. are adapted particularly to a midSuch as are neither utterly i^^norant of Phidle fort of Men lofophy. confider. That we are to better underftanding of our Aurhor. becaufe he intended well. yourfelf to as are neceflary. And this is fufficiently intimated to us. rS •'. and abroad in Company. COniider is XL. fo exceeding contrary to his Intention . Now : CHAP. confine Principal Rules be Siletice. or by the Action themfelves nocent Intentions. honeft Deiires. and made toJerable advances towards PerfeQion. and recommended by it to the Acceptance of the Deity. both at home alone.with Simp Lie 1 . that the Event was fo very Tragical. by the frequent repetition of thofe Words. what Figure for you to make in the World i and then fix upon a Method and Rule in order hereunto 3 which befuie toobferve nicely.{ $] • fJ? S? St Si 3? S. norabfolutely Mailers of it . moil fit jK jK St !{? Ji^ >i? «K & rV. tho' they have not yet attained to it. ( If you have any Philofo• phy) upon every occafion'. \{ S? rl• i•. what fort of Perfons thefe things are addrefiedto.

it not be upon any of the common Topicks of Talk. Horfe-Races. and bring it to But if you are among Peoto becoming Subjeds. And when once that is done. nor to be laviih in their Commendation. fo to model all hisAdions. to a Man's felf. muft bekeptconitantly in view. and fuch as will not endure Reftraint or Reproof. ' ' By . which makes ic feafonable for you to ftart the Difcourfc. and what Part to play upon this Theatre of the World. he tells him. ple of another Temper. Wines. XLII. to be learn'd owing . But above all things take care not to talk of other People . try to change the Difcourfe. Duties. as fometimes perhaps ic will. This. the Nextmuft be. Company. adviijng his Proficient. are the Next thing and thofe he begins to treat of here. Fencers. (for to fuch a one he writes now) to make it his firft Care. Meats. then hold your own WHEN Tongue. both in publick and in private. nity happens. let CHAP. what Figure he intends to make. or Entertainments 5 which the generality of the World ufe to make the Subjeot of their Converfation. ever you happen into COMMENT. fuch as Plays. to determine with himfelf. Faihions. as that they may confpire together to the maintaining of that Charader. where you have Authority and Influence enough do it. neither fo as to cenfure their Conduit. nor to make invidious Comparifons between one and another. that his whole Behaviour may beievel'dat it.%SO I c s's Morals But if an Opportu-'i in as few Words as you can.

and didates what . and to draw her Thoughts and AffeQions off from the World. as will confift without Infirmities. and thought it the moil aufpicious Beginning they could poffiblymake. Now of all the Expedients proper for this CharaSer. and his Life all of a piece. For. and fets the Thoughts to roving . and that much more indeed. and not EflTufions. that a conliftent with himfelf. that we may be able to ftand the Shock and the Variety of them. and therefore we muil fix ourfelves upon a good Bottom. like a troubled Sea. For there the Soul only cooperates with the Organ. as the Winds and Tide change. by holding ones Peace. and Circumftances. is indulging in all Not that an Univerfal Silence it. and an inordinate Concern for the Body. T\tPythagor<eai3s^ you fee. and bears it Company. Socrates is faid to have attained tofo great a Maftery in this Point. Thefe are too exalted. is a great degree of Silence. when they would think with greater Attention ) fo Speech of neceffity lets loofe the Mind. the Tongue utters. force him into a dejeftedand melancholy one. do carry the Mind abroad with them. Man xfi ihould be always I fuppofe he means. expeded from us. But he hath fuited himfelf to our Temper. were fo fenfible of the Benefit. which is ever ebbing and flowing. No. Neither Pleafure and Profperiiy could give him a more fcnor any of thofe which the rene and gay Countenance World call Calamities. For the Circumftances of Humane Life are no lefs fickle than thefe. but here flie is the firft and principal Mover. and the fenfual Appetites and Pafllons.with By which SiMPLicius's Commenr. (a plain Intimation whereof we have in that common Cuftom of Mea (hutting their Eyes. than Silence. when fix'd upon External Objeds. For the defign of all Moral Inftrudions is chiefly to confine the Soul within her own proper Sphere. as the World goes. and. not fiuduating and uncertain. the firftandmoftconfiderable. . than any outward and fenfible Objed. which he recommends. unattainable Perfedions. And the only effedual cure for this Ramkeep it blirigis to it at its home. and the Affairs of the World: There6 fore . and expeds only fuch. In fuch perfed Agreement was he conftantly with himfelf. nor fo high a degree ot as that x\^^Pythagoraam required. which is the Improvement and Contemplation of herfelf. And no One thing contributes more totheeifeding of this. that the Air of his Face was always the (ame. that they impofeda:^«x»quenntal Silence upon all that entred into their Difcipline. astheSenfes.

give them a reverent Senfe of God. and the neceffities of the Animal Life. fomething which may advance the Love and Pra6tice of Virtue. He does not know what he fays. and drelles beft. of Words. yet be fure ilill to cbierve the former. and of his readiuefs to help and forward all thofe in the praftice of Virtue. and indulging yourfelf in a larger proportion of Talk . to be as brief as convenientfy we can. and not go out of the Road \ have dirciled you. Such as fpecially tend to the promoting of Wifdom and Virtue. will colled himfelf into a little Room. what Subjecls we ought to converfe upon. comfort them under AfRidions. And in mentioning this Word Neccjfary^ he hath given US avery coi-npendious Hint. not only when you are provoked to it. as the anfwering to what is asked us. Let your Subjeds be fomething of Nectffity and Ufe. fcorn the idle Prattle. For tbefe being but very few. the improvement of the Mind. and fometimes get within a Man's AfFedi- Who ons . Cookery and Wines.' than is nec-elfary . and fuch Stuff. becaufehe will fay nothing but what is material. who are careful to implore his Aid by Prayer. by which I underitand Speaking. minifter Advice to Men in Difficulties. or eats and Fealls. not loofe. even upon thefe moil allowable Occafions. and having fomethingof Subitance and Bulinefs in them. or Faihions. reform Such as may the Paflions. For thefe Subjeds are apt to make a ftrong Impreflion upon the Fancy. honourable and becoming Opinions. For it is very obfervable. or at lealt to fpeak no oftner. an awlul Admiration of his Divine Excellencies. and impertinent things. drinks. Horfe-Pvaces. and diredly to the Point in hand. aifiif them in the fearch of the Truth. fo much as flight and iupetficial Notions of the Things he is talking of. But if at any time an Occafion of enlarging offer itfelf. or the like. and hath a clear and true Apprehenfion. Tho' there may be a neccificy for difpenling with the Latter of thefe Rules. nor till it with wild and extravagant Ideas. generally underThere is nothing difpofes a Man to a multitude ftand leaft. or inftruft the Underitanding. But one who goes to the bottom of Things. That thofe who talk mnft.^ Epictetus's Morals fore he adviles us either to be filent. and empty. and no more. but beginning fomeDifcourfe of your own Accord. of his Providence. and that is theReafon he does• not know when to give over. He hath alfo ordered us. and the like. But as for the common ridiculous Themes. do not confound the Mind with Levity. fuch as Fencers.

and Pride. For our Imaginations. BeOdes. And indeed . i5'3 ons before he is aware. and hence he adds that Emphatical Caution. which he fanfies gives him a Right to arraign his Neighbours. divert for it makes the Soul from itlelf. than if we pronounce wrong thofe other• trifling Matters. and therefore we fliould be very fparing and tender in this Point.with SiMPLicius's Comment. There is nothing more evident than that this Topick does. and troublefome. with good Reafon. That it (Irangely fwells one with Vanity. by hear6 ing . which his own Inclination would moil difpofe him to . who hath made fome prog're'fs in Hhilofophy. But above all tilings. As. and oiir Company with talking of other People. in a more than ordinary manner. To prove the Importance of this Advice yet more. he does it it out of fome imagined Excellence in Himfelf. (for we are infeniibly drawn in to love and hate Things and Men by talking of them ) yet there is one peculiar Vice in Converfation. where they have nothing to do. being one. worfe than the Subjeds mentioned before? To this we may reply. and impertinent. And befides. venient to draw him oif from thofe things efpecially. he gives us warning not to entertain ourfelves. and Contempt of others. But above all things. or this Man Braver. and its own Bufinefs Men bulif. nor free in making Comparifons between one Man and another. For whoever pretends to fit in Judgment upon the ConduQ of Others. as with fomething that relates to Mankind. and their Affairs and A6lions. or the like. That the fame AfFedions are ftirred in us by both Difcourfes alike. nor to be ptofufein their Praifes. tho' it be true. and lays a reilraint upon our Ears. and curious. or Honefter than That. nitely worfe Confequence.. extremely inquifitive. and inconvenient Deliresarecheriihed. That thePerfon to whom the Advice is here dire6ted. which is. and of infi. when v/e pretend to give Charaflers of other People. is not fo likely to entertain himfelf with thofe trivial Matters. as well as our Tongue. for Peoples Manners to be formed by their Difcourfe. It was therefore con. any miftake in our Judgments of Men is more inexcufable. neither fo as to call their Behaviour to Account. That this Lady is handfomer than That. But why fhould this (you'll fay) do fo more than any other ? And what can our talking of other Men have in it. and have a very unhappy Influence upon all his Converfalion: And it is really no unufuai thing. they give aTindure to his Appetites. he proceeds farther.

he might defign . and grow perfedHy carelefs . and do not check them. and no Shame. and preferve yourfelf from Intedion. therefore (fays he) if you are fallen in among Men of ill Temper. nothing will more effedually conduce. ( for thefe are the Perfons he calls People of another Kidney) yet at leaft difcountenance them by your Silence. the Rever- Now . to take all the prudent Methods we can . Bur. when it is full and runs over. fort of Evacuation. who give themfelves thefe indecent Liberties^ if fome perfon of Gravity and Authority fit by. fpoken of by others. The very nature and manner of it feems to fpeak thus much. but upon few Occafions } and not be much. as well as by fpeaking of them ourfelves. CHAP. AFter the former General Precept of an even Temper. no Senfe of Decency hath any longer power upon them. which it finds for Joy. and turning it to fome other more manly and becoming Topick. a kind of Vent. which the Mind gives itfelf. which miniikr fuch Thoughts. becaufe this is not to be done at all times. nor will every Company bear it. than a prudent Frugality in Difcourfe. when you C NT. of putting a flop to fuch Difcourfe. or loud. and Uniform Behaviour. he tells his Proficient in Philofophy. they then think they have a. Therefore he direds us. privilege of faying what they will. The fwelling of the Lungs. that we ihould underftand him to extend his Rules Laughter is a to the contrary Extreme of Grief too. And befides. which are commonly expreifed by Laughter. let it XLIII. to which. your own Breaft. Anid perhaps by this of Joy .254 Ep I CTETus's Morals ing the Subjects. by withdrawing from their Difcourfe into no Breeding. They. the Interruptions of Breath. LAugh do. or vicious Gonverfation . the Next reftraint is put upon the Excefles of Mirth. take advantage of his Patience.

That neither of them are then in that fedate and fteady Temper. For fo I underftand his forbidding it to be much. Nor ihould it be noify. which Nature and Reafon find moft agreeable. and Confiitence with himfelf. but by juft ineafures. But jf there happens any thing. and indulged Tears . which refembles the purling of Waters. and Emotion . CHAP. and appear unrcafonably four and morole. and violent. That there are very fevv things in Converfation .it as much as you C was due ruptions and Vehemences of Selves . yet fo as to make no great altera^ tion in the Face. as an Argument of infuiferable Levity. IF it XLIV. nor to continue long at a time. but can. which will juftifie much of ir. All confefs plainly. in the Soul and Body both . avoid Swearing altogether. that he condemns the lau^^hing upon every occafion. and convulfive . if you cannot do that abfolutely. which reto the reltraining thofe X . The fame Inconveniences follow upon the other Extreme. A man that is eternally upon the Giggle.' and fcarce exceeding a Smile. Which indeed is never to be preferved. give as great a ihock to a Man's Judgment. which may juftly provoke Laughter. For immoderate Sorrow. yet at leaft it muft be allow'd.with Simp Lie lus's Comment. but ihew the Evennefs and Government of the Mind . which moves the Lips a little. yet be fure to decline. and a conitant Moderation in every thing. iliews a mighty defed of JudgmenCj and that every little occalion of mirth is mafter of his Temper . THE fpeds our Firft place in this Catalogue of Duties. For this reafon it ought not to be frequent . E- which give a diftur- bance . for fear we be fufpeded to want this property of Human Nature. 25*5' Reverberations of the Air. All thefe betray an extraordinary Vehemence . and that cackling noife. r. For this Reafon it is. by being modeft. though we are not abfolutely to decline it. when it thus blows him up into exceffive Joy. be poffible.

As. or pay fomi' Forfeiture. or untrue in our . The Next he affigns to that» wherein the Honour of God is concerned. to make bold with God. For the very Nature of an Oath coniifts in this. as if we can pofllbly help it. or miy Relation . CHAP. And a man. DEcline XLV. That it invokes Almighty God as a Witnefs and introduces him as a Mediator. Or if my Country. when once we have brought ourfelves under fo folemn an Obligation. . by frequenting Company that are tainted. But if there be any urgent and unavoidable Neceffity for doing it. and engaged God as a Witnefs and a Party in it. and other fuch like. than allow himfelf the Liberty of Swearing. left you be infeobed with rude and vulgar Converfation For know. and mixed Companies} but if any extraordinary occafion call you to them . never to bind our Souls with fo Sacred an Engagement at all. upon every trivial Occalion. but then we muft be fure not to proftitute our Confciences. to be unfaithful to our Promife. or a Falfe Accufer. and the Peace of it command this Aflurance of my Fidelity In fuch Cafes. all Publick Entertainments. no Confideration muft ever prevail with us. yet. . from the Injuries of an Oppreflbr. (and few of the Affairs of Mankind are any better) is to take a very unbecoming Fjeedom. and a Bondfman to undertake for our Honefty and Truth. and render our Behaviou^ Irregular and inconfiftent. : Aflertions. Even fo. : COM- . that is duly cautious. if thatTeitimony of my Truth be required to refcue my Friend . he will of neceflity contraot fome Pollution from them. Refpeft and Duty then ought to make us decline an Oath. keep a ilriot Guard upon yourfeir.^S^ Epictetus*s Morals bance to the Quiet of our Minds. Now . For. and fuch as argues great want of Reverence for fo tremendous a Majeity. that though a Man be never fo clear himfelf. and tender in thefe matters would rather undergo fome Trouble. we may take an Oath indeed.

: . The Eating and Drinking part. in regard of the mighty difference obfervable. gratifying the Palate and fenfual Appetites: They are not the Entertainment of a Man. which Nature is moft prone to. That we keep a ftriot guard upon ourfelves. between thofe of Philofophers. called by the Name of their Sympofia^ and are an account of the Difcourfe which paiTed . and will decline them as much as is pofllble. or Civility and Complaifance. fcribes Rules. by mutual Conference. which make Provifion for the Body. when Friends met to eat and drink together. and Excefs. affiduous Enquiry into the Truth . a common Meeting of Friends or Relations. but the Cramming and Gorging of a Brute.^ with SiMPLicius's Commenc. to their immortal Honour. till at laft he defcend to thofe. and fo proceeding to others. 15-7 COMMENT. His Next defign is. he preheaded Monfter. which light Thoughts of his Majeily are apt to encourage in us. and all the Jollity. wife Difcourfes. and fets Bounds to ieveral initances oi it beginning with thofe which are moft neceifary for the fuilenance of Life. : without Difcourfe^ is not fo properly a Table ^ as a Manger good Man therefore will be careful how he mingles himfelf in fuch Meetings . to chain up that manyAnd. But if any extraordinary occafion draw us abroad. and moft juftly fall under the Reproach of an old Obfervation The 'Table which gives us . and thofe of common Men. Defire. Chapter was intended to give us a due God and to check thofe Liberties. the Invitation of a Parent. fuch as a Solemn Feftival. but Luxury. from thofe admirable Pieces of P/^/o 2iX\a Xenophon ^ znd Plutarch^ and Others. and a free Communication of each others Studies and Opinions.. which is the End andBufinefs of mo ft Invitations. regard to . But the Entertainments of the greateft part of the World propofe nothing to themfelves. where the thing cannot in good Manners be refufed . Men of Senfe have always look'd upon as the leaft part of a Feaft And their Meetings have been defigned only for Opportunities to improve one another. and large Companies. This is exceeding plain. That we awaken our Reafon ^ and Meat A X % call . former THE and awful And there was good reafon here to give a particular Advertifement concerning Feafts. in order hereunto. then the Next care is .

confidered in make a thing perhaps much to be wiflied. could be independent. Choofe and luch Proportions. and no Dif- m CHAP. But as for all beyond this. . as will moil conduce to thefe Purpofes. Whoever therefore alows himieir the Converfation of Perfons addided to Vice. : . that-fo noble a Being as the Rational Soul. (for that I take to be the meanmg of frequenting them) will foon contrad their Pollutions.call Ep ictetus's up all Morals Mind our Powers.^5^ . ol fuch Kinds. And this indeed is the proper Notion ot Pollution the foiling of a clean thing wich an unclean and thereby cafting a Blemiih and Stain upon it. for he gives us Diredions ior the Uie of them here. is a ftrange Contagion in thtm. Apparel. or more fatally . . and referves the Procuring of them to be treated of hereafter. mull It were Nature. and grows accuilomed to their Vices. retrench and defpife it. theleaft Touch leaves a Tindure behind it. itfelf. which niinifters to Vanity or Luxury. for fear ihe Tlu't\ a""''^^: ^ ramble abroad mdulge herfelf in the Diverfions of the ^ompany. eafe conveys ufelt more infenlibly. His own Innocence and Purity will not be able to fecure him In thefe cafes. L your Meats and Drinks. greatly tor the Honour of Human and would Whatever Glories belong to But that Soul . to watch the Motions of the l^or ^''"' Confinement. than enfual anabrutift inclinations do. XLVI. neceifary Supports and Conveniences of the Body fjrrt be acquired and then made ufe of. and Retinue. pjdetus hath inverted this Order. But £. ^Y^HE . and by degrees degenerate into their there Follies. and not ftand in need of thefe outward Conveniences. Ufe and Neceffity be the Rule of all the Provifions yoa make for the Body. Houib. COMMENT.

that the Animal Life in us muft be fupported but. fo mi- X 3 ierably . favours of Luxury and Extravagance. Yet ftill . and the Sharpnefs of the Edge He is not folicitous to have the Helve gilded. that we lee the Conftitmiujis of Men who live delicivuUy. but fuch as may contribute to the making it of fideration expofes . but prejudicial. and they would be a hindrance to his Tools. and better Health . can need no more. and render them lefs fit for the Ufes they were deiigned to ierve. nor the Handle (ludded with Pearl or Diamonds The reafon is. that it be kept in good order. and. are to remember.wirh S yet its I LIc I s's Commeni. . When the Carpenter choofes an Axe. 259 precarious Oate tible Immortality will not fuffice. and carry a kind of fecret Poifon in them. thafljuil fo much as will qualifie it for Service and Adion. For the only Bufinefs we have to do. it fiiews us withaJ. : : . the Fjody being the Inftrument of the Soul. thm to confider the Size. to repair the Decays oi a Body which is perpetually wafting. and moft wholefome. not only fuperfluous. And that this may be done at a much eafier rate. from the Examples of thofe whom neceffitous Circumftances compel to a plain and coarfe Diet. who yet generally have more Strength. Juit thus out. conftant Ufe to us. and all the Arts of ftadied Luxury. We That which ihould determine our Choice in Meats and Drinks. tho' this Con- own to fome wants. poor People with Rich. that Nature hath not made Varieties and . moft ealie of digeftion. Quelques Choces neceilary to this purpofe. For. This we (hall foon be convinced of. Body. than thofe that indulge their Palates. is very plain. in this indigent and where it is joined to a mortal and corrup. and afts in and by it. it That thofe Wants are not Many. Hiould be the Confideration. and the Shape. Hence it is.' if we do but compare Country-men with Courtiers . the Niceties of the Kitchen and Preferving Room. . and all beyond. they are treacherous Delights. in general . and fees afterwards.ht we to behave ourfelves to this Body of ours. they would be extreamly ridiculous and lingular too. he concerns himfelf no farther. this Inftrument of our Soul giving ourfelves Concern for no Supplies. which is moft natural and the moft ready at hand for thofe are generally the moft (imple. is. This is the true meafure of our Expences upon it. And therefore we may very well difpenfe with. Servants with their Mnfters. becaufefuch colt!} Ornaments would be. For Superfluities and dainty Meats do but opprefs Nature. and fare fumptuoufly.

'•^ Conveniences about it.rnn fliouM SL. we H^'^r' '"? '"'^. andThe ' aC Tub ^. or wear i? qui this ' a very impertinent L7t . ^"^'^ "''^^^ '° '^'^^ P'a" i" o"r • '^"""^^ '^^^'^^'^ ^« Apparel too.^^ ^ Man ntr i ^''}^'''''^'^ .ZZ ^^'' bim?e nimieJi f with a '"^'"^ iubikntial Gold and Silver for the '^'^ ^^" be nothing elfe. to have been brought arul w'^l' '^''' """ ^'^ "^ ^^^^ t)etween Nature inl^h^ which Socraus gave himlelf fo ^'^^ P^^^^^• Such a ^^^"^P^^t•"" oi deftroying the one. Otherw fe ''' ''' ""''' ^"^ Expence ."^ ZtZ'i 'f^^r'^^ •°" il en^iCh ^^^T'" hen^^ht content himldt.'"' ?" fame tho' at the ^."•"^ ihli ^^'A ^'''^ «^«^''i Prefcribeio us both ^K^'^'u'^'^'^'Q^^^^'^y' it about nefs nef kJ render ihall it '^' "Inf ^ of our Diet. v^dedihrhnfh^i?"?' ^his's a piece of mortification not re.^ Body. 'pro- i \ i .^hich would ' trouble. that we are b«^h in Wint'er and Sumto indulge himfeJf to delittle make him feem a per- '" °^^ ZJi?Ju CobvJeh?if'w rv. '^ ^^''^ ^° ^^^^ ^^^'^^^^ time he had a very fine auS. ^"d y« I ft^ould think with wearing fuch Linen and ""' "^7 ^ff^^^^' ^"'i to^^hange thfe S°"""y "^^^^ ^^^^""^ °^ '^^ Y^^^ ^all make makritmo//r''^"^r^'' it moil eafie and convenient for him. But for foreiirn ?^^^^^^ ' i"^h as put us upon fiih^g . ^^'^^^^'^^i . but Fopper^r''^'^ '^' "^^'^ °f ^ Pr^flig^fe Mind . ^^^'^^^^^^ '^ ^^^1 contented.. and the prefervinP it for'rh.^•'"^ ^T^ ^'^.e we ilLtr"'""' and miOaken TenderJnftrument lefs capable of doing the ^ndP^^h^Ps too. quite break.^.^.Epi ctetus's ' Morals TheHealth . Man Now is a very great happinefs. mlr ' TJe\ !^^ 7 ^^". for ' the fnl e of gratifying tiielake the other. therefore of the '".

and the proportion of our Eftates. than fo many Eyes continually upon you. and imagine himfelf wretched to thevery laft degree: And yet. when in the midil of his fo-much-admired Gaity and Splendour. he hath provided for himfelf. and another for the Females. or to make a great appearance. as to have enough of that which is neceffary and convenient for them . For Servants Ihould be always kept fo. hemufl: confequentexpofed toall the Excelies of Paffion.e. but to clear the way in the Streets . are fubjcd to the fame Limitations. cannot efcape the folly and mifery of placing his Happineis in them. 1 might add too. nothing done or fuid. that fo many Attendants are. And fure there cannot be a greater Slavery. and Marble Hearths. fuited to the feveral Months of the Year. run before a Chair. and fo will utterly negled the Improvement of his own Mind. whenever his own Occafions call him to a Place where he cannot be equally accommodated . The number of our Retinue. but to gratify our Curiofity and Pride. every Difcourfe over-heard. it will appear. That a Man who hath ufed himfelf to take delight in thefe things. no Freedom or Privacy left . or when thechangeof his Fortunes reduces him to a neceffity of parting with thofe Conveniences. and ufe of our Servants. but fo many Keepers. And it hath this farther Inconvenience in it. Idlenefs and indulgence on the one hand. i. and had more jnil occalions of lamenting his own Condition. the Mailers would do well to confider. if by any forget the true Felicity of humaneNature. this is not to fupply our Neceffity. at the Expence of fo much Labour and Treafure. and different Apartments. of the Family. That a Man ufed to fuch Things. and an impotent Mind. of Carvings. to have every Motion watched. and Fret-work. in plain Terms. the' indeed thefe diltind Apartments But to talk of thirty or are not abfolutely neceffary neither. theOccafion wehavefor them. of inlaid Floors. and yet to be always in Employment too Here we mull cut the middle way between the two Extremes. to any who efteems things rightly. in a word. and And. 261 be a decent apartment for the Men. which. that he was much more unhappy. fuch as have nothing to do. and Barbarity and Slavery on the other. and that very feafonably. without tribute to ly be : X 4 thtir . no Retirement fafe from Obfervation . and. forty Lodging-Rooms. Misfortune (as indeed there are a great many that iriay conit) he lofe thefe Enjoyments .with SiMPL I CI us's Comment. and Paintings. or hang behind a Coach . But as for vaft Crowds of Pages and Footmen. is condemned to a perpetual unealmefs.

a very moderate Attendance will ferve his Turn. After having made particular mention of the NeceiTaries of Human Life. and fubmit to the mean Arts of F lattery. and be able to bear Knowledge. whenever we exceed the Bounds of Moderation in any of our Expences. and maintained it. matter is not great. guilty of a thoufand Violences and Affronts. he exhorts in general to retrench all Superfluities. abandon the Rules of Wifdom and Virtue. if they pay dear for their and therefore let them go on. But. whofe extreme Neceificy had made him refolved to drop the poor Infant. for the Philofnpher. who conforms hinrffelf to EpiSeRules. and all this. which healone cannot puffibly difpatch. to bring up a poor Friend's Child. to do all that he can in his own Perfon. to thefe two Heads. lived a long time all alcne . they are often very troubleforae and injurious to Others. if Ep^Stetus in Charity had not taken it home . and faucy Cenfures upon befides the infupportable Inconvenience againft all oppoiition. far the State of keeping thefe Rake-hells about them. are forced to break their own Reft. Who all the while. and which h worfl of all. without being troublefome As ius his So that. abomioable Idlenefs. and become Slaves their own felves. and . the Vanity . . to gain leifure for attending to fome better Employment. that the Perfons of immortal Renown for their Wifdom and Virtue heretofore^ were fo extremely nice in this Point. till Repentance makes tbem wifer. he will have very litThus Epioietus is faid to have tle occafion for a Servant. One of And we are told^ thefe two is always the Caufe of it. or their Fellow-Servants ftand by them in their Rogueries. till at lalf he was forced to hire a Nurfe. that their Mafter's Authority will proteSt them. By thefe wicked Qualities. For his Concerns with the W>rld are not like to be very great. But if Men will be fo fund of a pro- them out their and fligate Life. Buiinefs.%6 their I c s's Morals It and You. of them in one's Own Family. rude and infolent to their Betters. except in cafes of Sicknefs. Xjuxury and Vanity. ihirking out of Markets and Shops. upon a Confidence of their own Strength . that their Mailers have. or fome to Others. and are the worft Enemies commonly. and undergo many H-udlhips. they grow lewd and debauched. or Retirement from the Affairs of the World. and making their Court. and he will not think himfelftoo good. reducing whatever is fuch. For indeed. Knaviih and vexatious to Tradefmen .

^ 263 and fo careful not to indulge themfelves any thing but That Diogenes after having ufed a long time to carry a VVooden-Diih in his Pocket to drink Water in.with SiMPLicius*s Comment. paiTed by one Day. fince it only ferved for a Ule. that Now Two llionger. he had now no farther occalion for it. and faw a poor Fellow taking up Water in the Palms of his Hands. kind of Bodily Pleafure hath this peit confirms and invigorates the Rational Soul. by walling the Habits of them. tranfgrefs any own Chaftity And be not too laviih. nor in Commendation of your own VirtUCa COMMENT. which his Hands could what was abfoiutely neediul : as well fupply without it. the Pleafure§ or the Bed. that it is able to mafter the Brutifh and Rebellious Appetites. by the Experience of Conqueils gained by fingle 8%^ encourages it to exert itfelf in new Attempts upon a Confidence. . with this At you indulge yourfelf in any Liberties of kind. the Diforders of thofe Appetites are to be fubdued ways . CHAP. let not the Conceit of this make you troublefome to others that are more frail. is of fo much greater Benefit to the Soul . be fure to wrong no Man's Bed. ABftain leaft . how perfeot foever your may be. nor as as poflibly from Marriage. But the Virtue of Continence in. and. and fo drinkWhereupon he flung away his Difh immediately ining it to the River. and dcferves to be xnore highly efteemed . either in reproving Their Faihngs. XLVII. in . But. in proportion as the Temptation is all ABftinence from culiar good Effe6t. "and keeping from frequent Repetitions of their feveral AQs. which is a Species of the Brutal. and by uling them to fubmit to the Difcipline of Reafon. and faid. if Fainiliarities Women before much you can 5 Law.

That there is another Method of dealing with them. but is particularly fo upon This . and give her the Satisfadlion of the fame unblemiili'd Virtue in his Own Perfon. So alfo both Cuftom and Pofitive Law have utterly forbidden . while Men are dieting for the Exercifes . notwithftanding they are natural to us. tho' Reafon and common Senfe will tell us. we cannot with any good Grace call that Invincible.. which lead to all thofe Enjoyments whereof Senfe is moil fond. might with good Care be fupprefs'd in Another. which they are forced to take. is very Reafonable and juft upon Many Accounts . habituated themfelves to Parting and Abftemioufnefs . That the Paffion be provoked in One cafe. excellently fitted for this purpofe and the Impetuous Sallies of the brutidi Inclination are check'd. Now that ilrid Chaftity. Epictetu s's Morals difficult and the Gonqueft more and noble than Now. if they allow themfelves to eat either above their ufual Quantity. That very near Relations lliould come together. That the unreafonable quantity of Meat. that Ambition for the Olympick Crown. and render the Solicitations of them more importunate. too. be reduced. and alfo by pofitive Laws. Perfons. for the fake of a «Sprig of Lnurel is vanquiih'd every Day. than other wife they would be. And thus we find . the reft. and particular Judgment. . and whenever they are fo. tho' infufed into them by Nature. Thus we fee. find no difturbance at all from the craving of their Appetites. Now . The Confequence of which can very hardly this I take to be. reftrains all Inclinations of another kind. vanquifhed by mild and gentle ways. may. which is here required before Marriage. or before their ufual Hour. and without any great Violence committed upon Humane Nature. which. and the Inclinations of thefe Perfons. 2. That the Man may be upon equal Terms with his Wife. we look upon it as an extreme Unhappinefs . muft needs raife thofe Defires.04 ftronger. and very vehement in their Solicitations. by good Management and Cadom. are yet almoft incapable of being moved towards one another notwithftanding any the moil engaging Charms of either Party . who have . to nouriih and ftrengthen them at fuch times. yet many Inftances make it plain. although in this Cafe Reafon be informed and direQed by Doctrines of Prudence and Morality. but quite contrary feel themfelves opprefs'd and indifpofed. and held in by this means . . The Appetites.

how tenderly human Nature can bear Reproof.. and upbraids our Weakneifes and makes the Comparifon . and emboldens Others to flight. But (fays he) if fome Liberties mult be taken yet keep at leaft withia For all beyond the * Compafs which the Law allows : that. which he expeds to meet with in Hers. or in commending your Own Virtue. For at this rate he infults. and peftilent Confequence . .with Simp Lici s's Comment. and while he is txpolingour Faults. we arc not much concerned whether we can do jt or no to the Truth that is. tAbufe^ >v!iat . That fo long as no Body tells us of our Faults. even by (hcfe who have a Right to do it . all this in and an ungovernable mind . * Tij'sts to he ttnderflocd ixias iiat g)Qhi'j:t(d by V-I. but put it upon hJmfelf. is impious and abominable . to God. . but all Laws whatfoever. that they are concealed from all the World.ere Simple Forrii^t:on of the Heathen Countries on.over us like a Conquerer. and ferve as Foils for his Merit.y any Hut-iar. do not only take oft" the ''eiI from Us. or elfe the Law not have made a Difference. I take to be this. is common. let not (fays he) the Conceit of this make yon tronhlcfume to others who have the Misfortune of being more frail. But if the Perfon reproving us. exalt and proclaim his own Viriues. why even the fofteft Rebukes are generally lb very ill refented. violated. And this again proceeds from a bafe Principle of Hypocrifie and Oflentation which makes the Opinion of the World our Rule in Judging ourfflves. we pleafe ourfelves with an Opinion . and how very few can endure to be chidden . only that we may l(X)k a great deal lefs. . This is very prudent and feai'onable Advice. by virtue of their PoA and Authorixy. not only this. one great Reafon. z6^ fon. And : Now . which is not known. and by degrees come to think nothing Fault. And be not ton either in reproving Their tailings. and if we can but approve ourfelves to Oiher Men . Conflitmim y bt*t tht 7''&!5 I'jaii refcrncd that . Befides. lince we fee. for it hardens a Man's felf . to lay and is of ill Example. from Perfons with whom we ordinarily converfe... this aggravates the provocation yet inore. ]^ But hozv perfcil• foever your own Chafilty may be . it . argues great Impotence. and fenced it in. for fuch Reproaches cannot but be very harili and grating. and to our own Confciences. when once the Authority which gave ih^m Sandlion .

fuch haughty Rebukes. . a Paffion which never feels itfelf more eafie to be provoked. eiFeftually filenced. ijt (J* ^ !* Jt' "tl** |<"|^ tjf ttf W !^^ TJ( •>! ^w tw «* ijfr ^jr ! tj» -• ^mt CHAP. That anoof you. or to work any Good by them. For he gives a Man the faireft Opportunity in the World to excufe his Folly . iefs is expeoied front Him . but even to the Author himfelf. But befides. and therefore his Failings are no great Matters: he thinks his Own Reprover dicated. But . who hath once difcovered fuch bafe indirefi Defigns. you happen to be told IF ther Perfon hath fpoken ill COMMENT. and incline him to corre6l Mifcarriages. or excufe the thing 5 but rather put all up with this Reply That you have feveral other Faults befides that. by laying hold on the odious Comparifon. His feems direQed more particularly againft Anger. they corrupt all his Reproofs. are not only injurious to the Perfon defigned to be For leflened by them. and confirm him in his Infolence and Vain-glory . tiiey fwell his Mind with Pride. at any time. XLVIII. never trou-» ble yourfelf to confute the Report.j %66 Epictetus's Morals what can be more unequal than this . that our Competitor Ihould be our Judge ? Befides. not fo much out of any deiire to Reputation by reform them. as to raife his finking that of Others. mufl never exped to have his Reproofs heard with any Patience. it is likewife a Check to Ambition and Vain-glory. The Two great Fomenters of that Paffion. and Himfelf fufficiently vin- Sijl^ TjHp •| Pjl '''«^^^4^# M( rjf. and invidious Comparifons. and if he had known you more intimately he would have faid worfe of you. T&at He for his part is no Philofopher . And if he can but return this Anfwer. than upon the News of our being ilandered and mifreprefented. And he.

beiides what the World lays to our Charge. and the Teftimony of ones Breaft. Defire will be. that it fixes itfelf. the accufing ones own felf. . to draw her off from the World. <|pthe the Effed of fuch a can impofe upon the World recommend himfelf And Now : . and more Aifedation than Evennefs of Spirit. You may call Moderation and Temper. and throw himfelf to whom all upon an Appeal to the Judgment of God hearts are open. while we endeavour to pluck it up. It hath alfo one conhderable advantage above other PaiTions. are often ftrongly tindured with it. which is. us here not to juftifie ourfelves. . Cenfure of the World. becaufe it is by Virtuous Adions only that we hope for Reputation. and are able to urge nothing But now . wherein we induftrioufly avoid Vain-glory. but it feems to be a very great Extreme. and perfuade himfelf of his Innocence. That he hath feveral other Faults be- Man of his own lides that particular this one laid to his Charge. and fcorns to make that a Rule for his Behaviour . That if he with falfe Pretences. Not conlidering in the mean while. and all that can and to make the Improvement engage her AffeSions there of the Mind. And indeed it is necellary fomeihing ihould do fo For This is a prevailing PalTion. and owning other Faults. To wean the Soul from what ihe is moil fond of. think him fo. Now when a Man is extremely and cannot reft fatisfied in thq folicitous to be cleared Approbation of his own Confcience. plainly fliews a ftrong defire to good Opinion of the World. the fole End and Buiinefs of Life. becaufe thofe Judges. . this Man. he will be fatisfied with the deceitful Appearance of Virtue too. ftiikes at the very Root of Oftentation and Vaiiv glory. when a Man fs got above the to the contrary. I fa^ . riveted clofe into the Soul. That its Vicioufnefs and Deformity lies concealed longer than any elfe. . and ftands condemned by the Teftimony of his own Mind againft him. and deceives us with a Colour or Virtue.with Sim Lie 1 s's Comment. by fo frank an Acknowledgment. to whofe Sentence he refers his A6lions. To this Objedtion we may fay That the Diredion is a^ greeable enough to the main defign of the Author in this place which is . for even thofe Anions. and every afiion known . and chiefly owing to it. fo intricately faftned and intangled there. he is under no Temptation of partiality to himfelf. but fees his own Faults. and liiher that he ihould advife the Puba Follies and Misfortunes. make 267 But it may very well feem ftrange.

an^lmpores Tasks . upon this account. Young men . and robs them. though performed with great Ala<. that thofe very Perfons^ who. are many times laid afide At leail they appear to be fo . becaufe. The Mark we aim at is Glory and Commendation. yet this is ilill retained . becaufe we do not make That our principal End. nor choofe the Good for its own fake. do yet without any remorfe indulge themfelves in unfeen Liberties. would otherwife feem fevere and infupportable Punifhments. without any eifciSual Reformation of the Mind . will derive upon us. by curbing the Ex•rbicancies. and the abftaining from the open Gratification of thofe Defires blows men up with a falfe Opinion of Virtue. this is all but Appearance. through the Heat and Rafhnefs of ihat .68 Tvhile. and loofe Imaginations. Conflifis with ourfelves. but the worfe upon this account. but only that there is no way to get the good Opinion of the World without it. when we have ilript our felves of the reit. Epictetus's Morals That this very courting of Applaufe fullies the moft commendable AQions. upon the whole matter. which . For it is plain. as flicking clofeft to it of all Paffions whatfoever . or correoling the inward Motions to Wickednefs. So that. and the Good we apply ourfelves to is not the Etrcil: oi Choice but NeThus many a Man would not be Jud (forinilance) ceiTity. That this Paffion feems to be extremely ufeful for the qualifying of For we are content to undergo many (harp fcveral others. It only puts a Reftraint upon the outward Ad. There are not any vicious Defires reclaimed by it . and deny feveral Inclinations and Enjoyments. and Hypocriiie . as it is a reftraint to our Vicesj. it puts us upon engaging in many difBcult Encounters. and adds to their Vanity ten times more.rity upon this account'. to fpeak ftrifily. For this Reafon. And. nor does this PalFion in reality make the Soul abandon Vice. of all pretenfion to Virtue. which Youth. reconciles us to Aufterities and Mortifications. There is this to be faid farther in its excufe. for for the fake of this. fo is it likewife a powerful Incentive and Spur to Virtue. It feems. Ambition and Defire of Applaufe are very iignificantly termed the inmoll Garment of the Soul. . to preferve their Reputation. capable of doing fome Service toI confefs. but for the Credit and Honour it. whofe Paffions ride high . And in truth the reft. abftain from grofs and fcandalous Lewdnefs. Thus we find. men are not one whit the better.

It makes the Opinion of the World the chief End of Adion. But this Temper recommended by Epidetus muft be fincere. when there could be no Profped of Applaufa to tenypt us. even in theAccuMany men know. an evcnnefs of Mind . For it abfolutely ruins all Virtue. extravagant and ilavifli Paffion. and yet at the fame time do<hey court. and. Now nothing can cure this Own CHAP. . if Fate fliould fo order the matter. It propofes Good to us. thofe importunate Solicitations wear off. 269 But when that Age. and fear Others. Nor is this only a dangerous Vice. and flatter. felves in their own Exprefllons . that to leffen themfations of ourfelves. without due Caution and prudent Care. and our Follies and Defeds publiflied to all the World . and defpife Others extremely . as eligible. is to befpeak the Commendation of others by a fly and a furer way. confidered as fuch. and lays more ftrefs upon recommending onesfelfto Others. and fuch as expofes all who are tainted with it . there would prefently be an end of all Vain-glory. than upon the S atisfadion and Teftimony of one's own Confcience. : whom they think fo defpicable. and whatever Good we do. And yet even This hath fome hazard in it too. not Good I mean. is fo exceeding apt to fly out into. but for the Honour and Fame confequent to the doing of it So that in ihort we never really choofe Good. and indited Ends. as that our Virtues and Advantages fhould be known to ourfelves alone. For it is eafie to perceive. becaufe we do not choofe it for its own fake. no Quality of the Mind can be more dangerous and deitruSive. to one abfurd and inconfiftent Folly. free from underhand Trickings. by reducing the Soul to bafe Principles. we ihall fall into the very danger we would avoid.with S I LIc 1 s's Comment. For Men of this Temper commonly value Themfelves. we ihould be invited to it for its fake. not for any Intrinfick Excellence of its own . upon thofe very Wretches. and become Vain-glorious. and all their Expeftation . That. and men grow into cooler Reafon . And indeed he recommends it upon very good Grounds. For affected Humility is the greateft Pride. but a moft extravagantly ridiculous one too . and pin all their Happinefs. fo effcSually as Moderation . and a frank acknowledgment of our own F"aults and Failings.

not betraying any Tranfport of the Mind. or long and vehement Emotion. COMMENT. is j XLIX. and make the whole Life of thofe that ufe them. fenfual and brutifli Appetites are not confined to fuch Objeds only. tor yourfelf alone.70 Epictetus's Morals CHAP. not to frequent them For in truth fuch Places leave a ilrong Infeftion. And what fort of Behaviour and Difpofition will become us with refped to thefe. by Shouting or loud Laughter . his in which a Man cannot. this plainly implies. difcover no is. . which the Entertainments are defign'd to Honour. he tells us here. . by laying down this Rule : That it is by no means necejfary or convenient to frequent the Puhlick Theatres. That it is abfolutely neceiTary . He might have faid indeed. aad make more folemn. or that the Violory ihould on any Perfon. nor enlarge upon things for which you are never the better For if you do. That it Concern but do not wiih the Suc- any other than is. refufe appearing there. but extend themfelves likewife to thofe which entertain our Sight and our Hearing. when the Play is over. and highly expedient . either upon fome Publick Feftival. and that you admired. : THE all Show and formality. by no means convenient that you ihould IT frequent the Theatres but any occafion hapif pen to cefs fall call you thither.2. as. that the Entertainment hath gotten within you. or in compliance with the Cu- ilom» . So again. do not difcourfe foiuch of what you faw there. For Let this will keep your Mind free and difengaged. and were highly pleas'd with it. without Injury to himfelf or CharaSer. But there may fometimes an occafion fall out. to become Theatrical. as our Touch and Tafte are employed in . your Behaviour there be eafie and fedate. except him that gains it.

indeed EpiJletMs his Caution here. are to remember. and approving the other with a iiknt Smile. there is a farther care to be taken^ J^ot to difcourfe largely upon any thittg vje have been entertained When with there-. with Simp Lie s*s Comment. (for it looks four and morofe to be Angular. And . fuch as may exprefs Gravity without Sullennefs. a ought not to think them worthy to be the fubjedt of his Dilcourfe.) of We may be invited thither. or at the requeft of Friends. and confequently fuch as our Defires and Averfions ought by no means to faften upon. and perfedly inFor w6 different where the Succefs of the Combat lights. yet eafie and good natured too. This inward Tranquillity is what Epioietus expefts our outward Air and Behaviour ihould (hew: That our Mien and Countenance be fettled and compofed. we muft be fure to call up all our Vigilance. and making us wifer. or reforming. by talking upon fuch Subjects as thefe: Or elfe he may only cut otf fome particular parts of our^Difcourfe upon thefe Subjeils. that thefe matters contribute not wifer or better. and every Event which is there prefented to us . than what may fome way conduce to the corre^ing of Manners. and how differently we are affedted with thefe MatIf therefore any of thefe. at difFerent times.. to collefl ourfelves and not let our Pafllons get loofe . the Succeffes of the Gladiators. and Mirth without Levity: Not making ourfelves troublefome and ridiculous. and iadvife us. as coniidering. but commending the one fort with Judgment and Moderation . or by burfting out into loud and exceifive Laughter at any comical Paifages that come before us . but be felicitous only for the Peace and Evennefs of our Mind . what Improvements we have itiade. the Sight is over. and that a Man cannot poflibly be edified. at all to the making a Man Man Now : . may bear different Interpretations For he rnay either intend it of all Things relating to thefe Publick Entertainments. either by loud Acclamations and Applaufes at what is well performed . as having a mind to be fatisfied. other reafonable Caufe. and without us. bring us to the Theatre. . that all thefe are things foreign. when we do make them the matter of our Talk that we ihould fay no more upon thefe occafions . xji ftoms of the World. And iince they are in no degree init'^u6tive. only to make an Experiment upon our own Selves. and decline the received Practices of Mankind. of not difcourling much upon Things for which we are never the better. or any ters .

or General. For it may very often happen that this will be expeded from you. or upon fome Now other account. But to run out. and that it appeared to be great and juft matter of Admiration to us. that the Mind is not in due temper. and enlarge extravagantly. without fome good Reafon which may juftifie our coming. which the Pretenders to Oratory and Poetry ufe to make. L. THE next thing he gives DireSion in. All which is very unworthy a Philofopher. which make Obfervations upon the Behaviour. Sometimes a Panegyrick upon fome great Prince. merely for Oftentation. or any thing that is properly Ours. 272- Epictetus's Morals And fuch Topicks particularly are thofe . of rude and unmannerly Morofenefs. which Civility and Good-Breeding may make necef- . as plainly difcover. be fure to preferve a grave and fedate Temper 5 yet do not run into the other Extreme neither. and a Defed peculiar to little and vulgar Souls. and condemn all fuch indecent and irregular Geftures. ± CHAP. is. BE not fond of going to every body's RehearBut when you do . is amanifeft Indication . were various. orStatefman. that our Minds were too much afFefted with it . fometimes the difcuffing a Point of Law. Sometimes a fine Defcription of a City . Sometimes they were Politick Harangues . either as a Teftimony of your Friendihip to the Compofer . or Country . fuch as thefe. thofe Publick Rehearfals. or a Mark of Refpeot dtie to the Great Man . he advifes us not to be forward in frequenting . nor indeed ever to attend them at all. and to proclaim The SubjeSs of thefe Rehearfals their own Eloquence. and have no concern with Virtue. upon what hath paiTed. fals. farther to themfelves than Vanity and Oftentation. who is his Theme. COMMENT. which propofe nothing or the like..

with
neceiTary.

SiMPLicius*s Comment,
thefe
;

273

And

Compliances are fometimes of great

Uie, and have good EfFe6l by taking off the edge of that Envy and Spight, with which all People are naturally perfecuted, who recede from the common way of living, and do not do as the World does.
the

Since then you muft in all likelihood be there fometimes, Next point to be gained is a due and decent manageyourfelf

ment of

upon

thefe occafions.

And

this will beft

be done, by a grave and compofed Temper; yet not fo fevere , as to be rude and troublefome. Your Gravity muft

ihew
your

itfelf in

commending Things

as they deferve

;

fo as

neither to be unfeafonable,
Praife..

nor immoderate and lavifh in Your compofed Temper will keep you orit

derly and quiet;

will prevent all irregular

Motion, and

loud Applaufe and impertinent Interruptions. It will continue the fame modeft, decent Air, without thofe fudden and vehement alterations , bothinlBody, and Mind, and Mien, which are but too frequent in fuch cafes. Your Eafinefs muft be preferved too all this while, that you may aand feeming void the Indecency of being over-thoughtful not to attend. By this alfo you will be kept from a fullen and aff"eded Silence; and, when Things are well faid, will not grudge them their due Commendation. It will prevent and that illall peeviih Cenfures and malicious Criticifms bred Roughnefs, which calls out to the Poet, and reproaches him with Falihood and Flattery, or a dull Thought, or flat and improper Expreffions. In ihort, the Eafinefs and Complacency expeoled from you, will coniift in fuch Candour and Good Nature, as feems pleafed with the Eloquence of the Rehearfcr, and the Merit of thePerfon commended, and can congratulate Both freely, when they deferve it, without any mixture of Envy or Detradion.
,

,

CHAP.

LII.

in BuGncfs with any Perfon, but efpecially if he be a Man of Quality and Power , confider with youvfelf, how Socratsi and Zjm would have behaved themfelvcs

«"T/HEN you ave engaged

W

y

2.

upon

,

^74
upon
this

Ep iCTETu s's
occafion,
to

Morals

a lofs,

how

manage your

and then you will never be at Affair with decency,

and to advantage.

COMMENT.
PHilofophical Perfons make their own Improvemeni the main Bufinefs of their Lives, and confequently meddle
not with any but themfelves ; fo that they are very feldom troubled with attendance and application to Great Men. Before Perfons fo unpradifed therefore , he fets Socrates and Zem for Patterns; that by taking Meafures from their Virtues and Demeanour, they may be able to manage fo nice a Point of Converfation and confider, that thefe excellent ^Perfons, when they addrefs'd to Authority and Greatnefs did not put on a ftiff Formality and dilfemble Refped ; but ihewed a true and genuine Noblenefs of Soul, agreeable to the Tenour of their whole Lives. And this too fuch, as •was the Refult of Philofophy and Prudence, and not the EfFed of Infolence and Vanity That this kept them in a due Moderation and Decorum ; between a fubmiifive Cringing, and a fawcy Pertnefs. The fame Temper will prevent any fuch mean and abjed Awe for theEminenceof any Man's Station, as (hould betray us into Flattery, and prevail with us to complement their Failings, and commend their Vices. And yet it will not fuffer us to prefume upon our own Authority and Wifdom neither; or fo far to forget Decency and Good-Manners, as to reproach and rip up thofe Vices in rude and opprobrious Language. It teaches us the fofteft and moft gentle methods of Reproof; and advifes, firft, to allow what they have done well and fo to make way for its due Praifes, juft and necefiary Rebukes. Thus fweetning the lefs-palatable part of our Difcourfe, with what we know hath an agreeable Relifh, as Phyiicians wrap up bitter Pills in Honey, to make them go down the more glibly. And when we mud at laft proceed to this moft ungrateful good Office, it will become us, not to be too rigorous Obiervers, nor too fevere Interpreters of their Adions ; as if their Deformities Were any Diverfion to us, or we took a malicious Joy in finding fault: But to demonflrate, by all our Carriage, That Reformation is our only End ; and to purfue this with a moft affedionate Zeal, expreffii>g great Tendernefs, and
;
:

,

,

,

with

SiMPLiciu s's Comment.

275•

and much Trouble and Concern, that the Luftre of their good Adions fliould be thus fullied and eclipied, by thefe Failings, and Blemifties, and rebellious Paffions. There is alfo another Topick applicable to this purpofe, which I do not doubt but Socrates and Zeno managed with marvellous dexterity and fuccefs Which was. To convince People of Condition , what a world of Inconveniences and Troubles Greatnefs was ever incumbred with and, that the only defirable thing in it is the Power and Opportunities of doing good and making that Good diffuiive and €ffe<3:ual, above Men of a meaner Capacity. So that thofe, who in fuch a Poft abandoned themfelves to Vice, and negleft to improve this advantage, retain the bitter part, and throw away all the fwe#t; are opprefs'd with the Miferies and the burdenfome Cares of Riches and Honour, and lofe all' the Coinfort and all the Happinefs of them. But all this while it muft be remembred, that Socrates and Zeno are propofed to us as Patterns, becaufe it is convenient, that we fhould fix our Eyes upon the nobleft and moil perfed Examples, and, far as we can, aipire by degrees to their Perfections. But ftill we muft in matters of Pradice be content to keep to our own Model, and fliall
:

;

,

,

acquit ourfelves very well, if our Aoh'ons bear proportion to our Condition and Charader. Nor can it be expefted that a young Proficient in Philofophy, and one, whom Epidetus fuppofes ftill to ftand in need of his Inftrudion, fliould be able , in his Behaviour and Converfation, to proceed juft as Socrates and Zetjo did. The pretending to perfonate thefe Great Men in all things, would not be Imitation, but Mimicry; and fit fo ill upon fuch a one, as to vain an. atmake Him and what he did ridiculous. tempt this would prove, we need no other Argument, than that account given of Zem hy Antigonus ^ the SuccefTor of Alexander in Syria \ who, tho' he had converfed with feveral Philofophers , yet declared, That he never could fo far command himfelf in Company with Zeno^ as to conquer his Diforder and Confufion ; and , That the very Prefence of that Man did (what no other could do) damp him with an uniual Awe and Concern. And thus Epiaietiis takes occafion, from direding us what Methods are proper to be uled in addrefs to, and conference with , Men in eminent Dignity , to defcend to inferiour Conditiqns , and give Rules tor CoRverfatipn in general.

How

3

CHAP,

iy6

1

c

s's

Morals

CHAP.
fit

LII.
it

Occafions make WHen your Quality, Man
a

neceiTary to

vi•*

of

refleot

with yourfelf

before you go, what may happen tp you. Poilibly he may not be at home j or if. fie be, that he "will not be fpoken with that the Porter may ihut the Door rudely upon you j that you may that none "Wait in the Hall among the Foot-men j of them will carry your MeHage to his Lord j oy^ if they do, that you will meet with nothing but Scorn and Negleot. When you have prepared yourfelf thus, if you think it worth your while co go upon fuch Terms, do it j and bear whatever happens, as you ought. But do not repine afterwards, and fay with yourfelf, That the Bufinefs was not "Vi'orth all this Trouble: For that is a Reflexion unbecommg a Philofopher, and ihews a vulgar Soul , not reconciled fufHciently to the Accidents of the World.
,

COMMENT.
be gives here, is much of the fame nature with with before in the Ninth Chapter; where he begins thus: In every yon undertake ^ conjider^ firft, with yuHrfelj\ and weigh well the Nattire and C'trcum' Only there indeed he continues and fiances of the Things &c. illuilrates his Dilcourfe, by a very low and familiar inftance of Bathings bur here he applies it to that much more important one, of application to Great Men. There is alfo
this other ditference between the two Paifages^ That the Conclufion and Defign of his Advice there, was to perfuade Men not to be too much concerned at things when they had happened , but to keep their Temper even , and iheir Reaion undiilurbcd; whereas here his Bufinefs is to bring Men to a prudent Forecaft, that they may not run on giddily , nor fee Things by halves ; but reprefent to them,

THE Advice what we met

selves

,

with

SiMPLicius's Commenr,
all

277

felves before- hand,

the poflible Difficulties and Incon-

veniences , which can rife upon them ; that they may take as true an Idea of all the difcouraging Circumrtances now,
it is poffible for the Event to give them afterwards. For after we have taken upon us the flavery of waiting upon a Great Man and met with thefe Difappointments and cold Negleds; we are apt to fit down difcontented and with much remorfe to condemn our own Folly, and

as

,

,

take

it

exceeding

ill

to be treated with

fo

much

Infolence

and Scorn, and fo unbecoming our Quality or Defert. Now all that DiiTatisfadtion is owing to one of thefe two Caufes ; Either , That we made a raih and ill Choice at firft ;

Or

elfe,

T.hat thefe external Accidents

make too

ftrong

and too tender an Impreflion upon us. And both thefe DefeSs betrays a bafe and a narrow Soul not fuitable in any degree to the Dignity of a Philofopher, who Ihould know how to manage, and how to flight, every Accident of this kind Not fufFering himfelf to be impofed upon like the ignorant Vulgar, with the falfe appearances of Things; nor mifl-aking thofe for matters of Confequence, which are, really and in their own Nature, mere Trifles, and of little or no conlideration at all to him. So that, having in the former Chapter inflruSed us, what Decorum is to be obferved towards Perfons of Honour and Authority, who are content to admit us to fome Familiarity and free Conferences with them, and propofed the Prudence oi Socrates Zcno for the Standard of pur Behaviour; he prefcribes to us here, the Rules proper to be followed where we are received with Coldnefs, and Dif<iaia, and rougher ufage: That, except where fome abfo;
: ,

^

,

lute NeceiTity requires,
;

we

fnould have

nothing

at all to

do with fuch Perfons and when any urgent occalion compels us to chufe this Attendance, and our Buiinefs muft be followed, though at the Expence of all thofe Hardihips and Affronts ; then we ihould fettle and compofe our Minds before and not expofe ourfelves to the misfortune of a Surprise, or the weaknefs of a late Repentance, and wiih
,

we

had never undertaken
us.

it

,

when

thefe things are

come

upon

CHAP.

2-7

Epictetus's Morals

CHAP.
IN
familiar Converfation

LIII.

with your Friends and do not make it your Bufincfs, to enreitain Company with tedious Narratives oFyourfelf, and your own Affiiirs. Confider, thvit Their Refentments and Yours are very different upon thefg occafions. And ihough the Exploits by which you have fignalized yourlelf, the Succefles you have obtained, the Dangers you have encountred, or the Afili<5lions you have undeigone, may be a very a» greeable Story to yourlelf to tell , yet it wjii not be equally fo for others to hear
Accjuaintants,

CHAP.

LIV.
yourfelf

AS

little

will

it

become you to render
Buffoon,

and be always trying This is a very nice to make the Company laugh. and tickliih thing j exceedingapt to degenerate into Vice and Folly j and (obferve it when you will) He that only ftudies Diverfion, ihall be fure at the fame time to lofe Refpeft.
the

common

M
CHAP.
LV.
kind of Difcourfe, none is more unfafc, none more defpicable, than That, which breaks in upon Modefly and Good-Manners. Whenever therefore any Perfon in your prefence flies out into Obfcenity, ( if fo great a Liberty can decently ^ be
all

OF

with S I

LIc

1

s's

Comment.

279

be taken) reprove him publickly, and put a ilop But if that cannot convenientto the lewd Tahk. ly be done , yet at lead do yourfelf the Juilice to difapprove it and, by forbearing to join with him, by bluihing for him, and by chiding Looks, let all the Company lee plainly, that you deteft his filthy Ribaldry,
-,

COMMENT.
HERE
he defcends from converfing with Great Perfons, Meafures fit to be taken with thofe of common Quality, fuch as are of aConditioti equal, or infeThe thing we are chiefly concerned to rior to our own. take care of in this cafe, is the rendring ourfelves eafie and acceptable to all kind of Company in general; to obferve fuch a prudent Medium^ as may prevent a fliif and formal diftance in One extreme, and keep off fuch a fawcy Freedom, as may make us cheap and contemptible in the Other• Nay, which is more, we are not only to fecure a due refped and value for ourfelves, but to confult the Intereft of thofe we converfe with. And a wife Man will not only endeavour to recommend himfelf, by making his Difcourfe free, and eafie, and diverting, but by making it beneficial
to prefcribe the

and improving too.
In order to the learning this Art, Epialetus gives us warning of feveral Indecencies, which are apt to prejudice People againft us. The Firft of thefe is the expatiating upoa ourfelves, choofing out fome of our own Performances, orourown Hardihips, for ourconftantTopick; and running Divifions perpetually upon our Families, or our Fortunes. And this in truth is the moil naufeous and tirefome thing in the World. For there is a Principle of Jealoufie in every Man, which turns again at all thefulfome Commendations of ourfelves, and the Company prefently grow fick of them in their own defence. Nothing is more affuming, and confequently tiothing can be more provoking: It argues very little

and low Thoughts of

all

Mankind

befidcs,

when w?

can with fuch difdain overlook the reft of the World^ and imagine no Affairs but our own, worthy to fumifli out matter for Difcourfe. Belioes, all thefe extravagant P..ni'ji,yricks upon ourfelves, are no beter than fo many ily invedives

,

-

Epictetus's

Morals

veolives againft other People; and He, that takes pains to extol his own Condu6t , only makes an invidious Comparifon, and always defires to be fo underftood, as by a Sidewind to reproach and condemn that of his Neighbour. So
that a Man full of himfelf , is a common Enemy ; Patience can brook him; And confequently nothing can more effe£l:ually contribute to render our Converfation agreeable and entertaining, than declining to trouble the Company

No

Which hath alio this farther advanchecks the Vanity of our Temper abates our Love of Popular Applaufe, and difcovers a true Bravery and noblenefs of Spirit. His Next piece of Advice concerns the gay and the facetious Part of Converfation : And here, in purfuance of his former Diredions , not to indulge ourfelves in long and violent Laughter, nor to buril out upon every trivial• occafion; be forbids his Proficient to be always ading the Buffoon, and endeavouring to make the Company laugh. And that, for this very good reafon, becaufe Mirth is a ilippery and unfaithful Ground ; and they who relolve never to want a Jeft will eafily degenerate into impertinence and Folly. For, when a Man accommodates himielf fo far to the Humours of the Vulgar, as to confuli their Merriment and Diverlion ; it (hews that his Soul is of their Size and Temper , and re•with our
Affairs.
it

own

tage too

,

that

,

Indeed, if there liihes the fame mean unworthy Pleafures. be any difference between them, he that labours to entertain another with luch Difcourfe, is the worle, and the So that, whoever makes the greater Fool of the two. Company merry after this manner , does it at his own ExFor this naturally renders him cheap, and encoura(Pence. ges the Hearers to be lavifli and fawcy in their turn too. And there cannot be any more effedual courfe to loie a Man in the Reputation of the World , and rob him of all the Refpei;-:, otherwife due to his Quality, or his Parts, fhan to be thus profufe of his Wit , and to iet up for a

be owned, that Diverfion is the very Soul and fome wife Men have frequently Itudied to entertain the Company with pleafant Difcourfe, to take iOff the Imputation of Morofenefs and Ill-humour. To thoie therefore, who upon occafions find it convenient to give a little Looie to Mirth, he adds this moft neceffary Caution, Alvjays to keep vjlthm the Bounds of Modefly and Decency, For all obfcene Difcourre is abfolutely inconliftent with

common Jeiier. And yet it muft
;

of Converfation

or their Condition. If there be no great diftance between hisQuality. If he be one who hath any remains of Modeity left. For in thefe Circumliances. but might poffibly be dangerous too. which is. but Company will take it ill . according to the different Circumftances of the Cafe in hand. nor muft our Zeal be fo warmly purfned. in fuiting the Rules he gives. with whom this Liberty cannot be taken. or their hardened Wickednefs may have put them part all power of its doing good upon them. will be fo far from allowing himfelf in it. or think you too bold . may give what they fay a PriviTheir Temper may render them lege of being paiTed over. and we have any reafon to hope cur Rebukes will prove fuccefsful . Feafts. . that this Duty is not always prafticable. And thtreiore Epaietus commands fuch a one. But here. to demonftrate. the Combats of Gladiators. that he miirt not with patience hear any fuch thing from another. and that we do difcreetly difallow thofe things. to reprove thefe uncomely Liberties. He had treated before of Difcourfe. by our Silence to refufe the becoming a Party . and Wines. And in fuch cafes. As for inftancs . or too vain to be reand ours . provided it can conveniently and properly be done. for there are fome Perfons. Man . only change. If the Perfon be younger than we. which muft be taken in Juftice to ourfelves . the atteirpt would not only be For no ridiculous . Si with the Charaoier of a wife and ^ood and he. and Modes . But lull there is one Remedy left. as to break good Order. he diredls us to turn the Difcourfe off to fome other more ufeful Subjedl. fo that he is not too big proved. incapable of Animadveriion. underitand themfelves at all. and giving Charafters of Men to their prejudice. who pretends to any progreis in Philoibphy. if they . which Prudence or Good-Manners will not fuffer us openly to rebuke.1 with S LIcI s's Comment. But it muft be confefs'd. you may without any and neither the Offender nor the breach of Civility do it . it ieeimsj that is not fufficient . And here I cannot omit obferving. or give the Company difturbance. HotfeRaces. that v.'e underfiand what Behaviour is fir for us. for we muit not. or his Eftate. how nice and pundual Epaietus is. becaufe another hath done fo . concerning the Entertainments of the Publick Theatre. Man is obliged to do what does not become him. Meats. and fo our Age feem to give us fome Authority over him . or create ourfelves Enemies . or their advantage. and upon all fuch Occafions. Their Age. by fuch indifcreet and unneceiTary Corredions.

ftand upon your and not fuffer yourfelf to be hurried away with the impetuous Torrent. but here it is not every Silence that will ferve the turn It is neceffary. upon mature Deliberation. LVI. : CHAP. and the Pleaiures of Senfe charm and captivate your Reafon. and wifely j and the Triumphs of a good Confcience. fuch as may diftinguifh our Thoughts. if cannot turn the Difcourfe. But if. we may content ourfelves with being filent. There. it iliould be a fort of emphatical and very fignificant one. for fear the Impreffion be too ftrong and powerful.x2z we Epictetus's Morals but reprove it too. And therefore. between the duration of the Pleafure . if that can properly be done. a ftrait Rein . and exprefs a Diflike and Deteftation of what is indecently fpoken. inllead of being reproached by your own Confcience. fo you in this efpecially. COM' . Run not eagerly upon Enjoyment. and a fteady Hand . you ihall be comforted and commended by it. even in thefe Cafes too. Guard . after fubduing Temptations. reprefent to yourfelf the inward Complacency of having done well. Confider farther too. the thing you are moved to. but you muft not For even innocent Enjoyments require let it loofe. as you muft in other Cafes. appear no way inconvenient. and that of the Repentance fure to follow it 5 and then you will not fail to check your Inclinations . you may gratifie your Appetite. and chide yourfelf for indulging them in any Degree at all. nor improve the Thought into Adion: but take time to confiderj and let that time be employed in making a juft Computation. That the denying thofe In» clinations will certainly give you an inward Joyj" and. WHEN ihould the Idea of any Plcafure ftrikes your Imagination.

if it b? indulg'd to exceft. and marvellous Goodnefs. But. fuch as Men take in gay Cloaths. but of thofe other Satisfadions. in proportion as it makes them familiar to us. vanifhes very quickly . wounds the Soul. they fhort-livM. and well it were for us. For thefe fetter and faften down the Mind . and very often grow by time. large Eftates. of all forts. are of infinite Advantage to the Soul. rich Jewels and Furniture. which Senfe conis fondeft of. they fill it with durable Satisfadion. and the moft exquifitely affedled with. pompous Equipage. : Thus . for Creatures void of Senfe.with SiMPLicius's Coramenr. we gain over it. not in the whole World any thing more pernicious to the Soul . are not capable of bodily Pleafure. Nor is this the Condition of bodily Pleafures only. alas! the Cafe is not the fame in the contrary Extreme. and the like. and Time. even Thofe are but very Forwhenonce thefirftFluihof Joy is over. no Tfme wears away. When once they are fwallowed into the Stomach. and God. So likewife thofe Pleafures. than juft the time of Fruition. Thus thofe of the Epcure lail no longer . and. or poiTefling them Thefe are long and lafting. Thus Pleafure it feems. that Pleafure is properly the Objeft of the Senfitive Faculties. if it. and theConquefts too. 283 C Here is 'T. but efpecialiy fuch as affcSs our bodily Senfes. and does not extend to the Rational Soul . pall and fink down into nothing. does not flop there neither. hath therefore in his infinite Wifdom. went off together: But it leaves a Sting behind. which we call fo . all the Reliih of them is loft and gone. as our Satisfadions of acquiring. nor do our Griefs for the lofs of thefe things wear off fo faft-. It is alfo very plain. tinue no longer. than juft while his Meats and Drinks lie upon the Tongue. difarms Reafon . no mixture or reremains of Sorrow tainr. than the Pleafures of Fleih and Senfe. but many times proves of terrible Confequence to the Body Whereas Abftinence from Pleafure. and all its Elfeds. and the Palate returns to its former Habit again. made all fuch Pleafures of exceeding fhort Continuance. who faw thofe deftrudive Confequcnces of them. fuch as no Guilr pollutes. makes them flat and infipid too. the Man is as if it had never been at all. When that (hort moment is once paft . and infpire Joys of quite another kind. Joys agreeable to Reafon and nncorrupt Nature.

perhaps . that you may have no pretence. which begins " When the Idea of any Pleafure ftrikes in thefe Terms " your Imagination. but allow yourfelf leifure for better Gonfideration. : : . Bur. that the Voluptuous Perfon hath the Satisfadion of Remembrance . from Thought to A61:. and afterwards obferve . what felf-condemning Reflexions. Weigh firft the time of Enjoyment well. And hence it is evident. and give them their due weight. fo ftiould you in this of " Pleafure more efpecially. with fo permanent a Mifery. when once that Inftant is over. no Colour left for fo imprudent an Exchange coniider once more the durable the fincere and never-fading Advantages of Self-denial Satisfadions which refult from a Lurt fubdued . what bitter Remorfe. ftand upon your Guard. Think how many fad Re. membrances. fuch as " Power or Riches. as to gain time. gives . and the Happinefs of being approved by ones ownBreaft Do but caft thefe things into the Scale. You will fay . the being vanquiflied by this Temptation will coft you. and then you will be aihamed to purchafe fo fugitive a Pleafure. as you muft in other Cafes. But. how infinitely this is overbalanced by that of Repentance. and we than thofe dark and need no other proof of its being imperfedldeas. habitual and complete Viftory. the perpetual Applaufes of a good Confcience. or give you any coniiderable difturbance.Epictetus's Morals I thought neceiTary to premife in general by of Introdu£lion to Efidetus his Advice. Since then the Pleafure lafts no longer than the fingle Inftant of Adion. And if you repeat this again and again. and not " fuifer yourfclf to be hurried away. And when you have fo far prevailed upon yourfelf. which is a kind of bringing them back again. and fufpend the gratifying of your Fancy for a while . that Appetite muft yield to Reafon. as you will by degrees gain an fit Occafions offer themfelves . Thus much Way : . very little to recommend it. there is no difference between one who hath had this Enjoyment. what lafting Shame. that they will not be in a Condition to rebel . that Pleafure can have but. and fo abfolutely reduce the fenfu^l Inclinations. and one who had it not. employ this time in making a juft Computation. and an ading them over in Imagination a fecond time. Be not too rafh and hafty. and recolleding the Delights he enjoyed. alas! this is a very poor and lame Satisfadion. and then the Difparity will be fo manifeft. or the like. which the remembrance of a pleafani Dream .

For if the thing be not Juit and Innocent. to be above Senfe. That even thefe Pleafures. as much more Noble. fuch as thofe of the Marriage-Bed. And if it be. or Bathing after a Fever and the like. to it. or concern yourfelf at all what impertinent Cenlures or P^eflexions the World will pafs upon it. you are peiiuaded a thing is fit to be done. you do very fooliihly to (land in fear of thofe. which may be innocent and convenient in themfelves. But in regard there are fomeFleafures no way inconfiftent with Duty. who will themfelves do ill. WHEN.a CHAP.with SiMPLicius's Comment. for thofe of a pail Pleaiure are exadly the fame. 285• gives us. than to be a Slave. tho' never fo fecretiy. LVII. as to be tranfported with Rapture and Joy. that the Gratefulnefs of them to Senfe do not overbear our Reafon. it ought not to be attempted at all. in cenfuriiig and condemning what you do well. For indeed . But even then. and the Dignity of the Humane Nature above that of a Brute. this is as much more eligible. therefore he adds one neceiTary Caution more . we fliould check and corre6t the Exuberance of our Pleafure. when we allow ourfelves the Fruition. than the living under the Tyranny and Ufurpation of them. as Reafon is Superiour to Inftinct. COMMENT. than that Virtue ihould be choien for Virjuc's fake . that Reafon ought always to be uppermoft. and right Reafon . any thing for which Ep'iBetus feems more concern'd. Nor muft we fo abfolutely give ourfelves up to the Enjoyment . and that it is infinitely more becoming and advantagious. do is boldly 5 and do not aiFe£t Privacy in it. ihould yet be fo tempered with a prudent Reftraint. every whit as feeble and imaginary. that fo the Good we do might be complete Here is ixot b and . as the due Government of our Paffions is better. upon mature Deliberation. pOQaQ0 9O>QQ(S)Q Qg)9Q(S)Q QG)QQ<^SQC. by a feafonable Reflexion .

when Men decline and difavow them. and the de- Now Good or Evil. and are fo apt to forego. from any apprehenfions of the Conilruflions other People will put upon it. if upon a grave and wife Debate with himfelf. Again. and malicious Cenfure. fears no Mifery but Cenfure and Reproach. fuch of Applaufe arid Reputation particularly. which is. fince nothing is ever ihunn'd or difclaimed . For whoever choofes Good Upon this account. but under the Notion of Evil. his Good. and think nothing of a jult fcnie and value of its fordid Allays. make this. it is mo'ft fenfelefs and frieaking to endeavour the concealing of ir. and is lb bigoited to the World. and at this rate. and not doing well. that is. and is upon good Grounds convinced. a Man betrays lefs Honour and Regard for a real Good. left they ihould fall under them. or indias the Opinion of the World. he come to a Refolution. and runs away from the true Standard of all his Behaviour. True or Falfe. For if He be right in refolving. That fuch and fuch a thing ought not to be done. if a Man hath confulted his ownReafon. without any Ends. (for fuch is a falfe Opinion. which is.85 Epictetus's intrinlick Morals and perfect. in interpreting it to his Difadvantage. his ultimate End. but Avhat Common Fame declares to be fo. That the Conqlufions and DiQates of For fo they right Reafon fhould be look'd upon as Evil. That it ihould be done. becaufe it ou^hi not to be done. and gives himlelt up entirely to be governed by common Opinion. expe£ls no Happinefs but what Applaufe can give him. They cannot be fo. That fuch a Man turns Deferter to Virtue.2. From hence likewife refults another very mifchievous EiTed. ) And indeed. generally fpeaking. or at leaft to difowa the Practice of Virtue. no conlideration whatfoeVer ihould prevail upon him to do it. there is a Third great Inconvenience confequent upon raking thefe mean and indired Methods . the Nature of the Adions themfelves. Farther yet. and the Jud^m-nt and Teftimony of his own Breaft. CHAP- . and do it in this Perfuafion . ( for fuch is a wife and virtuous Adion) than he does for a feeming Evil. plainly are. as utterly to renounce his own Reafon. viz. when done out own teSt fire Worth. this is the Cafe of the Errors and Mifapprehenfions of the Vulgar: which Men (land in fo much fear of. indeed.

And fuch a Disjunaive Proportion . the other muft needs be falfe. fuch as is h 's cither as a Truth plain and agreeable to the all Coinmon Senfe and Notions of the Stoicks ufed to call Mankind.. therefore as this.) is received as an Axiom chat is. therefore it is Night. is you join together. which this Invitation gives to all that are prefent. LVIII. For fuch PropoOiions Now a Complex Propofuion as Ihefe fuch. And therefore. Day. or> bza it is h is Day. AS Man his . remember. but depenhave a neceilary connexion wich. in illuftraSyllogifms: And Hypothetical from arguing and ting Other thefe are of two forts. the beft and greateft ihare own Body fingly. when I fay. . not Night. and dence 2 . might be well enough 5 yeC in regard of that Common Right. It is Night. that invited you. the conas fuch are Disjundive The Complex. whep you eat abroad. but it is not Day. which is due. and. it COMMENT. and fubtle. and by I make my when As other the affirm you one. both to the Company you are joyned with. ing the Aflumption thus.with ftiiMP Lie lus's Comment. this if Sentence. and to obferve all that Decency and Refped. h ts either Da^ thence. and if the one be falfe the other is Stoicks are particularly nice THE Nighty therefore it is not Day. 187 CHAP. One they call Disjundive. felf-evident. Thus by denyaffirming the one part. and conclude from it is : certainly true. or Nighty but As for inftance . it It is you take it apart. but if is moil truej So for abfolutely falfe : at a publick Entertainment. it is moil unbecoming and unreafonable. ' confifts of two Parts . fo that if one be true. Axioms. to carve himfelf though if he confidcr . you are to look farther thanthebanefatftfyingof your own Appetite. 'you deny the other. whofe parts are ineonfiftent. ( as when we fay Day or Night. or Conjundive of contradiSory parts. and to the Mailer of the Houfe .

And fo likewife if you deny the Confequent. to break that Conjundlion. is moil true . becaufe upon this Antecedent. it is not Night. and the Sentence muft of neceffity run thus . and is unconteftably true. in a disjunfitiveSyllogifm. For inftance. by infringing the Privileges which lie in common. however it may be for the Advantage of a Man's own Body to carve the beft for one's felf. bnt if you deny at the the Confequent. for thus you proceed. This Propofition. For a Man is nut here to look upon himfelf. and to be guilty of nothing. "VVlien .. for ^ \ -^ ... And this is a Cafe of a Conjundive or Complex Propofition. as if you fay. If it be Day. you deny the Antecedent alfo. If ii he Day. he tells us. therefore it is not Night. But if it be Day^ it is mt Night fo that putting this into one Complex Propofition» the Antecedent infers the Confequent. Now then ( fays he ) as this Disjundive Propofition. But it is Day. Let us now fee. what ufe Epidetus makes of this ^ and how he applies it to his prefent purpofe.. the AiTumption follows. So that if one be allowed. becaufe the vv'hole Argument depends upon it and all the ftrefs lies in the oppofition of the parts thus disjoyned but in a Complex Propofition it is moft falfe. and to ad as if he flood fingle. you overthrow the Antecedent fame time. we muft deny the other. in a Disjuniiive Syllogifm. as a DisjunQive. for the two Negatives here make one Affirmative) therefore it is not Day. this Right of abfolutely inconfiftent with the Equity and CoiTimon Humane Society at all fuch publick Meetings. but to confider himfelf in conjundion with the red: of the Company. For when thefe two parts are brought into one Complex Propofition. for which occafion they are very properly termed. the other follows in courfe. one another. and to fcramble for the greateft fiiare. by the neceiTary infertion of the Negative Panicle.. yet.» 288 Epictetus's MoiaIs dence upon. the Conjundion is there torn afunder. But in a ConjuoQive Syllogifm the cafe is much otherwife. So likewife at a publick Entertainment. the Antecedent and the Confequent. "ftnd the Rule it proceeds upon. this is a true ConjunftioTi. That if you affirm the Antecedent. it is not Night'. It is either Day. you eftabliih the Confequent. then to affirm the one. or Night. carries its own Evidence along with it. But it is not not Night ( which is as much as to fay that it is. and engrciTmg any fuch for is his own private interej(t. And the Condition of thefe Propoiitions is this. . If it be Day it is not Night it is Day.

than what you are content to allow to Others who have fndeed equal pretenflons with your Self. and Temperance: This Chapter is defigned io make Men juft. Others Prudence. Others Generoiity. in order to the effeding this. that . nothing can be more manifeft. are yet preferved . though thefe Men have caft off all the Ties of Juftice and Common Honefty . that there is another Duty. and grafping at more than belongs to us. and to all our Commerce and Dealing with one another. to re- move Varice firft .with SiMPLiciu s*s Cominenr. and. nor pick out the choiceft part of the Dinner to gratifie your own Palate. Some of which were deligned to excite Men to true Freedom. even in the Worft and vileit Men. which is Aand an inordinate Deiire of more than in ilridnefii belongs to us« » CHAP. when even this feeble imitation of it can go fo far. Of how great efficacy this is towards uniting Men together. For all greedinefs. . 1891 When therefore you dine in Company (fays he) do not regard the Cravings of your own Appetite. So then. Now the Booty flioUld be divided equally. than by allowing every body the ihare duei to him. beiides What common Experience teaches us. and making that Union durable and ilrong. we have an inFor the very llance . after the various Diredions and Exhortations irt ihe foregoing parts of this Book . in confirming and maintaining a Community founded in Injuftice. Combinations of Thieves and pUblick Robbers. which concern others as well as ourfelves. loofens and breaks the Bonds of Humane Society. and are content. confider. thaa that by this inftance of a Feaft . of all that greateft obflrudion to it. Some to recommend Fortitude. Epiotetus meant a great deal more than he hath expreiTed. He intended no doubt. And fure flridb Juftic^ inuft needs cenient Men very ftrongly. fo long as they keep to the privatei Agreements made among themfelves. that we ihould ftretch this Rule to all the affairs of Humane Life. a Duty of mutual participation. and Greatnefs of Soul. and aiTuming no more. which can never be maintained othervvife. befides what you But owe to your own Body.

in the choice of the Figure we defire to make in the World. a Pilot. but every body is not. belides the prejudice fuch perfons do themfelves. And it is more defirable to be an honeit and prudent Manager of a private Family than a bad Governour of a City or Nation. than to be in a higher. or publick Magiilrate in a State Thefe Chara^ers look great and gay . For. and tops his part . fall LIX. nor difcharge the Duties of. cut out for them. as it is in a Play houfe. or Mailer in a Ship . than an unable Mafter. and teach the firft grounds of Learning well. or a Philofopher in a Commonwealth. where he fills his Port. For it is in Human Life. you into this two-fold Inconvenito mifcarry in what yoii have undertaken. but they have alio flipp'd an opportunity of behaving themfelves well. which he cannot come up to. ence. Thus a Man had better be a good WE Man Uiher. you take upon you a CharaCter above your ca* IFpacity.: 90 I c s 's Morals CHAP. (which mifcarriage I would have rated. but that for which we are beft qualified. and then tO' lofe the opportunity of undertaking fomewhat elfe mole proportionable to your ability. in not coming up to the Dignity of a Gharader too lofty for them. And it is much more graceful. and not afpire to things above us. which they were fit for. with that decency and applaufe that is expeded. An eminent Orator. For they have not only come off very fcurvily in attempting what they were not fit for. and which is moft fuitable to our own Circumftances. are not always to aim at that Good . For there never comes any good of extras vagant Undertakings. . and gaining applaule in fomething elfe. for a to ad in a lower Station. firft in which you might have come off with Honour. a Prince. 2 where . but according to the real Nature of the Charader itfelf) they are unfortunate in another refped. ' . not by the Approbation of the Cenfure of the World. which is moii noble and excellent in itfelf. COMMENT. who cannot finifli what is well begun. So that we ihall do well to proceed leifurely .

And this Rule. which are the Seat of the PaiTions. in walking it is your great Care. which faften it to the Body in which it makes fome reiiilence. or offend your Judgment. not to run your Foot upon a Nail. Which gall and wound the Soul and fix wholly upon bo: ^ COMMENT. is look'd upon "With more approbation. and reputed a better AQor. AS Soul of Man is injur'd or wounded two ways: JL Either. and the other inferiour and irrational parts. as we do.1 with S I LIc I s's Comment. thofe that are afligned to other People. but to the Performance. LX. will be a mighty (o»^ curity to you in your Undertakings. but yet is overpowered by the prevailing force of Paffion . muit decline thofe bruiiih Appetites. that it does not make any diftindion betwixt its own rational Nature. Orelfe. or diflatisfied with. not be defirous of. which Providence fees fitteft for them upon this Stage of Life. This excellent Guide therefore warns us to have a care of both thefe Inconveniences. and he that plays a Servant well. ii^5 C A P. and Itrain your Leg 5 Co let it be in all the Affairs of Humane Life. and the Byafs of fenfualObjedts draw itfo ftrongly. that they ihould not affeci Cha. if obferved carefully in all your deportment . i9 where the Praife is due» not to the Part. than he that attempts to play a Man of Honour. when we would tread fure in walking. a£^ers above them. and yields at laft. when it is pricked with brutiih Inelinations. when its Judgment is perverted. Z 3 dily . or a Prince. We . not to hurt your Mind. though with reludancy. or to tread awry. and to proceed warilyin all the Affairsof Humane' Life. and does it ill. This Chapter too feems to have a more immediate regard "to Equity and Juftice for it advifes every body to be content with that part. and vehement Paflions.

For. That the Faculty of ]^eafon. as we do in our fteps: If we would |)Ut look before us conftantly. but we ihould not fall. might flip. and heat of Paffion. and be fure to take good footing. This therefore is analogous to piercing the Foot with a Nail. That it be neither giddy through eagertiefs of Defire. for they make the Mind forget itfelf. he refembles to treading awry. and fatten down the Soul to the Body much ftronger and clofer. fo we ftiould be iexceeding cautious and tender of the Soul . And if we did but manage our felves with the fame warinefs in our Adiops. and made before we wer? aware cf ito CH A . and the Body they ferve. though Humane Nature will be the fame Hill . through Sloth and EiFeminacy. this he tells us. for one] and the fame Subftance. And the Advice he gives upon this occafion is. which was but a flight one.. would be but few. that part which is loweft in the Soul. or putting out a Leg . to difengage our Foot. make no falfe fteps. and thofe eafily recovered too. yet the ill Confequences of thefe Infirmities would be in a great meafure prevented. and concerns itfelf in the Affairs of the World. and by which it holds correfias the Foot is in the Body . and ftraining. and all our Vigilance cannot fet it abfoiutely above Error and Frailty. That it do not forget itfelf. becaufe this Error of the Mind proceefjs from the Imagination. and the flips we did make. before the Nail hath run in too deep. or grow corrupt. pondence wiih the corporeal and animal Life. or its Authority. that. when it goes abroad. or make a falfe ftep. and miftake theie Aife6lions. But the Other Misfortune.r^ ^9^ fdily I c s's Morals OSjeSs. than any Nail can polTibly join material things. as we take care keep our Body upright when we walk. and dull. fmall recolle£lion will ferve the turn. that when through fome little incogitari- We cy a we happen to touch upon a Nail. and ftupid. and the very Charader and Prerogative of Humana ISTaiure. that of a perverted Judgment. which is predominant in our Minds. would be a mighty fecurity to us in all our Undertakings. and to corre(9k that Trip. For thus we find.

to having it ftudded . COMMENT. then you are <:arried into all the Extravagancies in the World. as they become ferviceable to the Body. and afterwards from and from that a5 gain. and Eftate. and every thing which tends only to-Luxury and vain Pomp. For when once a Man hath exceeded the bounds of Moderation and Convenience. the getting. Confequemly. and in iuch proportions may we defire . and«iet with Jewels.ed . the Body. them. and the ufing of hath informed us already after what manner they are to be ufed. ihould determine this point. he never knows unlefs it you go to a rich Purple where to flop. is Hiid to fit the Man. which ^nfwers to the bignefs of the FooL But if once you leave this Rule. that we may ufe them . and whatever elfe is requithat is. But they are only fo far uieful. For the end of getting thefe things. 293 CHAP. he tells us. Here are two things to be confidered in Clothes. and fupply its neceflities. fo as to render it ferviceable to the Soul. fo far . and Goods. Now content with . which are necelfary to be fupplied. Then you do not value your Shoe for fitting the as the World i Shoe Foot. Neceffiiies of the LXI. and exceed thofe Neceflities. gilding be gilded too. how f^ they are fit to be deiir. and direded to this purpofe. He . Body are the proper Care for meafure of our the things of the and thofe that fupply thefe are enough. and endeavour after them. which determine fcow far thefe things are capable of being ufed. and What ihould be the meafure of our Labours and our Delires in the getting an Eftate. and its Wants. do alfo deiermine. what proportion we ought to be fite for our Bodies. as far then as they are of ule to us. and This he fays is the Body too. and what• - 4 meafure . By which means all Superfluities are cut oif. is.with SiMPLicius's Comment. and Diet. That thofe wants of the Body .

fometimes deftroy. For. Thus we often ruin our Health. For thefe were the only Caufes of feducing him at firft and. when once he had broke looiefrom his Meafures. and fpending an Eftate. but. becaufe this is the laft Fence. the Komani were grown fo curious and vain. Reme- And . and a flout Sole. when we have done fo. than that thofe Defires which do not keep within the bounds of Ufe and Convenience. for he has now let his Defires loofe. which Nature intended for dies againft them. and thefe were more exquifite and modiih Vanities than gilded ones. and Purple. a thoufand imaginary Wants prefented themfelves. grow infinite and infatiable. as well as Ufe and Convenience. forget the ends. that. if a Man bear regard to Ornament and Luxury. they quickly nethem too . good upper Leather. and one idle Whimfey to another. and one of thcfe Extravagancies only ferves to make way for another. and Shoes fet with precious Stones. that good plain Leather is all it needs. only for Ornament and Faihion. do. Let us look then at the Foot. becaufe we fee plaingledt and difregard they exceed thefe things. and whenhe was pDiTefs'dof this. the Body. and fee what wants it labours under. and . which Nature and Neceflity have fet him he wanders no body knows whither. to defend the Ball of the Foot from being hurt by what it treads upon. he wanted Forty. and thefe are a boundlefs Ocean never to be if filled. and what fupplies are fufficient for it. as if they had been real ones. and muft needs. and fo to all Eternity . juft thus "it is in getting. and is continually adding one fooliih Expence to another. it feems. Not only. . for inftance. as much as ever he did the fii ft Ten fo he would a Hundred.5^94 Epictetus's Morals meafure of ihem a tisfied Man ought in reafon to fit down fawith. will fervethe turn. and inftead of preierving. But now. we ihall find. At firft he wanted only Ten thoufand Pound. to keep the Foot tight and warm. and diftort our Limbs. and make thofe ly. to which they are direSed. and Jewels. he had Forty. then Twenty. and every one of thefe gave him as great a difturbance. when very things our Difeafes. Now nothing is more evident. as to wear rich Purple Shoes. A Now a Man hath once tranfgrefifed thofe bounds. till at laft he be plunged over Head and Ears in Luxury and Vanity. When . then nothing lefs than Gold. and there is nothing left to ftop them afterwards . .

the Confiderations. that the recommending themfelves to the AfFedions of the Men is the only bufinefs they have to attend to. in my Opinion. as will Charms. be very properly referred to the fame common Head of Juftice. but make it bigger than it ought to be. is not due to their Beauty. And tus . which prefcribe to us the Rules and the Duty of Moderation. as they do all their happinefs in the fucceis of them. with the Former. if we do not take care to fit the Foot. and drefling. LXIL to Fourteen. inftead of helping us. are in great meafure the fame in both Cafes. and fo prefently fall to tricking. and fall very dangeroufly. and oftentimes makes us (tumble. upon this account more particularly. that there are other Attra6tives W Hen Women are grown up much more powerful than thefe 5 That the Refpeot we pay them. fuch ing Conquefts. Hence it is plain. for Beauty and Ornament. «iv? CHAP. which relate to our uiing the things of the World . and the Rules we are to be governed by . and pra6lifing all the little engaging Arts? peculiar to their Sex: In thefe they place all their hopes. which relates to the getting of them. And that thefe are the true. But it is fit they ihould be given to underiland. Epidemight make choice of a Shoe to illulUate his Argument. and unaffcoled Virtue. it hinders our going. For this inftance is the more emphatical and fignificant. will give us great light into that part of our Duty. 295- poflibly. fo much as to their Modefty. may. becaufe. they begin to be courted and carefled } then they think . both in ufing and getting an Eftate. make the fureit the irreiiflible and moll lail- CO M" .with SiMPLicius's Commenr. and Innocence. Thefe Chapters too .

and flatter. that no Beauty hath any do it. For the Original of all this Vanity is from our felves And the Folly is Ours. It is in our power to reform what we condemn . than They. for the management and governing of a Family. look for a young and a beautiful JVIi^refsi then they cringe. but very fignificant Obfervations . and thefe are the Arts they ftudy recommend themfelves by. : Now We fulnefs in their Manners is much more engaging. and manage th«Hafeives accordingly. Charms. but the inward one of the Mind. in ry and defirable Qualifications. ihort. though we declaim againft this Vanity and Folly in that Sex. That Meeknefs. . he Ihould inftru(9: him here. are the true and lafting Ornaments For ihe. when they are difpoied to marry. it was but reafonable. and it is our Duty to ihould ihew them. and the end of all this is no other. he had in the foregoing Difcourfes allowed his Philofopher to marry. Ihewing what a wife Man ihould chiefly regard. thefe. and adore her. andModefty. by taking wrong meafures. and for fubmitting to a prudent and frugal way of living. they drefs.: . which render Wives amiable. and fet offtheir Perfons to the beft advantage. and thata Gracein truth. fays he. and Obedience. And when all is done. for the bearing and educating of Children. C A P. Moft People. that has thefe. when we pay fo much refped upon accounts that fo little deferve ii. than that of their Perfon and Mien. and give them the beft Title to our Honour and Relped. andexpofingat the fame time the Mifchiefs. for an afFedionate and tender Care of her Husband. The Women know the meaning of all this well enough. yet the Men are much more to blame. which the generality of Men fall into. keep a Since mitihty diftance. what Methods are moft proper to be made ufe of in the choice of a Wife. . ^9^ Epictetus's Morals COMMENT. is qualified as ihe ought to be. than the enjoyment of her Perfon. and which are her moft neceflaThis therefore he does. and accoft her in the moft refpedtful and fubmiflive Terms imaginable. and thefe only are the Charms and the Ornaments .

with SiMPLicius's Commenr. and negleds his Mind. argues a mighty Defe6i in Nature. we ought to look upoa ' all . in fomething that is little. and following his Trade with them? And yet this fenfclefs Wretch is every Man. are alat fomething manly and brave. or at Meals.. as things by the byej and upon the Improvement of the Soul. and whofe Body is only the Inftrument of that Soul. For what Artificer of any Note or Skill at all would fpend his whole time upon fcouring his Tools. is ufually proportioned to the Pleafure we take in it. contrived for her Ufe. as their Nature can carry them up to : So fluggifh and heavy Souls are ever employing themfelves. and is the true and main End and Bufinefs of oiir Lives. when we confider Man. and from whence they are fure to reap no Honour. but to let That lie idle and uncultivated. and indeed can fcarce proceed from any other Caufe. without putting them to theUfes they were intended for. or in the other -. while all his Time and Pains are beftowed upon the Body . Funotions of Nature. and vulgar. and the Affeilion we }iave for it. than fuch a Defett. For the time we fpend upon any Objeit . than to trifle away a great deal of time as to be long at Exin things relating to the Body ercife. Here is LXIII. For we ought to look uppn done to the Body. to concern himfelf very little in the Operations of theSoul. . and afpire after as high degrees of Accuracy and Perfedion .^ CHAP. want of no furer fign of Stupidity and Senfe. and to be employed at her Pleafure . And for this Reafoq . So that. that is all C Men of ASways aiming 7: excellent Parts and noble Difpofitions. does not only betray want of Senfe. I fay. for fuch a one. But in Truth. or in Drinking. as that which challenges our Time. whofe very EiTence is a Reafoning Soul. where they hope to meet with no Difficulty. who applies all his Care and Time to the Service of his Body. and inlignificant. but excefs of PaiTion too. as he is a Creature. this mighty Aliiduity upon the Body.

even that Soul. or refleds confider with your any Man you an WHen upon your Good Name. That thefe. CHAP. ihould give Law to his Behaviour. but the Perfon who judges amifs of it is. it feems. For the Truth of a Propofition is not ihaken one whit. in the diftribution of our. for they are all its due: and this is the true Meafure and Rule. to have very little Tcndernefs for. who is thus led into Misftakes concerning you. than this mild Anfwer. . that is LXIV. only as a thing by the bye. and it is not llrange . if that Opinion of his be Erroneous. Such Coniiderations as thefe may ferve to difpofe you to Patience and Meeknefsj and by degrees you will be able to bear the moil fcurrilous Reproaches . he does this out of a Pcrfuafion.I all the c s's Morals Pains we are at upon the Body. Your Opinion of things. that it no more than what you deferve. Injury. and think the bittereil and moft infolent Traducer worth no other Return. but His. that this Man ihould vent his own Opinion freely. does felf.Services to each of them. intended perfuade us THIS Chapter with Meeknefs and Moderation is plainly to to bear Injuries j The ArguThe ments made ufe to this purpofe. and a6t according to it» it comes him that And cd. are his Thoughts of you. the Misfortune is not Yours. and take but fmall Satisfadion in it. are Two. by a Man's fuppofing it to be falfej the Confequence is not the worfe. by which we fhould be governed. whofe Infirument and Servant this Body is. and what beto fay or do. cannot be expeotbut his own. and to transfer all thefe things to an Obje£t more worthy of them. Now COMMENT.

than it is poffible for You in the height of all your defired Revenge. and confequently does not. and fuifers extreamly by his Error. and does what. his ftanding out againft it. and upon a Principle univerfally confented to by all Mankind. by For. then the Sun is above the Horizon^ Oiould fny. rader of the Nature. at the inftant of doing it. If ii be Day and another Perfon fhould maintain that this is falfe. with S LIc I u-s's Comment. it will be found . . 299 The Firft proceeds mon of Senfe. the upon a Foundation evident to comand confirmed by the Pradice and Experience . He that thinks for no Body is the worfe for it. for me to be angry. his Apprehenfions differ from Ours. and fo do all the World. Now. ment with own particular That every Man aSts in agreeNotions of things. and not He concerning whom it is entertained. for which there is no Ground or Colour of Juftice. becaufe He folit minifter any juft Caufe of Refentment lows the Didates of His Breaft. to do. For whatever can reach no the World commonly efteems moft noxious farther than the Body. That his following his own but the enterOpinion is not the thing you quarrel with taining an ill Opinion of you. he does well when he really does ill. Perfon who entertains this falfe Opinion. If therefore. upon Examination of this Pretence too. for his aSing according to Nature. or the External Enjoyments.I . But you will fay perhaps. is under a dangerous Deluiion. that you have not at all mended the Matter . hurt the Man himfelf: But Error is a Blemiih upon the Soul. that the ^ . but himfelf. or for the moil Potent and malicious Enemy in the World. an Evil which affeQs his Eflence. as the other. all World his which is. his own greater Prejudice. nor invalidate the necelTary dependence Human Now. . where is the Provocation? and that it is plain he hath not. appears to Him fitteft to be done. and miftakes Falihoods for Truth. receives all the Prejudice by it. does. And therefore the Man who injures does but wound himfelf your Perfon or your Reputation all the while: And this he does more effedlually. not in any degree weaken the Truth of the Alfertion . fuppofe one the Inftance of a complex Propoiltion. as fo neither does it cannot be any great matter of Wonder. in ftrid fpeaking. and I follow Mine. he proves beyond all Contradidion. but that this is as ridiculous and abfurd a For if he have done you no harm Paflion . So that it would be a moii extravagant and fenfelefs thing. and taints the very diftinguiihing Cha. and to .

do not take it . Obligations to Kindnefs. firft. contrary to all the Rules of Jufticie. how natural it is for every Man to be governed by his own Senfe of things. and have reikded. and Duty. and fill you with a generous Difdain. When therefore you have called up your Reafon. the Oiie fofc and manageable. and may check both his Folly. does not fo. That he does hut what all the World do\ for though all are not of the fame mind. that there is no fuch thing as Good or Evil to be had from any thing. by confidering the nearnefs of the Relation. dure to be touched. and the long Friendihip and Familiarity between you. who judges amifs concerning it . which a fingle Provocation ought not to dilTolve. CHAP. and your own Refentmenr. that the Injury does not really reach you. Efpecially if you are. Very thing hath two Handles. the Other fuch as will not endo you an by the hot and hard handle. with fome fuch fcornful return as this. And thus you will take the' accident by its manageable handle. and neither the Edge of the Weapon. as you ought to be. and extenuate it as much as is poliible. by reprefenting to your felf all the aggravating Circumftances of the Fa6l j but look rather on the foft fide. but falls back upon the Perfon who vainly intended it for you . and Honour. nor the Venom of his Tongue can enter you. and then. but You continue untouch'd . If then your Brother Injury. LXV. but what falls within the Compafs of our own Choice. You will think his impotent Malice deferves to be flighted only. Thus the Man who affronts or traduces you. this will cool your Paffion. fully convinced . upon each other: it remains but the Perfon. yet in that vaft variety of Opinions every Man ads according to his Own. injures himfelf.300 Epictetus's Morals Two it dence of the Parts of in the fame Pertcdion ftill.

moft remarkable Wiih regard to its Heat. Thus the Fire hath two Qualities of hot and dry. and is compatible with it. . as well as Natuir. . and Kindnefs. For in Truth. and Now it is plain. my Brother. 301 COMMENT. the Indignity. or ruffled with Anger.6 Thus . But now. Riches and Poverty. is entertained by us with Eafinefs and Patience. It is plain that the way to difcharge this Obligation. and can fubiift together . Children and no Childien. with SiMPLicius*s Comment. and regard only the Wrong. Play-fellow. all things whatlbever. Health and Sicknefs. it difpofes me to Patience and Reconciliation. but its Drought is repugnant to the moifture of the Air. and makes no change in our Cheerfulnefs and Temper. are juft as you ufe and receive them: They have both their Conveniences to iecomrnend them and their Inconveniences to leifen our elkem of them. abide the Touch . not to fuffer it either to be dejeSed with Grief and Sullennefs. and deftroys And this Obfervation holds in Moral . and is capable of different Conftruftions and different Refentments. For thus an Injury received from a Brother. that what we efieem light and very tolerable. hath two Handles. in it. one that will. the unnatural Ufage of fo near a Relation: this is the untraQable part . according to that Handle we take Confider the Man. my Friend. and in Others they are oppofite and incompatible. but what we look upon as grievous and in fupportable. and the o^her that will not. my old ii by. and utterly difcompofes the Evennefs and Quiet of our Minds. difpofes to nothing but Rage and Revenge. is always to lay hold on the right and the tradable handle. This is the natural reiult of fuch Accidents. and this is the foft and pliable fide. AL L whence different it the parts of this material World are compofed of Principles and contrary Qualities : From comes to pafs. But if you turn the other fide. fince we are obliged to bear whatever happens to us with Patience and Moderation . all the Accidents of human Life. it will not bear the Touch. it agrees well with the Air. fince it is our Duty always to preferve the Mind fedate and calm. Marriage and Celibacy. and tobeiliort. and fuch Apprehenfions. . and contends with it. and Familiar. ral Philofophy. and deftruftive of one another.. leaves very angry Refentments and melancholy Impreffions. that in Some refpefts they agree. and fince all things have two handles.

but then they are attended with infinite Care. the Vigour of our Spirits. Health is very defirable. qualifies him to encounter with any Difficulties. poiiefs'd with Fear. but if we turn the Tables. aud Atfroiits. to which fulnefs of Blood commonly expofes Men. becaufe . Poverty feems very tolerable. which hath a is commonly efteemed fo mighty an Unhappinefs. him under no Temptadon of Indulgence and Fondlewd and ungracious Children. and that Confidence in their own Strength . the Negled . our own Children are guilty of them. the ender Care and mutual AfFedion of both Parties. the multiplying of Cares. which it brings mighty Afflidion. have foaiething to extenuate is nefs for ing fuch it in my Opinion is the greateft misfortune of all. fo are the Paflicms too. as well as its Sweet . Even Infolencies. which the Care and Dependence of a Family muft of neceflity diftrad him with . Marriage is recommended to us by the fatisfadion of having liTue of our own . thefe make it very dreadful and almoft infupportable. and a perpetual Uneafinefs and Fear for thofe we love fo dearly. and Languilhings. acquired with Toil. an inordinate Fondnefs. loit with Remorfe and Trouble . the Arrogance and aiTuming Pride. and this is their foit Handle . delivers him from that anxious Concern. and obferve the Indigence and Dependence of it . when we refled upon the Quiet and the undifturbed Retirements of that State . upon the account of that perfed Eafe and Freedom we enjoy with it. Sicknefs appears a very tolerable Evil. and the Scorn that it expofes one to. great deal to extenuate it . but then it hath its Bitter. : 301 I c s's Morals Thus Riches are dtliraDle. are the hard and the heavy Handle. aiid Injuries. and. For though their be- a a greater to our felves them .. that. in difcharging their refpedive Duties But even This hath its Incumbrances too. and difengages him from that extravagant Folly. of making himfelf a Slave to the World. and enjoying nothing while he lives. as the Spirits are low. and thefe Anxieties are allays and abatements upon them. when we refled. for this leaves a Man free and eafie. you conlidcr the Advantages of Plenty. and their untra- dable Handle. and creating new Wants to one's felf. and Uneafinefs of afickBed. yet. And furely the want of Children. alas! we too often make and love their very Vices. and the ready and pundual Obedience of all our Parts. and the Mind is then more free and undifturbed : But the Paintings. k allows him leifure for attending better Studies. that he may leave a little more to his Family when he dies.

with Si
them;
better acquainted

MP Lie lus's Comment.

303

when Men reproach us, they bring us with our own Concerns, and tell us fomething we did not know before; but , to be fure, they always minifter occafions of Patience, and eXercife our Virtue. Corporal Pains and PuniOiments are of all others the; moil formidable to humane Nature; and yet the Anguiih of thefe would be mitigated, and we fhould in fome degree be reconciled to them, did we but refleS what good they do us, did we conlider, that they try the Soul, as Fire does Metals , and purifie it from its Drofs. And if there were no other Benefit to be had from them, yet the very enduring them with Courage and Conitancy is itfelf a very great one* And much more it is for a Man's real advantage ^ to fall into Afflidions and behave himfelf gallantly under them, than never to be diflrefled or afflided at all. For the efcaping Afflidions iscnly a piece of good Fortune, which reaches to the Body, or the Eftate, and no farther ; but the bearing them with Fortitude and Decency is a Happinefs of the Soul,
for very often,

and what the Man is properly the better for. Nay, lallly, to (hew that there neither is, nor can be, any thing without the Two Handles we fpeak of, even our Enemies themfelves have them ; and it is a very feafible thing to make a Benefit of Them too; For their Spight awakens our Care, puts us upon examining into our own Paffions and Failings more nicely; and the knowing, how curious they will be to obferve, and how pleafed to find our Faults, renders us more circumfpeS and wary in all our Behaviour. And thefe are fuch valuable Confiderations, that Plutarch thought it worth his while to write a Tra6t * on purpofe upon this Subje^, to Ihew, how a Man may manage himfelf ib, as to improve the Malice of his Enemies, and convert it to his own Advantage.

CHAP.
Here

LXVL
:

is no Confequence or necefiary Connexion at all between thefe Aflertions I am richer than you, therefore I am a better Man than you
•,

A

a

€>'?

304
or, I

Epictetus's
1

Morals

fore
^"'that

am more learned, am better than
I
is

can be made
;

or eloquent than you, thereyou. But all the Inference from fuch Comparifons, is only

this

am

a richer

Man
j

than you,
I

therefore

my

Eftate

larger than yours

am more Eloquent
are

than

you, therefore

my Expreflions

my

Style

more

delicate than yours.

more proper, and And what is all

pnrpofe? for neither the Eftate nor the Man and confequently Thefe may be the better, and yet You may not be one whit the
this to the

Style

is

the

:

better.

COMMENT.
which is nefs of Exprelllon and exad Compofition a nicety unbecoming a Philofopher, except this Faculty were inftilled very early, and grew up with him; fo that Education and long Cuftom have made him fo great a Mafier of Language, that his Rhetorick be not laboured or affeded,
:

ME

of Letters

commonly ihew

their

Talent

in quaint-

but flow naturally from him. And even the Man who is thus happy, muft not value hrmfelf upon it; becaufe this is not the End a Philofopher ought to aim at, nor the peculiar Excellence of human Nature. Elegance is properly what iuch Studies pretend to; and he that fucceeds well in them, gains the Reputation of a good Poet, or a good Hiftorian. But he that afpires to the Charaii'er of a Good Man , and delires to diftinguilh himfelf by a Life conformable to the beft ReafoD, propofes an End agreeable to fuch a Life ; and confequently cannot have any pretence to prefer himfelf before another, for any advantages of Eloquence which he may have above him. For there is a wide difference between fuch a one's Eloquence and himfelf: Nor is this the eflentinl Property and Prerogative of his Nature, that he Ihould receive his Denomination from it, as every Artificer All the boaft then , that \% diftinguilhed by his ProfeiTion.

can be allowed him in this cafe, comes only to thus much, My Language is better than yours. And this Inftance is what the rather have chofen to" inliil upon, becaufe I imagine,
Epioietus his

main intention here, was to give his Philofopher a Checlf, for that fuperfticious Nicety very common among them, of being over-curious and elaborate in their

Compo-

;

with

SiMPL I CI us's Comment.

305•

Compoilcions, and fpending too much lime and pains about Words. But, becaufe this was a tender point, that other Inftance of the Richer Man's exalting himfelf is added, the better to cover his Defign, and make the Reproof the fofter*

CHAP.
ly
,

LXVII.

Man bathes too foon, do not you prefentIF any in but only, that fay He hath done
ill

it ;

he did

Wine,
is it

drink a great deal of do not cenfure him for having done ill} but
it

early.

If a

Man

drinks a great deal For how to know whether he did ill or no, unlefs you were confcious of his Intentions, and faw the Grounds he went upon? And this Caution, which I here advife you, is the only way to

only iay

,

That he

:

poflible for

You

prevent that common Injury and Inconvenience, of determining ralhly upon outward appearances, and denouncing peremptorily concerning things thaC you do not know.

COMMON
HE
Not
either in praife or difpraife,

r.

would have us proceed in our Judgment of Men and Adions, with great accuracy and circumfpedion

to be too forward in giving our Opinion ot any kind^ acquitting or condemning of them, till we are firft well fatisfied of the Perfon's intention, what Reafons he proceeded upon, and what End he di« reded it to. For thefe are the very Confideran'ons which make an Adion formally good or evil; and according as thefe vary, they may deferve a very ditferent interpretation. Thus a Man may give Blows, and do good in it (if this be intended to corre£i a Fault ; ) he may g,ive one Subrtonce to his prejudice (if it be,defigned to feed hisDifeafe; ) nay,

matters

may befo ordered,

that Stealing ihall be an
a
3,

Ad

or

J u (lice,

» ;

36
Juftice,

Epictetus's
,

Morals
as if the Obje£l of

and Reftitution an Injury be a Mad-man's Sword,

Both

If then we would deal honeftly and fairly, we muft judge of Aftions according to the Circumftances that appear to us, and as they are in themfelves. When we fee a Man bathe before the ufual Hour, all we ihould fay of it is, That he hath done it early; without pretending to determine the Quality of the Fad, or calling it good or evil, till we know what it was that moved him to do fo. Poflibly he was obliged to fit up all Night, and wanted this Refreihment to fupply his lofs of Sleep. Now this and the like are very material Confiderations i for a Man's motives and intention quite alter the nature of the thing. You ought not then to be too hafty in paffing Judgment upon this Bathing out of courfe; for till thefe things are known, the Quality of the Faft does not lie before you , nor have you any Matter to proceed upon. Thus again , a Man may drink a larger proportion of Wine than ordinary and there may be feveral Reafons which will juilifie him in it; theConftitution of his Body , or the Seafon of the Year , or the Temperament of the Air, may make it neceffary. And confequently , what raih and bufie People are apt to condemn when well enquired into , proves no more than Duty and Prudence; done to fatisfie Nature, or to fupport the Spirits in faint fultry Weather, or to keep out moift Fogs or peftilential Vapours. Now if we do thus, as headvifes, and ilop at the Aftions themfelves , without prefuming to applaud or to condemn them, till we have throughly examined into the Grounds of them, and are fatisfied of the Man's Difpofition and Defign we decline an Injuftice and an Inconvenience, which otherwife it is impoffible to avoid. And that is, the knowing one thing , and judging another ; the determining more than we have Evidence for. For in both the Inftances before us, nothing appears but the outward Ad, and its Circumftances that the Batbwg was early, that the lVi»e was much ; but the Caufes of thefe do not appear , upon which depends the moral Good or Evil of the thing ; and yet the bufie World
,

are ever giving their definitive Sentence in this point too. And what can be more raih, more injurious, more abfurd than this, from what they do fee, peremptorily to pronounce of what they do not fee ? fince the Minds of Men, and the fecret Springs of their Anions, do fo very feldom fall within our Notice, I take

Now

with

SiMPLiciu s*s Comment.

307

take Epidetus his Defign here to be, the difluading us in gefrom judging Men at all. And indeed it is but prudent fakes, as well as fit for Theirs, to be very for our fparing in this particular ; that, by fufpending our Judgment, we may not fall under the ihame of retracing it afterwards upon better Information. And therefore he would not have
neral

Own

us over-forward , either in our Genfures , or our Commendations; though he levelled this Chapter chiefly, no doubt, againft the Condemning fide; becaufe the Injury done by rafti Cenfures, is generally greater; and becaufe the Evil is a great deal more popular. For the World is not ralh only, but ill-natur'd too; they are apt and glad to find Faults,

and forward fometimes to make them.

This bafe Pradice therefore lay more diredly to the Author's purpofe, which was to inftrudl us in another Branch of Juftice, one indeed no lefs necellary than any of the reft; viz. That which

concerns our Neighbour's Reputation.

CHAP,
NEver profefs yourfelf a
much of Rules and

LXVIIi.
Philofophcr,

nor talk

wife Obfervations,

among

the Ignorant and Vulgar j but let your Rules be feen in your Pradice. Thus, when your are at a Publick Entertainment , difcourfe not of Temperance and Moderation to the Company; but let your own Example teach it them 5 and remember that Socrates upon all occafions declined Oftentation 5 infomuch , that when fome Pcrfons in deriiion came to him, and defired him to recommend them to a Philofopher, he carried them to fome who profefs'd themfelves fuch , without expreffing the leaft Indignation at the Affront they had put

upon Him.

Aaj

CHAP.

, ;

3o8

Epictetus*s Morals

CHAP.
A Y,

LXIX.

if you happen in Converfation with ignorant and common Men, though they ftart a Difcourfe concerning fome Points of Philoiophy, do your forbear joining with them in it For when Men are forward to vent their Notions, it is a ihrewd iign they are not well digefted. It is poilible your Silence may be interpreted Ignorance, and that fome of the Company may be confident and rude enough, to tell you fo. But if you hear this Reproach without being concerned , then be
:

aflured,
feft
:

your Philofophy begins to have its due efFor, as Sheep do not give up again the Grafs they have eaten, to ihew liow well ihey are fed but prove the Goodnefs of the Pailure and their own Cafe, by concofting their Meat well, and bringing a large Fleece, and giving large quantitieg of Milk} fo muft You approve the Excellence of your Dodrines to the World , not by Difputes and plaufible Harangues, but by digciling them into PraolicCj and growing ilrong in Virtue.

COM
BY

r.

that the Perthis Paifage you may plainly perceive, fon addreft to, is not fuppoied to be a complete Philofopher ; for fuch a one is in no danger of bringing up indir geiled Notions ; nor can he need the Advice given tothat purpofe. This is applicable only to one (till in a ftate of Probation and Proficiency, who hath not yet abfolutely delivered his Mind from the importunate Paflions of Popularity, and Self-conceit, and aifcding to be thought wife. Vices, which this Author hath taken great Pains to expofe and reform; as byotheriVrguments, fo particularly by one, which fhe Method taken in this Chapter plainly iniinuates ; viz. That as one cannot with jny Truth fay. That the Brafs^ ijyhile it is jnelting dowji, is a Statue, or that an Embryo is a

i

MaRi

\

with

SiMPLicius's Comment.

309

Man ; fo neither can we, That a Perfon, who is ftill under Difcipline and Proficiency, is a Philofopher. Thefe are the rude and imperi'ed Beginnings of what is to come They are after ; but they are not the Things themfelves. the Matter under preparation but they have not the Form, which muft conftitute their EiFence And, though they be in neyer ib fair a Difpolition to receive it^ yet till this is done, they are not the perfed Beings, which they muft and would be. But, though in Other cafes it be fufficient to fay, That to call them fo were a Breach of Truth, yet in This That feems too gentle an Imputation : For there is, in a truly Philofophical Life, fomething fo great and venerable, fotnething fo much above the common Condition of Humane Nature, and fo very near approaching to Divine, that the afcribing fuch exquifite Perfection to Perfons, who are as yet only climbing up to it, may juftly feem, not only a bold Falihood, but an impious and blafphemous
,
:

one

too.

Shall then that Man, felf a Philofopher, take

he
is

fet himfelf in the but a Learner, to teach,
?

muft not prefume to call himupon him the Office of one.^ Shall Chair, and think it becomes Him, who
and magifterially didate to ohe ihould
It is fit

who

thers

No,

certainly.

know

his diftance,

and keep it. But you'll cbjed, That this will be a mighty Hindrance to his Proficiency ^ by debarring him that Difcourje with Men of lefs Attainments ^ which exercife and improve his Talent. I anfwer, The Difcourfe Epiiietus difallows, is not fuch, as is intended for a Trial, but the Effect of Vanity; nor is the Delign of it Advancement in Wifdom, but Oftcntation and Applaufe. Well, hni How mufi
he behave himfelf in fuch Company then"^. Why, the propereft and moft etfedual courfe to recommend himfelf, will be, to forbear the venting his Principles in Words, which is but an empty and a very fuperficial way of propagating them ; and to demonftrate the Power and influence of them This is a fubftantial Argument, and anin his Adions. fwers the true End of Philofophy, which is not florid Harangue and nice Difpute, but prudent and unblamable Pra•6iice; for this was never intended to teach us to talk well, but to live well. If therefore you be at a Publick Dinner ^ do not trouble yourfelf to read grave Leoiures to the Company., conterntng Temperance in Eating , and its jufi Bounds and ^lea^ fures ; but take care to obferve thofe AJeaJures., and keep vjithiit ihofe Boimds yourfelf For by this means you will gain Au.

Aa

4

ihoficy

jio
thority to

I

c

s's

Morals
when
it

you InftruQions ; and turn toprefcribe to others, every

,

comes

to your
its

Word

will

make
,

own

way.

For

,

how

ridiculous and abfurd

is it

to fet other

Men

Rules of Temperance, or Patience, and at the fame time to be guilty of Gluttony or fink under the Burden of Afflifiion ones felf ? What force or weight can fuch a one exped his moft ftudied Difcourfes ihould find? And, How unreafonable and inconfiftent is it, to impofe fuch Laws upon the Conduft of Others , as we are not content to fubmit to in our own? But this is not all. He requires a higher degree of Selfdenial ftill. He does not only forbid the beginning fuch JiindofDifcourfe; but if any of the Ignorant and Vulgar engage in it of their own accord, he will not allow us to join with them, nor fet up for an Oracle, or great Dodor, among Men of meaner Attainments than ourfelves. For this (he fays) is very fufpicious; It looks , as if what is fo very ready to come up, loaded the Stomach, and was never well digefted. For as Meats, when duly concoSed, diftrifeute ihemfelves into the feveral Parts, and mix with the vital Juices and Blood to nourifii and ftrengthen the Body; fa do Maxims and Dofirines, when well digefted, convert into Nourifhment , and make the Soul healthful and vigorous. There they lie, like Sap in the Root; which, when occafion ferves, fpreads itfelf, and brings forth the Fruits of virtuous Anions firft; and when the proper Seafon comes, and thefe have attained a juft Maturity, then of edifying Difcourfes in great abundance. But if any one (hall force this Fruit of Difcourfe before its time, when it is not yet ripe
,

and kindly; this in all likelihood will turn to no better account, than the difcharging ones Stomach of undigefted Meat. And there cannot be a clearer proof that it wants;
Digeftion,

For

than our not being able to keep it any longer» Man's Cale, who brings up his Precepts of Philofophy again , While they are raw and whole, and does not ihew the efFed and ftrength of them, in the improvement of his Mind, and growing in thofe virtuous Habits, which they were intended to produce and confirm. Farther; in regard the Soul is naturally given to look abroad into the World, and, for that reafon, feels itfelf very powerfully wrought upon by good Examples, he propofes Socrates for an eminent patterp of Modefty who, though a moft accomplilhed Philofopher , and declared by the Teftir
this is d\ttSt]y that
:

i?ipDy Qf Apollo himfelf to $e the Wiieft

Man

in the World:

One very remarkable Inftance of this kind was his Behaviour to (ome People.with SiMPLicius's Comment. capable of inftruSing them. who came with a defign to put a Slur upon him. and rho' no Reproach can be more grating. and defired. It is probable. to be fo. interpofe when they have begun it: but there is yet a farther difclaiming of this vicious Quality expeded. in Objedion. now lie cool and quiet. Take comfort. for you have an aiTurance now that other People contemn you. to take 311 more One. it is a furer fign that he hath mortified his Vanity. if you find. he recommended him to Protagoras. than any mere Proticient ought to pretend to. which ufed formerly to boil up in your Breaft upon the like occafions. And in thatTrafl: of P/ato^ which is inthlea The4etetus^ hefaysofhimfelf. that the Refentments. This if he can do. and to hear it without being moved. and triumph. than that of a defeft in one's own Profeffion. yet this Proficient is to run the rifque of that. and that aScholar. who do not make Philofophy their Bufinefs nor to fit ftill . Thus when Hippocrates the filly Son of Apolhdorus^ made it his requeft. to be helped to a Mailer. who had the Confidence to call themfelves Mafters and Profeflbrs. that the Operation is begun. this Silence may be thought to betray your Ignorance . not to begin a Philofophical Difcourfe among Men . that he delivered over feveral to the Tuition of Prodicusy and feveral to other wife and great Men So very fparing was this Divine : Perfon putting himfelf forward . carried them to the Sophillers : Men. and made it the bufinefs of his whole Life. it is poflible fome of the Company may be fo plain as to tell you fo. who confequently had good warrant him. He does not think it a fufficient renouncing of Vain-glory. but without taking any notice^ or ihewing the ieaft Refentment of the Affront they intended him. For the fubduing of your Anger proves. and that you are nowr reaping thofe Fruits. that he would recommend them to fome Philofopher. after all. and made a Trade of Teaching others. And if you can fee and hear this without Palfion . to decline and difcountenance Pride and Oftentation. was yet the fartheft that could be from an afluming Temper. were intended to cultivate. and all your own this. which all the wife Exhortations you have heard. He faw thro* their pretence well enough. and not . is for the mighty gainft which EpiSetus fortifies his : No Pain$ . and fo far was he from thinking it a Diminution or Reflexion upon himfelf. than his uttering the moft elaborate Satyr in the World againft it.

to ihew the Crowd. And the bearing this imputation of Ignorance without any diforder. not by the Memory. a Life of Virtue and ftrift Reafon. firmnefs of Flefli and abundance of Milk. not not to attraot the Admiration of other People.. when you are almoft quite parched with extreme Thiril. . which ought to (hew itfelf in a large Fleece. that. do it for your own Benefit. to IFhave brought your Body to coarle Fare. not to be repeated but pradlifed and the Excellency of them muft be proved. is itfelf fuch a Proof. 3ii Epictetus's Morals Pains and Study propofed to produce. gives him bis Ledures again. and the making you not fo much a florid and well-fpoken. For Moral Precepts are learnt. is guilty of as great an Abfurdity in Nature. as a prudent and a good Man. LXX. for he. proclaim not your own Sobriety Or if you would inure yourupon every occafion felf to HardiTiip. that fo the Shepherd may be fatisfkd of that good Feeding. but by the Converiluion of the Hearer. Let : Vain-glorious Fools embrace Statues in the Streets. and tell no body. COM' . take cold Water in your Mouth 5 then deny yourfelf the fatisfadion of Drinking. and Ipit it out again . for it ihews the Mind to be got above both the Fame and theCenfures of the World. or the Tongue. do not glory in your abftemious Diet. and thinks himfelf the better for being able to remember and repeat them . inftead of PraSice. CHAP. how long they can endure the Cold 5 but let Your Trials of yourfelf be private : And ii" you would be Hardy in good earneil. and to be well contented with mere NeceiTaries . And this is the improvement every Mafter expeds to tind . as it would be for Sheep to throw up the Grafs they had •cat. as you have fo far mailered your Appetite. And if you drink nothing but Water. I mean .

which is the valuing . that they hnve attained to fome peculiar Excellence and made fome mighty Conqueft upon Human Nature. a frugal way of Living. Beiides. . abikining from lawful Pleafures. But there is indeed one peculiar Misfortune. a fpare Diet. there is al way this Coniideration ready at hand to mortiiie our Pride and Self-conceit of all kinds the that if we excel in this particular. and ufing the Body to great Hardfhips and That makes the Subjedl o^:' the Chapter now before us. than the greateft of thefe Boafters can pretend to ? 'Tis true. not to be too much exalted with an Opinion of their own Merit. But . there might many be reckoned. fup- We We pofing that he hath attained ro the Perfcdtion of it already. which none but They ever made before. ourfelves upon voluntary Aufterities. For alas how thefe Severities felves. Others depend upon their Eloquence for it . that is. fuch as Epidetus hath touched upon in this Treatife. ! The Perfons therefore. That it both hinders him from improving and refining that particular Virtue. after Pradice and Pains. There is another fort of Vanity very frequent. and therefore it is plain. But (till Humane Nature is all their fame in Both . the Other out of Choice. hath a thnufand feveral Pretences to ground but the moft ufual. thefe Men. are . with Simp Lie I us's Comment. and teach every one they converfe with his Duty. have not carried it fofar as it is capable of going. which have and Others want. as otherwife he might do. Some People court Applaufe. the One do it out of Neccifuy. and it checks and cools his Endeavours after other Virtues. or imagine. upon themupon the Matter . by didating to all the Companies they come in and taking upon them to talk gravely. and moft plaufiblc.. yet there are feveral others wherein we are deficient. and ihefe he hath exploded and warned us of already. which is. which Others have and want. and for one good Quality. a Third fort expeot to be admired . and thinking That alone fufficient. as pver-rating this fingleone. which attends a Man's thinking highly of himfelfupon the account of any Excellence whatfoever. who put extravagant an imaginaiion is this. by aiTuming Narratives of their own VAin-glory itfelt upon Performances . are advifed not to look big . 313 COMMENT. and endure more. when we fee ourfelves out-done every day and many hundreds of indigent Wretches take up withlefs.

This is a very clear and natural account of the place. beat about the Buih in all Companies. for a trial of your own Patience . he lofes Cafaubon. in his all the * The Account given of Chapter.glory upon thefe Accounts. you will be urdl faiisfied with repeating them in private. like thofe Wretches . the true Ends you propofe from the iPra61:ice of them . will be mortifying. take cold Water into your Mouth . But things of this kind. if you drink Water. and get upon the Statues to cry help. . ^. than upon the Approbation. that the ^fceticks formerly. and there cling round one of ihe Brafs or Marble Statues. of his own Confcience. When dued Clamours of Nature and NeceiTity. implore the alfiftance of the People. and though your Entrails are ready to be burnt up.. proaches. ihew plainly that the bent of the that the Man is more concerned for Soul lies outwards the Fame of the World. much more pertinent and fatisfaftory. as they fhould be. yetfpit it out again . feems by Notes on this hy SimfUcius. than this given here Hc tells us. this PaiTige Befides. or the Rethe importunate no body what you have . do it privately and in good you are extreme thirfty . than the real and intrinfick Goodnefs of the Adion and lays a greater ftrefs upon Their Praife or Difpraife. and fooner get a Rabble about them feeing only to draw Company together in their own Defence. do it for your Benefit. and to make themfelves and their Oppreflion more confpi: cuous and deplorable. and feems grounded upon Authorities fufficient to give it the ptefex^cc befpte tb^ of SimiUm:. if you earneft. tell done. and when you have thus fub- But. which they exercifed themfelves ufed to praftife the enduring of Cold To which purpofe in a Ftofty Winter's Morning . to wriggle in a Difcourfe of your own Abftemioufnefs and Sobriety If you would exercife any bodily Severity. done to be feen and commended of Men. amongft other Trials . than out of any good defign upon themfelves j therefore EpiRctus choofes that inftancc of expoiing Vain.: 314 I c s's Morals But do not (fays he) exercife any of your Virtues for f>omp and ihew. who when they run away from the violence of too mighty an Enemy . . And if thefe be. more to get the Obfetvation and Applaufe of a gazing Rabble. nor make it your bufinefs to gather a number of Speflators * . This is Mortification and Severity indeed. it was very common to go out into the Streets and Fublick Places . And becaufe this was very juftly fufpeftcd to be done . J 7. Net. and not covet the Eyes and Admiration of the Multitude. and to qualifie you ftill more and more for Toil . nor. and Trouble : and Self-denial. that they may be more Their bufinefs fcen . to harden your Conftitution . See Cejanb.

and fure. by an end fo bafe and indireft. and reduce them fo low. is LXXI. and to apprehend no milchief from himfelf. . as to bear thofe Evils without any great alteration or reludancy. For whatever extremity of Suffering (he can poiUbly drive us to . looks only inward. For by this bufFetting of the Body . happens to us . even with thofe of its Commands. and profanes « virtuous Adion. CHAP. and apprehends. no Good of Evil can happen to him. when any Afflidion. when it is no longer in the power of the moil fpightful Fortune to hurt us. and fets us above all the uncertainties of Humane Affairs. as not only to prevent any rebellious Infurredions againft Reafon. which are of hardeft digeftion to Fleih and Senfe. 31^ real Good of his Abftinence and Severity . but all from Objecls without him: Whereas the Philofopher. Experience daily demonftrates. and a Man of the World. and its fenfual Inclinations under. but to bring them to a willing and ready compliance. quite contrary. but from himfelf alone. There is moreover this mighty Convenience in it . the peculiar Quality.with SiMPLicius's Comment. that thefe voluntary Hardlhips fit and prepare us for neceflary and unavoidable ones. Maftery over the World. that the praflifing fuch Auiieriiies as thefe open y ones felf. as Want. and a Character of an IT undifciplin'd Man. this is only what we have by long Cullom made ealie and fainiliar to ourfelves before. it is no fmall advantage for the Body to be fo habituated. we keep That . as popular Applaufe. Every Man*s Circumftances are fickle and changeable. which This gains an abfolute it is not pofllble to run away from. or the like. is of excellent ufe. Now QOQQQ0 QOQQ(O0GC^9Q(OQQOQQQSQOq CHAP. to expe£fc no advantage.

fo as to cenfure. full of cau-* tion and fear left he ihould relapfe again. hefmiles within himfelf. and pafs for an ignorant or infenAnd . a Proficient in may be known. except what depends upon his own felf 3 and Averfions he hath none.. or to commend j to accufe. HE gone through all the initruQive part of his drawing on towards a Conclulion. He never talks big of himfelf. C f. or to kill him. and obferves every Motion of his Mind as rigorouily as a Man would watch a Thief. If any Perfon commend him. and is this . Philofophy He is not inquificive or bufie in other Men's blatters. or an Enemy. he is exceeding jealous of himfelf. or to complain of any body. 31^ I c s's Morals CHAP. like that of a fick Man upon recovery. and receives it with a fecret Difdainj and if other People find Fault with him. he is not at all felicitous His whole Behaviour is in his own Vindication. which Nature made ftrong. he hath abated. marks by which LXXII. to fum up all ilble Man . falls he his Defigns. If he be difparaged. When under any hindrance or difappoinment in he blames nonet)ut himfelf. is hath now Book. and injure his advances towards Health.. are fuch as thefe. nor magnifies his own Virtue or Wifdom. and taken off all the edge and eagernefs of them. The Affeotions and Appetites. before it be confirmed and perfedly found. in a word . as are vicious and repugnant to Nature and Reafon. And tne Jubilance of what he choofes to clofe up all with. As for Defire. he values it not. but to fuch Objects only. he hath utterly abandoned it. who lies lurking to rob.

and bettering his Converfation that the Defign of Moral Precepts is never anfwered by any thing Ihort of Pradice. That thefe are not peculiar to Us alone. nor yet fo accompliihed as the Philofopher. which is our very EiTence and Form. the filling his Head with curious Notions. which hath lately fallen under our Conlideration. but the reformconfidering.with this Simp LI CI s's Comment. but what relates to Virtue. but i'uch a one as hath renounced and is afpiring to a Moral Perftdlion. and proper Prerogative of Humane Nature. who hath abandoned all other Care and Concern. Appetites and Paifjons Only with this difference. That he expeds no part of his Happinefs or Mifery from himfelf. that all Mankind come under fome one or other of them. For every Perfon whatfoever is. and lately entred into this Difciph'ne. and made fome competent advances it. That no Man who addidls himfelf to the Study of Philoiophy. are particularly direded. So that Reafon is the incommunicable Privilege. or remembring Rules of Morality. that at the . and this is the other oppofite Extreme: Or elfe he muft be one of a rank between both thefe. : . 317 moft neceffary Caution . of thefe. That we niuft not content ourfelves with reading. or underftanding. but take care. whofe Charaders are : compreheniive. Some that are young 13eginners. Thefe the World are called Proficients. Either a fecular Man. he firft defcribes to us Three forts of People. as only the infornning his Judgment. and Others. and minds the Affairs Or elfe he is a and This is one extreme Philofopher. neither fo untaught as the fecular and common Man. Now Mca . ing his Vices. that Epioietus Two have ufed in ^ it longer. and be tranfcribed in all our Aotions. but given to us in common with Brutes. one that lives of the World common rate. he gives him this diftinguifhing Mnrk . or furniihing his Tongue with Matter of learned Difcourfe. that which makes and denominates us Men. To this purpofe'. makes forts .. But of thefe we are to take notice. but from outward Objeds: And the Account of this is as follows. and toThem the ftveral Exhortations. ReafoD. That which is given to ail . and the Improvement of his own Mind. here he prefents us with a Defcription of every one He begins with that of the Vulgar and undifciplin'd Man. muft propofe fo mean an End. that they influence our Lives'. is placed in our own Power. And fo likewife are the Senlual.

in proportion to the Quantity which htmfelf enjoys. or Honour. without depriving or confining fome body elfe. and Moderation. and. They are of unbounded extent. From hence it comes to pafs that the Determinations of Right Reafon can never be repugnant to one another . tlons. All men are direded by it to purfue the fame good Things . and to none but Men. That each Perfon may enjoy the whole of them. Man can enjoy the Whole of thefe. That all fliould agree in the fame Objeds. are Corporeal. tho' it ihould happen. . So that Reafon is every Man's Guide and from this he takes his Meafures of Good and Evil . The advantage of thefe. and to rejed the fame Errors and Untruths. as that one Man's Plenty neceifarily infers another Man's Want as Money. becaufe the things themfelves which engage thefe AfFedlions. and the reft which are fubordinate Now the to thefe Two . But I fix upon one thing. Indivilible and Immutable. Upoa thefe Accounts it is . fo long as we purfue the Obje^s it prefents and recommends to our AiFeftion. to aifent to the fame Truths . or Power. without injuring or depriving his Neighbours. fweet Harmony. of . yet the ObjeSs they faften upon are not the fame in each Perfon. and its Ends and Motives are the fame. yet would not this put an end to the Difference neither. that in thefe Cafes Men differ vaftly ^ in . and Me. and peculiar to each fiagle Man. and fo both the Defires themfelves. but all is Union. for any other Man's having more. to deleft and fliun the fame Evils.. are extremely diftant from one another. and in their own Nature. or or Preferments. and perfe6t Peace. fuch as Juftice. when you come to particular Perfons . they be the fame in You. and Prudence. and Concupifcence. and the like good Things is. nor indeed a Part of No them. which Reafon infpires us with a Love and Defire of. and Their Objeds too. And. or Lands. But now. and Operati- Men yet the Faculty in general is the fame proceeds upon . there follows no Strife or Contention. and Singular. 3i8 Ep I CTET s*s Morals in common. fuch as Anger. : Women. and Objeds it the Foundation True and Falfe. fuch. tho' in general. and Divifible. though there be a difference between one Man's Reafon and anothers . are certain incorporeal Excellencies . and confequently the Averfions. and Every one. and no one Man hath the lefs. Obje£ls. For. for inftance. and mutual Confent. and you upon another. the Senfual Appetites and PalTions. the fame . and the Objeds of them.

whether it be a Virtuous and Reafonable.fighted Reafon. Individual . Family-Quarrels. . but the Order and good Government of the World is overturned by them. the Promotion of Wifdom and Goodnefs and the afpiring after thofe Incorporeal Excellencies. which might mifguide it. either by private Grudges. >s concerned for no Good but what is fubfliantial . Tyhicb appear fo charming and lovely to clear. and fetting up a particular Standard of his ovs^n. and whatfo*• ever we deteft or avoid . Defcription of the Perfons. For whenever the Peace of Mankind is difturbed. and for whofe Uis all that went be- After this two diftant Extreme-s B b ioie . Virtue is his Good. and fuch as he cannot have any ilriSt Propriety in. or Foreign Wars. the common and untaught Man betrays his Folly. but only feems foto private Opinion and miilaken Senfe of things. he proceeds in the next place to give a Reprefentation of the Middle fort. inftead of that Good which is univerfal. fo that thefe Shadows and gaudy DeConfcquently he lufions can impofe upon him no longer. the Philofopher. Thofe whom fie «alls his Proficients . on the other hand. 319 Judgments. is what we apprehend to be our Good. that mifleads his Judgment. And wherefoever the Defire. One. to be fure. who make up the . For whatfoever we defire ^ excites our Love under the Notion of Good. and refined his Reafon from ihe Diofs of Senfe and Pafllon . . and confines him to one that is Perfonal. and we look for the Happinefs and the Mife-* ry of our Lives from thence. and not only fo. provokes our Averfion under the Notion of Evil. and Corporeal.I with S in their LI c I s's Commenr. That. or whether a Vicious and Unnatural one. or the Averfion fixes . fome of thefe things are conflantly at the bottom of them. and. he will have nothing to do with Matter and Body. than the improvement of himfelf . in him. hath difcarded all Outward things. and can never annoy. fuch as does not approve itfelf to the concurring judgment of all Mankind. He hath diverted his Mind of all thofe Prjudices. So then. -viz. cramps up his Defires. or get with- Now . in forfaking the general Rule. For the true Cafe of External Objeois. nor attends to any other Bufinefs. Such a one need never go out of himfelf to be happy. Civil Infurreftions. but looks upon them as things that very little concern him. and flighting the Common Good of his Nature. his this is own and our Evil . and that is always at home: And as for Evil it is utterly banifiied hence.

fearful of a ReJapfe. as his Authority will b. between that Vice which he hath difclaimed. to which we are too much inclined. we are to confider fuch a ^4an .way as it were. and cautious of indulging himfelf in any Liberties. and like a Patient. The compleat Philofopher needs no Inftrudion or AiTiftance. fo This man is not capable of them. In this State we cannot but fuppofe him frequently to rcfled upon his former Mifery . nor commends any Body. And this Rigour is of excellent Ufe. and a Corredor of Manners. can this be laid down as a neceflary Qualification of a Philofopher. till he change his Courfe of Living. as if they were done by an Enemy. fo his Poit requires he Ihould do both. that but it For the very Nature of the could belong to none elfe. This Chapter therefore is a very Compendious Recolledion of what went before at large. . CHAP. It is a kind of Remembrancer to us. and confequently . that That Paifage of xvatchixg himjelf\ as he •vjouU watch an Enerriy ^ is very pertinent. and as fevere in his Sentences upon them. or at leaft pafs very gentle and favourable Conftrudions upon them. and which oftentimes makes us either wholly over-look our own and our Friend's Faults. who is in a Vv'ay of Recovery. That he neither confures. they would be utterly loft upon him. but far from perfedt Health. and prefents us with the Subftance of the whole Book in little. to be exceeding jealous and tender. and begin to ad upon a nobler Principle. And indeed this is the only vvay to make us honeli and fincere. SubjeQ ftevvs us plainly. it is properly his Bufinefs to affift and inHruft others. as he fees occaiion. in the Mid. and younever know where to have him. and that Virtue which he is moving towards the Perfedion of. and at one view.320 fore ic s's Morals was principally intended. For. I only add.ear him out in both. Adag. and is running away from. Nor can thefe Difcourfcs belong properly to the Common and Undifciplin'd Man. which may keep him back from a found and confirmed State. before I quite fliut up this Chapter. MuShiit. This Jealoufie therefore muft needs make him a curious Obferver of his own Adions. for he is a Mafter. Nor * 2ee Eiafni. and elegantly exprefs'd. becaufe it frees the Mind of all that partial Fondnefs. for as the Other is above them. fom diffolute Mat! hath no PrincipJes to reilrain him. but is * (according to the Proverb) A Limber Leather^ which wil ftretch and bend to any thing.

that. the more I ought to be out of Countenance. whereas I have chofen Chryfippus to cxercife my Talent upon. but I do not underftand him. if what I can teach others fo well. The Difference is only this. He would have pitch'd rather upon Homer ^ or fome other Claffick Author. by this lingle Reflexion > that if Chryfippus his Writ-• ings had not been obfcure. ilre to know then. For when by the Why help of this Expoiition I comprehend his Meaning. and giving a juft Explanation of it} reprefent to yourlelf the intolerable Abfurdity of fuch a Man's Pride. I think moil worthy my Study? I derefulting• from the Condition of my Nature. yet ftilll want the Praotical Part > and this in truth is the only valuable Progrefs. If I reft in the Author. but thofe of a Grammarian. you obferve any Man value himfelf forunderIFftanding Chryftppus his Book throughly. But this I am fure of. and content my felf with a bareUnderftanding. or in the Commentator. and I am told Chryfippus can. I do not take due care to praobfe as exadly my felf. and am no longer lludying the Perfeotions of a Phiiofopher. I have done no great Matter. Well. but what is it thac my Duty. LXXIII. Upon this Information I apply my felf to the reading his Book 5 I read. that the more capable I am thought of explaining C/:7ry/zj£'j?//i. B.b A C Q M' . 311 G A P.with SiMPLicius's Comment. who it is that can teach me this Duty. For. this Expounder would have nothing to brag of. or apt Explication} I have forgot the Matter I took in hand. My next Care In all this then is to look out a good Expofitor.

and a Body. The Inference then from hence is plainly this. upon due Reflexion. how this is to be effefted. and fee what is the Conftitution. and true Condition of it And from thence to purfue his Enquiry farther. that all my : bodily PaiTions fhould conform themfelves thai all mands of their Lawful Superior. That God and Nature defigned I ihould live a Life of Reafon. and commands it as an Inftrument. For what an Eminent Orator faid once upon a like Occaiion. that I have a Principle of Reafon. and that the Good Works . To this purpofe. he now begins to enter the concluding Part. and empty Sound. Epictetus's Morals COMMENT. which they are excellently accommodated to produce. are the genuine Fruits expelled from them. and pay to the more illuftrious Perfeftions of the Soul. not equal in Authority or Value. I am told. and what are to be ftifled and reftrained as incongruous and unfeemly. and confider what Adions. -v'tz. Words without Anions are but mere Air. and not of Senfe. But ftill I am at a lofs. and reprefented the Qualities proper to Each of them. and what Sentiments are agreeable to this Nature. - having diilinguifhed Mankind into Three ClafTcs. That he intends to examine into humane Nature. a Man ihould refle£l: ferioufly with himfelf. But thefe. For my Reafon is the Chara£ter of my Nature. muft be our chief Study and Care. and puts his Mind upon a fedulous Enquiry after its true and proper Happinefs. he fays. ihould be reduced into due Order. and the very End for which they were compofed and communicated.3x2. when he reads fuch Moral Inftruotions . what his meaning is. it challenges a Right over my Body. my to the ComFears. what Impreflions are fit for a Creature fo framed to admit and indulge. is extreamly applicable to the Cafe now in Hand. The Anfwer to this Queftion will be. inculcating in this and the following Chapters. Well. that Rule. and all my Defires. but I Homage . fabfervient to it. I find. That the reducing thefe Precepts into Pradice. which alone can give Life and Energy to all the reft . and alfo made a fiiort recapitulation of the Diredions given AFter before at large to his Proficient . That Chryfifptii hath written an excellent Piece to this purpofe. and over-ruled by it. 1 fall immediately to reading his Book.

but only that of Pradice . for the unedifying Reader. For a Man may read Homer ^ or explain him. and defcanting handfomely upon the Virtues of the feveral Ingredients . The Title of a more nice and exaft Grammarian I may indeed have fome pretenfion to. in ihort. cannot be innocent And thofe. as to do nothing towards our Recovery. . Would it not bean intolerable reproach to any fick Man . That both his Reader and his Interpreter ihould praQIfe what he hath written. is properly the Qualification of a Grammarian The only difference is. ours is every whit as bad. who fliould read Prefcriptions proper for his own Diftemper. as extravagant and abfurd a Folly as this is. or applaud the Expofitor never fo much. and have every Attainment. abftrufe of it. Whereas with Chryfippus it is much otherwife. and reft there. and incur a jufter and more fevere Condemnation. . But there is another difference. how thefe are to be applied and yet make ufe of none of them himfelf? Does fuch a Man deferve Pity? And yet. "and are fully inftrufted in the Medicines and Rcftoratives proper for them and yet are fo carelcfs and ttupid . admire the weight of his Sentences. and by the help of this I underftand him perfedtly. I am not one whit improved in my Bufinefs. : . who do not mend by his Precepts. fee thro' all his Intricacies . but can lay no claim at all to that of a Philofopher. and yet not be the worfe. and upon being able to dire£t others . if I am skill'd in all his Criticifms. and but fmall praife due. If then I do this. z'iz. For this Talent of explaining an Author's Meaning. when we have theDifeafes of our Souls fet plainly before us. I attain to the Benefit thefe Writings were properly intended for. am . contract a deeper guilt. that I can make nothing at all direded to a good Commentary . and they have had their due and full effeQ upon me. . he did not intend only to be underftood and expounded. and value himfelf upon pronouncing the Receipts gracefully. if I mailer every Difficulty. But all this while here is very little good done. which is much more to my Difad vantage. either to the intelligent Reader. in this cafe. if he be never the better for it. For when Chryfippus wrote this. or the perfpicuous Commentator. That Chryfippus is an Author fomething out of his way and Homer a much more likely Man to come under his Confideration.with find itfc) I SiMPLiciu s's Comment. or worfe. He had a farther and much better View. 313 and dark. or the turn of his Style. b 3 CHAP. But if I delight in the Author.

Swallow. though the thing is of no value. yet the Violation of our Word is of horrible confequence (as tending to take away that mutual Faith and good Aifurance. and Virtue. but afterwards relapfes and turns Deferter. And rcafon good there is to do fo . WHatever LXXIV. much more folemn and facred ought thofe Engagements to be efteemed. Direftions are given you. We muft look upon ourfelves as under indifpen. makes no Summer. which have a binding Power.^ Now : $ 35 . . But our Obedience muft be firm and conftant we muft confider our Duty . for if we efteem it difiionourable and impious. fuch as cannot be broke loole from. Perfevere therefore in the Oband be not diverted from your Duty by any idle Reflexions the iilly World may make upon you j for Their Cenfures are not in your Power. and Innocency of Life thefe are violated. becaufe. as that xvhich is our Happinefs and trueft Advantage. or fly olf from an Agreement in every trifling matter. look upon them as Co many Laws. by which we have tied ourfelves up to Wifdom. How . and the Reafonablenefs of what he is commanded. or obferving the Diredions of C/sryfippus. without the higheft Impiety. fervance of them all. and muft fuffer no Coniideration. and confequently ihould not be aiiy part of your Concern. we commonly fay. in one or two Inftances conilitute a good Man. when a Man aifents to the Truth of what he is taught. to fail of our Promife. no more do a few fingle A£ts of Virtue make a Habit. C NT. he advifes us by all means to perfevere in Goodnefs.) 524 Epictetus's Morals CHAP. to draw us off from it. by which all Society and Commerce is maintained among Men . Upon this account. and particularly not to be difcompofed with any Reflexions the idle World fli^ll caft upon us Frf. how tempting foever. and exprefles this Afieni by living accordingly for a time. fablc Obligations. and fuch as you cannot without Impiety depart from.

when we come to . ble. with as SiMPLicius's Commenr. By fettled Refolutions. fnch as would fain divide themfelves between God and the World. and then another. and have all the Advantages of found Reafon. they will tax us with Singularity and Precifenefs. colour lay thefe Delays of Reformation upon ? You are pall the Giddinefs of Youth. highly proba- to cenfure our Condudl: pretty freely. and fixfirlf one Day. and make one Rciolution after another. or (hake our Virtue. and negleol the due obfervance of thoCe Direftions. and the Diotatcs of Reafon which. and . Now fuch Difand couragements as thefe. for the turning over a new Leai: with y-ourfelf. that. if duly followed. That Religious Purpofes ihould be fixed and fteady and that. which ihew you the way to it. we into the 'Temple^ he which they defigned to infinuate. noc one b 4 then . and a ripe Judgment. Pride or Affedation. you v^ill cheat yourfelf. we mull be provided atjainft nor let them cool our Zeal.. ) it is 325' he intimated before {Chap. they will take upon them and call our Change. If you negleol this Opportunity. and grow llothful now. This Pailage may probably enough allude to that allegoThat when rical Saying of Pythagoras and his Followers 71 comes God. becaufe other Men's Tongues are not at our diipofal. LXXV. inould come with 'ju^^^bc^i^^^^y^^'^'Tjii^'^^^^^'-?: CHAP. UP and be doing j How long will you own Happinefs. defer your : Whom . XXIX. not with doubtful and wavering Minds. and go jbackwafds. and therefore what they fay ftiould give us no dilturbance.' would always choofe the beft! You have the Rules and Precepts to this purpofc laid plainly before your Eyesj you have perufed and afiented to the Truth and Equity of them What Mafter do you ilay for now? ian you with any. ^ : never look behind htm. and at lail drop out of the World. and Hill do nothing .

as if you intended in time to be as great as be. and highly necdTary : no lefs requifite . And if you are not lb great a Man as Socrates^ yet it will become you to live and aft. the Field. or loft by one bafc Retreat. Delays (zs we commonly fay of them) i^rc dangerous. whatever be. It was thus that Socrates grew fo great. if you are invited by a profpeot of j or affrighted with the Fear of Difgrace. fhould be put in mind how precious Time iSj and awakened into Diligence. but than you came into it. or an enfet Man ticing Pleafure Honour. and never hearkning to any other Perfuafions. allay all you Paflionsi. THIS former alfo is an Admonition . Lofc about a good Life juft nowi and let the Determinations of Right Reafon be an inviolable Law to you from this very Moment. All your Fortunes depend upon one Engagement. in which you are to fignalize yourand there is no declining the Trial. 5 Remember this is this is the Combat you are called to felf . and the For it is this practice of thpfe Rules you have received ? Praftice only. that they are but fo many Pretences for indulging our Sloth. and the Ground you have gotten heretofore. is. COMMENT. If you meet with a difcouraging Difficulty. and one certain ill efFeft of them is. it is that a Man who hath embraced this philofophical Difcipline. muit either be maintained by one gallant Violory . and anfwer the Delign both of the compofing and the learning them. To what Purpofe therefore (fays he) do you defer your own Happinefs.^i6 one jot a better I c s's Morals no time then. than the . To conform all your Actions to right Reafon. puihing every Advantage as far as it would go. The Operation expe6ted from them. that can render you virtuous and happy. it encounter the Temptation bravely. by putting himfelf forward upon all occafions. and refolved to fubmit to it. to fix this as a perpetual and inviolable Lawi to retrench your Defires. . but thofe of his own Reafon.

while your Soul is deluded with a vain Hope and Expe£iaiiou pf doing fomething. when you are beft qualified to mailer what you attempt. wbo ftop their Cre-. to make Appointments and break them . But this cannot do You any fervice. I fay. and your Judgment convinced by thefe Rules. if Sloth and Supinenefs gtt the power over you.with SiMPLicius's Comment. You efpecially. and made fome coniiderabk progrefs in them. unlefs you digeft and make them ofa piece with your Soul. with having yoqr Underftanding enlightned. to take fome pains to be good . but have applied your Mind to the ftudy of thefe things. Payments. through your hands . if you cannot now find in your heart ble of . you ilifie the Reproaches from wfrhin. and deal like diflioneft Debtors. exertingitfeifiti virtuous Habits. yourfelf. You.. hath been fo fully opened. Others may poffibly plead their Age. who have had all the advantages imagina- Another Knowledge and Improvement. and bring every Inclination and every Averfion. which they never intend to make. and the Heats and unthinking Follies of Youth. who have not only had the Maxims of Philofophy. were he but fuf^ciently taught how to be fo. But you arc ia the very Seafon of Life. to upon proper Objeds . that they may be like a Principle of new Life within you. and the Weaknefles of old Age have not yet difabled you. and your Strength in its perAnd if this inviting Opportunity be fuffered to flip feftion. and fo pathetically urged upon you. own poffibly might alledge want of In{lrii£lion in his excufe. who have had That you are by no means to content it evidently proved. which render them incapable of fober Reflexion and fevere Difcipline. when they are come. and the Meafurcs of Virtue fully explained and illuftraled . 317 fix Paffions. and fix adiftant time for thofe. and confine theipfelves withia their juft bounds.and. make not Ignorance and want of Means a pretence. Thus. to drive it off to a farther Day again. which is moil kindly for Virtue. and declare himfelf moil ready to be good. your Judgment folid. the Vihemences of Youth are worn oiF. Your Paffions are fedate. as if you ftiU were to wait for fome more powerful Call. by freih Refolves j but ilill thofe New are as inii^nificant as the . (ditor's mouths with fair Promifes. and influencing your whole Converfation. to fix upon particular Days for fetting about this Great Work . and indeed all that can be neceflary for your due Information. Since therefore all this. you do but play booty with your Confcicnce.

and indeed determines US. whether it tend to Flonour or Ignominy. let the Temptation be never fo fmall do not flight or negleS it. And ir . as our flatc of Separation before we came into thefe Bodies. I fay. et cne that does Jb. after a number of Years fpent in fruitlefs Intentions. ty Encouragement . and agrees te tljf tp . Hy^clhtfts . For the whole of this taken together. Security will give a Defeat. with a prudent Care make them * Tin's proceeds npun th: PlatonJck Ndions man largely tak^ Netue of. had a great influence upon what we do here. you neceffilrily gFOw worfe. and by infenfible Decay relapfe into Ignorance and Vice again. alas! in Virtue there can be no fuch thing as flanding tUll: While you defer growing better. which is. That all all mane Life are fo far in fubjeftion to you . . but to be continually advancing forwards.3ii8 tfve Epictetus's Morals pitch upon a To-morro^v whrch wHl never were welt indded if thts were the worft of it. as a ftate of Difcipline and Probation is capable of. is a marvellous advantage to our future Virtue r So our Behaviour here is but the Preface and Preparation to what we fhall do there again. confpiro together to your own advanFor. and the time we pafs here but one ilage it. Only the * ftate of Preexiflehce makes fome alteration in our Life here. and fo muft continue for ever. where there was no Strength . I. whatever. Thus . Pythagorcaa Chap. and come. for then his Exhortation would be needlefs: But the Perfedion of a Proficient.. that you may though never fo diffeirent in themlelves. appears moft reafonable. To you have one mighthe Accidents of hu. titiailrous. a Law. but requires a pofitive and pundual• Obe- dience. All are manageable: Only be fure. you live and die a Fool. Noil/ therefore y now afpire (fays he) toperfeSiion^ em d live Abfolute Perfe£tion he does not mean . fuch a degree. that is. do not be difpirited at it. and our Life here makes a cotifiderable one. as to the ftate of our Separation hereafter. bur. which cannot be fatisfied with being known and underllood . and the Difpofition of the Soulswe Old. upon mature Gonfideration. fo as never to lofe ground. For. Brought into the World. pleafant or painful. And to this purpofe. (Irengthen you in this Refolution. whether you meet with any thing fuccefsful or tase. let it have the force of a Law with you. and though it be never fo great. is one entire Life.

. and all the advances the Man had formerly made in Goodnefs. leaves an Im. but Conqueit or Ruine muft be the Fate of the Day. depends upon this nice point. we can do well . and confirms the Mind fo. Socrates had a juft fenfe and exprefs'd it abundantly in the circuuifpedion of his Life. Thus Epioletus aifures you. pray be pleafed to conlider. determines your whole Fortune. great deal more fo to morrow and if there be ( as there will be fure to be) any freili Objedion to palliate his Idlenefs. and all the Vigour of his Mind will languilTi and die. where there Force enough to win ir. till at laft Reafon be quite enfeebled and over-powered. do. That fuch little things cannot turn to your prejudice: For that one Day.preffion behind it.methods. which. will be . except that only of adding to his Shame and his Guilt. with S to do is I LIc I s's Comment. and what ges. that it declines^ The practice of one Day. makes fome alteration in them. Thus by degrees the Difpofition to Goodnefs will v. It will yield more and more tamely to every frefli attack. that there is no middle ftate. and the performance of one Att. and with eafe. . when attended to and improved. that the next Attempt proves a great deal more eade. and he tells you very true. Nor are you to flip one Day.. and Defpondcncy will lofe the Prize. Remember. that every one is an Adverfary challenging you and that Virtue is the Crown you are to conto the Field tend for. 329 it. we naturally come to do . of this. that you let no Accident pafs unimproved But imagine. every moral Adion. Be fure then. every lingle Accident Lives. He that is flothful and irrefolute to day. and repeated Ads become habitual and familiar. and much in the fame proportions. The Relddancies of Senfe wear off. than he had the Second. . no getting oif without Blows. be loft to all other Intents andPurpofes. or overlook one fingle A61ion. get and maintain ir.'alie away. Hour. And if it feem incredible and furprizing. he will have a great deal leis mind to encounter it the Third day. Now with delight. do thus lofe ground. that every Indulgence of a Vice gives and abates of our power to it new force to affault us relifl: it. For the very thin^'. and we daily feel our own AdvantaFrequent ufe gives us a more mafterly hand . but ever pf their Thus Men never continue long the fame. which raifed . For Virtue increafes by the fame . and that fingle your Prefervat'on or your Deflrudion . when neglefted. upon a vain imagination. the very fame fingle Trials.

and how is one j What is a Confequencej What a Contradiotion j What is True. You will fay. if you are not like tion . That which all our Sudies ihould be directed to . and feels himfelf at once how to copy after them. and that the Firft is the moft important and neceflary point of all. firft LXXVI. 3 30 I c s's Morals him fo high. is the Moral part. as if you meant and hoped one day For the profped of an eminent Example is to equal them. their Duty as for inftance. that the Laft of thefe is fubfervient to the Second j that the Second is fubordinate to the Firft. !^uc we quite invert this Order. and aihamed not to do fo. was his conftant Care. except thofe of his own*Reafon. what a this in the cafe before us Third . which fons wherefore inftruobs us : Demonftration is . and the Refults of his moft careful and compofed Thoughts. He made every Accident of every kind turn to fome good account . whilit he keeps the Pattern in his eye. and ihews us evident Reaphy. This fignifies very little to You. or delay the doing any good. he is proimitate his Excellencies. CHAP. we ought not to lie The Third is the diftinguifliing and Argumentative part. and moil ufeful Topick in Philofo- which teaches Men That they ihould not lie j The fecond is the Deraonftrative part. raifed But give me leave to fay him. a wonderful advantage . live with that exaftnefs. and wherein they ihould all center and reft. it fires a Man with noble Emulalo think yourfelf like Socrates. and gave him the Charader of the Wifeft of Men. and was deaf to all other Solicitations. ^ . voked to direded apd. whatever you want of his Perfedions at prefent. who have not the Vanity. never to negled any advantage.:. The at laft. though never fo importunate. Now from hence it is plain. and what is Falfe. which gives us infallible Proofs of it . perhaps. you would do well to endeavour And. it.

and what Method tor the forming them into a true Syllois to be obferved. which fiiews us clearly. by a ftrange Abfurdity. The Third is the Illuftrating and Arguing part. a thing of the higheft Confequence. and aims feolion of his Nature. and ac the fame time value ourfelves exceedingly. that a Man. and it is not fit we ihould take up with fo flight and feeble Perfuafions concerning it. C is NT. Otherwife. either to the bare Authority. owing only to Demouftration. and the Firft is not thought worth either: So that. that which converts our Speculation into Pradice. is Now : From hence we plainly perceive. by taking things upon Trufl. That it is a Syllogifm conlifling of Propofitions put together according to Rules of Art. as mere Opinion and Probabilities are capable of creclear and undoubted Evidence is an effeft ating in us. but alfo affigns convincing Reafons. This prevents our being impofed upon by any falfe . The Second is the demonftrative part. and prohibits Lying in all our Difcourfe and Converfation. thefe will comprehend. and leaning too much. not only that we ihould or fhould not. . and run into infinite Inconveniencies. with SiMPLicius's Commcnr. to inform us in the Nature of a Demonftration: as. who makes any IT the peculiar perpretenfions to Philofophy. why we ihould or ihould not do this or that.1 . 33 Third employs moil of our Time and Pains. And it is Logick's peculiar Province. which prefcribes Modeity and Temperance in our Aftions. ihould have a clear and demonftra*ive knowledge of the Truth. of confident Pretenders. Virtue or the infufficient Proofs. yet all that The Firft is the Preceptive is material and neceiTary in it. we commit the Crime. appear- . what PropofiticuRre qualified. part. gifm. both as he is an Animal and a Rational Creature. he may be liable to great Errors. and affifts Nature by Art. if not all abfolutely. and that thofe PropoAs alfo to aciitions muft be of clear and||||doubted Truth quaint us. that the whole compafs of Philofophy may be reduced to Three Heads and that . which fets Rules to our Reaioning. for being able to demonftrate beyond all contradid:ion that we ou^ht not to commit it. at abfolutely neceffary.

and give us the moil uncon- Now and faiisfadtory AiTurance. which conliits in reducing our Knowledge into Prailice. and the irreconcileable Oppofition between others. and what differences there are between true and Syllogiims. The Pradical and Preceptive Part. The greitell part of our Time and Pains is em. 332- I c s's Morals appearances. : : How of forming it fair . this ! And We and . if we governed ourfelves by Rule. as we fee. and confe^uently Both the other are refolved into the Firft. or both falfe together. and impoffible to be both true. -viz. to remove all the Scruples and Diilatisfaolion of our Minds to direS and fix our Judgments. is intended to ferve the Second. I fay. is the Bufinefs of the Second Head. This. are dircft GontradiSions. what is our real Happiand Vv'hat our Duty. and the Neceffity of being Virtuous. For our linowledge is intended only to qualifie us for A6tion. between a real demonflration itnd a pretended one. which inilruds us in all the Subtleties of Reafoning . and fliews the mutual Connexions andConfequences of IbmePropdlitions. but beyond this there is no Endof greater Confequence. than that this Third Topick. we wrangle allow this no Portion of cur Care at all. for every thing elfe confpires to promote this.. and irregular. That the Species neceiTarily infers its Genus ^ and the Being of a Man implies that of an Animal That a particular Affirmative and an univerfal Negative. or higher Perfeolion. fophiilical. and fo likewife a particular Negative and an univerfal Affirmative. thefe Propoiitions mufl be put together. iiefs the Praolice of Virtue''and a Good Life is the ultimate DeHere we muil fix at fign of all Study. that this Second is fubordinale to fomething beyond it. alas we take quite contrary Meafures. contrived. by teaching us the Difference.ployed upon the Third Head. lait . which ihould convince us of the Excellence. and polFefs our Souls with a lively and vigorous Senfc of our Duty. and enfnaring ones. But for the Firit of thefe Topicks. as. in nice Difputes and Controverted Points. and all Inllrudion.rence there will be in the Conclufion according to ihe manner . never to be reconciled. which con (ills in Demonftrative Proofs. and therefore teftable . It acquaints us too with the qualifications of a Syllogifm What Propofitions it confifts of. nothing can be more plain. But then it is every whit as plain too. What difFe. happy were it for us. and that This is an Jngenious and Artificial Expedient. aniM^ad us to it. But. and we can fpare but very little for the Second.

in every State. And it pleafesiis jnuch to think. with great Dexterity. which you on me lay. That we cau Diew. Conlidering. inforce the Pradice of his Moral Maxims. and expofe the Vanity of thofe Men . learnt. to learn how to argue againft Vicei proceed is this Then to employ our Talent in demoiiftrating theBafeneli and Incongruity of it to ourfelves. As You determine: For I muft obey The wife Injundions. that we are able to convince and perfuade Others. that no body cau expofe the Deformity own Aftions. and. and to perfeverein the Pradice of what we have We . and is is that the Preceptive Part. which esquifite a Folly defervcs. 333 and difpute eternally. The Method in which we ought 10 iirit. with that indignation. In every Enterprife.: with Simp Liciu s's Comment. we ought not to be what we are. inconfilience that can be. CHAP. powerful Fate. the reft. tho' Superiour to all yet itfelf fubordinate to the Pradical. and affeflionately upon it. For . talk iearnedly. we fhall do well to rcfign ourfelves to the Difpofal of Providence. This ter now the Subftance and Delign of Epidetus in the Chapbefore us. fame time are proud. '^ovc^ and thou. in fome COndud me. where he does. that we learnt it for that very pui- pofe . which is the nioii monilrous part of what we fay. IN every undertaking fuch Ejaculation as this LXXVil. we are guilty of grois Enormities ill our own Perfons and at the. and beginning at the wrong End. who make Speculation the end of their Knowledge. but iiill we do no Nay. and overlook that which would conduce to ihe proiiudy this now and then. Then a(5lually to decline it. Now all this is turning things up-lide down. better than our Selves. and moting true Goodnefs. about curious and unprofitable QueiftJons. when we are arrived to a full and undoubted Conviilion. © : .

I fliould but labour wickedly in vain. and which makes and moves all things. that He. whereof God is the Source. worthy his Fame.. Ihould difpofe his Mind to a willing and ready compliance . And ilruggle with an everlafting Chain. In thefe Verfes he begs the Guidance of God . Is juilly C regard Some of IN thofe Moral Axioms. 334 ' Epi CTETus's • ' Morals • ' ——a— d> your dread Decrees repine. and that' Providence and Power. For this Reafon he fubjoins fome here. and the Magnificence of the Senzte o^ Rome. and follow it whitherfoever it leads him. fliould I For at -^ V 5 E. And after all. and promifes for his part . Q(^QQ(^QQ<^QQ<^QQ<^QQ^QQ(^QQ<^QQ<^0 CHAP. who fet it up in Honour of him. both upon the Account of their own Weight and the celebrated Name of their Authors. that he will obey its Motions. and fo no Burden to the Memory . as being not only (hort . This he calls here by the name of Fate. and lie 't. And it is but reafonable. counted Wife by Men. And ftrive your Sacred Order to decline. The Eminence of this Man was fo great. HE The that fubmits to Deftiny's Decrees. and every Man. whether we . becaufe Oppoiuion (as hej obferves) will not only be Wicked but Fruitlefs I00j. LXXVIII. Eng. ff^alker's Epiolet. be dragg'd along with pain. ed. Paraphraf. but alfo likely to make a deeper and more lafting Impreffion .^and follow it we muft. headvifes us to have fome of thefe fignificant Sentences always ready at hand . that I my felf have fcen nt/IJJos^ (of which place he was a Native) a very noble Statue. and knows due Refpeit which to the Gods he ows. the Ancients have collefted together fcattered up and which were occafionally deliverdown in larger Books. The firit was a Meditation of Cleanthes^ Scholar to Zeno^ and Mafter to Chryfippus.

to follow fo inconfiderable a Part. but break it we cannot. and makes all contribute to the Firft Caufe. ) : with his Lot in common with the reft of the World ^ and can look upon himfelf as a part of this vaft Univerfe. XIII. (that is. which fubmits all things to God. and gall ourfelves with it we may . whether this ihall will or no. And. Shake our Chain. to obeying the Divine Pleafure. and hath a great Affinity to the Former. Sentence is taken out of one of Euripides his Tragedies. it takes And a Man in the whole Subftance of Morality and Virtue may very defervedly be called Good. and its Order difturbed. and then you will live eafie. As if the Courfe of the World were to be changed . fo does it his Piety too. for nothing better expreiies our Reverence for God than fuch a cheerful Relignation of ourfelves. To this purpofe Epioietus advifed us before (Chap. with SiMPLicius's Comment. or with Reludance and Sorrow. . and there is no getting loofe from Him. in whom we live y and move ^ and have our Being. The Man therefore who ftrikes in. but he can ftill make a jull: Diftin>Sion between a Whole and a Part. and betrays no Lothnefs. be done with Gheeriulnefs and Contentation . rather than He ihould move along with this great Engine.) Trouble notyourfelf (fays he) with wifoing^ That things may he as you would have them but be well pleafed they be jufi as they are•.. For the Caufe will always be ftronger than its EfFe£b. and oppofe that Harmony of Events. . gives a good Proof of his Wifdom ihews. and receiving contentedly whatever he fends : The Second . and a6fs in confent with This. and pro* moting his Glory) whether they will or no. when he is fatisfied ] . And indeed this of SubmilTiGn is a mofl: comprehenfive Duty. falls to his own Share. For Necefllty fignifies that over-ruling Power. or His Behaviour Regret. that he underftands the Nature of the World and hath not fo far biafled that Partiality to a private Intereft him. as would reftrain Providence within a narrow Compafs and make a World of himfelf alone. and take up with what . which confults the Good of the whole. upon us. 335• we Only it is in our Choice. who follows it with Alacrity. without any fuch greedy and afluming Notions. as This proves his Wifdom. Cg >* GHAP- .

This Man. that .. Any tus and Melitus may kill me ^ but Hoey cannot hurt me ^ is taken out oi Plato'' s Defence of Socrates^ and fpoken to his Accufers. given up himfelf to God without any referve. or Accidents. € His is t. by refreihing our Memory here. nor is it in the Povyer of Men . that the utmoft Perfedion attainable by a Humane Soul. does not depend upon external Objefts fo|• his Happinefs. and whofe Life fpeaks it as well as his Tongue . fure concerning CritOy If this be God's pleame. which occur'd to Bie upon this Subjedl. and cured the Degeneracy of his Nature. I fay. And indeed the Man. but it is mc any Hurt. to do him the leaft Prejudice. LXXIX. OR ^ this other. quoted out of a Difcourfe of Plato's . And thus our Author brings both ends together. That laft Claufe.'ed all his Pride and Difcontent. . he might confirm us in this Belief. who places his Good and Evil in the ufe of his Native Liberty only. is the Crown and Complement of all Virtues. and in thofe things which come "Within the compafs of his own choice. That the Man. who can make this Profeffion. by the Teftimony and Example of fuch eminent Perfons. and that •a ready compliance with the Divine Will upon all occafions. he cannot be brought under the Dominion of any thing. with what he infifted upon fo largely at the beginning . His Will be done j yiny- tus and Melitus may takd "inot in their power to do away my Life . viz. is a fincere Converfion or turning to God . The Senfe is much the fame with the Former. He hath abandoned Corruption . entitled and is fpoken there in the Perfon of Socrates. and delivered in fewer Words. hath vanquiih. And to me Epicletus feems to have produced thefe Sayings at the clofe of his Book .33^ Epigtetus's Morals C A P. Thus I have finifiied thofe Meditations. and fubmits to all his Difpenfations with a perfeS acquiefcence of Mind. is above the World . only wrapped up a little clofer. And becaufe I thought they might Criio.

by the agreeable Diverlion it hath given me. thou haft " honoured us withal that we may ad in all things as be*' comes free Agents. Lord. finally. . be of fome Service to as 337 many as iliall read Epictetus^ I was willing to contribute the little Affiftance I could. to the truexcellent an Author. .) I I S. All I have more to add-. in the reforming and direding our Judgment . " we pray thee. the Giver and Guide " of allReafon. thofe Mifts. *' ^. Nor does my ly underftanding writing this Commentary prove beneficial to Others only. and. And. *' Grant us alfo thy P"avourable Ailiftance. having difcovered them. that we may difcern thofe things that are " really Good. for I my felf have already found great Advantage from it. is only a Prayer. that we may always be mindful of the "Dignity. which darken the Eyes of our "• Mind . to the refining them from Flefh and Senfe. Difperfe. nh >^ *' J>uth God and Man and what to each is due. proper to this Subjed. of the Nature. I befeech thee. and " to the rendring them fubfervient to excellent Purpofes. to the fubduing and governing our " Paflions. " Grnnt. that fo we may have a perfect Underftanding " And (as Homer expreiles it) know {'ifh^j ©civ. may love " and cleave ftedfafily to the fame. and with it I conclude.: with SiMPLicus's Comment. and enlighten us with " thy Truth. and of the Privileues. in a Seafon of Trouble and Publick Calamity. '^4•44•'^4*'^'^^4'4^4^4*4''*!*'^•4**^*^>1*4^*^4^''^'1'^4'^^4^ Cc THE .

IV. lb. 6g. 7.. Vlll. That our Misfortunes proceed from the fear of Mifery . T'he E. That Virtue and Vanity cannot he Both attended to at once. ^'hat we part with is mi but refiored to God the Giver. 5. Men ought not to value themj elves upon the Gooods of Fortune . 68. and the appointment of our Defires.THE JL JTjL Introduaiion. The Circumfiances and probable Confequences of every Under•• taking.. That we mufi fnfpend our Judgments //// things are duly examined. but them. III. SS' 'The Diflinoiwn of Things in .. Ch. II. and out of our Power. 92. Ch. Ch. not to the Thit}gs ihemfehes. 60* lb. . Ch. but thofe of the Mind. *The NeceJJity of due Conjideratton Ch. Ch. is A well-difciplin' d Mind . Ch. The• Pkwers of the Mind mufi he fet againfi ill Accidents and vicious Defires^ Ch. lb. XV.' fuhjed to no ObftruBions. as things only by the bye. jhould nottroubU ourfelves with wifloing Imponibilities. 40. 7f. Ch. OoQuld be well weighed before we tinder take it. Ch.. ^i. Dif 43. IX. XII. and Preparation of Miyid. "The Nature and Condition of "Things. Ch. . 36. 96.. Ch. and all external AdvanH" 72. ges ufed and valued.ffe£ls of a true and falfe '\^udgment of Things. ^^^•. Ch. That the Nature of ivhat we love is a very material and neceffary Confideration. Our Minds fhould }J''e be fi^ed upon God. 37. The Ufe and Improvement of our Notions of things. Ch. . X.. • Diflurbances are Giving.^ is our proper oitr Ideas of Our Bujinefs and Virtue. VII. 35. XI. Vi. Ch. Wife Men make no Complaints. XIV. V. 1. That young Beginners in Virtue floould proceed flowly and gradually. JLf J / J__^• TH Page i. 100.

lb. XXXIII. XXIII. XXII. The If'^e GoUrtefies of the H'orld never come for nothing. • 189. 127. • II7. wife improves every Accident of Human Life.. to difiurb tht Peace . depends upon God's 123.^ and above our Strength. XXVi. XVII.^ want what he denies us. Ch. hut by dcfpifing the iVorld. Impro-vement of the Mind ought to be every Man's chief Page 103. Ch. XIX. Perfeverance conquers all Difficulties. Jhould pafs the fame "judgment upon our own Misfortunes that we do upon other Peoples. XXV. IVefjould rejoice with all Men^ and envy none. is lb. XXI. Liberty no vjav to be had. 131. ' lb. XXX. XX. Ch^XXXII. The way to avoid envying ad admiring others. of our in this Play of Life The Part we rnufl Appointment. Ch. XXXVL XXX lb. XXIX.^ to render him Ch. A Man XXIV. 128. 1 35-. XXXIV. needs not the Advantages of Fortune. Nothing ^dould be attempted that is out of our reach. Of .. ufeful to the Publick. Benefit of Deliberation. Ch. 103• Opinion of us. i (2. and Cenfure. a vain thing to dcfire the Jccuring to ourfelves . ture hath put out of our own Power. XXXI. XVL as r » •. is not to be expeded that every thing pould be jufl ill we have i^.^ I20. Ch. Ch. lb. Ch. Early Confideration prevents late Shame and Repentance. 125-. to fuppori andfatisfy A Good Man I^p. XXVII I. — TABLE. Ch. j XV is No Man It is capable of purfuing feveral Ends at once. IVe mufl improve ourselves by ring from fmall things to greater.. 'The It Ch. l•^• and be content to H^e muji take what God gives us thankfully . i6c! Concerning the Nature of Evil. Ch. IO4. IVe mup not be difcouraged at other Peoples ill. 142. 109. lyho is properly uur Maficr. 10. The Confcioufnejs of our own Virtue u7ight us. No XXVU. Ch. The The Advantage- A of Premeoiiiation. Care. v" 187 The Mtfchief and Folly of Attempts. lb. Philofopher mufi be above Dcrifion Ch. Ch. &c. what Na- Ch. Ch. Good Nature mufi be fo reflrained as not Mind. Ch. lb. is injured except by himfelf Ch. Ch.

Talking of one*s from Great Men. 28^ IVe mufi confult the Rights of Men in common^ and not our private Inter efi. XLVII. 1 92. 242. Rules for Converfation. LV.. JVo Danger Jhould difcourage us in our Duty. XLIX. Ch. Ch. LIV. Men mufi be chafle Ch. 287. lb. . LIII. Ch. TABLE. XXXIX. XLIV. Ch. Of the Government of the Of Reproof Ch. Ch. be Ch. &o Every Ch. Of obfcene Difcourfe. 266. 25. 25'4. XL Ch. LVIII. lb. Oracles confultedy 209. Man pould XL. ourfelves for cold Reception IVe mufi prepare Ch. how to be heard. 290. Ch. L. Our Poffejfions fjould be meafured not by Luxury^ but Ufe. The Integrity of the Mind. . 1^6.^ Great and IVife fation. LIX.lities . 272. Difcourfe concerning God and Providence Religion. XLVI. 282.^ Jhould be our great Care. 276. Page 191. 278. and with what Difpofition . Of the Duties Men owe one another^ and^ that we mufl do our though other People do not dif Parts charge Theirs. 25* 5". Of Jefiing. XLV. LI. A * ^ Difiourfe of Friendjhip. 291. and the Duties of 4 207. &c* . LX. Ch. Men Jhould be Rehearfals of Poets and Orators. 249. LVl The Senfe of Duty . Nature . XLI. 25. Ch. Publick Shows Jhould he feen with an even and compofed Mind. Of Laughter. Ch.^ lb. felf to be avoided. and not aim at things above him.very Man Jhould confider his own Ab. 270. Ch. Ch.§.^ without Vanity and Cenforioufnefs. Ch. LII. Of our Behaviour at publick Entertainments. refolve what Charaaier he will maintain. XLII. XLIII. Ch. XXXVIII. The Glory of denying ourfelves and abftaining from Pleafure<. ^ XXXVIl. LVII. and not common Fame^ mufi be the Rule ofourAdions. Ch. made our Patterns for Conver273. Tongue. 263. VIII• Calumnies Jhould be defpifed. Ch. ike. E. Ch. Of Swearing. Ch. Ch. /» what Cafes .

29f. 298^ 300. Harangues . to Wifdom confifis not in it. Ch. LXXIX.. LXIX.. of all . Ch. forwardnefs in InflruBion . LXXVII. No Man is LXVI. Ch.A Nature . LXU. Virtue is to really the better for any external Advantages. Of 307. Moral Knowledge. What vjorthy of them all. Body defer ves but is Mind 297. &c.. its befl IVe jhould take every thing by handle. 315^' Ch». Pradicc is the End We mufl mind our Dutv World. 330-^ Duty ofSelf-Kefignation and Submtjfion Ch. Divine Will. and how our Improvement /'» Knowledge Jhould be manifefted. Ch. ' Cenfures of the 324. LXXiV. defpife the ^ Ch.5"•• . LXXVill.. •valuable Ch» LXI. Ch. OfrafrCenfures. 316. Ch. — «»> is fion fafisfiedj is but extravagant Defires never. Againfi Ofientation. LXIV. a more little Page 293.. LXV. LXXV.. be LXVII. LXXIIL 321. LXXII.. and '' from himfclf. 32. 308. LXXI. 'I'rue ^ Ch. of our 'time and Pains. 303. but good Adions. Againfi deferring a good Life. Excelknce than Beauty. other People fay or think of us . Every Man's Happinefs and Mifery . not fo much our Con^ cern as theirs. but the is Modefiy in a IVife T'he Ch. the 335-. 312» is "The Charaiier of a Proficient in Wifdom and Goodnefs. the Conchfiun. Ch. LXIII. . 537* F 1 I S. LXVIII. L . learned Dijputes about Virtue biilr in the praSiice of 'the LXXVi. 305•. not in wife foewn Ch. Ch. LXX.

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E5E5 1721 Epictetus his morals.B561 . with Simplicius Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 1 1012 00158 2347 .

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