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PROPOSAL

FOR A BIOGAS PLANT FOR A 45 TONNES/HOUR FFB PALM OIL MILL

This document is the property of GLOBAL WATER ENGINEERING (GWE) Ltd., Hong Kong. It shall not be copied, reproduced, transmitted or communicated to third parties without the explicit agreement of GWE. International Conventions of Berne (1886) - Paris (1896) – Berlin (1908) – Berne (1914) – Rome (1928) – Brussels (1948).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. COMPOSITION OF THE WASTEWATER .................................................................................................................. 1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION.............................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1 3. ANAEROBIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT (PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM D101P-A + D101P-B) .............................................. 2

BASIC DESIGN DATA.................................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 EQUALIZATION/COOLING OF THE WASTEWATER .............................................................................................................. 6 MIXING TANK (B105) ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 METHANE FERMENTATION (D101) .................................................................................................................................. 6 DBF TANK (S103) + SATURATOR (I102) + SLUDGE COLLECTION TANK (B106) .................................................................. 7 CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICALS ........................................................................................................................................ 7 BIOGAS REUSE ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.

SHORT TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................... 9 4.1 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................................................................. 9 4.1.1 Anaerobic treatment (Process Flow Diagram D101P-A + D101P-B)..................................................................... 9 4.2 PIPING .......................................................................................................................................................................... 16 4.3 INSTRUMENTATION-AUTOMATION-ELECTRICAL ............................................................................................................. 16 4.3.1 Wastewater treatment (Process Flow Diagram D101P-A + D101P-B)................................................................ 16

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DRAWINGS ................................................................................................................................................................... 19

as well as all influent composition values are based on the specifications from the client and on our past experience with a large number of palm oil mills. From these data following design figures are obtained: Factory capacity : Specific wastewater production : Design flow rate : COD COD COD BOD5 BOD5/COD ratio TS TSS pH Temp.50 mg/l 43.600 mg/l 19. after equalization) mg/l 55.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 1 1.000 kg/ton FFB 44. : : : : : : : : : 750 Tons FFB/day = 45 Tons FFB/h.0 (24 h/d. 16.500 0.7 h/day 80 % of FFB m3/d 800 3 m /h 25.0 mg/l 27.000 kg/d 33. COMPOSITION OF THE WASTEWATER ================================= The design waste production quantity.000 --4–5 °C 70 – 80 REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - .

1 Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment (Process Flow Diagram D101P-A + D101P-B) The POME from the factory flows by gravity into an equalization pond (B101. The mixing tank is covered and mixed with a top entry mixer (A105). For this purpose we have included a hot water boiler (H102). out of GWE scope). P103). The boiler operates normally on LPG or propane but it is also possible to use biogas. The biogas can be fed to the hot water boiler H102 by means of a biogas blower (C101). This pH adjustment is particularly important in the initial start-up period (first 2-3 months).- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 2 2. …) it might be necessary to heat the wastewater in order to obtain and keep thermophilic conditions in the methane reactor. PROCESS DESCRIPTION ===================== 2. the caustic soda requirement will drop and may even become zero (stand-by only). Hot water produced in the boiler H102 is pumped (P113) over a spiral heat exchanger (E101) to heat the wastewater to the desired temperature (about 55°C). From the pond the POME is pumped (by means of P111A/B) into a mixing tank (B105) where the pH adjustment is done with caustic soda (F101. preceded by a demister (S102). After that. The influent is pumped (P101A/B) from the mixing tank into the digester (methane reactor D101). restart after outage. REV DATE DESCRIPTION BY CHK - . Under certain circumstances (start-up.

In the methane reactor the actual anaerobic fermentation takes place. In the methane reactor (D101). the wastewater enters at the bottom and rises through an expanded bed of anaerobic active methanogenic sludge. Dissolved and suspended organic matter are largely degraded by anaerobic bacteria (sludge). is expected. and converted into biogas. Good mixing by means of a top entry agitator (A103) ensures that the influent is in constant contact with the biomass. GWE selected the FLOTAMET™-M process which consists of a methane reactor (D101) followed by a sludge flotation stage (S103). Only little sludge growth takes place during this process. high protein and high inorganic salt content of the wastewater. This is mainly caused by the high TSS. sludge with poor flocculating and settling characteristics (no granulated sludge). a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . For this reason. The methane reactor is of the “ANAMIX™-T” or CSTR type.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 3 For this type of wastewater. high COD.

The clarified outlet of the DBF tank is discharged or sent to the existing lagoons (out of GWE scope). but using biogas instead of air. Addition of a flocculation agent (polyelectrolyte) is foreseen (M101 + P122A/B) in a pipe flocculator (A107) in front of the DBF-tanks. the solids are forced to float by fine biogas bubbles attaching to the solids. called DBF-tank (S103). In the DBF-tank. in which biogas is dissolved under pressure. dragging the sludge flocs with them. the anaerobic sludge flocs escaping the anaerobic reactors are separated from the treated wastewater by flotation and recycled.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 4 The effluent of the methane reactor flows to a special Dissolved Biogas Flotation cell. After injection of the recycle flow in the DBF tanks. which float to the surface. The principle of the Dissolved Biogas Flotation is similar to the Dissolved Air Flotation. The separated “foamy” sludge flows out of the DBF tank through a conical section at the top. This happens in the saturator (I102) where biogas is dissolved under pressure (about 5 bar) by means of the biogas compressors C104A/B. from where it is returned (P106A/B) to the mixing tank. Excess sludge can also be withdrawn from this sludge tank B106. The fine biogas bubbles are created by recycling clean effluent (P123A/B). REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . In this DBF tank. and is collected in a sludge tank (B106). to increase the flotation efficiency and improve the effluent quality as needed. the sudden pressure release results in the formation of fine biogas bubbles.

The flare is mainly needed for start-up and emergency use. This type of flare is the cheapest type of flare. an additional price is given for a temperature controlled ground flare. under normal circumstances no excess biogas is to be flared off. However. In option. Elevated flare Groundflare In basis. an elevated type of flare (H101) is foreseen. which is 100 % CDM compliant. REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - .- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 5 For safety and start-up reasons a flare (H101) is foreseen. but is not CDM compliant. since the biogas is used for electricity generation.

000 m3 corresponding volumetric loading rate: 5. diameter: 25.500 kg/d design hydraulic retention time: 10 days corresponding methane reactor (D101) water volume: 6.000 kg/d BOD5 influent: 27. out of GWE scope) wastewater flow : 600 m³/d.200 – 2.65°C Mixing tank (B105) incoming flow from the equalization pond: 600 m³/d = 25 m³/h recycle flow from anaerobic treatment : 100 % or 25 m³/h (of which part from the sludge tank B106 and the rest from the methane reactor D101).- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 6 3. BASIC DESIGN DATA =================== 3.5 kg COD/m³.362 Nm³ biogas/d or 9. design value (after equalization).000 mg/1 COD total reduction: 85 % BOD5 total reduction: 90 . total cylindrical height: 12.817 Nm³ CH4/d at 60 % CH4 - REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - .0 m .3 Methane Fermentation (D101) wastewater flow : 600 m³/d.500 mg/l. total incoming flow: 50 m³/h required residence time: 1 h corresponding volume: 50 m³ 3.92 % Biogas production: ± 16.2 This is done in an equalization basin (B101. 33. cross section : 522 m². liquid height: 11.5 m .250 mg/l BOD5 total effluent: 2. design value required hydraulic retention time for equalization and cooling: ± 1 day minimum 3 corresponding active basin value: 600 m minimum influent temperature: 80°C max.3 m³/h. 24 h/day COD influent: 55.8 m minimum COD total effluent: 8.750 mg/l TSS effluent: 3. temperature after equalization: 55 .d number of reactors: 1 dimensions of the reactor: . or 33.000 mg/l. 16.1 Equalization/Cooling of the Wastewater 3. design value.

5 = 37.25 m² minimum 1 DBF tank of 3.2 m diameter Corresponding available flotation surface: 8.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 7 3. the maximum required amount of caustic soda is around 27.5 m³/h HRT in saturator (I102): 3 minutes Corresponding volume of I102: 1.2 m³ Saturation recycle: 100 % of total incoming flow. or 1.54. …) The projected NaOH consumption in normal operation is expected to be zero. After start-up. which results in a high buffering capacity of the wastewater. upsets.5 m³/h Max acceptable surface loading rate for the DBF tank: 6.1 = 660 kg/day.4 DBF tank (S103) + saturator (I102) + sludge collection tank (B106) Wastewater flow rate from factory: 25 m³/h max Sludge recycle from sludge tank (B106) to the anaerobic treatment: 50 %. 37. based on the following arguments:  High TKN-content of the wastewater.5 m³/h x 15 kg TSS/m³ = 563 kg TSS/h Required biogas/TSS ratio: 0. overload.9 m³ minimum TSS load to saturator: 37. and in exceptional circumstances (calamities. and will most probably become zero (stand-by only).04 m² HRT in sludge collection tank (B106): 20 minutes Corresponding volume of B106: 4.1 kg pure NaOH/m³ raw wastewater corresponding maximum caustic soda dosage: 600 m³/day x 1. or 1.214 kg/Nm³) 3. REV DATE DESCRIPTION BY CHK - . this caustic soda dosage will eventually decrease.5 m³/h Net flow rate to the DBF tanks: 25 + 12.5 meq/l. which is 12.h Required flotation surface: 6. some caustic soda will be necessary to control the pH of the methane reactor.5 Consumption of Chemicals Caustic soda (NaOH) Especially during start-up. this means 857 l/day (36 /l/h) NaOH will only be needed at start-up.320 kg/day of a 50 % NaOH solution at a density of 1.0 m³/m².05 kg biogas/kg TSS Corresponding required biogas: 28 kg/h or 23 Nm³/h (density biogas at 60 % CH4 is 1.

000 kcal/m³. Note that these are calculated values based on the design COD input and expected removal efficiency figures. Actual figures will vary with the quantity and composition of the factory effluent 3 REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . Both measures contribute to a reduction of the NaOH consumption.°C = 500.142 kcal. This is equivalent with 4. If no biogas is available. 3.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 8  Thermophilic operation of the methane reactor (more CO 2 is stripped from the wastewater to the biogas than in mesophilic operation). LPG or propane is to be used.000 kcal/h (thermic). Part of the biogas can be reused to heat the wastewater if required.6 Biogas reuse 1 Nm /day biogas at 60 % CH4 has a calorific value of 5.549 kWe (at 38 % net conversion efficiency). so total expected biogas production is equivalent with 3.  Our process design including a large effluent recycle + a mixing tank (B105).000 kcal/h Corresponding amount of biogas required: 97 Nm³/h. Maximum required heat capacity: 25 m³/h x (55-35)°C x 1.076 kW (thermic) or 1. or 14 % of the available biogas.505.

1. 22 kW.1 A103 Anaerobic treatment (Process Flow Diagram D101P-A + D101P-B) : slow running vertical agitator. with mounting/lifting accessories A107 : In line pipe flocculator. SHORT TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION =============================== 4.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 9 4. 2. all wetted parts in stainless steel A105 : mixing tank agitator. top entry mixer in stainless steel. REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - .1 Mechanical Equipment 4. capacity 40 m³/h.2 kW.

capacity 100 Nm³/h at 150 mbar.0 m B105 : B106 : Sludge tank. 25 Nm³/h at 5 bar. dimensions: diameter 1. 3 kW. 5 kW REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . C101 : C104A/B : Biogas compressors (1 stand by). wetted parts in cast aluminum and stainless steel. centrifugal type. approx. active height 2. 40 mbar pressure. concrete.5 m.5 m x 4. closed with conical roof.5 m.5 m.2 m³ net volume. cylindrical height 2. 600 m³ net volume minimum (OUT OF GWE SCOPE) mixing tank.8 m. internal length x width = 4. 50.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 10 B101 : equalization basin.6 m³ volume. water height : 2.4 m Biogas blower. 4. total height : 3.

- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 11 D101 : - - methane reactor (ANAMIX™-T) vertical cylindrical concrete tank with a conical or dome roof (design under roof pressure: 500 mm W. 500. cylindrical height: 12.0 m internal piping in HDPE coating : (coaltar) epoxy coating inside in the gas phase E101 : spiral heat exchanger. content 30 m³ REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . to heat the influent F101 : caustic soda storage tank.G.) diameter: 25. capacity. in AISI 316. carbon steel or HDPE.8 m.000 kcal/h.

900 Nm³/h capacity. groundflare. fully automatic operation H101: OPTIONAL Biogas flare. 900 Nm3/h capacity.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 12 H101: BASIS Biogas safety flare. in stainless steel. in stainless steel. elevated type. fully automatic operation REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . temperature controlled.

accessories 3 mixers = one in each of the 3 compartments. active volume: 1. biogas fired water heater. capacity 581 kW (500. 1 powder screw feeder with hopper REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . operating pressure: 5 bar M101 : Automatic polymer operation unit. VSD on combustion air blower I102 : Saturator for the DBF tanks. convertible to natural gas (start-up period). safety valve. capacity: 37.000 kcal/h).- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 13 H102 : Hot water boiler. material SS AISI 304. safety control: control panel. capacity 1. temperature switches and temperature transmitters. O2 trim control. stainless steel.5 m³/h.7 kg PE/h.9 m³.

0 . excenter screw pumps (mono). 50 m³/h at 12 mWC. 3 kW. automatically adjustable (frequency control). 40 m³/h at 5 bar.75 kW Saturation recycle pumps (1 stand by). horizontal centrifugal pumps.5 kW automatically adjustable by variable speed drive.160 l/h automatically adjustable (frequency control). 30 m³/h. 15 m³/h. P111A/B : P113 : Hot water recycle pump. positive displacement “mono” pump. 4 kW.55 kW P103 A/B : P106 A/B : Anaerobic sludge pumps (1 stand by). 5.5 kW caustic soda metering pump (1 stand by). 0. 11 kW P122A/B : P123A/B : REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . 0. 50 m³/h at 20 m W. horizontal centrifugal pump Polymer dosing pumps (1 stand by).C..- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 14 P101 A/B : methane reactor feed pumps (1 stand by). capacity 2 m³/h. 5. mono pump with integrated frequency converter. influent pumps.

total height = 8.internal diameter = 3. access ladder. S103 : DBF-tank (Dissolved Biogas Flotation cell) package unit.0 m . concave bottom with 4 clarified effluent outlet points. for 100 Nm³/h biogas. Compact sludge separator with conical roof. with legs.2 m REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . cylindrical tank in stainless steel with built-in demister pad. Cylindrical coated carbon steel tank. Overall dimensions: . inlet diffuser. sludge outlet section. 4 sample points.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 15 S102 : Biogas demister.

4.1 Level Wastewater treatment (Process Flow Diagram D101P-A + D101P-B) 1 level probe/transmitter ultrasone type (LE/LT108) 2 level probe/transmitters hydrostatic type (LT105. FE/FT109. FE/FT102. LCV109) 1 level probe/transmitter (differential pressure) (LE/LT110) F F F F Flow 6 electro-magnetic flow meters (FE/FT100. PT103) 8 pressure gauges 1 pressure control valve (PCV102) 2 temperature probes/transmitters (TE/TT101. SC122A/B) DESCRIPTION BY F F F F F F F F Pressure Temperature Analysis Control P CHK - REV - DATE - . FCV110) F 2 biogas flow meters (mass flow type) (FE/FT103. FE/FT101. dosing pumps. pHI102) 2 pH transmitters (pHT101. SC111A/B.3 Instrumentation-Automation-Electrical Complete set of instruments for safety and largely automatic operation Preliminary list (can be changed during detailed engineering) Instruments included in packaged units (flare. SC103.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 16 4. LT106) 2 level control valves (LCV105. pHE102) 1 online CH4 meter (AT101) 8 frequency controllers (SC100. FCV102. SC106A/B.3.2 Piping wastewater HDPE + stainless steel AISI 304 around equipment biogas stainless steel AISI 304 chemicals carbon steel or HDPE process water carbon steel or HDPE Piping supports in painted or galvanized carbon steel Valve materials in accordance with piping materials 4. BIO-SULFURIX) not included. TE/TT102) 1 temperature control valve (TCV101) 2 pH probes + electrodes + cables (pHI101. FE/FT111) F 3 flow control valves (FCV101. FE/FT110. FE/FT105) F 2 pressure transmitters (PT102.

- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 17 F F Safety & Miscellaneous 1 breather valve (SB101) 1 flame arrestor (SF101) Breather valve/Flame arrestor Low tension/control panel Central low tension/control panel. the panel is equipped with AOM switches allowing manual operation of the motors for maintenance or in case the PLC/Scada system is down. All equipment is operated from the SCADA computer (see below). REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . However.

the computer will use the design values as default values. REV DATE DESCRIPTION BY CHK - . printed by the PC's printer. as well as reporting on the daily operation of the plant. and “trending” will be done by a Scada computer system. The measurement values are stored on the PC's hard disk.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 18 PLC/Scada System Specification The Plant has a PLC. brand Allen Bradley model COMPACT LOGIX. featuring all measurements (continuously updated) and indication of operating motors. There is a possibility to introduce external (off-line) data from laboratory analysis (COD. The SCADA software used is SPECVIEW. All logic and timing is done by this PLC. In absence of such external data input. and are used as computation values for a daily plant operation report. An external acoustic alarm is also foreseen. …) in order to make the plant operation report complete. Alarms will be indicated by a colour change to red of the corresponding measurement or indication. All indications and alarms. A simplified flow sheet will be displayed on the Scada computer’s colour screen. All motor start/st op as well as auto/manual functions are also done from the Scada computer.

D101(A+B): Anaerobic treatment REV - DATE - DESCRIPTION - BY - CHK - . main process lines and all instrumentation except pressure gauges (PI) and temperature gauges (TI). DRAWINGS ========== Attached following drawings: Flow diagram: Giving all equipment.- PROPOSAL CLIENT: PROJECT: BIOGAS PLANT - PROJECT No: BY : - SHT 19 5.