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Centre For Maritime Education & Training Lucknow

Manual For Advanced Fire Fighting

Off: C.M.E.T. ,476 Km Mile tone ,!a" hi "a Tala# , $ita%ur &oad , 'uc"no(. ).*. Tel:+,--.-7/,+0, , -7/,747 , +,-0-.-106+1,Fa2:+,--:-7/,137 , Cell:1//,67-/60 4e# ite:((( ,

INDEX Chapter
1. 2. 3. 4 . !. ". 8. 9.

Introduction, Safety and Principles Theory of fire Fire Control Aboard Ship Ship Fire Fighting Organization Training of Seafarer in Fire fighting Procedures for Fire Fighting fire Appliances and Equip ent Fire Fighting !azards First Aid

Page no.
2 3-9 10-18 19-24 2 -28 29-3 3!-" "!-"8 "9-88

The fire hazards aboard ship are a a"or concern for ship o#ners and seafarers ali$e%

All aspect of safety and fire hazards both at #or$ and in off duty period abo&e ship at sea or in port requires constant attention as no hu an acti&ity is free fro so e easures of ris$s% Accidents are in any cases caused by lac$ of $no#ledge or inadequate training, inco plete understanding of ships and ship's operation, non adherence to procedures, lac$ of foresight and the ta$ing of unnecessary ris$s, often in quite si ple operations% Prudence and foresight are the natural characteristics of a good seafarer at #or$, #ho should a$e it a habit to be on a loo$ out for hazards in any situations, including ordinary e&ery day situation% Also a$ing use of (!ot )or$ Per it* and (Entry in enclosed spaces* chec$list can't be e phasized% The e phasis on the need for correct use of aterials and equip ent in a e ergency situation is of ut ost i portance specially fire fighting aboard ships of different types such as oil tan$ers, +P,s, O-O, .O/.O, Ferries and Containers ships% There is al#ays an e&er increasing need to upgrade standards of training for ship board personnel% As fires ha&e history and the habit of stri$ing at odd hours, its rather ore crucial to ta$e charge of the situation in a planned anner by the responsible persons so that there in no chaos and fires are handled in an efficient anner% The present course is intended to eet the rele&ant pro&isions of SO+AS Con&ention I0O 0odel course and I0O .esolution A 123 4567 (Training of cre# in fire fighting* #hich #as adopted on 68th 9o&% 6:3:, reco ends that each e ber go&ern ent should ai at training all its seafarer in the fire pre&ention and fire fighting to an e;tent appropriate to their functions on board the ship After co pleting the course participants shall be enabled to respond to ta$ing co and and control the fire fighting operations e ploying techniques for fighting fire and organise cre# effecti&ely% Also, they #ill enhance their $no#ledge in being able to aintain and inspect fire fighting equip ent and syste s in an efficient anner% It is hoped that the $no#ledge and e;periences gained in the course #ould contribute significantly in the enhance ent of safety at sea%

C&%P'E# (1 IN'#)D*C'I)N+ S%$E', %ND P#INCIP-ES

The ain ai s of I%0%O% .esolution A 123 4567 are<

6% Instructing 0asters, =ec$ Officers, Engineer Officers and $ey personnel in organisational ethods and the best use of staff for co bating fires% >% Training the in the aintenance and inspection of fire e;tinguishing equip ent%

2% Instructing the in the hazards applying to fires in dangerous goods and safe ethods for co bating such fires% The safety rules laid do#n by the Chief instructor ust be adhered to during the course%

'he o1 0ur2.2a/ re/at.on to are4 ?no#ledge of theory of fire and fire precautions% .egular training and drills Preparedness for any fire e ergency% ?no#ledge of escape routes ?no#ledge of dangers of s o$e and to;ic fu es% .egular inspection and aintenance of< Fire detection equip ent% Fi;ed fire/ e;tinguishing equip ent% Portable fire e;tinguishers% 0obile fire e;tinguishers% Co pressed air breathing apparatus Fire an's outfits%

C&%P'E# (2 '&E)#, )$ $I#E

The definition of co bustion ay be gi&en as co bination of burnable aterial #ith o;ygen #ith the e ission of light and heat% -urning is a rapid for of )5.6at.on. Presence of o;ygen is pre conditions for a fire to occur% O;ygen in itself does not burn but supports burning% The there basic require ents for a fire are 1. $*E2. &E%' %ND 3. )X,7EN 8%I#9 These can be represented by a triangle, #hich is $no#n, as the triangle of fire% In the right circu stances if #e bring all the three together #e ha&e a fire% If any one of the is re o&ed, the fire is e;tinguished% This for s the basis of fire and its e;tinguish ent% If #e closely loo$ at a fla e then the incandescent part of the fla e is #here the che ical reaction 4O;idation7 is ta$ing place% The lu inosity is caused by the carbon particles, #hich are not co busted o#ing to a lac$ of o;ygen The dar$ central area in the fla e is the area #here the &apour/ air i;tures is not yet heated to its ignition te perature, the &apours only burn #hen heated abo&e the ignition te perature% It is only the &apour, #hich burn, and the fuel is deco posed% $-%S& P)IN' It is the lo#est te perature at #hich ignitable &apours are gi&en off% !eat is a for of energy and te perature is a easure of the degree of hotness% For e;a ple, a drop of boiling #ater ay be hotter than a sin$ full of #ater but sin$ full of #ater ay contain ore heat energy% &E%' !eat ay be produced fro of the sources of heat are< a lot of sources, so e as result of che ical reactions% So e

6% Che ical energy< E;other ic reactions poly erization, de/ co position fla e, co bustion

>%0echanical energy< Friction% 2%Electrical energy< Spar$s, heated conductors% 1% 9uclear energy< As a result of fusion or fission in a controlled syste s or in the shelling of bo bs% '#%NS:ISSI)N )$ &E%' Trans ission of heat ay ta$e place through one of the follo#ing Conduction< Transfers heat in solids e%g% steel bul$ heads% Con&ention< Transfers heat in circulating gases or liquids% .adiation< Transfers directly through spaces, no ediu is needed% $*E-S4 Fuels are classified as< Solid +iquid ,ases and 0etals C/a00 %- Carbonaceou0 8So/.694 )ood, paper and aterials consisting of cellulose co e into this category% One olecule of cellulose 4C@ !6A O87 contains si; Carbon ato s, ten !ydrogen ato s, and fi&e O;ygen ato s% The li&ing plants initially create Carbohydrates as a result of photosynthesis and cellulose is for ed later on% The sun's energy trapped during the photosynthesis is released #hen the cellulose aterials burn and release #ater and carbon dio;ide At 636AC )ood begins to deco pose% At 2A>AC this deco position beco es &iolent% The deco position of cellulose follo#s a co plicated pattern< C@ !6A O8 B @A> /C 8!>OB@CO> B !EAT E9E.,DE If the o;ygen is present is sufficient quantity then the s othering ta$es place and CO> is released other#ise no CO> is released 4to;ic and fla able7 or e&en carbon thic$ s o$e or Charcoal #hich #ill s oulder #ithout fla e ethods<

)hen so e plastics are burnt they releases gases such as !ydrogen Chloride and !ydrogen Cyanide #hich a$e the at osphere unable to breath in, in&o$ing the need for the use of breathing apparatus% SPECI$IC S*#$%CE Surface plays an i portant role in the ignition of a aterials and spread of fire% S all pieces of chopped off #ood #ill ignite readily than co pared to big piece of #ood% This e;plains idea of a specific surface% 'INDE# ha&e 4Sp% surface >A c >Fg 7 ay be ignited #ith an ordinary atch% ;IND-IN7 4Sp% surface > to >A c >Fg 7 require burning tinder for ignition <*-;$*E- 4Sp% surface A%A1 to > c >Fg 7 requires burning $indling for ignition% It is established that loose aterials are ore readily ignitable than closely pac$ed bales% +oose papers in the office are ore prone to fire/ ris$ than those in a steel filing cabinet% Finely di&ided particles of burnable aterials suspended in the air burn &ery fiercely so as to be e;plosi&e% )hen s#eeping hatches after coal, especially, one should da p do#n first% =ust e;plosions ha&e occurred in sulphur, Flour and =ust clouds fro any other cargoes% $-%S& )=E# An incipient fire #hile gro#ing radiates heat in all directions, heating the surface e;posed to it until they all reach their flash point ore or less at the sa e ti e, there is then a &iolent spread of fla e $no#n as flash/ o&er% If the fire is gro#ing in an enclosed space than before flash/ o&er can ta$e place, it ay be short of o;ygen and ad&ance as a s ouldering fire, flash/ o&er is then delayed until so eone opens the doors and ore air co es inside the enclosed space% #E- I7NI'I)N4 -ul$ fuel ay contain enough heat #hich is not co pletely gone out of the syste s, #ill be slo#ly conducted to the surface to dry it off and cause re/ ignition% It ay also be caused by continued s ouldering behind panels, inside attresses and concealed places%

C-%SS ><? -I@*ID Consists of !ydrocarbons, #hich are ade up of !ydrogen and Carbon% These can be graded as follo#s% Class A !a&ing Flash Point belo# >2AC% !ighly fla able Such as Petrol, Spirits, Class !a&ing Flash Point at >2AC @@AC !ighly fla able Such as ?erosene Class C !a&ing Flash Point abo&e @@AC such as Coo$ing oils, +ubricating oil and diesel oil% The aterials ha&ing lo# Flash Point are ore dangerous% Ob&iously Petrol ha&ing lo# F%P at roo te perature than the diesel oil ha&ing higher F%P% 'here are three teAperature0 to a /.Bu.6 There are as follo#s< $/a0h po.nt The te perature at #hich the &apours #ill flash o&er but not continue to burn, upon the application of spar$ or fla e% $/aAe po.nt The &apours #ill flash and continue to burn upon the application of spar$ or fla e% SP)N'%NE)*S I7NI'I)N 'E:PE#%'*#ES Spontaneous Ignition Te perature is the te perature at #hich the &apours co burning #ithout the application of spar$s or fla e% ence

There is al ost a reciprocal relationship bet#een Flash Point and Spontaneous Ignition Point% +iquids #ith a high flash point ay ha&e a relati&ely lo# S%I%T% 0any ships fires are caused by contact of lubricating oils on hot surfaces, o&erheated bearings etc% #%N7E )$ $-%::%<I-I', There is a critical le&el of concentration of &apours belo# #hich it #ill be too lean to burn and abo&e #hich too rich% Petrol &apours, for instance, ha&e a fla able range fro 6%1G by &olu e to 3%@G by &olu e #hen i;ed #ith air% Any data gi&en for flash point or fla able range ust be treated as appro;i ations only as there are any factors that affect flash point% 0ost fla able liquids are lighter than #ater, as #ith hea&y oils the boiling points is any ti es higher than that of #ater then #ater in "et for not to be used as it #ill enter the oil and flash into stea #ith a 63AA to 6 e;pansion ratio thro#ing burning oil into the air%

)ater ay be used in the for of a spray pro&ided< 6% The oil has not been burning too long% >% The flash point of the oil is not too lo#% 2% It #ould not cause the oil to flo# else#here Foa ay be thought of as #ater #ith its decreased Specific ,ra&ity so that it floats on oil, it should be directed onto a &ertical surface so that it spread gently o&er the surface of the oil to blan$et it% Special foa s ust be used on liquids iscible #ith #ater% =ry po#der and CO> are suitable for use on oil fires% Hnless it is of foa co patible type, dry po#der ay destroy foa % =ifferent types of foa e%g% protein detergent ay be inco patible also% C-%SS >C? 7%SE)*S ,as cargo ainly consists of special +%P%,% Carriers% ,ases on the ships fro cargoes such as Coal, Oil, Fer enting sugar etc% ay also e&ol&e

0any &apours, #hich are hea&ier than air and #ill collect in lo# spaces or stratify along dec$, thus laying their o#n fuse% ,as fires are usually e;plosi&e in nature% Sources of ignition ay be fro open fla es, echanical spar$s or electrical spar$ing% =ifferent areas of a gas cloud ay ha&e different concentrations and be #ithin the range of fla ability in one place but not another% Spontaneou0 CoAbu0t.on Che ical reactions are either e;other ic or endother ic that is to say that they either gi&e out heat during the reaction or need heat to $eep the going 4the ne# olecules for ed #ill either need ore energy to bind the together than the old or less energy%7 O;idation processes are e;other ic, they gi&e out heat and if o;idation too$ place #here the heat could not escape then the heat le&el ay build up abo&e the ignition te perature and a fire is caused #ithout spar$s or fla e being necessary%

An e;a ple of this is a pile of oily #aste% The oil contains free carbon, #hich #ill readily o;idize, but the #aste pre&ents the dissipation of the heat, -iological reaction such as rotting and ger ination are also e;other ic and can be a potential cause of fire% C&E:IS'#, )$ EX'IN7*IS&IN7 $I#E #E:)=%- )$ $*EThe philosophy of fire e;tinguishing depends on single factor% If by any eans #e are able to brea$ the triangle of fire then fire is e;tinguished% If any of the fire triangle co ponents are issing fire ceases to e;ist% And the three fa ous co ponents of fire triangle are FHE+, !EAT A9= AI. 4O>7 )e #ill syste atically discuss each of the in the re o&al of fire% #E:)=%- )$ &E%' This for s one of the reason of re o&al of fire% There are and one of the is application of #ater% any ethods of doing that

C%'E# )ater has a high specific heat and a latent heat% )hen #ater is con&erted into stea its absorbs fi&e ti es as uch heat as required for freezing #ater to be con&erted into boiling #ater te perature% This gi&es in inherent ad&antages to #ater to be applied as fire e;tinguishers it absorbs a;i u heat fro the syste and helps in its effecti&e e;tinguishing as it is con&erted into stea and spray i%e% as a spray% The disad&antages of #ater as fire e;tinguishers are< 6% A high surface tension pre&ents the #ater fro etc% >% Conducts electricity 4especially salt #ater7 2% .eacts #ith so e aterials% penetrating attresses and bales

S:)'&E#IN74 It is based on the fact that air that for s one of the co ponents of the triangle of fire if stopped fro entering into fire results in e;tinguishing the fire% )hen any inert gas or CO> is introduced, it lo#ers the o;ygen content of the gas i;ture around the fire and e;tinguishing of fire ta$es place, #hich is called as s othering% This is ost effecti&e in an enclosed space fro #hich all personnel ha&e been e&acuated and there is no danger to hu an life% It can be applied successfully to s all spill fires% Since in the #hole process no cooling effect is in&ol&ed and no change of state ta$es place so on a class A fire glo#ing e bers ay re/ ignite

D#, P)CDE#

The dry po#der used for the fire e;tinguishing, are Sodiu -icarbonate

-icarbonates or Potassiu

=ry po#der acts by interfering #ith the co plicated chain reaction #hich is the co ponent of fire square in #hich the energy for olecular brea$ do#n and spreads through the &apours by reacting #ith the ele ents in&ol&ed in the fire% =ry po#der is &ery effecti&e on petrol and spirit fires% Cooling action is not in&ol&ed% Certain other types of dry po#ders a&ailable are those action in&ol&es coagulation on the surface of the burning aterial thus pre&enting the release of &apours% This is suitable for class A and class - fires and is ter ed as (Hni&ersal* despite their ain dra#bac$ in being e;pensi&e% )hen o;idizing agents are in&ol&ed, e;tinguishing by s othering gases should not be atte pted% They contain o;ygen, #hich is liberated #hen they are e;posed to heat and increase the ferocity of the fire, #hich renders the s othering ineffecti&e%

C&%P'E# (3 $I#E C)N'#)- %<)%#D S&IPS

.equire ents for the construction and fire protection of ships ha&e been published as Statutory Instru ents% They deal ainly #ith the follo#ing points% 6% The construction of the ship >% -ul$heads and openings in bul$heads 2% Stair#ays and other features 1% The fire fighting equip ent 8% Alar s @% Sprin$lers 3% Fire E;tinguishing de&ices Fire protection gains enor ous i portance in case of passenger ships, and the require ents are concerned pri arily #ith the % The acco odation space of cargo &essel is also not less i portant #hen planning for protection on ships% The ain considerations of fire safety at ship are the pre&ention of outbrea$s of fire, and the confine ent of fire to the s allest space possible% The pre&ention of outbrea$ of fires obli&iously needs ore strict precautions #ith regard to e&ery potential sources of ignition% The control of fire can be acco plished by the di&ision of ship's area into sub di&ision #ith fire resistant di&ision by chec$ing the use of co bustible aterials in the content and furnishings, in the construction and superficial finishes and by installation of fire e;tinguishing syste s and a$ing an effecti&e fire fighting plan al#ays ready% Although these structural and echanical of protection are i portance but the responsibility of the safety of the ship ulti ately lies in the hands of the persons present o&er her% This includes officers as #ell as cre#% The sub di&ision of a ship into #ater tight and fire resistant co part ents pro&ides control of fire spread by confining the fire, for a period of ti e, to the co part ent in #hich the fire started% The period for #hich the fire ay be confined is depended on the fire resistance of the di&isions, the dec$s and bul$heads% The aterials being used in the constructions of the different parts of the ship and their fire resistant quality plays a &ery i portance role in the confine ent of fire% Steel is &ery good conductor of heat, so a steel bul$heads is not necessarily fire resistant% It eans that a bul$head ust be capable of li iting the te perature rise on the face not e;posed to the fire, long enough for the fire to be e;tinguished or to burn out% A fire on side of an unprotected steel bul$head #ill spread to co bustible aterials on the other side by conduction of the heat in a &ery short ti e% T#o classes of di&isions are reco ended by International Con&ention</

C/a00 >%?- 1 &our re0.0tance. C/a00 ><?- 30 :.nute0 re0.0tance C/a00 >%4? 6.2.0.on Au0t be46% Of steel or equip ent aterials and suitably stiffened% >% Capable of pre&enting the passage of fla e and s o$e up to one hour% 2% -e insulated to confir to a one hour standard fire test% C/a00 ><? 6.2.0.on Au0t be4 6% 0aterial not specified% >% Capable of pre&enting the passage of fla e and s o$e up to 2A 2% -e insulated to confor to 2A inutes standards fires test% C/a00 >C? 6.2.0.on4 These are di&isions constructed of appro&ed non/ co bustible aterials% They need to eet neither require ents relati&e to the passage of s o$e and fla e nor li itations related to the rise in te peratures% Co bustible &eneers are allo#ed pro&ided they eet certain require ents% There are 2 accepts agree ents7< ethods of fire protection for passenger ships 4by International inutes%

1. :etho6 -1 8'he %Aer.can :etho69 2. :etho6 -2 8'he <r.t.0h :etho69 3. :etho6 -3 8'he $rench :etho69 :etho6 -1 8'he %Aer.can :etho69 It is requires Class (A* bul$heads di&iding the ship into ain &ertical zones, not e;ceeding 626 ft% long and class (A* bul$heads bounding achinery spaces, ain stair#ays, and lifts and controls stations% All di&isional bul$heads in acco odation and ser&ices spaces ust be class (-* and all lining grounds and ceilings ust be of non I co bustible aterials and detection syste s in acco odation and ser&ices spaces% :etho6 -2 8'he <r.t.0h :etho69 This ethod has the sa e require ents regarding class JA' -ul$heads as 0ethod /6% It requires the installation of an auto atic sprin$ler, fire detection and fire alar syste s in all acco odation and ser&ices spaces%

:etho6 -3 8'he $rench :etho69 This requires the sa e class JA' bul$heads as ethod /6 and ethod /> #ith the installation of an auto atic fire detection and fire alar syste s in a acco odation and ser&ices spaces% These spaces ust be di&ided into zones of specified area by class JA' and class J-' bul$heads, and the use of co bustible aterials is restricted% The #ide spread installation of efficient odern fire/ resisting linings and furnishings in all ser&ices and acco odation spaces of ships of e&ery class, coupled #ith the pro&ision of an adequate sprin$ler syste % The use of fire resistant aterials #here&er possible is the best ethod of fire pre&ention on board the ship% It is reco ended that the position of the fire zones ust be $ept on a plant at the fire control center, and in fire fighting an atte pt ust be ade to contain a a"or fire inside such a zone% The fire resistances of the bul$heads #ill be greatly increased by $eeping it #et fro outsides% On a class KII ship this zoning is reduced to ainly class (-* acco odation spaces and the use of fla e retardant paints% boundaries to

The officers on board the ship ust ensure that the fire integrity of the ship is not i paired as a result of any inor alterations and that the fire doors are free to close or $ept close as per the require ents% $I#E P#E=EN'I)N Fire pre&ention is the process of recognizing a fire, re o&ing it or at least reducing its potential% One of the ideas that should be encouraged is the for ation of a Jforu ' or Jsafety co ittee' and the tas$s they should be assigned are to considers the fire ris$s that e;ist on board% Follo#ing points are to be seriously noted% 6% $/aAe or 0Aou/ 0ource/ careless disposal or lighted atches and cigarettesL and danger caused by the can be pre&ented by the pro&ision of ashtrays of an appro&ed design% S o$ing in bed should be a&oided, care should be ta$en of galley fire and boiler fronts% >% &ea6 0ur1ace I ter ed as (-lac$ heat*% It is not generally realised that the heat fro an ordinary electric light bulb can soon put the te perature abo&e the S%I%T% of so e aterials if that heat is not allo#ed to dissipate by nor al con&ection currents,% =ishcloths or ne#spapers left on electric hotplate or hot surface, a cloth put on a hot bulb and paint or oil on hot surface ay cause fire% This can be pre&ented by considering #here the oil #ould spray fro any burst pipe and fitting deflector plates o&er stea pipes, diesel e;haust pipes, boiler casings%

Clothes should not be $ept on bulbs and careless $eeping of electric iron on clothes should not be resorted to% ,eneral care ust be ta$en in the aintenance of achinery, pu p/ glands etc% #hich #ould o&erheat if faulty% 2% SparD0 an6 .ncent.2e part.c/e0 I funnel spar$s, friction and echanical spar$s fro grinding cutting, chipping or #elding electrical spar$s fro s#itches, faulty brush gear or short circuiting are potential source of fire% Particular care should be ta$en in gaseous conditions #here e&en a torch ay be unsafe% ,as tight s#itches should ha&e good gas$ets, and fla e arrestors $ept in good repair% 1% E/ I any #iring that is o&erloaded #ill beco e o&erheatedL correct fusing is i portant% )iring in places difficult to access ust be inspected and be on the loo$out for unauthorized #iring% 8% Spontaneou0 coAbu0t.on I apart fro the ris$ in cargo, rope I stores, oils$ins, dirty linen, or life "ac$et loc$ers are li$ely ris$ areas% ?eep proper &entilation to pre&ent heat build up% Conta ination #ith natural oils or rotting due to da pness are the ain culprits% ,ood house $eeping is essential in pre&ention of fire% @% Stat.c e/ectr.c.tE .n ga0eou0 con6.t.on0/ i portance of electricity bonding all tools and appliances, stea CO> or high pressure cleaning "ets in fla able at osphere, ay pre&ent outbrea$s of fire%

Once a fire has started is spread #ill depend on the a&ailability of loose co bustible aterials apart fro other factors% The i portance of good house$eeping cannot be o&erstressedL etal #aste/ paper bas$et represents a easure of fire protection, but #hen o&er Ifull it beco e a fire hazards% In the sa e #ay oil should not be allo#ed to accu ulate on boiler fronts, bearing housings, plates or bilges% There should be steel bins for oily #aste, #hich should be frequently e ptied% They security of possible source of ignition or of fla #eather should also be considered% able aterials during hea&y

Fire patrols #ith proper instructions should ha&e a chec$list% The idea of fire patrol rounds perhaps half an hour after a #atch could chec$ for s ouldering, s o$ing aterials or any electrical equip ent left s#itched on%

S'%ND%#D $I#E 'EX'

In standard fire test speci ens of the rele&ant bul$heads or dec$s are e;posed in a test furnace to te perature corresponding appro;i ately to the standard ti e te perature cur&e% The speci en shall ha&e an e;posed surface of not less than 1%@8 > and height 4or length of dec$7 of >%11 , rese bling as closely as possible the intended construction and including #here appropriate at least one "oint% The standard ti e te perature cur&e is defined by a s ooth cur&e dra#n through the follo#ing te perature point easured abo&e the initial furnace te perature% At the end of the first 8 inutes 88@AC At the end of the first 6A inutes @8:AC At the end of the first 68 inutes 36MAC At the end of the first 2A inutes M>8AC At the end of the first @A inutes :>8AC C%#7) '%N; P*#7IN7 Arrange ents for purging andFor gas freeing shall be such as to ini ize the hazards due to the dispersal of fla able &apours in the at osphere and to fla able i;tures in a cargo tan$% Accordingly< 6% )hen the ship is pro&ided #ith an inert gas syste s, the cargo tan$s shall first be purged in accordance #ith the pro&isions of regulation% Accu ulation of hydrocarbon &apours in poc$ets for ed by the internal structural e bers in a tan$ is ini ized until the concentration of hydrocarbon &apours in cargo tan$s has been reduced to less than >G by &olu e% Thereafter, gas freeing ay ta$e place at the cargo tan$ dec$ le&el% >% )hen the ship is not pro&ided #ith an inert gas syste s, the operation shall be such that the fla able &apours is discharged initially% 2% Through outlet at least > abo&e cargo tan$ dec$ le&el #ith a &ertical efflu; &elocity of at least 2A Fs aintained during gas freeing operation% 1% Through outlets at least > abo&e cargo tan$ dec$ le&el #ith a &ertical efflu; &elocity of at least >A Fs and #hich are protected by suitable de&ices to pre&ent passage of fla e% )hen the fla able &apours concentration at the outlet has been reduced to the 2AG of the lo#er fla able li it, gas freeing be continued at cargo tan$ dec$ le&el%

INE#' 7%S S,S'E: Inert gas syste s should be designed and operated in such a #ay to render and aintain the at osphere of the cargo tan$s non/ fla able at all ti es, e;cept #hen such tan$s are required to be gas free% The syste s shall be capable of follo#ing< 6% Inerting e pty cargo tan$s by reducing the o;ygen contents of the at osphere in each tan$ to a le&el at #hich co bustion cannot ta$e place% >% 0aintaining the at osphere in any part of any cargo tan$ #ith an o;ygen content not e;ceeding MG by &olu e at any ti e, and a positi&e pressure at all ti es in port and at sea e;cept #hen it is necessary for such a tan$ to be gas free% 2% Eli inating the need for air to enter a tan$ during nor al operation e;cept #hen necessary% 1% Purging e pty cargo tan$s of a hydro carbon gas so that subsequent gas freeing operations #ill at no ti e create a fla able at osphere #ithin the tan$% 8% Syste s shall be capable of deli&ering inert gas to the cargo tan$s at a rate at least 6>8G of the a;i u rate of discharge capacity of the ship e;pressed as a &olu e% @% The syste s shall be capable of deli&ering inert gas #ith an o;ygen content of not than 8G by &olu e in the inert gas supply ain to the cargo tan$s at any required rate of flo#% 3% The inert gas supply ay be treated flue gas fro ain or au;iliary boilers%

M% Flue gas isolating &al&e shall be fitted in the inert gas supply ains bet#een the boiler upta$es and the flue scrubber% These &al&es are pro&ided #ith indicators to sho# #hether they are open or closed% Arrange ents shall be ade to ensure that boiler soot blo#ers cannot be operated #hen flue gas &al&e is open :% A flue gas scrubber shall be fitted #hich #ill effecti&ely cool the &olu e of gas, re o&e solid suspended particles and sulphate co bustion products% 6A% Filters or equi&alent de&ices shall be fitted to carried o&er to the inert gas blo#ers% 66% (A* class di&ision for scrubber ini ize the a ount of #ater

6>% At least t#o blo#ers to be pro&ided, in case of inert gas generator only one blo#ers is per itted% 62% T#o fuel oil pu ps shall be fitted to the inert gas generator% 61% Inert gas syste s shall not de&elop any cargo tan$% ore pressure than the designed pressure of

68% To per it safe aintenance an additional #ater seal or other effecti&e eans of pre&enting flue gas lea$age shall be fitted bet#een the flue gas isolating &al&es and scrubber or incorporated in the gas entry to the scrubber% 6@% At least t#o non return de&ices, one of #hich shall be #ater seal, in order to pre&ent the return of hydrocarbon &apours to the achinery spaces upta$es or to any gas safe spaces% 63% Pro&isions should be ade to ensure that #ater seal in protected against freezing, in such a #ay that integrity of seal is not i paired by o&er heating% 6M% 0eans shall be pro&ided to protect cargo tan$s against the effects of o&er pressure or &acuu caused by ther al &ariations #hen the cargo tan$s are isolated fro the inert gas ains% 6:% Suitable arrange ents shall be pro&ided to enable the inert gas connected to an e;ternal supply of inert gas% >A% Audible and &isual alar s shall be pro&ided to indicate follo#ing< +o# #ater pressure or lo# #ater flo# rate to the flue gas scrubber !igh #ater le&el in flue gas scrubber !igh gas te perature% Failure of the inert gas blo#er% O;ygen content in e;cess of MG by &olu e% Failures of po#er supply to the auto atic control syste s for the gas regulating &al&e and to #ater the indicating de&ices% +o# #ater le&el in the #ater seal% ,as pressure less than 6AA #ater gauge% !igh gas pressure ain to be

$I#E P#E=EN'I)N %##%N7E:EN'S $)# C%#7) &)-D Follo#ing are the arrange ents necessary to pre&ent fire in cargo holds< 6% Closing the hatch co&er, stopping &entilation, fresh air fan% >% Hse of da pers% 2% .e ote operated fi;ed installations% All cargo ships of >AAA ,.T and up#ards should be fitted #ith fi;ed gas fire e;tinguishing syste co plying #ith the pro&isions of SO+AS .egulation 8 or by a fire e;tinguishing syste #hich gi&es equi&alent protection should ha&e< 6% Fi;ed gas syste s ay be e;e pted for cargo spaces of any ship if constructed and solely intended for carrying ore, coal, grain, unseasoned rubber, or cargo of lo# fire ris$% This e;e ption ay be granted if ship is fitted #ith steel hatch co&ers and effecti&e eans of closing all &entilator and other openings leading to cargo spaces% >% The fi;ed fire detection syste shall be capable or rapidly detecting the on set of fire% The syste to be tested under nor al &entilation and shall be gi&en o&er all response plan% 2% .O/ .O Cargo spaces capable of being sealed shall be fitted #ith a fi;ed gas fire e;tinguishing syste s, #hich shall co ply SO+AS Chapter II, .egulation 8, 1% If the CO> syste s is fitted, the quantity of gas a&ailable shall e at least sufficient to gi&e a ini u &olu e of free gas equal to 18G of the gross &olu e of the largest such cargo spaces #hich is capable of being sealed, and arrange ents shall be such as to ensure that at least t#o thirds of the gas required for the rele&ant spaces shall be introduced during 6A inutes% 8% Any other fi;ed fire e;tinguish syste s ay be fitted pro&ided ad inistration is satisfied that an equi&alent protection syste s is ensured% @% Each special category spaces shall be fitted #ith an appro&ed fi;ed pressure #ater spraying syste s for anual operation #hich shall protect all parts of any dec$ and &ehicle platfor in such space% !o#e&er, the drainage and pu ping arrange ents shall be such as to pre&ent the build up of free surface% 3% There shall be pro&ided for use in any .O/.O cargo space such nu ber of portable fire e;tinguishers as the ad inistration ay dee sufficient at least one portable e;tinguishers shall be located at each access to a cargo space%

M% Each .O/.O cargo space intended for the carriage of otor &ehicles #ith fuel in their tan$s for their o#n propulsion shall be pro&ided #ith at least three foa applicators, one portable foa applicator unit co plying #ith the pro&isions of an air fro nozzle of an inductor type, capable of being connected to the fire ain by a fire hose together #ith a portable tan$ containing at least >A liter of foa a$ing liquid and one spare tan$% The nozzle shall be capable of producing effecti&e foa suitable for e;tinguishing an oil fire at the rate of at least 68 % Pro&ided that at least t#o such units are a&ailable in the ship for use in such .O/ .O cargo spaces

C&%P'E# (4 S&IP $I#E $I7&'IN7 )#7%NIS%'I)N

7ENE#%- E:E#7ENC, %-%#: 6% The general e ergency alar syste shall be capable of sounding the general e ergency alar % Signal consists of se&en or ore short blasts follo#ed by one long blast on the ship's #histle or siren and additionally an electrically operated bell or $la;on or other equi&alent #arning syste , #hich shall be po#ered fro the ship's ain supply and e ergency source of electrical po#er required by .egulations 66/6F1> O. 66/6F12% The syste shall be capable of operation fro the na&igating bridge and e;cept for the ship's #histle also fro other strategic points% The syste s should be audible throughout the acco odation and nor al cre# #or$ing spaces% >% Fire alar is the continues ringing of the bell% The operation of this alar is auto atic #hich can be operated anually by either pressing or depressing nor al call points% -oth abo&e alar s can be acti&ated fro bridge for alerting the cre# about the e ergency and also to su on the to uster station 4fire station7% 2% A special alar , operated fro the na&igating bridge or fire control station, shall be fitted to su on the cre#% This alar ay be part of the ship's general alar syste and should be capable of being sounded independently of the alar to the passenger spaces% Hpon hearing fire alar , indi&idual cre# ust #ear proper clothing i%e% full slee&e cotton boiler suit, life "ac$et, safety shoe hel et and should proceed to uster station and perfor initial tas$s, li$e pressurizing fire ain and rigging up fire hoses% The fire ain pressures should be chec$ed by operating the fire nozzle% So that the proper type of "etF spray is a&ailable for fighting the fire% 1% Cre# e ber ust also be fa iliar #ith other types of alar s gi&en belo# for ta$ing appropriate steps #hen they are sounded% CO> alar to engine roo % CO> alar to pu p roo % 0an o&erboard alar Abandoning ship alar % 0achinery alar in EF. H0S fire detection alar !alon alar

E&ery alar requires a different tas$ to be perfor ed% !ence it is essential for e&ery cre# e ber to distinguish one alar to another alar &ery clearly%

$I#E C)N'#)- P-%NS %ND :*S'E# -IS' The fire control plans should clearly indicate the follo#ing< 6% >% 2% 1% 8% @% Fire control station Fire zones enclosed by JA' class di&ision and J-' class di&ision% =etails of fire e;tinguishing appliances pro&ided on board% =etails of &entilating syste s and da pers fan control position% Particulars of fire detection and alar syste % =etails of fire pu p, fire ain and position of fire hydrants and hoses%

The fire control plans are located at ain dec$ near port side and starboard side gang#ay% It is essential for the fire control plan to ensure that fire control plan is properly legible all the ti e and should be a&ailable #hene&er required%% :*S'E# -IS' It is displayed on notice board in cre#'sFofficers s o$e roo and other designated places% These uster lists describes the duties of indi&idual cre# e ber's to be perfor ed in case of an e ergency% It also specifies #hich officersFcre#s are assigned to aintain fire appliances and to ensure that they should be $ept in good #or$ing conditions% The list should also indicate substitutes for $ey persons #ho ay beco e disabled% Ta$ing into account that different e ergencies ay call for different actions% 0uster list ust be prepared before the &essel proceeds to sea and updates in the case of change of cre#% :*S'E# S'%'I)N The uster station of &arious tea s should be ade as per the layout of the ship% The tea leader or his deputy ust ta$e charge of the uster and report to co and control% The co and tea ay nor ally operate fro na&igating bridge or fro its pri ary station% Secondary station to be decided before hand% The e ergency tea ay be allotted a uster station #here there is no difficulty to co unicate #ith the co and center% 9or ally this usters at boat dec$ port and starboard side of the ship% The technical tea should uster in the engine control roo or at a con&enient location in the engine roo % The support tea should uster on the open dec$ close to hospital% The choice of all uster station ust be ade after closely considering the position of e ergency equip ent and the accessibility to sur&i&al crafts%

C)::*NIC%'I)N Effecti&e co unication bet#een co and center and the tea plays &ital role during fire e ergency% 9o# odern co unication gadgets are a&ailable to co unicate fro e;ternal en&iron ent, in case the latter's help is required to be sought% follo#ing eans of co unication are generally used<

public address syste % Telephone% )al$ie Ital$ie Ship to shore K!F 0essengers Sat% co

PE#S)N%- S%$E', P#)CED*#ES Tea s are ade and the duties of each e ber are allotted in order to a$e the efforts ore efficient% It is ensured that each tea should perfor the "obs assigned to it% The size and the nu ber of tea s depends on the a&ailability of the anpo#er% Considering this anpo#er to the tune of 2A persons, the tea s can be for ed as belo#% C)::%ND 'E%: .esponsible for co and and control of e ergency situations, efficient uster of personnel, aintain safe na&igation of the &essel, detailed ti e e&ent records of fire fighting operations% 6% >% 2% 1% 8% 0aster I In charge 2rd Officer/ Assistant I For safe 9a&igation 4 In case Ship is at sea7 .adio Officer/ Co unication and aintaining records of e&ents% !el s an/ Steering% CadetF.ating I 0essenger%

E:E#7ENC, 'E%: -1 6% >% 2% 1% Chief Officer I+eader 1th Engineer I=eputy +eader Petty Officer IAs =irected .atings/ =ec$, Engine, Saloon%

E:E#7ENC, 'E%:-11 This ust first uster and report to co and tea , should prepare equip ent as ordered and report about their readiness and #ould go to fight fire #hen orders% 6% >% 2% 1% Second Engineer/ +eader Second Officer I =eputy +eader Petty Officer IAs =irected .atings I=ec$ Engine, Saloon, Catering%

'EC&NIC%- 'E%: )ould proceed to engine roo #hen the fire alar is sounded% The tea leader #ould indicate co and center, the status of e ergency equip ent and #hether they ha&e been affected by the fire or not% 6% >% 2% 1% Chief Engineer I+eader 2rd Engineer I=eputy +eader Electrical Officer IAs =irected .atings I=ec$, Engine%

S*PP)#' 'E%: 6% >% 2% 1% Catering Officer I+eader -oso / =eputy +eader Sea an CateringFsaloon

Each tea$ should ha&e ini u of @ e bers but should not e;ceed ore than M e bers% The tea leader should ensure the cohesi&eness of the group% The tea ust not enter the fire zone unless ordered by the tea leader% The e bers should be ready to a$e entry in fire zone% The tea e bers #ho are a$ing entry to fire zone should be fa iliar #ith the co part ent% They should $no# escape route fro the co part ent% The tea should a$e entry #ith all the equip ent< The tea 6% >% 2% 1% 8% @% a$ing entry in s o$e filled co part ent should ta$e follo#ing equip ent< Self contained breathing apparatus or s o$e hel et set% Safety la p Fire a;e Fire proof life line Safety harness Charged fire hose

A tea e ber should put on fire an's outfits, S%C%-%A% set and charged fire hose% The fire fighter should be fa iliar #ith the co part ent and lifeline signals% -I$E -INE SI7N%-S $)# C%<%4 P*-One pull T#o pulls Three pulls .epeated pulls CE%#E# I a alright ,i&e ore slac$ on line %''END%N' !o# are youN I a gi&ing ore slac$ On the line I a pic$ing up the slac$ on the line =anger, I a pulling Dou out%

Pic$ up slac$ on the line =anger, I a co ing out

-I$E -INE SI7N%-S $)# $%<%4 P*-One pull T#o pulls Three pulls .epeated pulls CE%#E# ,i&e ore air ,i&e ore slac$ on line %''END%N' ,i&e ore air I a gi&ing ore slac$ On the line I a pic$ing up the slac$ on the line =anger, I a pulling Dou out%

Pic$ up slac$ on the line =anger, I a co ing out

PE#I)DIC S&IP<)%#D D#I--S The ob"ecti&e behind fire drills on board the ship is to train ship's personnel in handling any e ergencies that ay occur on board in an efficient and organized anner, so that the loss to life and property can be ini ized% E&ery one on board should be fa iliar #ith alar syste s, general layout of the ship, co unication syste and operation as #ell as aintenance of the fire fighting equip ent pro&ided on board ship% All drills ust be conducted in a realistic anner% These drills should include< 6% >% 2% 1% 8% E;tinguishing a fire in deep fat fires Entering in an enclosed spaces of fire E;tinguishing a a"or fire on dec$ .escuing an unconscious person fro a s o$e filled space% Fire drills should be planned in such as #ay that due consideration is gi&en to regular practice in &arious e ergencies they ay occur depending on the type of ship and its cargo%

The equip ent used during drills should i ediately be brought bac$ to their fully operations condition and any fault noticed should be rectified at the earliest% P%'#)- S,S'E: The ships ha&ing ore than 2@ passengers should ha&e an efficient patrol syste to pre&entF ini izes the occurrence of an e ergency% D*'IES )$ $I#E P%'#)- 'E%: 'he0e can be 6e0cr.be6 a0 1o//o304 Inspections of passenger's s o$e roo at regular inter&als% Should raise alar in case of e ergency% .estrict e ergency by using portable e;tinguishers 4sand7 buc$et of #ater% Patrol tea should be able to recognize fire hazards and to ta$e necessary actions to chec$ the spread of fireFfire occurring in any co part ent% E:E#7ENC, #ESP)NSE P-%N8E#P9 In the e&ent of an e ergency on the ship, the i fighting organization% ediate action co es fro E.P in a fire and in order

E.P for s the basis of ship board tea s #ith the specific "obs assigned to the ready to tac$le any e ergency% E.P is posted on bridge, engine control roo , near all recreation roo s and fore pea$ stores%

uster station, cre#'s quarters,

An effecti&e E.P should facilitate efficient co unication and should ensure safety of life% It should also be suitable for all types of e;pected e ergencies on ships%

C&%P'E# ( '#%ININ7 )$ SE%$%##S IN $I#E $I7&'IN7

As soon as the cre# "oins the ship he ust be gi&en instructions on the e ergency procedures in use and ust be trained in the use of the ship's fire appliances and equip ent, laying particulars e phasis on the location and use of the follo#ing< P)#'%<-E $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S C)N'%ININ74 )ater !alon :)<I-E $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S &%=IN74 Foa Po#der Carbon dio;ide $IXED $I#E EX'IN7*IS&IN7 %PP-%INCES Fire hydrants, hose and nozzles )ater sprin$lers )ater sprays Foa syste Carbon dio;ide and !alon syste %

'&E *SE )$ $I#E:%FS )*'$I' IN #E-%'I)N ')4 +earning ho# to don the protecti&e clothing quic$ly ?no#ing #here the personal equip ent is sto#ed and #hat it co prises of% Chec$ing and using the appro&ed breathing apparatus Chec$ing and using the fire proof life line and being fa iliar #ith the Signaling codes

7ENE#%- $*NC'I)NS4 Starting the e ergency generator% Starting the e ergency fire and bilge pu p% Operating the appropriate &al&es for pro&iding #ater for the fire fighting Flooding holds or pu ping out bilges% Identifying the e ergency controls and their functions%

I:P#)=IN7 PE#S)N%- S%$E', <,4 0o&ing and finding the #ay in spaces #here &isibility is poor 0o&ing through s all apertures Finding and re o&ing casualties Hsing CA-A and the fire proof life line in these conditions

%SS*:IN7 :)C; $I#ES+ :%C&INE#, SP%CES4 Fire on diesel alternator due to fuel I oil spray fro fractured fuel In"ections pipe stri$ing hot e;haust pipe% Fire in bilge due to fuel oil being ignited by spar$s fro #elding #or$ in the &icinity% Fire at top of engine/roo due to lubricating oil lea$ing fro a fractured pipe to the turbocharger bearing and stri$ing the hot surface of turbocharger% Fire ad"acent to boiler due to blo#/ bac$ fro furnace Fire in s#itch board caused by loose connections% Fire in the econo izer or boiler upta$e due to accu ulation of soot% %SS*:IN7 :)C; $I#ES IN %CC)::)D%'I)N SP%CES Fire in cabin due to bed clothing catching fire fro a fallen cigarette Fire in cre# lounge due to defecti&e electrical connection% %SS*:IN7 :)C; $I#ES IN 7%--E, Fire on top of sto&e due to spilled coo$ing fat Fire in deep/ fat fryer %SS*:IN7 :)C; $I#ES IN DEC; C)N'%INE#. Fire due to defect in integral refrigeration unit% %SS*:IN7 :)C; $I#ES IN C%#7) SP%CES In holds, ('3een GDecD? or Containers% '&E :E:<E#S )$ $I#E P%#'IES S&)*-D <E 7I=EN '#%ININ7 C&IC& :*S' INC-*DE4 Instructions in the duties assigned to each fire party%

Instruction in the duties of each e bers of a fire party and ho# these =uties are allocated, e%g% by 0e ber or other#ise E;ercises to a$e each fire party proficient, in first/ aid% Cre# e bers #ho operate a fire patrol syste should be trained to ensures that they are fa iliar #ith the arrange ents of the ship as #ell as the location and operation of equip ent, including< 0anually operated call points Fi;ed fire/ detection and alar syste Telephones Portable fire e;tinguishers and their li itations !ydrants, hoses and nozzles%

P)#'%<-E $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S Portable fire e;tinguishers are for i ediate use in the early stages of a fire% They should not be e;pected to deal #ith large fires since they ha&e a li ited duration of use and capacity% Portable e;tinguishers ay be di&ided into fi&e categories according to the e;tinguishing agent they contain, na ely< 6% >% 2% 1% 8% )ater Foa =ry po#der Carbon dio;ide !alon%

The capacity of a portable fluid e;tinguisher should not be ore than 62%8 liters and not less than : liters% Other e;tinguishers should at least ha&e the portability of a 62%8 liters fluids e;tinguishers and the fire / fighting effecti&eness equi&alent to that of : liters fluid e;tinguisher% The !alon of portable e;tinguisher #hich is to be used for particular ris$ is to be decided in relation to the nature of the fire anticipated% Portable e;tinguishers should be located in conspicuous positions and can be readily spotted by persons follo#ing an escape route% They should be sited near the roo e;its, in corridors and stair#ays% A portable e;tinguisher should be sto#ed near places susceptible to a"or fire ris$s% Spare charges are to be pro&ided for each type of e;tinguisher% The I0O .esolution A @A> 4687 >#e2.0e6 7u.6e/.ne0 $or Portab/e $.re E5t.ngu.0her? reco ends standards for the construction, perfor ance, test specifications, a$ings, periodical inspections and aintenance of portable fire e;tinguishers% A su ary of these guidelines is gi&en belo#<

An e;tinguisher should be designed and anufactured for si ple and rapid operation and ease of handling% The e;tinguisher should be anufactured to national or other recognized standards #hich includes a require ents that the body and all parts sub"ects to internal pressure are sub"ected to pressure test abo&e the a;i u e;pected pressure during the ser&ice life of an e;tinguisher in the design of co ponents, selection of aterials, deter ination of a;i u filling rations and densities% Consideration should be gi&en to the e;tre e conditions to #hich the e;tinguisher ay e;posed on board% The aterials of construction of e;posed parts and ad"oining dissi ilar aterials should be carefully selected to function properly in the arine en&iron ent% Construction, perfor ance and fire/ e;tinguishing te;t specifications should be to the satisfaction of the ad inistration% E&ery e;tinguisher should be clearly 6% >% 2% 1% 8% ar$ed to indicates<

9a e of anufacturer% Types of fire on #hich the e;tinguisher is suitable% Type and quantity of e;tinguishing is ediu % Appro&al details% Instructions for use and recharge 4it is reco ended that operating instruction are gi&en in pictorial for 7% @% Dear of anufacture% 3% Te perature range o&er #hich the e;tinguisher #ill operate satisfactorily% M% Test pressure E;tinguishers should be sub"ected to periodical inspections and aintenance as per the anufacture's instructions% The periods bet#een such inspections and aintenance should not e;ceed the period bet#een safety equip ent sur&eys% .ecord of inspections should be aintained to see #hether or not a pressure test #as perfor ed% Instructions for recharging e;tinguishers should be supplied by the anufacture and be a&ailable for use on board%

Follo#ing are a fe# general principles and chec$ points to be thought of during the fighting of a a"or ship fire% .educe speed and aneu&er the &essel to let the #ind assist the fire fighters, slo#ing do#n reduces the air pressure #ithin the ship #hich ay be beneficial to strea slo#ly do#n #ind, putting the #ind abea gi&es fire fighter a clear dec$ to #or$ #hen fighting a fire in an open hatch% Stability ust be thought about and correcti&e easures ta$en early in a fire before it beco es critical% Filling a double Ibotto ay initially reduce stability o#ing to free surface effect% Stability infor ation #ill be needed and in so e co panies this is $ept up to date as a practices in a file #allet containing other infor ation #hich #ould be useful in planning the fire fighting% )ater lo# do#n in the &essel #ill reduce reser&e buoyancy, #ater on one side #ill produce list, #ater high up 4and a relati&ely s all a ount7 #ill reduce stability and co bined #ith free surface ay produce an angle of loll% This proble ay be et on a T#een/ dec$ &essel as #ell as a passenger ship% If the ship can be ta$en so that the $eel is #ithin a distance fro the sea/ bed equal to one ninth of the breadth of the ship then she ay be considered safe fro capsize% For trans ission of distress essage a correct position ust be prepared% unicated to

Control and co/ordination of all acti&ities should be recorded and be co the officer in charge at the fire zone%

There is al#ays a need to regularly thin$ of any thing that has been s$ipped by those in&ol&ed at the center of the incident #ill help a lot as a bac$up effort and ay strengthen the #hole process% :u0ter < All cre# and passenger to be accounted for the obtain infor ation about issing persons and #here they ha&e last spotted% As the fire zone, there should be one officer in charge #ho should not beco e in&ol&ed in the fire fighting but should o&e all around the fire zone coordinating all acti&ities on all sides of the fire and aintaining co unication #ith the control center and thus $eeping a constant #atch and organising the acti&ities fully% Search an6 #e0cue )perat.on4 C%<% is best use for this as the #earer of CA-A has ore obility than a s o$e bello#s #earer% The result of the uster and interrogation #ill help guide the searches% ,ood drills #ill pay of if a cre# e ber #ho has been li&ing and #or$ing in a particular area has been sent to trace a person issing in that particular area only as he $no#s the area li$e the bac$ of this hand%

<oun6arE coo/.ng< The rescuer sent into an enclosed space to fight a fire are being as$ed &irtually to enter a steel o&en and cooling of the outside #ill greatly i pro&e conditions inside, as #ell as pre&enting the spread of fire by conduction% )ater on the outside of a co part ent on fire #ill not ad&ersely affect stability and greatly enhance the cooling of the surface% -ocat.on< If the location of the fire is not precisely $no#n, as ay happen in the acco odation #here the s o$e fro a single burning attress ay cause co plete s o$e logging, the follo#ing ay be the ethods used to locate the fire% Interrogat.on o1 the cre3 1or hot 0pot0 on the out0.6e 0earch .n apparatu0 =ent.ng4 Initially all the &enting should be closed do#n, if the engine roo is not directly in&ol&ed in the fire then ta$e care to see that s o$e is not dra#n into the engine roo causing an early abandon ent% +ater, selected &entilation can be carried out to clear certain areas of s o$e and to allo# bac$/ up #or$ers #ithout breathing apparatus for closer approach to the fire% 9e&er &entilate a space in #hich untraced fires as burning% At the o ent of close approach to a fire, the situation ay be ade better for the fire fighters by a$ing an opening high in the space, to &ent out heat and s o$e% Stab./.tE4 At the fire zone stability ay be protected by guiding #ater into spaces for #hich it ay be pu ped, by the use of shut/off nozzles and controlling the a ount of #ater used generally this #ill be necessary also to conser&e #ater pressure especially #hen relying on e ergency #ater supplies% Kessels should carry portable pu ps, #hich ay be used to get rid of surplus #ater% =o not co it all your breathing apparatuses or you #ith the fire front% ay not be able to co unicate

=o not open up a hatch and fight it directly if s othering gas is a&ailable% The H</ue<ooDF should be consulted for fire fighting instructions #hen a dangerous cargo co es onboard for the first ti e% =o post patrols along all possible ducts, &entilators etc% eans by #hich a fire ay spread including air/

=o not forget the possible effects of heat e;haustion and arrange relief #hen fire fighters are #or$ing in heat and hu idity% -e careful for re/ignition behind fire fighters and post a >1 hours #atch after a fire has been e;tinguished%

A breathing apparatus #ill allo# the firefighter to breathe in an at osphere #here nor al breathing is not possible% The #earer ust still stay lo# in heat and s o$e and #here one #here one also finds best &isibility #hile attac$ing the fire% )atch out for flash Io&er #hen opening an enclosed space, preferably use the $ic$ out panel at the botto of the doors and direct the hose up#ards in a s#eeping o&e ent to cool do#n the #hole space% A spray #ill ha&e a greater cooling effect than a "et and is li$ely to distort a hot etal surface% =o not spend too uch ti e spraying #ater into s o$e, ad&ance slo#ly and deliberately and #atch out for the scalding effects of stea % The o ent of hitting a fire ay be the #orst as stea and s o$e #ill dri&e to#ards the entranceL $eep lo# and press ho e the ad&antage, as conditions #ill then i pro&e% )hen searching in s o$e al#ays shuffle, ne&er #al$% 0issing persons are ost probably collapsed behind the door or at the botto of a ladder, go around the peri eter of the space right or left handed then a$e a couple of tra&erses% Feel #ith the bac$ of your hand, other#ise if you touch electric cable #ith the insulation burned off, then you ay grip it in&oluntarily% As o&e for#ard o&e one hand up and do#n in front of your face% $I#E )N S&IPS IN P)#' In case of fire on board ship in port, the fire brigade ust be called i ediately% A responsible officer #ho can guide and pro&ide as uch as possible of the follo#ing infor ation should eet the at the gang#ay% 6% )hereabouts of fire% >% 0eans of access% 2% =etails of cargo together #ith sto#age plan% 1% Kentilation arrange ents% 8% Stability data% @% Any personFs issing% 3% Fire fighting steps ta$en% M% Condition of ship's ser&ices% :% =etails of fi;ed installations, fire zones and general arrange ents% The fire bridge ay need se&eral e bers of the cre# to act as guide in case of large &essels% 0ost fire brigades prefer to fight a fire along #ith the ship's cre#% Ship's officer should pro&ide co plete infor ation to the fire brigade personnel regarding fire%

%bout <u/D Cargoe04 0a"ority of cases sho# the dangers of fires resulting due to che ical reaction either #ithin the ho ogeneous ass or the interface bet#een the cargo and its en&iron ent often referred to as< (Inherent Kice*, (Spontaneous Co bustion*, (Self E ission*, (O;ygen =epletion* or (!ydro/ .eaction*, .eference to dangers associated #ith bul$ cargoes #ill be found in I.:.). =angerous ,oods Code, Class 1%6 4Infla able Solids7 class 1%> 4Spontaneous !eating7% Class 1%2 4=angerous )hen )et7% Also in I%0%O% Code of Safe Practice for Solids -ul$ Cargoes% 0aterials !azardous in -ul$L 40%!%-%7 #as only included into Code of Safe Practice for Solids -ul$s Cargoes in 6:M6% E;perience in e&aluating the fire or other hazards in bul$ cargoes are ne#ly e&ol&ed, particularly for se i/processed ra# aterials% )hene&er there is lac$ of infor ation an industrial che ist should be e ployed to analyse the aterial so that physical and che ical properties of the aterials can be ascertained% SC%#$ 8Spontaneou0 heat.ng9 This is scrap cargo a product of achine shops consisting of turnings, cast iron borings and sha&ings coated #ith oil, paper, #ood "ute or rage, or other co bustible aterial% I.:.). guide suggests< 6% Prior loading te peratures should not e;ceed 88AC% >% After loading and daily during the &oyage, surface te perature should be recorded% 2% =uring loading and on the &oyage te perature should not e;ceed :A AC%, should this be the caseL loading should be stopped and resu ed only #hen te perature falls belo# M8AC, or, &essel should not sail on international &oyages unless te perature is belo# @8AC% 1% At sea, should te perature rise abo&e MAAC, a potential fire situation is de&eloping% Kessel should a$e for nearest suitable port for boundary cooling during the run% 8% -ilge spaces, particularly in cargo spaces ust be dry and clean @% S#arf should be co pacted by a bulldozer or so e other eans to eli inate uch of the surrounding air% 3% )ater should not be used% Application of inert gas as s othering agent should be underta$en%

D.#.I. D.rect #e6uce6 Iron4 4Spontaneous Co bustion and !ydro/ .eaction7 I.:.). ,uide ad&ices% The t#o hazards associated #ith this type of cargo are< 6% Spontaneous heating% >% )hen #ith #ater, particularly #ith sea #ater, #ill produce !ydrogen gas, #hich is fla able gas and for s an e;plosi&e i;tures #ith air% If te perature rise abo&e 6AAoC direct action #ith O;ygen in the air continues and ay lead to e;plosionF and or ignition% 2% Fire in the bul$ sto#age of this aterial is e;ternally difficult to e;tinguish and the follo#ing should be adopted% 9on acceptance of #et cargo% Installation of equip ent to onitor te peratures, o;ygen and hydrogen concentrations during &oyages% 0aintenance of inert gas at osphere in the cargo equip ent Ensuring #ater tightness of all hatch/ openings% 0onitoring o;ygen concentrations in holds throughout the &oyage and aintain percentage belo# 8G if there is an increase of concentration of hydrogen or a rise in te perature, a fire situation ay be de&eloping% If a fire situation de&elops, &essels should a$e for nearest port #ater stea or CO> is not to be used as a reaction #ith the cargo ay result% !o#e&er, if nitrogen gas is a&ailable, it #ill be help to $eep O;ygen concentration do#n and help in containing the fire% The danger is particularly pre&alent #here this cargo is carried as pellets, lu ps or cold oulded briquettes% !ot oulded briquettes being less dangerous, this cargo is being shipped in this for no# a day% Coa/< hazards associated are spontaneous Co bustion and e ission of ethane gas% A ethaneFair i;ture containing bet#een 8F68 of ethane constitutes an e;plosi&e i;ture in the at osphere, #hich can be ignited by a spar$ or na$ed fla e% Su/phur< hazardous are infla able solid, #ill ignite easily, corrosi&e and liable to dust e;plosions% .eco endations for safe handling of sulphur are< .e o&e all possible sources of ignition and pre&ent dust accu ulation in the at osphere by &entilation and housing do#n #ith fresh #ater% )ther haIar60< since 0%!%-% depletes o;ygen contents in cargo spaces, persons should be careful #hen entering these spaces%

It is #orth $no#ing that :onoaAAon.uA Pho0phate+ #hich carries the %<C rating has been used #ith so e success on etallic fires% Such e;tinguishers are being ade a&ailable aboard ship% Sand ,raphite, &arious other po#der and salts of different types ha&e been tried out, but no one ethod has pro&en successful% % @u.cD #e- Cap o1 $.re S.tuat.on o1 'he %bo2e 'Epe4 <atten 6o3n. Inject .nert ga0. Per1orA boun6arE coo/.ng. :o0t .Aportant o1 a// .0 >DES'#*C'I)N )$ %' -E%S' )NE SIDE )# C):P)NEN' )$ '&E $I#E '#I%N7-E IS '&E )N-, :E'&)D <, C&IC& $I#ES C%N <E EX'IN7*IS&ED?+

C&%P'E# (" $I#E %PP-I%NCES %ND E@*IP:EN'

P)#'%<-E $)#E EX'IN7*IS&IN7 E@*IP:EN' They can be broadly classified into t#o $.r0t a.6 portab/e e5t.ngu.0her0 :ajor eBu.pAent The hoses, nozzles and foa producing equip ent co e in the category of the latter% a"or categories as follo#s<

P)#'%<-E EX'IN7*IS&E#S There are no standardization and any &ariations are a&ailable in the ar$et% The Fire Appliance .ules require that as far as possible all the e;tinguishers on board should ha&e a unifor ethod of operation to a&oid any confusion in their operation at the ti e of e ergency% The cre# should ha&e an una biguous understanding about the equip ent and their proper functioning% This should be true of all the types of fire e;tinguishers a&ailable onboard the ship, for this they need constant drills and co plete de o of the equip ent a&ailable% An e;tinguisher should be placed near the entrance of the space it is eant to protect% Cre# e bers should be questioned at drills to test if they $no# the place #here e;tinguishers are placed near their li&ing or #or$ space% 7ENE#%- 'IPS $)# '&E :%IN'EN%NCE )$ E@*IP:EN' For the aintenance of these equip ent it is al#ays best to follo# the tips gi&en in the anufacturers anual% Che ical e;tinguishers are to be tested annually by discharge% This can be best achie&ed by practically using fe# of the at each drills and aintaining a date account about their refills% Care is to be ta$en #hen a$ing up solution for e;tinguishers% 9e&er put solid aterial into the e;tinguishers, #hich ay bloc$ the rendering the ineffecti&e and non/functional% Chec$ that the nozzles is free, and that the pressure relief holes in the cap are not bloc$ed, other#ise, if an e;tinguisher is opened #hilst under pressure the cap #ill fly off &iolently% Inspect the inside of nozzles for corrosion% It #ill operate at pressure up to 2AA lbs%Fsquare inch% All e;tinguishers should be pressure tested e&ery four years% 0ost co on cause of failure is loss of pressure fro the

CO> cartridge, #hich can be chec$ed by #eighing the cartridge and co paring it #ith the #eight gi&en on the cartridge about e pty and filled ones, as the cartridge is sta ped #ith the full and e pty #eight% Only fresh #ater should be used in the echanical e;tinguishers as salt in the #ater ay lead to the corrosion once in a onth the dry po#der e;tinguishers should be sha$en up and placed on a place of less &ibration to a&oid the danger of co paction% C&)ICE )$ EX'IN7*IS&E#S Follo#ing table gi&es an idea in a bird's eye &ie# as to #hat type of e;tinguisher is to be used in a particular fire< $*ECarbonaceous C%'E# Des SprayFfog Only in foa Des SprayFFog $)%: +ittle cooling effect detergent co pounds aid penetration Des AFFF effecti&e Preferred Fluoro/ Proto gi&es ost security if oil is hot 9o !igh e;pansion foa ay reduce rate of burning of +P, spills 9O C)2 Surface fires only Des s#eeping on open fires Des if used quic$ly D#, P)CDE# Surface fires only &%-)NS -%C%F%

+iquid lo# F%P% +iquid high F%P

Preferred pro&ided rate high enough and s#eeping action Des if used quic$ly

Des -CFF-T0 Des -CFF-T0 but e;pect large qty% of brea$do#n products if oil is hot% Des


Only infor of fog 9O




Des #ith high pressure fla e, po#der to be entertained into gas "et Only special 9O po#ders or dry sand

:%J)# P)#'%<-E E@*IP:EN' $I#E &)SES %ND N)KK-ES 6% Fire hoses shall be non/perishable aterials appro&ed by the ad inistration and shall be sufficient in length to pro"ect a "et of #ater to any of the space in #hich they ay required for use% >% All ships constructed on or after 6st February, 6::> should be pro&ided #ith non I perishable hoses and on ships constructed before 6st February, 6::> all hoses are required to e replaced% On all the passenger ships carrying ore than 2@ passengers, fire hoses shall be $ept connected to the hydrants at all the ti es% 2% The ost co on being constructed fro synthetic #o&en te;tiles bound #ith rubber and coated #ith PKC, these hoses are strong, not affected by oils, oist che icals, ilde# and e;tre es of cli ate% This type has largely replaced the earlier can&as hose, #hich is &ery susceptible to ilde#, especially if not properly dried after use% The hose has a ale coupling at one end a fe ale coupling at the other end, these couplings are also called butts% The ale coupling is attached to the hydrants and fe ale coupling to the nozzles% These coupling are instantaneous types eans that "ust push in and it gets engaged% 1% The hoses should be #ashed #ith fresh #ater and dried% If not properly dried, the trapped oisture cause ilde# and possibly resulting in failure under pressure% In addition, heat and sea #ater tend to #ea$en the hose% 8% The fire hoses should be inspected &isually each #ee$% E&ery hose on board should be pressure tested e&ery onth through actual use under the pressure required to produce a substantial #ater strea % Standard length of hoses are 68 , 6M%2 and >8 , the hose are a&ailable in @2%8 and 2M%6 dia eter #%C;IN7 %ND S')#%7E )$ &)SES Chec$ the hose and rac$ed% a$e sure that it is co pletely drained% )et hoses should not be

Chec$ fe ale coupling for its rubber gas$et% !ose should al#ays be coupled #ith hydrants and nozzles connected to hose% In passenger ship at least one fire hose for each of the hydrants and these hoses to be used only for fire fighting or testing the fire e;tinguishing apparatus at fire drill sur&eys% In cargo ships of 6AAA,.T and abo&e the nu ber for fire hoses to be pro&ided one for each 2A eter length of the ship plus one spare, but in no case less than fi&e in all, that nu ber does not include hoses required by achinery space and boiler roo % The ad inistration on its o#n ay

increase the nu ber of hoses to be present on ship all the ti e depending upon the necessity and their access% In cargo ships of less than 6AAA tons gross, not less than three hoses are required% Al#ays for the hoses in t#o and fold fro the center% Coupling are to be standardized to >%8* instantaneous and international shore hose connection ust be pro&ided in accordance #ith the fire appliance rules% They should be #ashed off #ith fresh #ater after use and treated #ith a protecti&e s ear of grease% The follo#ing points should be obser&ed carefully to a&oid !ose failure in case of e ergency% 6% >% 2% 1% A&oid dragging the hose #hen $in$ed% =o not $ic$ the hose to free $in$s% Ta$e care of the hose #here it is in contact #ith sharp edges% Continuously onitored #here door s#ings due to rolling of the ship, it ay da age the hose% 8% ,ently close and open hydrants and shut the to a&oid #ater/ ha er da age% @% ?eep hoses #et on the hot dec$s and those in the hot debris to a&oid any da age% 3% Further to this abrasion and the shoc$ are the other causes of da age to the hoses leading to hose failure% N)KK-ES Standard sizes of nozzles are 6> possible% , 6@ and 6: or as near, there to as

For acco odation and ser&ices spaces, a nozzle greater than 6> need not be used% For achinery spaces and e;terior locations, the nozzles size shall be such that as to obtain the a;i u discharge possible fro t#o "ets at the pressure pro&ided that nozzles size greater than 6: need not be used% All nozzle to be anufactured of -rass, -ronze or Alu inu and Copper Alloy or suitable plastic% All the nozzle shall be of an appro&ed duel purpose type i%e% sprayF"et type incorporating shut off% An international shore connection should be pro&ided #ith facilities for use on either side of the ship to enable the dec$ ain to be supplied by #ater fro shore% 9ozzles nor ally on erchant ships are triple purpose or fog nozzles% Triples nozzle can gi&e OetFSpray and shut off% This nozzle gi&es "et #ater and on ad"usting the nozzle spray can be obtained% )here as fog nozzle #hen operated gi&es spray first than "et and shut position% Fog nozzle is generally preferred since these sprays first and "et second, and is ore effecti&e for fire fighting in enclosed space%

:)<I-E %PP%#%'*S 0obile fire e;tinguishers are ounted on trolleys and are co only used obile fire e;tinguishers are< Carbon Idio;ide =ry che ical po#der #ith propelling gas Foa a$ing equip ent Foa e;tinguisher o&able% So e of the

P)#'%<-E $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S4 Follo#ing portable e;tinguisher are used to e;tinguish fire 6% )ater type I soda acid I#ater CO> >% Foa type I che ical foa AFFF 2% =ry po#der Igeneral purpose 1% Carbon dio;ide 8% !alon /6>66 The capacity of portable fluid e;tinguisher should not be ore than 62%8 liters and not less than : liters% E;tinguishers should at east ha&e the portability of a 62%8 liters fluids e;tinguishers and the fire fighting effecti&ely equi&alent to that of a : liters fluids e;tinguishers% The choice of portable e;tinguishers #hich is to be used for a particular ris$ is to be decided in relation to the nature of the fire anticipated% Portable e;tinguishers are to be located in conspicuous position #here they can be readily seen by persons follo#ing an escape route% They should be $ept near roo e;its and in corridors and stair#ays% A portable e;tinguisher should be sto#ed near places of a a"or fire ris$% Spare charges are to pro&ided for each type of e;tinguisher% The I0O resolution A%@A> 4687 (.e&ised ,uidelines For 0arine Portable Fire E;tinguishers* reco ends standards for the construction, perfor ance, test specifications, ar$ings, periodical inspections and aintenance of portable fire e;tinguishers% A su ary of these guidelines is gi&en belo#% An e;tinguisher should be so designed as to a$e it si ple and easy to operate% Full specifications regarding the anufacturing should be follo#ed for internal as #ell as e;ternal anufacturing of fire e;tinguisher% There should not be any co pro ise on the quality of the product and they should be able to #ithstand the e;tre es of heat and pressure changes, #hich occur during the fire% The design of co ponents, selection of aterials and the construction of e;posed parts and ad"oining dissi ilar aterials should be carefully selected to function properly in the arine en&iron ent%

Care should be ta$en by the anage ent to obtain certification about construction, perfor ance and fire e;tinguishing test specifications about the equip ent%

Follo#ing should be distinctly 6% >% 2% 1% 8% @% 3%

ar$ed on fire e;tinguishers<

9a e of anufacturer% Type of fire on #hich the e;tinguisher is suitable% Type and quantity of e;tinguisher ediu % Instructions for use and recharge 4preferably in pictorial for 7% Dear of anufacture% Te perature range o&er #hich the e;tinguisher #ill operate satisfactorily% Test pressure%

There should be periodical inspections and aintenance in accordance #ith the anufacture's instructions% The periods bet#een such inspections and aintenance should not e;ceed the period bet#een safety equip ent sur&eys% .ecords of inspection should be aintained% The records should sho# the date of inspection should be aintained% The records should be sho# the date of inspection, the type of aintenance carried out and #hether or not a pressure test #as perfor ed% Inspections for recharging should be supplied by the anufactures and be a&ailable for use on board% 1. C%'E# ',PE So6a %c.6 E5t.ngu.0her In this type of e;tinguisher, the fire e;tinguishing ediu is #ater% The #ater is released in the for of a "et by eans of pressure in the upper part of the container% This pressure is created by a che ical reaction bet#een sodiu bicarbonate solution and sulphuric acid the later is contained in a bulb% The e;tinguishers ha&e a cylindrical shell of around 63M dia eter and 822 high, usually ade of 6@ gauge or 6M gauge steel% The body is internally coated #ith zinc, tin or lead to a&oid corrosionL in so e designs they ay be internally plastic lined% The e;tinguisher is designed to #ith stand an internal pressure de&eloped #ithin its body of belo# 63 bar at >6AC% The e;tinguisher is tested #hen ne# to >1 bar% The acid charge is contained in a sealed glass bulb, #hich is bro$en #hen the operating spindle stri$es it, thus per itting the acid to i; #ith the al$ali solution in the outer and causing the e;tinguisher to operate% The e;tinguisher is charged #ith around 181 gra s of al$ali, sodiu bicarbonate, i;ed in #ar #ater to a$e : liters of solution #hich is poured into an outer container up to an internal le&el indicator% A glass bulb containing around 83 gra s of sulphuric acids is placed in a perforated container in the air space abo&e the liquid% The cap is scre#ed on to the "oint%

)hen the plunger $nob on the top of the e;tinguisher is gi&en a sharp blo#, the acid bulb brea$s and the che ical reaction starts the pressure of the carbon dio;ide for ed by the reaction, increases the internal pressure in the e;tinguisher and the liquid contents is e"ected out of the e;tinguisher% The equation for the che ical reaction is as follo#s</ &2S)4 L 2Na&C)3 M Na2S)4 L 2&2) L 2C)2 The #ater "et fro this e;tinguisher #ill pro"ect ore than @ eters for a period not less than one inuteL the co plete contents #ill be discharged in ore than > inutes% &)C ') )PE#%'E )hen the need be< !old e;tinguisher fir ly #ith nozzle pointing to#ards fire% .e o&e guard CapFPin% Stri$e plunger hard% =irect "et fro nozzle to#ards base of fire%

C%#E %ND :%IN'EN%NCE )ee$ly polish the painted portions #ith a little colourless #a; polish and brassFchro iu e;ternal parts #ith brassFsil&er polish% Chec$ nozzle outlet and &ent holes on the threaded portions of the cap are clear< chec$ #hether plunger is fully e;tended and safety pin is in place% =is antle the co ponents on e&ery three onths% Chec$ for da age, clean and grease the as required 4a&oid o&er greasing7% Stir the solution in the e;tinguisher body and top up #ith #ater quantity to the ar$ed le&el if the le&el has gone belo# it, ensure acid bulb is intact% Annually or at shorter fi;ed inter&als operate at least 8AG of the e;tinguisher to see their perfor ance% There ust be a "et length of @ eters for ini u @A seconds% Clean thoroughly sub"ect rusty or corroded e;tinguishers to a pressure test% Cater GCarbon D.o5.6e 'Epe E5t.ngu.0her0

In this type of e;tinguisher, the fire e;tinguishing ediu is #ater% The #ater is released in the for of a "et by eans of gas pressure in the upper part of the container% This pressure is created by the release of carbon dio;ide fro a pressurized gas cartridge #ithin the e;tinguisher% The gas cartridge is punctured by the release action% The ethod of operation, aintenance and discharge rate of this type is si ilar to those of a soda acid e;tinguisher% 2. C&E:IC%- $)%: EX'IN7*IS&E#

The che ical foa e;tinguisher consists of a cylindrical inner container #ith in a larger cylindrical outer container% The inner container is ade of polythene or #ith lead coated copper sheet, and is filled #ith thirteen percent alu inu sulphate solution #hich acts s a #ea$ acid% The outer container contains eight percent sodiu bi I carbonate solution #ith about three percent stabilizer #hich ay be Saponin, +icorice, Tur$ey% .ed Oil etc% The stabilizer strengthens the #alls of the indi&idual bubble of foa % The i;ing of the t#o che ical solutions produces alu inu hydro;ide% Sodiu sulphate and carbon dio;ide% %128S)493 L !Na&C)3 M 2%/8)&93 L 3Na2S)4 L !C)2 The e;tinguisher full fills the sa e pressure require ent as soda Iacid type e;tinguisher% A si; eters "et be aintained for a period of 2A seconds and the discharge of the e;pellable foa ust co plete in :A seconds% Foa solutions are electrically conducti&e and therefore, are not reco ended for use on electrical fires% If foa is used as a spray it is less conducti&e than a straight strea % !o#e&er, because foa is cohesi&e, contains aterials that allo# #ater to conduct electricity, a spray of foa is ore conducti&e than a #ater fog% :E'&)D )$ )PE#%'I)N4 Step#ise the ethod of operation of che ical foa e;tinguisher is as follo#s%

67 .e o&e the e;tinguisher fro the soc$ed% >7 Pull the plunger, rest it on the notch pro&ided and turn the e;tinguisher o&er sha$ing #ell, ensure the i;ing of the t#o liquids, #ith a finger bloc$ing the outlet nozzle% 27 )here a liquid is on fire is in a container, direct the "et at the far inside edge of the container or at an ad"oining &ertical surface abo&e the le&el of the burning liquid% This brea$s the "et and allo#s the foa to build and flo# across the surface of the liquid% 17 )here this is not possible, stand #ell bac$, direct the "et in an arc and #ith a gentle s#eeping o&e ent allo# the foa to drop do#n and lie on the surface of the liquid% 87 The "et fro a foa e;tinguisher should ha&e a length of at least si; eters% @7 =o not direct the "et directly into the liquid because this #ill dri&e the foa beneath the surface and render it ineffecti&e% In addition it ay splash burning liquid on to the surroundings and spread the fire%

C%#7) %ND :%IN'EN%NCE4 Polish the painted portion #ith a colourless polish and brassFchro iu parts #ith brassFsil&er polish once in a #ee$% Chec$ the nozzle outlet and &ent holes on the threaded portion of the cap for clogging% Chec$ that the plunger can be raised to the fully e;tended position and is clean% .eturn it to its nor al position% Once in a quarter, dis antle the co ponents, chec$ for any da age, clean and grease the as required, stir the solution in the inner and outer containers #ith separate clean any dry stic$s% Top up #ith clean fresh #ater as necessary% =o not use the sa e stic$ for stirring both solution and do not pour the solutions into any receptacle for stirring% Annually, operate 8AG of the e;tinguishers and chec$ that it pro"ects a "et to a distance of not less than @ eter for a ini u period of 2A seconds% Clean the e;tinguishers thoroughly and e;a ine their inside for rust and corrosion, sub"ect rusty or corroded e;tinguishers to pressure test e&en if they are not due for it and their perfor ance is other#ise satisfactory% .echarge the tested e;tinguishers% Once discharged this e;tinguisher should be recharged carefully% Follo#ing precautions are to be ta$en< 67 >7 27 17 87 @7 37 M7 -lo# through the nozzles and ensure it is not bloc$ed% )ash all parts thoroughly and re o&e any solid atter% =o not o&er fill the container% =issol&e the po#ders supplied% Fill outer container first, then inner container% Hse fine strainers #hen filling the liquid% If pro&ided #ith sealed type inner units, then #ithdra# plunger to open position% Secure the plunger, if fitted in the closed position%

SE-$ %SPI#%'IN7 $)%: EX'IN7*IS&E# In this type of e;tinguisher, foa concentrate is stored as a solution in #ater% A gas cartridge is pro&ided, #hich #hen pierced pro&ides the pressure to discharge the foa solution% The solution is carried up#ards through the dis$ tube due to the gas pressure abo&e it% The solution is aerated at the discharge nozzles to for foa % The construction of the body and ethod of operation of this e;tinguisher is si ilar to that of a #ater I carbon dio;ide type e;tinguisher but its discharge rate is sa e as that of a che ical foa e;tinguisher% Once discharged these e;tinguishers should be recharged as per anufacturer instructions #ith their appropriate charge% ,eneral guidelines should be borne in ind% Clean the e;tinguisher thoroughly including the hose and branch, clean air holes pro&ided%

Ensure springs, loc$ingFsealing arrange ents are in order before recharging it% ,rease co&er lightly% Hse sa e anufacturer's refills only and if using pre i; type do not increaseFdecrease the proportion of i; as it #ould affect the efficiency of the e;tinguisher% :E'&)D )$ )PE#%'I)N =o not allo# foa to stri$e the surface of the burning liquid% =irect the foa to so e nearly &ertical surface so that the foa runs do#n the side and blan$ets the liquid% )here no &ertical surface is a&ailable then ad"ust the distance such that the discharged foa falls gently on the liquid surface% C%#E %ND :%IN'EN%NCE )ee$ly clean e;terior, chec$ nozzle outlet and &ent holes and ensure plunger is clean and fully e;tended% Puarterly chec$ internals, chec$ gas cartridges intact, stir the solutions in both containers and see if any sedi ent is there% Annually or at fi;ed shorter inter&als operate 8AG e;tinguisher obser&e its perfor ance, it should pro"ect its contents to a distance of @ eters for a period of 2A seconds% 3..D#, P)CDE# DrE Po36er E5t.ngu.0her

=ry po#der type fire e;tinguishers are suitable for tac$ing petroleu fires, gas fires in electrical equip ent and for controlling surface fires in te;tiles fibers% These e;tinguishers are noted for their speedy action% These e;tinguishers are ainly used on lo# flash point liquid fires and high pressure gas fires% They ha&e little or no cooling effect% The che ical po#ders e ployed are usually sodiu based and #hen applied to a fire, undergo a che ical reaction% The free radicals #hich are responsible for sustaining any fires put out of action by the dry che ical po#ders and because of this, the fires dies out &ery fast% Special dry po#ders containing i;tures of sodiu , potassiu and bariu co pounds ha&e been found useful in e;tinguishing fires in etals such as Sodiu and 0agnesiu % ,enerally a&ailable dry po#der e;tinguishers are

1. 7a0 Cartr.6ge 'Epe 2. Store6 Pre00ure 'Epe The first is being the ost co on%

DrE Po36er E5t.ngu.0her G7a0 Cartr.6ge 'Epe

The che ical po#der is contained in the ain shell of the e;tinguisher and CO > gas is held under high pressure in a sealed cartridge% )hen the e;tinguisher is operated the cartridge is bro$en resulting in the escape of CO> gas to the ain shell #hich pushes out the po#der in the for of fog% )PE#%'IN7 :E'&)D Carry the e;tinguisher to the place of fire and $eep it upright% .e o&e the safety clip and stri$e the $nob located in the cap to actuate the piercing echanis , #hich in turn brea$s the sealing disc of the cartridge% =irect the strea of escaping po#der at the base of the fla e% For effecti&e result stand 6%8 to >%8 eters a#ay and direct the strea near the seat of the fire% Progress for#ard o&ing the nozzle rapidly #ith a side to side in a s#eeping otion #hen using on outdoors fires al#ays operates the e;tinguisher to effecti&e range of the spray% C%#E %ND :%IN'EN%NCE There are so e aintenance schedules ad&isable for their effecti&e perfor ance of e;tinguisher #hich are as follo#ing% CeeD/E Clean the e;terior of the e;tinguishers% Polish the painted portion #ith a little colourless #a; polish and the brass and chro iu plated parts% Chec$ the nozzle outlet and &ent holes in the threaded portion of the cap for clogging Chec$ if the plunger is clean and is in fully e;tended position% @uarter/E )ithdra# the gas cartridge and chec$ if the sealing disc is intact% )eight the cartridge and co pare its #eight #ith that sta ped on its body% If a loss of 6AG or ore of the contents is obser&ed, replace it #ith a fully charged cartridge% Chec$ the piercing echanis for its proper functioning% .e o&e the inner shell and clean port holes if necessary% Also chec$ the port holes in the cartridge holder and clean the if necessary% Chec$ the po#der for granulation and ca$ing% If ca$ingFgranulation is obser&ed re o&e and replace #ith fresh charge%

%nnua//E One third of the total nu ber of e;tinguishers of this type should be put into operation for e&aluating their satisfactory perfor ance% In the e&ent of poor perfor ance of any of the the balance #ill also ha&e to be tested% 'r.enn.a//E E&ery e;tinguisher should be discharged% It should be hydraulically pressure tested at 63%8 $g fFc >% If there is any indication of echanical da age or corrosion to the e;tinguisher shell, it should be pressure tested i ediately% -efore recharging, the e;tinguisher should be dry% The e;tinguisher body contains a receptacle holding the po#der attached to the head securing asse bly% A CO > cartridge under high pressure is held #ith the piercing echanis to operate the e;tinguisher, the cartridge is pierced #hich allo#s the CO> gas to escape% This in turn pushes the po#der out in a cloud% 2% C%#<)N DI )XIDE ',PE $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S Carbon dio;ide 4CO> is effecti&e as an e;tinguishing agent pri arily because it reduces the o;ygen content of air to a point #here co bustion cannot continue% CO > non co bustible and does not react #ith ost substances% -eing a gas it penetrates and spreads to all area affected by air% Carbon dio;ide fire e;tinguishers are used for putting out fires in oils, petroleu products, ,aseous substances under pressure and on sophisticated electrical and electronic apparatus% Carbon dio;ide e;tinguishers are not to be used in< 6% Fire in&ol&ing che icals that contain their o#n o;ygen supply 4such as Cellulose 9itrate7 >% Fires in&ol&ing reacti&e etals such as Sodiu , Potassiu and 0agnesiu % C)NS'#*C'I)N Carbon dio;ide is retained in the cylinder as liquid under pressure% The cylinder is filled #ith the charge to about t#o/ thirds by #eight of its total #ater capacity% :E'&)D )$ )PE#%'I)N Carry the e;tinguisher to the place of fire% .e o&e the safety pin and operate the discharge de&ice or unscre# the &al&e depending on the design% Carbon dio;ide is deli&ered by eans of discharge through a high pressure fle;ible hose%

=irect the "et at the base of the fire, starting at one edge and s#eeping across the surface of the burning aterial% )hen used in open air, the operator should stand on the up/#ind side of the fire and should apply the gas in a do#n#ind direction as close as possible to the fire% On firs in electrical equip ent first s#itch off the current and then direct the "et or horn straight at the fire% The gas at the ti e discharge a$es considerable noise% The user should therefore be #ell con&ersant #ith its operation to pre&ent the "et fro being isdirected during the first fe# &ital seconds% The handling of apparatus is also &ery i portant% C%#E %ND :%IN'EN%NCE At least once a #ee$% Polish the painted portion #ith a little colourless #a; polish the brassFchro iu parts to be polished #ith brassFsil&er polish% Chec$ that the nozzle outlet is free fro clogging% Once a onth #eigh the e;tinguisher and if a #eight difference of 6AG or ore is obser&ed it should be sent out for recharging% E&ery ti e the e;tinguisher is sent for recharging, the cylinder should be pressure tested at >6A$g fFc > before recharging% Other points #hich e;tinguishers are< ay be entioned in connection #ith the use of CO >

6% The gas a$es a considerable noise during the short period of its discharge and if the person has not used such an e;tinguisher before, the une;pected second ay ta$e hi off his guard and cause hi to isdirect the "et for the first &ital seconds thus #asting both the gas as #ell as the &ital o ents used for fire e;tinguishing% >% Carbon dio;ide releases fro the e;tinguisher in the for in a confined space #ill i pair &isibility considerably% of a &ery dense &apours

2% O#ing to the fact that carbon dio;ide e;tinguishes a fire #ithout any substantial cooling effect on the burning aterials, it cannot be too strongly e phasisd that a CO> e;tinguisher ust al#ays be bac$ed up #ith additional CO > e;tinguisher foa or #ater spray in suitable circu stances, this is particularly so #hen it is being used on a fire such as that in a clip pan since, if sufficient carbon dio;ide is not a&ailable% A flashbac$ fro the heated flue is al ost ine&itable and no good #ill ha&e been done by its use 1% If for any reason the orifice at the sealing disc should freeze, thus pre&enting the discharge of the gas, the control &al&e should be returned to the closed position and again operated% In so e odels this #ill clear the stoppage% 8% &%-)N EX'IN7*IS&E#S

!alogenated e;tinguishing agents are ato s in #hich one or ore &a/ogenate6 &E6ro Carbon 7a0e0 8&a/on9. !ydrogen ato s ha&e been replaced by ato s fro the halogen series i%e% Fluorine, Chlorine, -ro ine or Iodine% This substitution confers not only non/ fla ability but fla e e;tinguishing to any of the resulting co pounds The use of halogenated hydro carbons as fire e;tinguishing edia is only per itted in achinery spaces, pu p roo s, and in cargo spaces intended solely for the carriage of &ehicles #hich are not carrying any other cargo% Karious halogenated fire e;tinguishing agents $no#n are< &a/on &a/on &a/on &a/on &a/on &a/on &a/on &a/on 104 1001 1011 1202 1211 1301 2402 10001 -Carbon G 'etra GCh/or.6e - :ethE/ <roA.6e - Ch/oro <roAo-:ethane - D.broAo G D.1/uro :ethane - <roAo G Ch/oro G 6. G $/uoroAethane - <roAo G'r. G $/uro G :ethane - D.broAo G 'etra G $/uor G :ethane - :ethE/

-ut so e of these being highly to;ic are not used% The ones that are used detailed here% The three halogen ele ents co 6% Fluorine, >% Chlorine 2% -ro ine Substitution of a hydrogen ato in a hydro/carbon #ith these three, influences the relati&e properties in the follo#ing anner< $/< I parts stability to the co pounds, reduces to;icity and boiling points, increases ther al stability% Ch/< I parts fire e;tinguishing effecti&eness, increases boiling point, to;icity and reduces ther al stability% only found in e;tinguishing agents are/

<< Sa e effect as chlorine but to a greater degree% Consequently, co pounds containing co binations of Fluorine, Chlorine and -ro ine can posses &arying degree of e;tinguishing effecti&eness, che ical and ther al stability &olatility% These agents are &ery suitable for electrical fires they do not beco e electrically conducti&e in the pressure of #ater% 0oreo&er being either gases or liquid, they &apourise rapidly in fire% They lea&e no corrosi&e or abrasi&e residue after use% The e;tinguishing 0echanis of the halogenated agents is a chain reaction #hich interferes #ith the co bustion echanis % They act by re o&ing the acti&e che ical species in&ol&ed in the fla e chain reactions% The e;tinguishing effecti&eness of &arious !alon agents depends on #hether portable e;tinguishers or fi;ed syste s are being considered% Particularly in tests on portable units #hether the agents are being used at opti u super pressure station #ith nitrogen in total flooding syste s, the effecti&e ness of the halogenated agents on fla able liquids and co plete e;tinguish ent is obtainable% +o# concentration of agents, and on #eight of agent basic, halons are appro; >%8 ti es ore effecti&e than carbon dio;ide% As per .eg% 8 Chapter II Part A SO+AS 6:31 as updated by 6:3M protocol and 6:M6 and 6:M2 a end ents, the a ount of agent to be used is specified as< &%-)N 0in%4by &ol% 7 8G 1%>8G 1301 0a; 3G 3G &%-)N 0in% 4by &ol%7 8G 1%>8G 1211 0a;% 8%8G 8%8AG

For cargo spaces For 0ach% spaces

The effecti&eness of halogenated agents on class A fires is less practicable% It depends upon the specific burning aterial, its configuration and ho# early in the co bustion cycle the agent is applied% 0ost plastics can be e;tinguished rapidly and co pletely #ith 1 to @G concentration of !alon 6>66 or 62A6% Other aterials li$e cellulose products #hich fro deep seated fires ay need as uch as 6M to 2AG concentration of !alon for co plete e;tinguishing% Such high Percentage of concentration are ho#e&er not allo#ed for shipboard fire fighting% The to;ic and irritant effect of !alon can be quite serious on hu an beings% Ani als e;posed to belo# that concentration e;hibit to;ic effects li$e< 6% Central ner&ous syste unconsciousness% changes including tre ors, con&ulsion lethargy and

>% Cardio I&ascular effects including hypertension and decreased heart Irate%

&%-)N7EN%'ED %7EN'S %#E *SE$*- $)# '&E $)--)CIN7 #E%S)NS N 6% >% 2% 1% 8% These are clean agents Ideal for electrical circuit% For fla able liquids or gases% For surface burning fla able solids as ther oplastics% For ob"ects of high &al&e and #here use of co ercial e;tinguishing% Agents could cause e;tensi&e da age and #here a&ailability of #ater or space for using other syste s is less%

&%-)7EN%'ED %7EN'S %#E INE$$IC'I=E $)# 6% Fuels #hich contain their o#n o;idizing agents such as ,un po#der, .oc$et propellants, Cellulose nitrate, Organic pero;ides etc% >% .eacti&e etals as Sodiu , Potassiu , 0agnesiu etc% 2% 0etal !ydrides such as +ithiu !ydrides% 'he I:) #e0o/ut.on H%F "19 81"9 0tatu0 that4 6% The use of !alons in installation of fire e;tinguishing syste s on board ships e;cept those falling in the category of (essential use* shall be prohibited of #hich $eel is late or #hich are sa e at a si ilar stage of constructions or on after 6st Ouly 6::>% >% The use of !alon in such ne# installations on other ships shall be prohibited by 6 st Ouly 6::>% 2% Full scale test of !alon fire e;tinguishing syste by 6st Ouly 6::>% P)#'%<-E $)%: %PP-IC%')#S This syste consists of the foa concentrates contained in >A liters portable etallic or synthetic containers% For their application the foa concentrate is ta$en near the location of the fire and then by eans of specially designed applicators, the foa concentrate is induced into the applicator nozzle% The induction is achie&ed by si ple &enture effect% The pressure of deli&ered #ater go&erns the quantity of foa a&ailable for e;tinguishing% The li itation of this portable arrange ent is that foa containers ha&e to be carried to the location of the fire al#ays% Continuous onitoring of the syste s is al#ays required because #hen a container runs dry, no foa #ill be deli&ered and the sudden deli&ery of #ater shall only ha per and ad&ersely affect fire fighting in that space% of board ship shall be prohibited

It is not useful to tac$le large petroleu fires but could be used to handle fire in paint roo s, la p roo fuel or diesel operated achinery% Its only ad&antage lies in the fact that it is portable and pro&ides ore co&erage than any portable e;tinguisher% It also does not need an elaborate foa concentrate i;ing and foa generating apparatus as it is all incorporated in the applicator nozzle itself% $IXED INS'%--%'I)N S,S'E:S

$I#E DE'EC'I)N S,S'E: These are fitted as per the Fire I Fighting .ules on the &essels% The ain ob"ecti&e is to ta$e their help in detection and possible e;tinction of a fire before it ta$es enor ous shape and result into a catastrophe% It #or$s on the principles that #hene&er fire occurs the at osphere around the fire place gets changed and these changes are sensed by the fire detector #hich in that case raises the alar % Auto atic fire detection is ore reliable than relying entirely on the detection of the fire by the hu an beings% Any sign of fire e&en if of the slightest nature is i ediately detected by the syste % It #or$s round the cloc$ and so $eeps a &igil continuously% It gi&es a ple ti e for the fire fighting personnel to act accordingly because any delay in the detection and the action ta$en as a consequence ay pro&e to be ore fatal and ore de&astating% !eat, s o$e and fla e are the ost co on ele ents used to detect fire% The ain points #hich ay be considered #hile opting for a particular type of fire detector are that it should gi&e the best co&er in a particular situation, should not gi&e false alar , its #arning signals should be clearly audible and &isible and they should be fi;ed at a central place in a ship preferably on bridge% ',PES )$ $I#E DE'EC')#S All the fire detectors sense heat, s o$e, fla e or other indications of fire They are of different types and so e of the are as follo#s% 6% !eat detectors operate #hen the rate of the te perature in the surrounding increases beyond a set li it% >% S o$e detectors, #hich operate #hen s o$e obscures a bea of light falling on a photo electric cell% 2% S o$e detectors, #hich operate #hen a bea of light is scattered by s o$e and caused to fall on photo electric cell% 1% S o$e detectors, #hich operate #hen an electric current flo#ing through an ionized at osphere is changed by co bustion products% 8% Fla e detectors, #hich react to radiation e anating fro fla e%

A sprin$ler syste also incorporates an auto atic fire detection alar e;tinguishing syste s% &E%' %C'*%'ED $I#E DE'EC')#S4 )PE#%'E <E'CEEN "80C 'he0e are heat 0en0.t.2e. There are t#o types of heat actuated detectors< 6% Fi;ed te perature detectors% >% .ate of rise te perature detectors% $IXED 'E:PE#%'*#E DE'EC')#4


40C ')

These initiates a fire alar #hen the te perature around the de&ices reaches to a pre defined or a pre set te perature &alue% These detectors differ in their design and functioning% The co on heat detectors are -i etallic, Fusible etal and +iquid e;pansion type%

<I:E'%--IC 'P,E These are based on the principle that the ther al e;pansion% etals ha&e their unique coefficient of

)hen t#o such etal ha&ing t#o different types of coefficient of ther al e;pansion are bounded together and e;posed to heat than due to their differential e;pansion% It causes the un e&en e;pansion bet#een the t#o resulting in bending or fle;ing to#ards the etal ha&ing the lo#er e;pansion rate% This action is utilized to open alar circuit to acti&ate the alar % These detectors are of t#o types< 6% -i etal strip >% Coil type $*SI<-E :E'%-4 The #or$ing principle in this case is that e&ery etal has a constant elting point% The fusible etal part is used to hold bac$ a o&eable s#itch contact% )hen the fusible part elts, the contact o&es to close the circuit and sounded the alar % It has a disad&antage that it can not be used again and e&ery ti e the fused to be replaced% etal has

-I@*ID EXP%NSI)NS< These are si ilar in operation to fusible etal de&ices% In this case, a brea$able glass bulb is partly filled #ith liquid and an air space is left abo&e the liquid% )ith the rise in te perature, the liquid e;pands% If the te perature continuous to rise the liquid e;pands further, resulting in increase in pressure inside the bulb% At a pre set te perature the bulb bursts and initiates alar % The bulb ust be replaced to put bac$ detection syste s again into operation is the ain dra#bac$% #%'E )$ 'E:PE#%'*#E #ISE DE'EC')#S They are actuated #hen the rise in te perature increases faster than the pre set &alue% .ate of rise detectors sense te perature changes rather than the te perature it self% %62antage0 6% >% 2% 1% Slo# rise in te perature #ill not acti&ate the alar % It can be used in lo# te perature areas as #ell as high te perature areas% It usually responds ore quic$ly than fi;ed te perature de&ices% Self resetting type%

'&E C):<IN%'I)N )$ $IXED 'E:PE#%'*#E DE'EC')# %ND #%'E )$ #ISE DE'EC')#S Fi;ed te perature detectors #ill not initiate an alar until the detector te perature reaches per Iset operating te perature% Thus fi;ed te perature detectors #ill not acti&ate alar i ediately #hen a fire brea$s out% !ence in ost of the cases fi;ed te perature detectors and rate of rise detector are used together, here alar is acti&ated #hen the te perature rises at faster rate than a pre set rate% If the te perature rises slo#ly but continuously the rate of rise de&ice ay not be acti&ated but fi;ed te perature de&ices #ill initiate an alar % -oth of the #hen used in co bination are ore effecti&e% S:);E DE'EC')#S They are s o$e sensiti&e and the change in density of s o$e initiates the % They operate #hen s o$e density is in the range of >G to 6>G per eter% A s o$e detector #ill detect ost fires uch faster than a heat detector% It also co&ers ore area for detection of fire than the heat detectors% There are t#o types of s o$e detectors< 6% Ionization s o$e detectors% >% Photo electric s o$e detectors%

I)NIK%'I)N S:);E DE'EC')#S S o$e detectors using ionization principle pro&ide so e#hat faster response to high energy 4open fla ing7 fire, since these produce large nu ber s o$e particles% An ionization s o$e detector has s all a ount of radio acti&e aterial #hich ionizes the air in the sensing cha ber, thus rendering it conducti&e and per itting a current flo# through the air bet#een t#o charged electrodes% This gi&es the sensing cha ber an effecti&e electrical conductance% )hen s o$e particles enter the ionization area, they decrease the conductance of the air by attaching the sel&es to the ions, causing reduction in obility% )hen the conductance is less than a pre deter ined le&el, the detector responds and raises the alar % P&)') E-EC'#IC S:);E DE'EC')# This type of detectors response faster to the s o$e generated by lo# energy fi;es as in case s ouldering fires because these fires generally produce ore of the larger s o$e particles% The presence of suspended s o$e particles generated during the co bination process affect the light bea passing through the air% This change caused due to the fire can be utilized to detect its presence% These are t#o types% A% +ight obscuration% -% +ight scatter type% -I7&' )<SC*#%'I)N

It consists of light source, a light bea colli ating syste and a photo sensiti&e de&ice% )hen s o$e particles enter the light bea this light reaching the photo sensiti&e de&ice is reduced, initiating the alar % -I7&' SC%''E# ',PE

They are ade up of light source and a photo sensiti&e de&ice so arranged that the light rays do not nor ally fall on to the photo sensiti&e de&ice% )hen s o$e particles enter the light path, light stri$es the particles and is scattered on to photo sensiti&e de&ice, causing the detector to respond% $-%:E DE'EC')#S The nor al fla e consists of three parts &iz% Infra red rays, Kisible light and Hltra &iolet rays% Infra red rays and ultra &iolet rays are in&isible to na$ed eyes% +i$e light, fla e also tra&els in the for of electro agnetic #a&es $no#n as Electro radiation% The Infra red rays radiation and Hltra &iolet rays radiation can also be used detect fire% Kisible light is not used for detection of fire, as the fla e detector can not differentiate bet#een &isible light of the fire and fro other sources%

!ence in&isible infra red rays and ultra &iolet rays radiation only used to detect fire% These infra red radiation and ultra &iolet radiation ha&e particular frequency of >8hz% Infra red fla e detector lenseFfitter unit allo# only infra red rays to pass through and focus on photo electric cell% The signal goes to a plifier unit and ti e delay unit before passing into alar circuit% This ti e delay unit ini izes the incidence of false alar s due to heating ele ents and other na$ed fla es li$e fro atch stic$s fla e or lighting to torches for firing boilers, or fla es fro blo# la p% %62antage0 6% The co bustion products need not reach detector li$e heat and fla e detector in order to acti&ate the alar % >% Hseful in open space% 2% Kery quic$ in detection% D.0a62antage4 The presence of s o$e can reduce the effecti&eness of the detector as s o$e the fla e% %*'):%'IC SP#IN;-E# S,S'E: They are auto atic fire detection, alar ing and e;tinguishing syste % The syste consists of pressurised pipes filled #ith nu ber of sprin$ler heads, #hich are so arranged that e&ery part of each space requiring protection is adequately co&ered% Each head has glass or quartzoid bulb, #hich retains a diaphrag seal at the outlet of the #ater pipe% This bulb is partially filled #ith a special fluid so arranged that rise in te perature in the concerned co part ent #ill cause that liquid to e;pand% )hen the liquid has e;panded entirely and filled the space the bulb being unable to #ith stand further pressure bursts% The #ater pressure forces diaphrag s out and #ater flo#s fro the sprin$ler% The usual te perature at #hich bulb bursts is, @M AC or :2AC and each sprin$ler co&ers area of 6> square eter% As the pressure drops, a sea #ater pu p starts auto atically% %C'I)NS %C'I=%'ED <, $I#E DE'EC')#S 6% It #ill acti&ate &isual and audible alar in entire acco odation and engine roo spaces% >% It #ill indicate zone #here fire occurred in fire indicator panel at control station and in bridge% 2% It #ill auto atically close all fire doors in acco odation to contain fire% 1% It #ill auto atically shut/ of acco odation &entilation syste % 8% It #ill obilize entire tea for fire in&estigation syste % as$s

C&)ICE )$ $I#E DE'EC')#S $)# =%#I)*S K)NES It depends on< 6% Fire ris$ of the co part ent% >% Area to be protected% 2% Kolu e and height of the co part ent% Follo#ing detectors are used for &arious places on board ship Types of detectors used in &arious places on board ship< SP%CES Cargo spaces Engine roo spaces ',PES

S o$e detectors and photo electric type S o$e ionisation type and heat type in purifier roo s% Acco odation S o$e detectors, ionization type ,alley !eat detectors -ridge and other control roo s !eat detectors

%*'):%'IC $I#E %-%#: This should ha&e follo#ing prerequisites< 6% It should be capable of i ediate operation at all ti es% >% Should be pro&ided #ith t#o sources of po#er supply i%e% 0ain and E ergency, #ith auto atic changes o&er s#itch% 2% =etectors and nor ally operated call paints should initiate alar % 1% In passenger ships detectors grouped dec$ #ise and by fire zone, clearly ar$ed on panel% #E@*I#E:EN'S )$ $I#E K)NES )N S&IP The &ertical di&isions arranged in the ship's structure are $no#n as bul$ heads% The trans&erse bul$ heads also pro&ide considerable structural strength as support for the dec$s and to resist defor ation caused by broad side #a&es% The di&ision of the ship is go&erned by rules classification FSO+AS% The subdi&ision of the &essel also pro&ides structural safety to the &essel% In case one co part ent is flooded the ships #aterline #ill not rise abo&e the argin line% In respect of fire protection the details of construction are as per SO+AS 6:31 and +loyds rule and they are as under% These are applicable to passenger ships carrying a;i u 2@ passengers and cargo ships of ore than 1AAA gross tones capacity%

6% The use of ther al and structural boundaries to di&ide the ship to ain &ertical zones% >% Ther al and structural boundaries are used to separate the acco odation spaces fro the rest of the ship% 2% The use of co bustible aterials is restricted% 1% Any fire should be detected, contained, e;tinguished #here it occurs% 8% Access ust be pro&ided to enable effecti&e fire fighting and a protected eans of escape% @% )here infla able cargo &apour e;ists the possibility of its ignition ust be ini ized% <ENE$I' )$ % K)NED S,S'E: Follo#ing are the benefits of a zoned syste s present on the ship as it restricts the spread of fire% 6% If fire brea$s out in one zone it can be easily contained in that zone by ta$ing precautions so that fire does not spread to other zones% Precautions can be ta$en in respect of boundary cooling% >% Stopping &entilation and re o&ing fla able aterials fro ad"oining zones% 2% Effecti&e fire fighting procedures can be adopted% 1% Fire fighting procedures #ill be easier% 8% Effecti&e fire detection and lighting syste s 4fi;ed7 can be adopted% $IXED $I#E EX'IN7*IS&E#S S,S'E:S 7ENE#%- #E@*I#E:EN'S )$ '&E S,S'E: There are certain prerequisites for installing fi;ed installation syste s on ship< 6% The ediu used ust not produce to;ic gases% >% The quantity of the ediu ust be adequate for the spaces, #hich are to be protected% 2% The piping syste ust ha&e control &al&es% 1% The release of gas ediu ust not be auto atic% 8% The order to release the ediu ust be gi&en by the 0ASTE. or senior officer%

$)--)CIN7 $IXED S,S'E:S %#E *SED $)# $I#E $I7&'IN7 )N <)%#D Carbon dio;ide !alogenated hydrocarbon 4!alon7 Sprin$ler 4#et and dries risers7% +o# e;pansion foa !igh e;pansion foa E ergency generators, engine roo , fire pu ps, e ergency fire pu p and bilge, general ser&ices pu p% !igh pressure #ater Spray in special category spaces% =ry che ical po#der applicants%

C%#<)N DI)XIDE Carbon dio;ide has been effecti&ely used for fighting fires in&ol&ing fla able liquids, gases electrically energised equip ent and to a lesser e;tent on fires in&ol&ing paper, cloth and other cellulosic aterials% It can be used for ost co bustible aterials e;cept for a fe# acti&e etals and etal hydrides and in aterials 4such as Cellulose 9itrate7 that contain a&ailable O;ygen% The agent Carbon dio;ide is nor ally used #ith fi;ed installations% At nor al te peratures, Carbon dio;ide gas is 6%8 ti es hea&ier than air% Thus CO > e;tinguishes fire by s othering i%e% by displacing the o;ygen content in the surrounding air 68G or lo#er% 0aterials that produce o;ygen on their burning cannot be e;tinguished by co>% It does not conduct electricity and so it can be used on li&e electrical equip ent% It does not da age e;pensi&e cargo, or achinery, it lea&es no undesirable residue to be cleared off after use% It has little cooling effect% P#)PE#'IES4 9on I Co bustible =oes not react #ith ost substances Pro&ides its o#n pressure for discharging fro the container Easily liquified by co pressing% -eing in gaseous for and hea&ier than air it can penetrate and spread to all parts of the fires area% )hile it #ill not conduct electricity a$ing it suitable for fires on energized electrical circuits%

A typically discharge of liquid carbon dio;ide has a #hile cloudy appearance due to finely di&ided ice particles carried along the flash &apours% -ecause of the lo# te p of 3:AC 4/66AAF7 the #ater &apour in the at ospheres #ill also condense creating additional fog% The density is 6%8 ti es that of air and this leads to an effecti&e s othering effect o&er the fire and replaces that air &ery rapidly% The ain e;tinguishing properties #hich render it effecti&e as an e;tinguishing agent are that it reduces the o;ygen content of the at osphere by diluting it to a point #here it #ill no longer support co bustion under suitable conditions of control and application, the a&ailable cooling effect is also helpful especially #here carbon dio;ide is applied directly on the burning aterials% %PP-IC%'I)N4 There are t#o basic ethods of applying carbon dio;ide to e;tinguish fires% One ethod is to discharge enough agents into an enclosure to create an e;tinguishing at osphere through out the enclosed &olu eL this is called (Total flooding*% The second ethod is to discharge the agent directly on the burning called local application% ')'%- $-))DIN7< )hen CO> is applied through nozzles designed and located to de&elop an e;tinguishing at osphere of unifor concentration% .equired CO> quantity is easily calculated based on &olu e of space% Integrity of the space itself is &ery i portant% C)2 Storage %n6 Supp/E SE0teA0 CE/.n6er0 6% >% 2% 1% 8% Stored in !PF+P Cylinders% On ships !P Cylinders are used% Cylinders store liquid CO> at at ospheric pressure% Cylinder can #ithstand a a; per issible te p of 81%1AAC 462AAF7% Fitted #ith an internal dip tube to enable CO > discharge fro the botto Cylinder is $ept upright #ith &al&e open% aterials, this is

#hen the SE0teA04 CO> enters piping as a liquid Friction causes loss in pressure and as pressure drops, the liquid boils, resulting in a i;ture of liquid and &apour in the piping% =ue to continuous pressure drop, the &apour &olu e increases for discharge at each nozzle% The size of piping is designed to gi&e the desired flo# rate% SoAe #egu/atorE #eBu.reAent0 $or $.5e6 7a0 $.re SE0teA0 Fi;ed piping syste for achinery spaces should be capable of discharging M8G of total quantity of gas required to flood the co part ent #ithin > inutes% The quantity CO> for cargo holds protection to be sufficient to pro&ide 2AG of gross &olu e of largest hold protected% Puantity of CO> to be carried for protection of t#o< achinery space should be larger of

Either 1AG of gross &olu e of achinery spaces e;cluding part of casing abo&e le&el at #hich horizontal area of casing is 1AG or loss of horizontal area of space concerned ta$en id#ay bet#een the tan$ top and the lo#est part of casing% Or, 28G gross &olu e of achinery space protected including casing%

Kolu e of free CO> shall be calculated at A%8@


' Ca/cu/at.on0 $or Sh.p0 &o/6O:ach.nerE Space Protect.on <E $.5e6 C)2 8P%#'IC*-%#S )$ S&IP %ND E@*IP:EN' %=%I-%<-E9 C)2 C%P%CI', PE# C,-INDE# C%'E# C%P%CI', PE# C,-INDE# EO# 7#)SS =)-*:E 8'o upper D;9 EO# 7#)SS =)-*:E 8'o 'op9 =)-*:E )$ %I# #ESE#=)I# IN EO# =)-*:E )$ -%#7ES' C%#7) &)-D 4 .4 ;7 ! .10 -I'E# 4320 Cub.c Aeter 4999 Cub.c Aeter 383 Cub.c Aeter !320 Cub.c Aeter

C)2 <)''-ES #E@*I#E:EN'S %S PE# #E7*-%'I)NS % < C 8888 4320L3" 9P.409O. !99O4 .4 88884999L3" 9P.3 9O. !99O4 .4 888!320P.309O. !99O4 .4 M M M "4 CE/.n6er0 "4 CE/.n6er0 " CE/.n6er0

'ota/ reBu.reAent o1 C)2 bott/e0 a0 per regu/at.on0 .0 " No0. D%N7E#S )$ C)2 It is hazardous to hu ans because of its to;icity, it does not support life% The ini u concentration sufficient to e;tinguish fire does not reduce the o;ygen content of the air to a hazardous le&el% !o#e&er #hen in Ihaled the CO > raise the acidic le&el of the blood% This pre&ents the he oglobin fro absorbing O;ygen in the lungs, #hich can lead to a respiratory arrest% Thus it is e;tre ely dangerous to enter #ithout proper breathing apparatus% Any co part ent in #hich CO > has been discharged% This applies e&en to short periods of ti e% $)--)CIN7 %C'I)NS %#E ') <E '%;EN C&EN C)2 %-%#: IS S)*NDED 6% >% 2% 1% 8% Engine roo should be e&acuated i ediately% All openings should be effecti&ely sealed% Kentilation fans to stop% All fuelFoil pu ps to stop% !ead count should be ta$en%

SP%CE C&E#E C)2 IS *SED Carbon dio;ide syste s are used to protect cargo spaces, pu p roo s, generator roo s, storage spaces such as paint loc$ers, galley ranges and duct syste % E$$EC' )$ $)%: IN $I#E EX'IN7*IS&IN7

Foa as a fire/ fighting agent is ainly used in Class (-* fires% The lo# e;pansion foa ha&ing higher #ater content is used to e;tinguish Class (A* fire% )hen the foa is applied it for s s all bubbles on the surface of the liquid, #hich pre&ents &aporization of the fuel and cuts off the supply of the o;ygen% Foa being insoluble in ost of the liquid and due to the bubble nature for s a blan$et around the burning

surface and e;tinguishes the fire% Foa in the e;tinguishing of oil fires

for s radiant heat barrier, #hich is i portant

$)%: S:)'&E#IN7 INS'%--%'I)N In order to co ply #ith statutory rules, #here a foa s othering installation is fitted to protect a space it ust be capable of discharging a quantity of foa , in not ore that 8 inutes, sufficient to co&er a depth of @ inches on the largest single area o&er #hich fuel oil is liable to spared% On tan$ers the require ent beco es co&ering the dec$ #ith > inches of foa in 68 inutes% The usual practice is to supply storage tan$s of a capacity to eet the require ents% The ethod of generating the foa according to the installation4 i%e% pu p I operated, self I contained pressurised, or pre i;ed7 effecti&e distribution of the foa is achie&ed through a per anent syste of piping to discharge outlets abo&e double botto tan$ tops, and to fi;ed sprayers on other ain oil fire hazards in the protected space% The installation also pro&ides special nozzles to #hich unaerated co pound is pu ped% These can produce foa #ith an e;pansion ratio of @AA /6 against nor al rates of M or 6A / 6 &I7& EXP%NSI)N $)%: 8&I-EX9 The !I/E5 generation syste 6% 0otor dri&en fan >% !I IE5 Spray nozzles 2% !I/E5 9ylon net 1% Shutter operator 8% Air cha ber consists of the follo#ing parts<

!I IE5 foa can be generated either by fi;ed installation 4 anually or auto atically7, or by a o&eable unit, and can be used on carbonaceous or oil type fires% -asically !I/E5 foa is co posed of a ass of bubbles of unifor size ha&ing an e;pansion ratio of appro;i ately 6,AAA &olu e of foa for each &olu e of liquid thus on e of the a"or ad&antage of a !I/E5 foa syste is in a application #here li ited use of #ater is desirable, e%g% passenger ship acco odation to a&oid a stability proble % Indi&idual !I/E5 foa bubbles are each about 6A in dia eter, and are created by unifor ly #etting a special net #ith a i;ture of #ater 4fresh or salt7 and foa , then blo#ing air through the net by eans of a fan% The output of the bubbles depends on the size of the generator used, and can &ary bet#een 6,>AA cubic ft% and 81, AAA cubic ft% per inute%

)hen foa #ith an e;pansion ratio of 6,AAA to 6 is dri&en on a fire, the one &olu e of liquid is flashed to stea , and the resulting e;pansion of #ater to stea creates a i;ture of so e 6,3AA &olu es of stea and less than 3/6F> or #ell belo# #hat is

.equired for acti&e burning% Con&ersion of #ater to stea absorbs a great deal of heat, thus cooling the burning aterials% A an caught in the foa ay burst the bubbles and breatheL an unconscious an can not do this and needs an early rescue% Portable generators are no# a&ailable in the ar$et% The syste s ha&e also been de&eloped #here the bubbles are filled #ith inert gas% !i/E5 foa ay be forced into an enclosed space% There ust be an escape for the gas already in the co port ent for the foa to spread freely it ust be re e bered that these gases #ill be superheated and cooling sprays #ill be needed in the region of this &enting space% ',PES )$ $)%:S The types of foa s can be described as follo#s< 6% $oaA Che ical foa is for ed by i;ing an al$ali #ith an acid in #ater% A stabilizer is added to a$e foa tenacious and long li&ed% )hen these che icals react, they foa bubbles filed #ith CO> gas% $oaA These are produced by i;ing a foa concentrate #ith #ater to produce foa solution% The bubbles are for ed by the turbulent i;ing of air and the foa solution% !ere the bubbles are filled #ith air% 0echanical foa s are produced fro proteins, detergent and surfactants% The surfactants are a large group of co pounds that include detergent% )etting agents and liquids soaps% Surfactants are used to produce aqueous fil for ing foa , co only referred to as AFFF% 3..Prote.n $oaA The usual protein foa s are produced fro protein rich ani al and &egetable #aste that is hydrolyzed 4sub"ected to a che ical reaction #ith #ater that produces a #ee$ acid7 ineral salts are added to increase their resistance to #ithering, a$ing the foa s resistant to burn bac$% The foa concentrate can produce foa in all types of #ater 4fresh and sea #ater7 e;cept in #ater that is conta inated #ith oil% )hen antifreeze is added, foa can be produced in subfreezing te peratures do#n to inus >2%2A C the concentrate is a&ailable in 2G and @G concentrations%

4. %/coho/ $oaA Alcohol resistant protein foa is si ilar to standard protein foa % !o#e&er it is blended #ith an insoluble soap, to per it its use on #ater soluble organic fla able liquids, such as Alcohol, ?etones, Eithers and Aldehydes% . SEnthet.c $oaA Synthetic detergent based foa is ade up of al$yl sulfonates% This foa has less burn bac$ resistance than protein for ulae, but ay be used #ith all dry che icals% It foa s ore readily than the protein and requires less #ater hence it is &ery useful #here #ater supply is li ited% !. %Bueou0 $./A $ 8-.ght Cater9 G%$$$ This foa is ade fro surfactants, through a fairly co ple; che ical process% This results in an e;tinguishing agent that is highly effecti&e #hen used according to the anufacture's instructions% This foa is less &iscous than the usual #ithout loosing its inherent strength, and so it flo#s, rapidly o&er the surface producing sealing effect% ". &.gh E5pan0.on $oaA !igh e;pansion foa s are those that e;pand in ratios of o&er 6<8AA/ 6<68AA #hen i;ed #ith air% Hnli$e con&entional foa , #hich produces a blan$et a fe# inches thic$ o&er burning surface, high e;pansion foa is truly three di ensional in its action, it is easured, in length, #idth, height ad cubic feet% !igh e;pansion foa is designed for fire in confined spaces% !ea&ier than air but lighter than #ater or oil, it #ill flo# do#n openings and fill co part ents spaces, replacing air in these spaces% -ecause of its #ater content, it absorb heat fro the fire and cools the burning aterial% IN&I<I')# E$$EC' S,S'E:S !alons are hydrocarbons in #hich one or ore hydrogen ato s ha&e been replaced by ato s fro the halogen series Fluorine, Chlorine, -ro ine or Iodine% They for dense foa , #hich is hea&ier than air, but also has the property of interfering #ith the che ical reaction of fla e propagation in the burning aterial% 0ost co only used halons are -T0 and -CF% <C$ G &%-)N 1211 <#):) C&-)#) DI$-*#) :E'&%NE. <': G &%-)N 1301 <#):) '#I$-*#) :E'&%NE% <C$ is less to;ic than CO> and is 1AG ore effecti&e% This eans less storage space and only 8G to 8%8G saturation of a co part ent is required%

C))-IN7 E$$EC' S,S'E:S There are t#o syste s< 6% Auto atic sprin$ler% >% !igh pressure #ater spray syste % %*'):%'IC SP#IN;-E# S,S'E: The sprin$ler syste is an auto atic fire detecting alar ing and e;tinguishing syste that is constantly on guard to deal quic$ly and effecti&ely #ith any out brea$ of fire that ay occur in acco odation or other spaces% -riefly the syste is co posed of pressurized #ater tan$, #ith #ater pipes leading to &arious co part ents% In these co part ents the #ater pipes ha&e sprin$ler heads fitted #hich co e into operation #hen there is an outbrea$ of fire% Initially syste is filled #ith fresh #ater and is pressurized such that the pressure at the highest sprin$ler head in the syste is not les than 1%M bar% Each sprin$ler head is ade up of steel cage and a #ater deflector% The quartzoid bulb inside cage retains soft etal seal at the pipe% The quartzoid bulbs are anufactured so that if the bulb is sub"ected to heat, the liquid inside that e;pands and gas space di inishes, this #ill generate pressure inside the bulb is shattered at a pre deter ined te perature% Puartzoid bulbs are anufactured in different colours, #hich indicate the operating te perature of the bulbs% 'E:PE#%'*#E #%'IN7 !80C 800C 930C C)-)*# )$ '&E <*-< #ED ,E--)C 7#EEN

Once the bulb is shattered the &al&e asse bly falls per itting #ater to be discharged fro the head #hich stri$es the deflector plate and sprays o&er a considerable area and #or$s as a fire e;tinguisher% An electrically operated pu p #ith direct sea suction co es into operation auto atically #hen F) pressure in the syste dropped to a predeter ined le&el and thus supply #ater to the syste % It is ainly used in passenger ships% &I7& P#ESS*#E C%'E# SP#%, INS'%--%'I)N S,S'E: This syste is suitable for achinery space protection, the e;tinguish ent of the fire being achie&ed by the principle of pro"ecting #ater at high pressure in spray for % The spray stri$ing the oil for s an oil/ in #ater e ulsion, #hich consists of a great nu ber of tiny oil globules each surrounded by a fil of #ater this fil of #ater pre&ents the globule of oil fro ta$ing fire and at the sa e ti e cools any hot etal thus pre&enting flash bac$ fires%

The syste is di&ided into sections, each #ith its o#n anually operated &al&e situated outside the fire zone% This a$es it possible for only the section directly co&ering the fire to be operated, thus a&oiding unnecessary #ater da age% 0ediu I pressure drencher syste s are often chosen to protect car I dec$s on roll I on I off ferries% )ater I Spray syste s ha&e to be used early or spray ay be flashed to stea abo&e the surface of the blazing liquid, also there is the danger of shado# areas% It should also be realised ho# quic$ly lo#er ban$s of nozzles ay be co&ered #ith #ater, #hich ha&e blazing oil on the surface% D#, C&E:IC%- P)CDE# Ships carrying liquids gases in bul$ are no# being fitted #ith dry che ical po#der e;tinguishing syste , the syste is used to protect the cargo dec$ area and all loading station anifolds% )PE#%'I)N )$ D#, C&E:IC%- P)CDE# )hen the fire is detected, the nitrogen cylinder &al&e in the concerned control stations opens to release nitrogen propellant% The nitrogen flo#s into the dry che ical storage tan$ through a perforated aerating tube, the holes in the tube are co&ered #ith rubber, so that nitrogen can flo# into the tan$ but not the dry che ical po#der% The nitrogen cylinder &al&e is calibrated to release dry che icals to the nozzles at the proper rate% Acti&ating and operating details #ith different units and anufactures ay be different% In each case the anufacture's instructions should be follo#ed carefully for operating the syste % INE#' G 7%S P#)D*CE# INS'%--%'I)N The principal disad&antages of CO> stored in etal cylinders as a fire fighting agent on board ship is that there is assured continuity of supply% Once the total a ount of gas carried aboard has been used, there can be no ore replace ent units ship reaches port, but this is not so #ith an inert gas producing syste , because all that is necessary to $eep a continuous supply of gas a&ailable is a fe# gallons of diesel oil% A typical syste ight consist of a generator in the for of a horizontal oil fired furnace #ith a fire bric$ lining, surrounded by a cooling #ater "ac$et% At one end is fitted an oil burner #ith fuel and air regulatorsL the other end opens into a cooling cha ber% A separate unit ounted to the co bustion cha ber consists of a po#er unit, #hich dri&es an air blo#er, a diesel fuel pu p and a cooling #ater pu p% )hen the unit is started up, the engine auto atically circulates cooling #ater round the #ater "ac$et of the co bustion cha ber and the engine, also to the sprayer at the

top of the cooling to#er% At the sa e ti e diesel oil and air are forced under pressure to the burner &al&es, #here the &apours are ignited by eans of an electrode and so the o;ygen content of the air is burnt off% The e;haust gases then pass fro the co bustion cha ber to the cooling to#er% The cooled gas then enters the ain distribution pipe #or$ and by eans of &al&es is di&erted into the hold on fire% The function of the inert gas once released is of course, to reduce the o;ygen content of the air in the affected hold to belo# the :G o;ygen necessary to aintain co bustion% The gas itself is co posed of< O;ygen Carbon ono;ide Carbon dio;ide O;ides of nitrogen 9itrogen 6G 9il 61G / 68G A%6G .e ainder

-ecause of the slo# rate of gas production an inert gas syste is not suitable for protection of engine roo or achinery space% )ith this equip ent it is reco ended that a certain a ount of inert gas 4CO >7 is ready for i ediate use% The sealing of the hold should not be thorough so that the air in the hold ay co pletely replaced by the inert gas% ,enerally the controls ust be in a position to be accessible in case of fire in the space they protect% This control should be conspicuously ar$ed #ith instructions for their use as any responsible persons as possible should be con&ersant #ith the particular protection syste on board ship% Although decisions as to the flooding by CO> etc% should lie #ith 0asterFSenior officer% <#E%'&IN7 %PP#%'*S Of the any essential features for good fire fighting is, one of the ost i portant% In order to successfully e;tinguish a fire #ith the ini u of da age #hene&er hu anly possible, to approach and locate the seat of the outbrea$ of fire% Fires ay be of such nature that the products of co bustion displace the o;ygen content, or poisonous or irritant &apours are e&ol&ed such conditions are often a feature of ship fires, and a$e the #earing of so e for of breathing apparatus essential% There are t#o ship% ain types of breathing apparatuses used to e;tinguish fires on the

6% At ospheric% >% Self contained The first ones depend on at ospheric air supply% The letter ones are independent of e;ternal air supply and are self contained% 1..%':)SP&E#IC ',PES At ospheric types of breathing apparatuses can be typed as follo#s< Antipoys S o$e hel ets or as$s% 0as$s or respirators for industrial gases%

Follo#ing is the description of the abo&e types in a nut shell< %N'IP),S Con0.0t0 o1 the 1o// coAponent04 6% >% 2% 1% 8% @% .espirator type face piece% Inhaling and e;haling &al&es% Equaliser tube I acts as reser&oir% =istance :A feet% Strainer on air supply tubing ust be in fresh air Air supply depends on #earers lung o&e ents%

S:);E &E-:E'S %ND :%S;S 'heE 0hou/6 ha2e4 6% @A ft% lengths of reinforced supply in fresh air% >% -ello#s or co pressor to supply fresh air% 2% 62A feet #ire heated life line% %62antage0 o1 %tAo0pher.c tEpe0 o1 apparatu04 They can be su arised as follo#s<

They can be used for unli ited ti e, as they are dependent on at ospheric air% They are cooler in use as co pared to others% 9o specialised s$ill is in&ol&ed for their operation and the personnel can be trained easily for the operation% Easy aintenance and up$eep% Testing the is easy and si ple

0as$ is at positi&e pressure at a constant pu ping rate% 'he 6ra3bacD0 o1 %nt.poE0+ SAoDe &e/Aet0 %n6 :a0D0 6% The air going to the syste should be carefully #atched for s o$eFfu es produced by the fire% >% .equires ore nu ber of persons% 2% Since tubing is hea&y, it is difficult in laying hose lines% 1% Air supply line ay be da aged during the operation or can be get trapped% 8% .educed pressure occurs due to partial &acuu in Antipoys% @% The distance co&ered in the operation is li ited% Precaut.on0 $or Proper Care %n6 :a.ntenance4 Follo#ing hints are for proper care and aintenance of different parts< 6% )ashers should be chec$ed for their position and for signs of da age% >% Storage in&ol&es $eeping the in clean, dry and &entilated spaces% 2% Should be $ept after proper natural drying% 1% Coupling threads should be protected% SE-$ C)N'%INED ',PES This self/contained apparatus pro&ides total fle;ibility to the user% They don't restrict the #earer's o&e ent% These are of &arious designs but the basic principle is sa e for all the types% The apparatus should consist of a face as$ attached by a fle;ible hose to one or t#o cylinders containing air and supported on a fla e and harness% The capacity of the apparatus is to be not less than 6>AA liters and no inal functioning ti e of 2A inutes% For arine #or$s, The =epart ent of Trade and Industry de ands that all co pressed air seats ust ha&e a lo# cylinder audible #arning de&ice fitted% The anufacture's hand boo$ should be thoroughly consulted before use% The arrange ent of a typical apparatus should be as follo#s< The cylinders are connected to a reducing &al&e, #hich reduces the pressure of the air passing through to about 1 bars% Then the air passes through (a de and &al&e* #hich reduces the pressure further and passes air to the #earer as he inhales and closes #hen he e;hales% An auto atic &al&e release e;haled air fro the face as$% )hen about 6A inutes air supply re ains in the cylinder's a #histle sounds regularly thus #arning the user% The face as$ is ade up of oulded rubber #ith a series of oulded rubber straps to secure it to the head of the user and pro&ided #ith quic$ release arrange ents% A gauge should be pro&ided to indicate the pressure of the air in the cylinder%

Spare cylinders should be pro&ided for each apparatus% Equip ent using co pressed o;ygen or closed circuit regenerati&e apparatus is not acceptable for use on the ships%

)PE#%')N )$ % C):P#ESSED %I# <#E%'&IN7 %PP%#%'*S P#E:IE# :%#; 11 G P)SI'I=E P#ESS*#E C):P#ESSED %I# <#E%'&IN7 %PP#%'*S The apparatus consists of a cylinder ounted on a for ed stainless steel bac$ plate secured by t#o quic$ release cylinder straps and supported on the #earer's bac$ by an ad"ustable shoulder harness and #aist belt% On opening the cylinder &al&e, high pressure air passes &ia a fle;ible hose to a pressure reducer, fro #hich high pressure air is fed to the #histle #arning unit and &ia a stainless steel fle;ible hose to a contents gauge positioned on the shoulder harness% +o# pressure air fro the reducer is fed is &ia stainless steel fle;ible hose to a de and incorporating a positi&e pressure ode% The refle; face as$ to #hich the de and &al&e is connected, incorporates an inner as$ speech trans itter and fresh air &al&e to together #ith icrophone port for co unication equip ent% The air supply fro the de and &al&e on inhalation first passes across the &isor to pre&ent isting and into the inner as$% On e;halation, e;pired air passes out through the positi&ely closed e;halation &al&e situated in the front port% The set should be thoroughly inspected e;ternally after use and at regular inter&als of not ore than one onth #hen not in use for e;ternal da age% On co pletion, carry out the tests as stated in the anual% All the necessary infor ation to enable this inspection and aintenance to be carried out after use can be obtained fro the illustrations together #ith the instructions in the anual% D*#%'I)N $)#: C,-INDE# The endurance of the set depends on the a ount of #or$ carried out% Slo# deep breathing is i portant for a;i u efficiency and endurance% The physical fitness of the #earer is i portant, as a fit an #ill use less air% The set per its the #earer to #or$ and breath e;actly as he #ishes, inefficiency in his breathing #ould result in reduced duration% The set is e;tre ely efficient that is to say, the resistance to breathing is $ept as lo# as possible to reduce breathing effort, and hence increase capacity for useful #or$, it ust be understood that an efficient set #ill allo# the #earer to #or$ at a higher rate than if an inefficient set is #orn% !igh #or$ rates are so eti es essential and it is i portant that the set should be efficient enough to per it the to a$e the ost econo ic use of air a&ailable, #or$ rates should be oderate%

)hen a predeter ined pressure re ains in the cylinder the #histle I #arning unit #ill be acti&e% This #ay the #earer has appro;i ately 6A inutes to reach to the fresh air if he desires so% It the #earer considers that it #ill ta$e hi longer he ust constantly refer to his pressure gauge and be a#are of the relationship bet#een the pressure re aining and the breathing ti e a&ailable% #E-%'I)NS&IP <E'CEEN C)NS*:P'I)N %ND D*#%'I)N DE7#EE )$ C)#; .esting +ight #or$ 0oderate #or$ !ea&y #or$ %I# C)NS*:P'I)N 1200 -I'E#S D*#%'I)N -I'E#O:IN*'E 8-I'E#SO:IN.9 M/6> 68A/6AA 6>/>A 6AA/@A >A/1A @A/2A 1A/@A 2A/>A 1800 -I'E#S D*#%'I)N 8:IN*'ES9 >>8/68A 68A/:A :A/18 18/2A inutes

9o inal #or$ing duration Q 4fully charged cylinder capacityF1A7/6A P#EP%#%'I)N $)# *SE4

Fit cylinder buffer into rubber boot at base of ensuring that &al&e lies horizontally% Ensure (O* ring fitted to cylinder connector re ain intact% Tighten the connector nut into the cylinder hand tight% Place cylinder straps around cylinder, fit s#ing bolts into for$s on cylinder straps and tighten and ad"ust shoulder straps and #aist belt to their full e;tent, ad"ust face as$ harness straps to their full e;tend lea&ing center strap pre/ ad"usted% S#itch off de and &al&e positi&e pressure facility by pressing red button% For pre&enting any da age to the positi&e pressure echanis , the le&er should not be pressed #ith out the rubber shroud being in position% )PE#%'I)N C&EC; 6% Chec$ cylinder pressure >% !igh pressure lea$ test< Close cylinder &al&e and obser&e pressure gauge% The pressure indicated shall not ore than 6A bars in one inute% 2% Chec$ #histle #arning< S#itch on the positi&e pressure facility by hand 1% =eacti&ate by pressing the red button% P*''IN7 )N '&E %PP%#%'*S Put on the apparatus #ith all the straps loose and tighten by pulling on the free ends of the shoulder straps until the apparatus sits securely and co fortably% Clip the #aist I belt clip together and ad"ust #aist I belt, do not o&er I tighten the #aist I belt% To loosen the #aist I belt, hold buc$le at right angles to belt and pull out#ards at the

sa e ti e chec$ that de and &al&e is deacti&ated by depressing the red button% Open the cylinder &al&e slo#ly but fully and put on the face as$% :%S; -E%;%7E 'ES' Close cylinder &al&e, breath nor ally until the air in the syste as$ should pull on to the face% C&EC;IN7 '&E $*NC'I)N )$ '&E %PP%#%'*S Open cylinder &al&e slo#ly but fully, chec$ functioning of the de and &al&e and e;halation &al&e by breathing deeply se&eral ti es% !old breath, the unit, shall be balanced i%e% no audible lea$% Continue breathing, it ust be possible for the e;pired air to flo# easily out of the e;halation &al&e% Chec$ the function of the supple entary supply by depressing fully the center of the protecti&e cap% P%, %''EN'I)N ') %PP#)%C& %ND ESC%PE 'I:ES )hile apparatus is #orn, pressure gauge reading should continuously be ta$en #hen the co pressed air supply falls bet#een 28 and 3A bar, the #histle #arning unit sounds% Start at the /ate0t 3hen the 0.gna/ 0oun60. Appro;i ately 6A inutes are a&ailable for escape% is e;hausted% The

)hen the e;ercise is finished, it is ad&isable to ta$e off the as$% Press the red button to shut off the air supply% Hnfasten the belt and put the apparatus do#n after closing the cylinder &al&e% Apparatus should not be thro#n rec$lessly% Kent the apparatus by acti&ating the positi&e pressure facility of the de and &al&e s#itch positi&e pressure facility off again by pressing the red button% For re o&ing cylinder, loosen the #ing bolts% S#ing the cylinder straps clear and unscre# the cylinder connector% +ift the cylinder clear of bac$ plate%

P#EC%*'I)NS C&EN *SIN7 C%<% -reathing apparatus ust al#ays be donned and started up in 1re0h a.r.

The face as$ should not be re o&ed until the #earer has co e out of the s o$y or to;ic at osphere as the later pre&ents any e;ternal at osphere fro entering into the respiratory syste % )hene&er possible, one should resort to #or$ in pairs and constantly be in touch #hile fire fighting% This ay be achie&ed by physically touching and spea$ing% One should be &ery carefully tread for#ard% )or$ing in pairs endanger us confidence and

should be ade by physical touch and spea$ing, #hen in strange surroundings and unable to see, the only course is to #or$ by touch and to follo# the ele entary precautions of shuffling along #ith the feet and feeling #ith the bac$ of the hand for obstructions and falling do#n into opening in floors or stair#ays #ill be ini ized% If the leading an halts for any reason, then en follo#ing #ill beco e a#are of this by contact and the reason for the halt should be co unicated as far as possible to the others if the #earer is entrapped and unable to #ithdra#, then he ust first raise an alar by signal on the line or a portable radio equip ent and then he should rela; in a co fortable position% In areas of high e;pansion foa presence, foa being opaque, &isibility is nilL audibility is greatly reduced% I ersion in high e;pansion foa ay therefore gi&e a feeling of co plete isolation and ha&e effect si ilar to claustrophobia% C%#E %ND :%IN'EN%NCE )$ C%<% .egular ad"ust ents are seldo necessary, especially of the sets are regularly used and ser&iced% =is antling ser&icing and aintenance should be done in accordance #ith the anufacture's instructions% The face as$ should be #ashed and disinfected% The #hole apparatus should be thoroughly dried before asse bly% If the cylinder pressure is less than 8F@ th of the a;i u , then the cylinder should be replaced by a charged one% )ashers or other parts found defecti&e during tests should be rene#ed% (O* rings and other seals should be rene#ed as per anufacture's reco endations% $)#CED %I# <#E%'&IN7 %PP%#%'*S8 $% The FA-A is ade up of a face as$ #ith an integral speech diaphrag , rubber breathing tube, terylene harness asse bly #ith shac$le, he p co&ered #ire rope life/ line signal plate, air hose and double acting foot operated bello#s% Fresh air is dra#n up the hose by the #earer's o#n inspiratory effort% An e;haling &al&e allo#s the escape of e;cess and polluted air% The apparatus is connected to a set of bello#s, #hich can be pedaled by hand or po#der operated% This bello#s should be situated in fresh air% )ith the effort of a second person, continuous supply can be pro&ided% The disad&antages of this apparatus are< Supply of air is dependent on the second person% Air tubing has to be trailed behind the #earer% Thus restricting his li iting his circle of operation% The air tubing can be cut or da aged% The apparatus is bul$y The apparatus requires bello#s to be $ept in good conditions%

o&e ents and

C&%P'E# (8 $I#E $I7&'IN7 P#)CESS &%K%#DS

There are nu erous hazards associated #ith the Fire / Fighting process and they can be discussed under follo#ing sub headings< <)I-E# *P'%;E $I#ES These fires occurs in 6% Hpta$es, econo izers and air heaters of stea ships% >% E;haust pipes, econo izers and #aste Iheat boilers of ship propelled by internal co bustion engines% 2% The usual cause of such fires is an accu ulation of carbon deposits, #ith or #ith out oil, #hich catches fire on o&erheating% 'he an6 haIar60 o1 the0e 1.re0 are4 Inaccessibility of all section of the upta$e in he upper sections of the engine roo % The possibility of e;plosion if access doors to the econo izers are opened% )hen the te perature of the econo izers tubes reaches 3AA AC, it leads to the follo#ing changes< The iron in the tubes #ill burn in stea , the reaction #ill be self sustaining and e;other ic, as a result the blac$ o;ide of iron and the free hydrogen ato #hich #ill burn if air is introduced, the burning of iron in stea #ill not be dependant on o;ygen, so eti es an e;plosion can also ta$e place% Proce6ure0 1or bo./er uptaDe 1.re04 In case of abo&e fires shut do#n the boilers and or ain engine, spray the #ater on the e;ternal surface for cooling effects, a$e pro&isions to e;clude air fro the fire, protect equip ent fro #ater da age, continue cooling until it is considered safe to open the econo izer and through cleaning on the fire side% In ca0e o1 1.re0 .n the 3ater G tube bo./er04 Iron I in stea firs can be caused in #ater tube boilers because of inadequate quantity of #ater in boiler leading to o&erheating of the tubes abo&e the #ater le&el and delay in shutting do#n the boiler or an uncontrollable soot fire in the furnace and the boiler has been shut do#n in a port, due to shortage of #ater in the boiler causing o&erheating of the tube abo&e the #ater le&el%

Proce6ure0 1or the abo2e< =irect the a;i u a ount of #ater as solid "ets and through the feed pu p to the source of fire, $eep air casings and upta$es cool #ith #ater and a&oid using fire spray nozzles, foa appliances and CO> directly on the fire% D#, DIS'I--%'I)N Is a co bustion process in #hich a fla able aterials burns #ith insufficient o;ygen leading to co plete co bustion of the aterials e%g% a$ing of charcoal% DrE 6.0t.//at.on AaE occur 6ue to the 1o// rea0on0< Fire occurs in an enclosed space% Te perature rise not acco panied #ith co plete burning Entry of fresh air into the syste resulting into a flash to#ards the access opening% Danger0 o1 6rE 6.0t.//at.on AaE be a2o.6e6 bE< Cooling the co part ent e;ternally hosing it #ith #ater% Entering the access in a crouched position behind a #ater screen =irecting #ater to#ards the ceiling of the space on fire react.on0 These are the effects of addition of one or ore of the follo#ing substances to a che ical substance% The change is per anent in nature resulting in so e other by products% The substances are< !eat, )ater, Stea , Oil, Foa , CO>, Sand etc% These che ical reactions are acco panied by the follo#ing< E;plosion fro the de&elop ent of fla able gas, Spontaneous co bustion, de&elop ent of to;ic fu es, S o$e generation% These are ore li$ely to occur #ith fire in cargoes in acco odation areas% gi&es the

(EAergencE Proce6ure0 $or Sh.p Dangerou0 7oo60? easures to be ta$en in case of fires in dangerous goods%

The correct response to fire in bul$ aterials possessing che ical hazards is gi&en in the EAergencE Sche6u/e0 )1 'he Co6e )1 Sa1e Pract.ce $or So/.6 <u/D Cargoe0. the he/p o1 the ,eneral Inde; Of The I0=, Code an6 the E ergency procedures for Ships Carrying =angerous ,oods, 'he re0pon0e act.on 1or a .n a g.2en 0ub0tance can be 6eterA.ne6. the he/p o1 the Code of Safe Practice for solid bul$ cargoes, the re0pon0e act.on 1or .n a g.2en bu/D cargo can be 6eterA.ne6

C&%P'E# (9 $I#S' %ID

Follo#ing are the 6% >% 2% 1% ain hazards arising fro fire<

Asphy;iation Poisoning -urns 4s$in R da aged tissues7 Shoc$

%SP&,XI%'I)N 8S*$$)C%'I)N9 This is a condition in #hich the lungs do not get sufficient supply of air for breathing and heart action ceases and results in death% Asphy;ia can be caused by air borne to;ic and asphy;iating gases, #hich are produced by the fire or due to the O;ygen shortages and as a result of fire, the air is replaced by the for ation of the gases due to fire% Any person #ho has been o&erco e by asphy;ia should be i ediately ad inistrated resuscitation% It is co only ter ed as artificial respiration and is necessary #hen as a result of so e accident a casualty cannot breath nor ally or has difficulty to breathe% P)IS)NIN7 Poisons are the to;ic substances, #hich can be dangerous to the health or can cause death #hen ta$en% These ay enter the body by Ingestion, In"ection, Inhalation or Absorption% Fu es or gases fro the fire are dangerous% These airborne to;ins enter the body through the absorption or inhalation% The ost co on poisonous gas is Carbon ono o;ide #hich is an odourless and non irritating gas #hich results in death% It is produced in ost fires% A &icti o&erco e by an airborne to;in should be i and resuscitated% <*#NS %ND SC%-DS In"uries that results fro dry heat li$e fire, fla e a piece of hot etal, or the sun, contact #ith #ire carrying high tension electric current or by lightening or friction% Scalds are caused by oist heat due to boiling #ater, stea % oil, hot tar etc% and are called as (burns*% -urns caused by the stea are ore dangerous and cause ore in"uries that the boiling #ater because it contents ore heat energy 4latent heat ediately shifted to fresh air

=a age by burns ay lead to i pair ent of the function of a body part, secondary infections in the #ounds, utilation, disfigure ent or scarring of the body part% In the case of e;cessi&e burns the loss of body fluid or plas a causes death% Che ical burns are caused by che icals such as strong acids e%g% Sulfuric acid, 9itric acid or by Strong Al$alies li$e caustic soda, caustic potash, quic$ li e or strong a onia% DE7#EE )$ <*#NS The degree of burns indicates the degree of da age to the tissues% There are three degrees of burns< $.r0t 6egree < #hen the s$in is reddened, Secon6 6egree < #hen there are blisters on the s$in 'h.r6 6egree < #hen there is destruction of deeper tissue and charring% The area of the body #hich is e;posed to burns deter ines the danger to life rather than the degree of burn% Superficial burn o&er a large area of the body are ore dangerous than the co plete charring of a part or a li b% For the purpose of deter ining the percentage of area burnt the body is di&ided into the se&eral parts, each part is allotted percentages as follo#s Face Each hand Chest Front and bac$ each Abdo en front R bac$ each Each thigh Each calf and foot ,enitals Cases of burns abo&e 2AG should be referred i S&)C; Shoc$ is the state of the body in #hich the circulation fails because blood pressure or blood &olu e gas fallen to dangerously lo# le&els% The ain cause of shoc$ is the loss of body fluids% Patients of ore than >AG burn are susceptible to shoc$% S,:P'):ES )$ S&)C; %#E 6% >% 2% 1% Patient lies still ta$ing scant notice of surroundingsL .apid and shallo# breathing% Patients gi&es occasional deep sighsL .apid and #ea$ pulse% :G :G :G :G :G :G :G 6G ediately to hospitals%

8% @% 3% M%

Pale, cold and cla y body% Patient feels #ea$, faint and thirsty or ay &o itL +ips and ears ay be blueL and In #orse condition patient ay lapse into unconsciousness%

7enera/ gu.6e/.ne0 1or treatAent o1 0hocD are4 Stop any bleeding +ay the casualty fat #ith feet raised% +oosen tight clothing about the nec$ and chest% 0a$e patient co fortable #ith blan$ets% ,i&e the patient plenty of fluid in di&ided doses 4no alcohol7 .eli&e his pain, and Cheer hi up, a&oid deep discussions%

'&E $I#S' G %ID :E%S*#ES IN C%SES )$ %SP&,XI%'I)N %ND P)IS)NIN7 %#E4 6% >% 2% 1% .e o&al of &icti fro dangerous area< thereafter< If unconscious, placing &icti in the reco&ery positionL In the absence of breathing, applying artificial respirationL In the absence of a pulse and breathing, applying Cardiopul onary resuscitation%

#ES*SCI'%'I)N #ES*SCI'%'I)N %PP%#%'*S )ith the help of resuscitation apparatus the changes of the patient's reco&ery are increased considerably as it replaces the anual aspect other#ise in&ol&ed in nor al resuscitation as the poisonous gases are spread ore rapidly fro the syste s thus, aintaining good o;ygen le&el% Air o;ygen or airFo;ygen i;tures are pro&ided by the apparatus #hich are si ple to handle% Fully auto atic resuscitators are also a&ailable% <%7 :%#; #ES*SCI'%')#S It consists of a face piece fitted to a self/ inflating bag and a special &al&e arrange ent that allo#s the bag to refill and patient to e;hale #ithout re o&al of the unit fro his face% A co on proble #ith this de&ice is failure of the operator to hold the face piece fir ly enough against the patient's nec$, ne&er push the as$ do#n on the patient's chin, as this ay bend the nec$ and obstruct the air passage% )hile holding the as$ #ith one hand, squeeze the bag #ith your other hand about e&ery 8 seconds% The bag should be squeezed until the chest rises and then released to

allo# e;halation% On hearing lea$age, hold the ore forcefully%


ore tightly and squeeze the bag

)hen the bag is released, the air inlet at the tail of bag opens to allo# it to refill% The &al&e at the as$ pre&ents the patient fro e;haling bac$ into the bag% The bag should be released quic$ly to allo# pro pt &al&e action% If the patient starts to &o it, discontinues the bag as$ operation i ediately as continuing the operation #ill force &o its into the patient's #ind pipe, causing hi to dra# the fluids into the lungs or creating a assi&e obstructions%

%I# O)X,7EN #ES*SCI'%')#S4 )hen resuscitation #ith an o;ygen enriched air is desirable, tubing fro an o;ygen cylinder can be attached to an o;ygen inlet connection% A spring loaded ball type non return &al&e in the tubing pre&ents air escaping fro the bag #hen the o;ygen supply is disconnected and the resuscitator is used to pro&ided at ospheric air only% So e other resuscitators are< 6% .espire; o; I &ital or hany an% >% .espire; ball resuscitator or life 2% Fully I auto atic resuscitator< Auto an resuscitator% 0inute an resuscitator% Sabre Sat#rn or Star .esuscitator an%

Co only $no#n as artificial respiration and is necessary #hen as result of so e accident, a casualty cannot breath nor ally or has apparently ceased to breathe% If the brain cells do not get proper supply of o;ygen for ore than four inutes this situation causes irre&ersible changes in the body% If prolonged this ay result in brain death% The ai of artificial respiration therefore is i ediate o;ygenation of the blood in order to a&oid such changes in the body echanis 4Physiology7% The popular ethods of pro&iding artificial respiration are as follo#s< 6% 0outh To 0outh 4Or 0outh I To I 9ose7 >% !olger 9ielson 0ethod 2% Schafer's 0ethod%

%#'I$ICI%- #ESPI#%'I)N 8:)*'& G') G :)*'&94 :etho6o/ogE< 0a$e sure that the air#ay is clear, if a casualty is unconscious the air#ay ay be narro# or bloc$ed a$ing breathing noisy or i possible due to se&eral reasonsL the head ay tilt for#ard narro#ing the air passageL uscular control in the throat #ill be lost, #hich ay allo# the tongue to sag bac$ and bloc$ the air passageL and because the refle;es are i paired, sali&a or &o it ay lie in the bac$ of the throat bloc$ing the air#ay% Any of these situations can cause a fatality% Ensure that the air passage is clear, re o&e any foreign ob"ects fro the air passage% +ay the casualty on its side and stri$e three to four sharp blo#s bet#een the shoulders to clear the #ind pipe% .e o&e any debris by using fingers% Ta$e up a con&enient position such $neeling or standing and #or$ fro the side<

6% Place the casualty on its bac$% >% !old the head in your hands% One hand presses forehead do#n#ards, the other "a# up#ard #hich #ill ensure that the air passage is open% 2% )ith your outh open ta$e a deep breath and seal your outh on the lips of the casualty and breath out% Pinch the nose of casualty% 1% -lo# steadily and #atch for inflation of the lungs 4rising of chest7% 8% Inflation should be at the rate of ten per inute% @% The first si; inflation should be gi&en as quic$ly as possible% :)*'& ') N)SE :E'&)D )$ %#'I$ICI%- #ESPI#%'I)N4 At ti es the casualty ay be in state of spas or con&ulsion and the outh cannot be opened% In such a situation, the only #ay out is outh to nose ethod of artificial respiration% Ensure your o#n lips do not obstruct the casualty's nostrils% Press the lips of the casualty #ith your thu b #hen blo#ing in and part his lips to allo# air to escape after inflation is co pleted% The efficacy of artificial respiration is greatly ha pered if o;ygen cannot be carried rapidly by circulation of the blood to the brain% Chec$ for pulse at the side of the nec$ or on #rists and listen carefully #ith ear pressed onto the heart% Or beginning to dilate% E;ternal cardiac assage #ill ha&e to be resorted to% Cardiac assage co bined #ith artificial respiration is ad inistered to re&i&e the heart uscles% It is dangerous and should only be resorted to if it is e&ident that heart functioning has ceased% It is ad&antageous to ha&e t#o persons gi&ing such resuscitation, one ta$ing care of the outh I to I outh or outh I to I nose resuscitation and the other applying e;ternal cardiac assage% 0outh I to I outh artificial respiration has any ad&antages na elyL

6% It gi&es the greatest &entilation of the lungs and o;ygenation of the bloodL >% It can be easily and effecti&ely appliedL 2% The chest o&e ent can be #atched and inflation of the lungs assessedL

1% It is less tiring and does not require strength to apply itL %#'I$ICI%- #ESPI#%'I)N G HOLGER NIELSON METHOD: It needs a little s$ill but proper ti ing% It is resultant suffocation due to lungs being full% :E'&)D +ay the casualty on its chest #ith ar s raised abo&e shoulders, place head to one side on top hand, placed one abo&e the other% Place yourself #ith left $nee si; to t#el&e inches abo&e casualty's head% Place the right foot heel in line #ith casualty's left elbo#% Place your hands on the casualties bac$ #ith pal s pressed on lo#er part of shoulder blades and thu ps alongside the spine% :o2eAent o1 operator Step -14 Once in position #ith ar s straight roc$ gently for#ard until the operators ar s &ertical or al ost &ertical% =o not use special force% The body #eight 4roughly a pressure of >1 /2A lb% only7 sufficient to cause e;piration fro the casualty% Count one t#o 4allo#ing > seconds ti e for this steps in all7 Step -24 The operator no# roc$s bac$#ards counting up to three 4allo#ing one second for this otion7 #hile roc$ing bac$#ards operator slides his hands bac$#ards along casualty's shoulders until they grip the casualty's upper ar s near elbo#s% Step -3< The operator raises and pulls on the ar s until tension is felt for a period of t#o seconds counting (four*, (fi&e* this o&e ent causes inspiration 4inhalation 7 for the casualty% Care should be ta$en that during the entire procedures the operators ar s should re ain straight and the casualty's chest should not be raised fro the ground% Step -4< Counting (si;*, for one second the operator should lo#er the ar s of the casualty and ta$e his hands bac$ to co ence to Step/6% This #hole cycle occupies si; seconds and should be rhyth ic in character and continued till breathing is resu ed nor ally by the casualty% )hen the casualty begins to sho# signs of breathing the operator should continue #ith Step/ >, Only raising and lo#ering ar s counting (one* , (t#o* for e;piration 4#ith casualty's ar do#n 7 and counting (three*, (four* 4#ith casualty's ar s raised 7 for inhalation% ore appropriate in cases of dro#ning and

SC&%$E#S :E'&)D This is ore suited to cases of dro#ning and requires s$ill in ti ing and positioning%

:etho6o/ogE4 Place the &icti in the prone position face do#n#ards #ith ar s abo&e shoulders and face resting on both hands, turned to#ards the side, the nose and outh ust re ain unobstructed% The operator $neels on the side of the casualty, #ith $nees placed together "ust belo# the position of the casualtyJs hip "oint% The operator should sit bac$ on his heels to allo# free s#ay% Place hands on the loins of the casualty's one on each side of the bac$bone, #rists al ost touching, thu bs as far as for#ard #ithout striating, the fingers should be close together at the side lions and bent o&er the flan$s in the natural hollo#s "ust abo&e the bri of the pel&is, but clear of it finger tips pointing to the ground% The elbo#s should be $ept straight% :etho6 o1 Ao2eAent < Step one4 #ithout bending elbo#s, s#ing slo#ly for#ard unbending the $nees till the thighs are al ost in upright position and shoulders &ertically abo&e the hands, this allo#s the #eight of operator's body to be co unicated to the casualty's lions this causes the abdo inal organs to be co pressed against the ground and up against the diaphrag % Air is thus forced out of the lungs thus e;piration ta$es place% The appro;i ate #eight to be applied should not e;ceed >8 $g 4@A lb7, this o&e ent should occupy > seconds duration only% Step t3o4 the operator should slo#ly s#ing bac$#ards to#ards initial position this o&e ent #ill cause the abdo inal organs to fall bac$ in place and diaphrag to drop thus including inspiration% This step should last about three seconds% The total procedure should ta$e about fi&e second and thus can be repeated t#el&e ti es a inute #hen the casualty responds to the artificial respiration and co ences natural respiration , the ti ing of the operator should atch natural respiration of casualty it ay be needed till the casualty is co pletely re&i&ed artificial respiration, ust continue perse&eringly until natural breathing is restored or unless it has been ascertained beyond all doubts that any further efforts #ill be of no a&ail% 'he part.c.pant 0hou/6 becoAe 1aA./.ar the Aetho6 o1 1o//o3.ng4 Putting a person in the correct reco&ery position% The application of artificial respiration 4 outh to outhFnose7 The application of Cardio I pul onary resuscitation %

Chat to 6o 3hen a per0onF0 c/othe0 catch 1.re4 Put on the fla es by #ater% =o not allo# the person to run about% This only fans the fire and a$es the fla e spread% Hse personal fire protection or at least a fire blan$et or equi&alent #hile approaching a an #hose clothing ha&e caught fire% +ay hi do#n quic$ly on the ground% If the clothes in front of the body ha&e caught fire, lay hi on bac$ and &ice a &ersa, till #ater or other non/ fla able aterial is brought to put off the fla e%

#ESC*IN7 % PE#S)N $#): $I#E4 The fore ost require ent in rescue operations is that do not be panic% Since clean air is at ground le&el, so cra#l along the floor to pull out a person #ho is laying unconscious or is disabled% Ensure that the rescuer breathing apparatus to a&oid being the ne;t casualty% )hen there is a fire in an enclosed space, do not open the #indo#s and doors to let in air% The rush of air #ill increase the fire and it #ill burn ore intensely% :%N%7E:EN' )$ SE#I)*S <*#NS %ND SC%-DS ?eep the casualty quiet and reassure hi % Co&er the casualty #ith a clean cloth% =o not re o&e adhering particles of charred clothing% Co&er burnt area #ith sterile or clean dressing and bandage% In case of burns co&ering a large part of the body, it is sufficient to co&er the area #ith a clean sheet or to#el% ?eep hi #ar but do not o&erheat hi % If the hands are in&ol&ed, $eep the abo&e the le&el of the &icti 's heart% ?eep burnt feet or legs ele&ated% If &icti 's face is burnt sit ups or prop hi up and $eep hi under continue obser&ation for breathing difficulty% If respiratory proble s de&elop, an open air#ay ust be aintained% =o not i erse the e;tensi&e burnt area or apply ice I #ater o&er it because cold ay intensify the shoc$ reaction, ho#e&er a cold pac$ ay be applied to the face or to the hand or feet% Shift the casualty to the nearest hospital if he is fit to be o&ed% =o not open blisters% ?eep hi #rapped up in clean cloth% Treat for shoc$% .e o&e quic$ly fro the body anything of a constricting nature li$e rings, bangles, belt and boots% If this is not done early, it #ould be difficult to re o&e the later as the li b begins to s#ell%

:%N%7E:EN' )$ :IN)# <*#NS %ND SC%-DS In the case of inor burns< Sub erge the burnt area in cold #ater% Clean the area gently #ith clean #ater% Co&er #ith dry dressing% =o not apply cotton #ool direct to the burnt% =o not apply any greasy substance as long as the tissue is not cool% ,i&e #ar drin$, for e;a ple s#eetened tea or coffee% :%N%7E:N' )$ C&E:IC%- <*N#S Ta$e out conta inated clothing% )ash off the che ical #ith a large quantity of #ater by using a sho#er or running #ater as quic$ly as possible% )ash copious a ounts of #ater and a&oid rubbing eyes =o not touch the burnt area #ith bare fingers% Treat as for burns% If eyes are affected by the che ical, attend to it urgentlyL flush eyes #ith large a ounts of #ater, a&oid rubbing eyes%

E-EC'#IC%- <*#NS These are caused by a high current or &oltage passing through the body% =o not approach the casualty till the s#itch has been turned off% These currents not only cause local da age but affect the respiratory and cardiac centers% They produce superficial or deep burns including charring, but also cause stoppage of breathing and heart beat% '#E%':EN' )$ E-EC'#IC%- <*N#S Cut off the po#er supply% Ta$e the casualty to the safer place% Treat the shoc$ If breathing or heart beat has stopped, resuscitate% Put in a reco&ery position% Treat the casualty after re o&al to sic$ bay

EX'E#N%- C%#DI%C C):P#ESSI)N :etho6 6% Ta$e up position at the side of the patient% >% +ocate the lo#er half of the chest bone%

2% Place the heel of your hand on this part of the bone, $eeping the pal and fingers off the chest% 1% Co&er this hand #ith the other hand% 8% )ith straight ar s, roc$ for#ard and press do#n on the lo#er half of the sternu % @% .epeat once per second% 3% 0aintain until nor al pulse beat is obtained or uscles beco e stiff 4rigor ortis7 occurs% The pressure in all cases should be unifor and controlled% Erratic or &iolent action is dangerous% In children use lighter pressure if t#o first I aiders are a&ailable one should underta$e the inflation of the lungs, #hile the other carries out e;ternal cardiac co pression%