Leading British Statisticians of the Nineteenth Century Author(s): Paul J.

FitzPatrick Source: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 55, No. 289 (Mar., 1960), pp. 3870 Published by: American Statistical Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2282178 . Accessed: 28/06/2013 06:54
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LEADING

BRITISH STATISTICIANS NINETEENTH CENTURY
PAUL J. FITZPATRICK CatholicUniversity ofAmerica

OF THE

This paper exploresstatisticalcontributions of eleven outstanding British statisticiansof the nineteenth, century.They are Playfair, Porter, Babbage, Farr, Guy, Newmarch,Jevons, Rawson, Galton,
Giffen,and Edgeworth. This treatment represents one aspect of British statistical thought not previously developed. INTRODUCTION

THIS paper aims to present leadingBritishstatisticians whose main statistical contributions were made in the nineteenth century.So far,very littlehistoryhas been writtenabout Britishstatisticalthought. The elevenindividuals who are consideredhere stand out among the Britishstatisticiansof that centuryas having made the best contributions to the fieldof statisticsby means oforiginalstatisticalideas and techniquesand by theirdirection ofoutstanding statistical organizations. Four different kinds of statistical work are distinguished, namely,(1) techniquesof presentation;(2) bodies of materialcompiled; (3) substantialinvestigations employingstatisticaltechniques; and (4) contributions to statisticaltheory.On the occasion of the search forstatistical contributionsof leading American statisticians of the nineteenthcentury, statisticalactivitiesof eleven Britishstatisticianscame to light.It was considereddesirableto develop thisaspect ofthe history ofstatisticsso that American studentsof statisticsmightbecome familiar withtheirwork. These Britishstatisticians are WilliamPlayfair,the founder ofgraphicmethods of statistics; George R. Porter,head of the statisticaldepartmenlt of the Board of Trade who directedso well the developmentof this newly-created organization; Charles Babbage, the founderboth of Section F-Statistics-in the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1833 and of the of calculatingmaStatisticalSociety of London in 1834, as well as the inventor chines; Dr. WilliamFarr, the founder of Britishvital statisticsand well known statisticianof the Annual Reports of the Office of the RegistrarGeneral; Dr. WilliamA. Guy, anotherleadingauthority in the fieldofBritishvital statistics, editor of the Journal of theStatisticalSocietyof London,and honoredby the establishment ofthe famousGuy medal; WilliamNewmarch,leadingauthority on monetaryand bankingstatistics,editorof the Journalof theStatisticalSocietyof London,and one of the fewBritishstatisticiansof his time to perceive the need forutilizinga greatermeasure of mathematicsin describing and analyzing economicand social problems;W. Stanley Jevons,more famousas an economistand logician,who made a numberof importantstatisticalcontributions in the formof the ratio chart,the geometric mean, and measuresforanalyzingsecular trend,seasonal variationand cyclicalfluctuations; Sir Rawson W. Rawson, an authorityon international statistics,editor of the Journal of theStatistical Society ofLondon,and first president ofthe International Institute of Statistics (1885-98); Sir Francis Galton, an eminent scientist,who de38

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NINETEENTH

CENTURY

BRITISH

STATISTICIANS

39

veloped the idea of correlationand other statistical measures,includingthe Sir Robert Giffen, quartiledeviation,the median,and the index of correlation; well-known head of the statistical departmentof the Board of Trade, and editorof the Journal of theStatisticalSocietyof London; and Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, the philosopher of statistics,probablythe outstandingstatistician in the nineteenthcenturybecause of his work in probability,correlationand editorof the EconomicJournal. indexnumbers,and the distinguished (1759-1823) and statistician, is regarded inventor, WilliamPlayfair, economist, journalist, as thefounder ofgraphicmethodsin statistics.He wroteseveralworkscontaining excellentchartsbetween1786 and 1821 [49, p. 190; 50, p. 101; 56], but his to thesevolumes.Playfairhad earned contemporaries paid littleor no attention much ill-will because of previous caustic and unfriendly writings,and no Englisheconomistor statisticiantook any notice of his chartsuntil 1879 when the famous English economistand statisticianW. Stanley Jevons remarked at the June17, 1879 meeting ofthe StatisticalSocietyofLondon that "Englishmen lost sightof the fact that William Playfair,who had never been heard of in this generation,produced statistical atlases and statistical curves" [32, Vol. 42, p. 657]. Indeed, we findmany statisticaltables in English economic and statistical worksand journals in the firsthalf of the nineteenthcentury,but very few charts. Funkhouser'sinvestigationreveals that graphs firstappeared in the volumes of Journalof theStatisticalSocietyof London in 1841. The firstfifty this Journal(1837-1887), contain about fourteen charts.As far as the United States is concerned,little or no evidence of the use of graphs appears before 1843, when George Tucker's work,Progressof the UnitedStatesin Population and Wealth in FiftyYears appeared withthreecharts,two beingline chartsand one a bar chart. Much the same conditionprevailed in westernEurope, notthe favorablereceptionof Playfair'sworksin France. Moreover, withstanding some continentalscholars, such as Jacques Peuchet (1805) and P. A. Dafau werestrongly opposed to the use (1840) in France, and Carl Knies in Germany, ofgraphs. volume (1786) containingchartsbears the title The CommerPlayfair'sfirst cial and Political Atlas. Its long sub-titlereads "representing by means of and trade of England the stainedcopper-plate general charts, exports,imports and To of the revenue with observations.... which are added, charts ... all but one debts of Ireland." This volume contains forty-four charts, being timeseries,the othera bar graph. Funkhouserdescribesthem in these words:
1. WILLIAM PLAYFAIR

coloredby hand in threeand four They are well executedcopper-plate engravings from colors.Twentyof these represents the trade of England with othercountries the year 1700. The line of imports is stained yellow,that of exports,red; the space between is coloredblue whenthe balance is favorableto England and pinkwhenthe balance is unfavorable [16].

to the The workwas again publishedin 1787 and in 1801. In the introduction thirdeditionof this work (1801), pages ix-xii, Playfairexplains the use of his "lineal arithmetic" as follows:

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' A Frencheditionhad appearedin 1789.an article "A Note on the Historyof the Graphical Presentation of Data" by Erica Roystoncomes to my attention. Playfairpublishedin London his volume.pale red.TheStatistical Breviary.a Frenchman. . Playfairobtained his ideas about chartsfromseveral sources. Addressed to the Lords and Commons. bar graph and pie diagram and accompanied them with pointed expositions of the advantages of the new method for the discovery and analysis of economic trends [16]. Suppose the money received by a man in trade were all in guineas. who had developed a gauge on his enginle forregistering the steam pressure. it may be averred. by a table of figures. It was publishedin Biometrika. and on a small scale. who. In 1805 and again in 1807 he published An Inquiry into the Permanent Causes of the Decline and Fall of Powerful and Wealthy Nations. in a most exemplary manner. . as much information may be obtained in five minutes as wozld require whole days to imprint on the memory. 43 (1956). is nothing more than those piles of guineas represented on paper.2 Funkhouser.3Funkhouser and Walker quote this statementby him: At a very early period of my life. by this method.but it is to give a more simple and permanent idea of the gradual progress and comparative amounts. In 1805 Playfair translated a small pamphlet entitled A Statistical bar charts. in which an inch (suppose) represents the thickness of five millions of guineas .15. shewing and comparing theprices of wheat. F. time. withthe longsub-title:shewing. and yellow. expressing the variations by lines on a divided scale. In 1798 Playfair published Lineal Arithmetic. written by D. on a principle entirely new. from 1565 to 1821. 3 As this paper goes to press. and publishedit as a supplement to The Statistical Breviary. bread. the proportions of which correspond with the amount of the sums intended to be expressed. Designed to shew how the prosperityof the British Empire may be prolonyged. PlayfairworkedforJamesWatt. London: JohnStockdale. made me keep a register of a thermometer.. which is represented and illustratedby thrity-three copper-plate charts. They employthe colors. This workalso carriesa long sub-title.) In 1821 he wroteA Letter on This content downloaded from 146. the inventorof the steam engine.publishedby H. JansenofParis. refers to Thomas Jefferson's "Statistical AccountofVirginia. He taught me to know that whatever can be expressed in numbers may be represented by lines [17]. In 1801. MARCH 1960 The advantage proposed. and labour.green. Later on. and that every evening he made a single pile of all the guineas received during the day.This translation was verywell receivedin France.red. illustrated by four engraved charts. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . l Italics are Playfair's. des finances. at different periods. Donnant. This volume containedfourplates. 2 In 1796 another work appeared with the title A Real Statement of the Finances and Resources of Great Britain. my brother. by presenting to the eye a figure. so that by this plain operation. representing thephysicalpowersof each distinct nationwithease and perspicuity. maintained and educated the family his father left.and amount. is not that of giving a more accurate statement than by figures.A Frencheditionappeared in 1802. circle graph." Playfair (The correct titleis: Noteson theStateof Virginia (1787).bearing the long sub-title: applied to show the progress of the Commerce and Revenue of England during the present century.proportion.141.223 on Fri.accompanied uith tables and copper-plate charts. and its height would be proportioned to the receipts of that day. bearing the title Tableaux d'arithmetique lineairedu commerce. each pile would represent a day. et de la dette nationalede l'Angleterre. our Agricultural Distresses. Lineal arithmetic then. .points out that Playfair: published his many excellent examples of the line graph.who has made a detailed study of Playfair'sworks. would be all physically combined. Their Causes and Remredies. In thispamphlet. It contained Account oftheUnitedStatesofAmerica.40 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. illustrated by two copper-plate charts. proportional to the natureof the data presented. theresources of every stateand kingdom in Europe. threebeing circlechartsof different sizes. illustrated withstainedcopper-plate charts.

the fourthson of the Rev.and anotheradvocatingan issue offorged lished a "critical and satirical newspaper (called) the Tomahawk. but he was unsuccessful ofthe Scioto (Ohio) land in the promotion to Paris.223 on Fri. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Watt was the James Watt. Vol. PORTER (1792-1852) George Richardson Porter.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 41 was familiarwiththe Cartesian Moreover. of mathematicsand philosophyat the University timeprofessor This brother. Vol.born at Benvie near John Dundee.Playfair. Playfair (1748-1819).Possessingan inventivetalent. in Scotland. issues duringits shortlife. and edited "Galignani'sMessenger lished in 1806 his annotated edition of Adam Smith's Wealthof Nations with whichearnedhim the ill-willofthe influential some uncomplimentary remarks. 42."which he which edited and owned.mostlyarticles. Porter statisticaldepartment mentofthe newly-created was a pioneerin England in advocatingthe use of statisticsto place economics This content downloaded from 146. that he wroteover a hundreditems.In 1787 Playfairwent ventedand made. company. forthe firm of Playfairserved as a draftsman 1780.He opened a so-called securitybank to handle small loans. when the passion for weighing. Their fatherdied when William was thirteenyears old. 15.having been a draftsman. was one of the originalmembersof the Royal Society of Edinburgh. systemofplotting As Funkhouserand Walkerpointout: ofstatistics his graphsare astonishing in that they ofthe history from the standpoint were made at a time when large collectionsof reliable quantitativedata were not and tabulating measuring.It is estimated Reviewand of others. and when the developmentof statisticalmethodstill waited upon the collectionof large bodies of mass data [171.laterto bethe inventor ofPrestonkirk. yet available. 116-7]. Playfair. assignats. ofhis writings an Englishperiodical. economist. 3. Anticipation. lines. 10.The Gentleman's in its June1823 issue. James Playfair.He lefthis Birmingham mentto open a shop in London in orderto sell various items whichhe had inin thisventure. GEORGE R.141.is well so well the developto Britishstatisticsby directing knownforhis contribution ofthe Board of Trade.Playfairwas a prolific Edinburgh Magazine. In 1808 he founded a weekly paper. writer. pp." He pubagain.was at one of Edinburgh.He thoughtit best to leave France and about 1793 he returnedto London. 1300-1. was not yet consonantwith the spirit of the age. Andrew Meikle William was sent to serve as an apprenticeto the millwright ofthe threshing machine. wherehe became interested in his writings. one attackingthe FrenchRevoluAbout 1795 he engagedin variouswritings.15. receivedlittleformaleducation. at the age of twenty-one.About 1795 he estabtion. and John undertookto care for the family. His older brother. well-knownmathematicianand geologist.elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1807. pp.JohnRennie.About 1792 he attackedthe 1789 FrenchConstitution and forseveralyears he became involvedin Frenchpolitics.Later he went to Paris publishedabout twenty-five newspaperfora shorttime. inventorof the steam engine. famous as the Boulton and Watt at Birmingham.was a fellow-apprentice. aftervisitingFrankfort.executive and statistician. counting.Playfairsecured employa numberof patentsin the fieldof mechanics. but this venturewas also unsuccessful[1. In come famous as engineerof the Waterloo bridge.listedforty 2.

moreover. A revised one-volume edition appeared in 1847 and 1851." This content downloaded from 146."A reviewin the Journalof theStatistical Society of London called it "a compendious and valuable library of British Statistics. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Baines also revealsthat "this Board was the onlygovernment department in whichofficial statisticsweredealt as a special subject.He was a member ofthe founders. editor of the LondonEconomist. positionfurnished to show his Sir statistical talent. was startedby Porter. Hirst. regardedPorteras "a thoroughly painstakingstatistician. 15-16. Professor Hewins. Rawson. by whomtheincoherent mass of time periodicaltables (official government returns)then preparedwas forthe first reducedto orderly and comprehensive accompaniedby lucid explanations of returns. reports: The StatisticalBranch . the council of to its Journalto be bound in a separate the Society orderedhis contributions volume "partlyas a permanent tributeto his memory. tury publishedin threesmall volumes.I. . of the figures. When this Society was formedin 1834. economic. PublicationCommitteeoftheJournalofthe Societywhenit was first published in May 1838 under the editorshipof Rawson W. to collectreturns fromothersources. C.London. The Progressof theNation.42 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. as treasurer contributor of the Societyfrom1841 until his death in 1852 [51. President of the Royal Statistical Society (1909-1910). ofthe BritishAssociation forthe Advancementof Science fromthe time of its founding. termedthis workas "an invaluable half of the nineteenth recordof the first century. This work "was a and fiscal statisticaland descriptive study of the social. He was regarded as one of its "most esteemedmembers. Jervoise Athelstane Baines.and partlyforconvenience of those who may wishto perusehis valuable papers in a collectedform" Porterwas one of the active members [47].141." In 1912. F. .223 on Fri. pp. contains numerousstatisticaltables. Furthermore." Porteris best knownas the author of The ProgressoftheNation in its VariRelationsfromtheBeginningof theNineteenth ous Social and Commercial Cento thePresent-Day. W.and givingit a comparativecharacterby includingthe figures seriesof years [5]. Porter'schieftask as a civil servantwas to digestand arrangeforthe Board of Trade the mass of information appearing in Parliamentaryreports and and this him an excellentopportunity papers. and he was also a to this periodical. the meaningand limitations he took advantage ofthe wide Moreover. Directorof the London School of Economics and Political Science.Porterserved. Porter was one of its active and he servedas a member ofits first council.15. and contributedseveral papers to Section F-Statistics.S. W. 57. 298].. 1836-43. it stands out as the premierrepresentative of the scientific of publicainterpretation tiolis" [5]. His famous work. Porter played a strongpart in the formationof the Statistical Society of London.commercial half of the changes whichtook place in the United Kingdom duringthe first nineteenthcentury.addingthem scope afforded by his commission fora to his review. it was republished with additional material under the directionof F.It is remarkableforthe acand forthe skill with whichthe results curacy and varietyof its information. Hirst. of statisticalinquiryare presented."Afterhis death. MARCH 1960 on a sound scientific basis. and to thisday.

946. the son ofa London merchant. Vol.15. in Hunt's Merchant's Magazine appeared in installments (1843) whichoriginally from July1842 to December 1943 (Vols. was William Newmarch corrected by contribution slightly and was educated Porterwas bornin London.manufactures. 690]. He formanyyears. in 1871. He did not include education. contributed on "A Treatise Origin. The Board of Trade and theFree-TradeMovement.comes to my attention. 16. W.etc.When Tucker spent the summerof 1839 in England.mining. p.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 43 Porterwas a pioneerin the use of index numbers. he lodged part of the time with Porter. Vol. Besides his GeorgeTuckerin publishing he severalpapersforLardner's CabinetCyclopaedia."to Sir JohnF. Tucker "displayedremarkable p. whichwas preparedforthe use Herschel'sManual ofScientific of statisticsdeals withthe treatment of Her Majesty's Navy. 1958.but Porterfailed to make a success of it. that he enjoyed meetingThomas Tooke. 170].223 on Fri." It is his aim in this way to find "the mean variation in the aggregate of prices from month to month" [57. p."He added that insightin utilizingscanty census material" [15. Porter [57. and in 1841 he was appointed joint secretaryof the Board. 178. 42."and "A Treatise on the Origin. Section Fifteen.entitled"Statistics. 7. His tweuity-page agritakingofa censusand suggestssubjectssuch as population. trade. the author of the well-known GeorgeLong. New York: Oxford University Press. a well-known writeron educational subjects and a sister of the famous economist David Ricardo [10. For each month in these five years he gives the average of index-numbers for fiftyarticles comprising the "principal kinds of goods that enter into foreign commerce. and 9). p. Tucker mentioned work.Progressof the UnitedStates in Population and Wealthin Fifty Years.141. In 1832 Porterwas appointedto the Board of Trade by Lord Aucklandupon the recommendation of Charles Knight. the fourth editionofPorter's any discussionofstatisticalmethods.by Lucy Brown. the editorof the The HistoryofPrices. 8. otherwritings. He preily's sugar-broker totheAlmanac pared a paper on LifeAssuranceforCharlesKnight's Companion in 1831 which attracted attention. Porter contributed Inquiry (1849).ProgressiveImprovement.and he also met Professor Penny Cyclopaedia. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p.Incidentally. Porter collaborated with ProfessorGeorge Young and Professor a volume Americaand theWestIndies.domesticand foreign culture.4 statisticaldepartment servedas head of the newly-established of the Board of In 1840 he was made seniormemberofthe railwaydepartment Trade. 3. 13.as Westergaardreveals: He treated the prices of 1833-7 in the same way as Shuckburgh Evelyn.and Present the includilng State of the Silk Manufacture. after the latter had refusedthe position. Tucker later published his famous American statistical work. In 1845. WalterWillcoxof Cornell Universityconsideredthis work as "the most importantAmerican book on half of the nineteenth statisticsto appear in the first century. but his material was much more complete. 137]. His fatherintendedhim to manage the fambusiness.Progressive 4 As thisarticlegoes to press. Vol. This content downloaded from 146. 203].He marriedSarah Ricardo. ofVirPorterprobablyinfluenced Professor GeorgeTucker ofthe University ginia to take a deep interestin statistics. at the Merchant Taylors' School. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society provedto be an able official and a memberof a numberoflearnedsocieties. p. 1830-42. 4. a book.

M. were also present.223 on Fri. Babbage was assisted by the famous economist. 411]. and statistician. M. Rev. made the statementthat Babbage "was.scientific in 1833 of part in the founding played a veryprominent cian. Esq.He played a similarpart in the foundence of whichhe was the first ing of the StatisticalSociety of London in 1834.the well-known the in of Statistical Sobage moved: "That a Society be established the name of and classification cietyof London.Babbage reports: "The Section was formedfor the purpose of promotingstatistical inquiries which were of considerableimportance. p.P.London. Thomas R. and W. 1834. Empson. 3. 34. It was then moved. p." Rev. a descendentof Sir Babauthor of Political Arithmetick. Sykes... William Petty. 1834.. and AdolpheQuetelet. 102].eminent who Brussels at Observatory of the Royal director and statistician. Rev. with the Marquis of Lansdowne.P.mathematician. Richard Jones seconded the motion. Ogilby.March 15. Richard Jones.. At a public meeting. 50. W. my.morethan any other man its founder" [32. Dr. meeting Those present home.inventor.A. M. M. in reality.an organizain part as a resultof his attack on the Royal Societyin a tion that was formed on the Decline ofSciencein England (1830)." of the Section Fin A of the Committee a statisticalsociety London.Quetelet was chosenthe first of the society. member foreign whichwas unanimouslycarried. Malthus. the object of whichshall be the collection as of the conditionsand prospectsof Society. mittee to prepare Regulations for the conduct of the Society. Malthus. Esq.P. and JohnElliot Drinkwater.15. p. workReflections In establishingSection F.King's College. in his presidential address before the Statistical Society of London on November 21.They had been assisted by a distinguished AlQuetelet. and John Drinkwater(Secretary). Henry Hallam. William were Charles Babbage (President)." Their report This content downloaded from 146.44 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.whichare Section F should adhere "to facts. at Babbage's Statistics-was held on February21.. W. William Farr. Whitmore. presiding.-Col. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .141.especially it all factsillustrative exists in the British Dominions. by Quetelet to form urged Babbage was multipliedto indicate generallaws. be appointeda ProvisionalComEsq. seconded by Jones. Babbage was also one of the founders ofthe BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science in 1831." foreigner. MARCH 1960 Improvementand Present State of the Manufactureof Porcelain and Glass" [49. M. 191-2.relatingto communities when sufficiently and promise which capable of being expressedby numbers. Vol. held at the rooms of the HorticulturalSociety.Rev. Rev. Rev.Professorof Political Economathastronomer. Richard Jones. that insisted of Science for the Advancement though the BritishAssociation of men. William G. 1871. ematician was at that time in England attendingthe meeting.. Thomas R. Section F-Statistics-in the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Scipresident.P. seconded and unanimouslyvoted that "Charles Babbage. CHARLES BABBAGE (1792-1871) mechaniCharles Babbage. Lieut.On a motionmade by Malthus. Wook.Edward Strutt. an economist. M. Richard Jones.it was unanimouslyvoted to establisha statisticalsociety in London. possessinga budget of most valuable information.P.. economist.

He wrote on a variety of subjects.The titles This content downloaded from 146. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He also contactedMr. Thus Babbage spent much time and moneybetween 1822 and 1843 developingand perfecting his calculating machines [4]." Another paper. Vol. 1. Cambridge. pp. and others. On the Economyof Machineryand Manufactures(1832. p." (1853-55). His chief work." This pioneering study of seasonal variationscontainednineteentables and several charts "too largeforengraving. Vol. Robinson. 15]. "Notice statistiquesur les Phares.1835). and "On the Antecedentsof InternationalStatisticalCongresses. geology.and this model was completedaround 1822. Chancellor ofthe Exchequer. of Transactions of theRoyal Societyof Edinburgh. pp.and he was awarded the sum of 1500 pounds. 57. all threeappearing in the Congres International de Statistique.In 1828. 1856) bearingthe title "Analysisof the Statistics of the Clearing House duringthe year.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 45 withsome changeswas later accepted by the Society [51. He received the M. He was one of the founders of the AnalyticalSoin cietyin 1812 and of the Astronomical Society in 1820.holdingseveral offices the latter.223 on Fri. 33. 174. 19. 1. is an excellentdescription economicfunctionof machines. many being briefpapers or sketchesor pamphlets. fourth of the subdivisionoflabor and edition. Vol. Babbage later decided to construct a calculatingmachineon an entirely different principle. From 1828 to 1839 he held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at TrinityCollege. It contains a wide range of practical illustrationsofthefactory system. Later on. third edition. the forerunner of our currentcalculatingmachines. In 1816 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. One of his machines is now in the South KensingtonMuseum. p.However. 1823. 1833." (1853-55).and graduated in 1814. Mackworthand Babbage. 2. 776-8.but he was unsuccessful. "An ExaminationofSome QuestionsConnectedwithGames of Chance.upon his return fromFrance wherehe had gone to improvehis health. 75-7]. About 1812 Babbage conceivedthe idea of inventing a calculatingmachine. mathematics.141.This workwas translatedintofourforeign languages and republished some in the United States. 1839. The Society awarded him its first gold medal on June 13. 1820. 12. Babbage wroteseveral statisticalpapers: "Sur les constantesde la nature.A. Babbage was born near Teignmouthin Devonshire and received his early education at private schools at Alphingtonand Enfield. 22-28. pp. Cambridge [10. 374. p. He describedthe designofthismachineand its workings in a briefpaper beforethe Astronomical Societyin June 1822 whereit was favorably received.15. His father was a memberof the bankingfirm of Praed. degreefromthis institution in 1817.and appeared in Volume 9 (1823).he attemptedto secure additional government funds. Babbage thenenlistedthe supportofthe Royal Societyin the construction of a larger-scale calculatingmachine. One paper appeared in the Journal oftheStatistical SocietyofLondon (Vol. 42.fora government grant."(1860-61). In 1811 Babbage enrolledat TrinityCollege. 4-11. only a smallermachinewas built and exhibitedat the 1862 InternationalExhibition. Babbage receivedadditionalgrants.life insurance.taxation. Babbage is the authorof altogether eightywritings. light-houses." was read March 21. includinginfantmortality.

15. He organizedthe British "Annual Reports of the RegistrarGeneral of and effect. Sir Robert Giffen. Farr was the pioneerin the protection He firstshowed.Simeon North. Vol. methodsof tabulationwhichhave stood the test of time and a introduced statistics. missioner[40.. were conestablishedwhichdetermine and the generalprinciples vertedinto scientific truths. formorethan forty General. and Marriages. It should be remembered of all deaths and causes of death was firststarted in 1837.who held office 1879. The first censusin England was taken in 1801. 25-26. [41. DR. The census of 1851. and hygienic ofpopulation ofdensity conditions. pp. After Farr's death. organized fairlycompleteone. Lister.. He joined this newly-established Compiler of Abstracts in the statistical department.by statisticalmethod. This content downloaded from 146. p. Farr first that the was succeeded by Major George Graham.."-a splendidand unrivalledseries of demographic statistics . of England. pp. Farr succeededso well that one noted authority. Later he was made of the department. 50. 133]. 30-1]. comand 1861 censuseshe was an assistant commissioner. marriages. Farr registration basis. Lives (1826). 1-108. p.46 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. William Farr. William Farr. 65-701. is said to have been the first in the 1871 census. Thoughts thirdedition.1851. of the Office of the Registrar of the statisticaldepartment As superintendent volumesof reportson births.Deaths. President of the American Statistical Association(1910). claims: regardedas the founderof the English national systemof vital Farr is rightly of Englishvital the actual compilation years he supervised For over forty statistics. H.He gave up medical practiceand remained superintendent in until his retirement with this organizationas Deputy Registrar-General until 1842 when he served under T. physicianand founderof Britishvital statistics. Anotherstatistician.223 on Fri. Under his hands. second edition. 5]. of causes of death whichhas been the basis of all subsequentmethods. therelationship ofthe people againsta thousandinsidious Dr. Farr.Farr was responsible in his presidential and deaths. and The Expositionof 1851 (1851) [49. 22. Sir Arthur death. pointsout: with undyinggratitudethe inspiredgenius with which The world acknowledges Dr. MARCH 1960 are listed in the appendix of his book Passages fromtheLife of a Philosopher.. pp.the relationof cause sources of infection.. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 15-16. 4. pp. 6. Births.000 (1827) was well regardedand reprinted fortheAssuranceof View ofVarious Institutions Otherworksare A Comparative on thePrinciplesof Taxation (1848. of theNatural Numbersfrom his autobiography. WILLIAM FARR (1807-1883) Dr. 1853). classification On the basis of national statisticshe compiled life tables still used in actuarial calculations[12.141. He played a great part in developingthe nomenclature Newsholme. In the 1851 under Dr. foresawthe urgentneed of placing English public health on a scientific and was a pioneerin the use of statisticaldata and techniquesto achieve this of causes of objective.is widely known as the statisticianof the Annual Reportsof the British Officeof the organizationin 1838 as Registrar General. the greatproblemsto whichvital statisticsare the key and clew. to diseaseand death. organizedthis work of registration.His Table of theLogarithms in several foreign countries.

pp. Farr compiledthreeEnglish Life tables (1843. 11. pp. p.Both Mr. 60-61.P. Pryce and the Reverend J. Dr. 219].In May 1829 Farr wentto Paris wherehe enrolledat the of Paris to studymedicinefortwo years. as hisparentswerein humblecircumstances. Their recommendations were adopted at the Second International Statistical Congressin 1855 [40.) ofthe Apothecaries' Society. spoke highlyof Farr by indicating: At least two remarkablemonuments of his later labours. and. Vienna (1857). full of example to all of us who have devoted time and strength to statistics[51. He was also presidentof the Public Health Section of the Social Science Associationin 1866. Vol. Louis.and in 1837 withthe assistance of his close friend.223 on Fri. Prycein his variousaffairs. whichwas completed onlyseven or eightyears ago. Paris (1855). Ch. JosephPryce. One of his teacherswas the famous French physician.What he has leftis a noble monument ofindustry and ingenuity. 10.In 1831 he returned to London to studyat University College. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .a promising young physiMr. 95-96].a surgeonat the Shrewsbury Infirmary.141.He servedon the council from1840-1882 with the exceptionof 1847. wroteformedicaljournals. He and Dr. and his paper on the mode of estimating the value of stockshavinga deferred dividend.15. 14]. 13. T. 6. R. A. educaPryce at his death in 1828 leftFarr a legacy of 500 pounds forhis future tion.near Shrewsbury. The Hague (1869).In the same yearhe startedto practicemedicine. and assisted Mr. 177. pp. Berlin (1863). Vol. In 1864 he was presidentof Section F-Economic Science and Statistics-of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science. J. 173. D'Espine played a prominent part at the First InternationalStatisticalCongressin 1853 in attempting to bringabout the adoption of an international list of the causes of death.A.S. and read manypapers relating to vital statistics before thisSocietywhichwerepublished in the Society's Journal. Petersburg (1872). Webster. 6. he took an active part and manifesteda deep interestin the work of the nine InternationalStatisticalCongresses whichwereheld in Brussels (1853). pp.He was a liberaldonorto its library. and Budapest (1876). 1853. that city that he first 1090-1. who is generallyregardedas the fatherof medical statistics. Websterat his death in 1837 leftFarr a similaramount of money along withhis library.squire of Dorrington. Farr was bornat Kenley in Shropshire. From 1826-28 he studied medicineunder Dr. Moreover. J.was adopted at an early age by Mr. Vol. 993-4]. They are based on English censuses of 1841 and 1851 and recordsof deaths. 144. and 1864). and he held the office of treasurer from1855 to 1867.and in March 1832 he became a licentiate(L. Florence (1867). 1838-54 [57. Farr was a veryactive memberofthe StatisticalSocietyof London. the special reportto the RegistrarGeneral on the mortality of the 1861-1871 decade. He proposedand secondedno less than 216 personsas members of the Society. Beynon directedhis earlyeducation. 161.and it was whilehe was in University became interestedin medical statistics [10. pp. Dundas Thompson. 147.Farr assistedMr. St. and that of presidentfrom1871 to 1875 [51.he edited the BritishAnnals of This content downloaded from 146. 187. London (1860). Sutton. the thirdbeing the most elaborate. pp.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 47 address beforethe Statistical Society of London.He thenedited the Medical Annual. 115-116]. 137.and Dr.being an official delegate of the BritishGovernment. cian.

Farr was a prolificwriterwho contributednot only to the Journal of the StatisticalSocietyof London and the CongresInternational de Statistique. and the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Dublin also elected himan HonoraryFellow in 1867. p.""Mortalityof London hIospitals. scription and 10 s.48 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. 2 (1837) [42. is the Statistical Dining Club. WILLIAM A. in 1847. where it is entered thatMr.and as its president. MARCH 1960 Medicine. 50. OxfordUniversity bestowedupon him the honoraryD. This content downloaded from 146. Farr was honoredin many ways.It hasfew rules.is betterknownforhis many activities on behalfof the Statistical Society of London.223 on Fri.D. ofoneguinea. At King's College Hospital. Many ofhis importantviews may be foundin a memorialvolume entitledVital Statistics (1885). 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . One accountreports: Outside thework oftheSociety as such.Scavengers and Dustmen.Vol. was strongly of the opinionthat statisticswas seriouslyneeded forthe study of medical problems.1843-1869. no minutes." Guy's contribution to statisticsrests primarily on the compilationof bodies of material relating to public health. Guy was a veryactive memberof the StatisticalSociety of London. 42]. and Deaths in the Prisonsand Public Institutions oftheMetropolis. DR. Vol." read beforethe StatisticalSociety of London and publishedin its Journal [57. editor. 1851-1856. andonly oneofficer. Some othermedico-statistical papers read beforethe Society and published in its Journal were: "On the Health of Nightmen. he collected data on out-patientswhichresultedin threepapersrelating to the "Influence ofEmployments Upon Health."The Clubis limited to forty members and "clubability" is an indispensable prerequisite forelection. 76. The Universityof New York gave him the honorarydegreeof M. and on his informative papers dealing with the historyof statistics. 2. Guy. GUY (1810-1885) Dr. William Augustus Guy.L. like Farr.but stillclosely connected withit.while well knownforhis writings in public health.141. 69]. editor of its Journal.Theonly detailed reference toitintheMinutes oftheCouncil is to be found under date11January 1839. 33-35]. The Royal Society elected him a Fellow in 1855.p. pp. physician and statistician." "Temperatureand Its Relation to Mortality. p.15. in 1857. Incidentallythere are two references to thisclub. theTreasurer. thattheterms were an annual sub. Porter reported thata statistical Clubhadbeenformed "andhadappointed to dinetogether on thedaysoftheOrdinary Monthly Meetings. Humphreys for the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain [27]. The Clubis a select body[51.the Reports of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancement ofScience and the Social Science Association [49. 1873-75.He wrotean articleon "Vital Statistics" forMcCulloch's Statistical Accountof theBritishEmpire.C. eachondining with theClub. 5. edited by Noel A. He was also formanyyearstreasurer of its informal group knownas the Statistical Dining Club. serving for many years as its honorarysecretary. but also to the Lancet." and "Annual Fluctuation in the Number of Deaths fromVarious Diseases. the Royal Medical and ChirurgicalSociety elected him an Honorary Fellow in 1857. 157]. p. at eachgathering thelecturer oftheevening is received as a guest andtreated hospitably. norecords.

underthe Chairmanship personstook part. called attentionto "his industry. Rawson.D. pp. "JohnHoward as Statist.and high capacity.141. 96. 1939. 152]. his professionalknowledge. the Royal Sta- This content downloaded from 146. 1850).it has been foundpossibleto reand thoughno recordsexistforthe first is limitedto cover the names of 163 past and presentmembers. by prominent That account has now been printed. 60-2.C. among the members. 1879) [51. It is reportedthat at one time it had one of the best cellars in the city. "Statistical Development. 150-1. 363-4.K. 105-6. "On the OrigrivedfromDifferent inal and Acquired Meaning of the term 'Statistics. 1839." (Vol.Mr. Porterreportedthat a StatisticalClub has been formed on the days of the OrdinaryMonthlymeetings. C.B. Sir Rawson W. pp. namely twentyeight members. p. an outstandingauin the fieldof vital statistics. fessorA. L. 1844-63. pp.. K." Sir ArthurNewsholme.were: "On the Relative Value ofAveragesDeNumbersof Observations." The 1861 issue of Congres nationalede Statistiquecontains his "Statistical Methods and Signs" [33."That Club has now dine together in orderto markthe hundredyears of its life. Dr. pp.and the members. 28.with InterSpecial Referenceto Statisticsas a Science.R. 36. President of the Society (1884-86). Guy was a constantand liberal donor to the Library in numberand the Society. 103]. Fifty-one six Club guests. 153.whichwereread beforethe Society and publishedin its Journal. he has a paper. completedthe first occasion.C.ProFebruary21st. at the time of its one hundredthanniversary. 42. many papers whichwereread beforethe Society and pubGuy contributed lished in its Journal." (Vol.with "recollections" fifty years."(Vol. This club is stillgoingstrongunderthe same rules. pp. that: 11. p. anotherstatementrecords: The Council minuted: "Dr.and seventeenprivateguests[54]. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." (Vol.. M. 1873). and finally value" [51. 38. 1865).NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 49 The second account reveals. forty The CentenaryDinner was held at the Trocadero afterthe OrdinaryMeeting on of the Presidentof the Society.B. "JohnHoward's True Place in History. In the Jubilee Volumeof the Society (1885).C. 314]. George ofthe CounciloftheStatisticalSocietyon January At a meeting and "had appointedto R. 156-7]. F. but this was destroyedby the bombingof London. Because of Guy's many activitieson behalf of the Society.M. Notinghis death in December 1885. He further of the Societyby the largenumber to his constantinterest in the prosperity testified by bequeathingto it a legacy of of Fellows whomhe introducedto it. Bowley. One statementrecords "that in twentyyears. 50. decided that a special Centenary dinner should be held and that Mr. 49. Guy was held in high esteem as a statistician.exceeding and the numerous paperswhichhe read before varietyof subjects those of any otherFellow were of exceptionalvalue. 13..The membership and therewerein Februarythreevacancies.G. 72-86. Macrostyshould compilea recordof the Club forcirculation members. and "On Tabular Analysis" (Vol. 53-4].P.' and on the Proper Functions of a StatisticalSociety..15. 1875).. of considerable interest ?250 and a reversionary Some of Guy's papers relatingto statistics. Guy read 15 papers" [57.and statistical insight.regardedGuy as "one of the ablest early thority Englishstatisticians[40.223 on Fri.

Dr.50 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.B. F. 24].. cietyofLondon forthe best paper on asthma. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . H. C. F. Anotherwork was Public Health. aspects. two persons were awarded this honor in the nineteenthcentury. He enrolled Cambridge.. He served on a numberof commissions[10. in 1892 and Sir Robert Giffen." One account reveals: At the Council Meetingon 21 May.as Principlesoj ForensicMedicine (1884).B. In 1831 he was awarded the Fothergillian at PembrokeCollege.R. in 1920. and he served as censorin 1855. This content downloaded from 146. MARCH 1960 tisticalSociety voted in 1891 to establishin his honor." He wroteseveralmedical works. and Sir AlfredW. C. In 1838 Guy was appointedto the chair offorensic medicineat King's College. Because ofhis intense University interestin vital statistics. At the Royal College he was also Croonian (1861). Craigie.B. Charles Booth. Rawson and T. 301-2].six additionalpersons won this honor. Edgeworth.A. (afterwards Sir Thomas) Elliott that in memory of Dr. G.. ofhyand in 1869 he was also appointedprofessor giene. H. and as examinerin 1861-63. As to the Guy Gold Medal. Stevenson. 835-6. His college careerin England had been interrupted by two years at Heidelbergand Paris.141.and twentypersons between 1900 and 1930 [51.as well as to promote the applicationof members to the solutionofthe important in all the relationoflife problems to whichthe numericalmethodcan be applied. Professor GeorgeUdny Yule in 1911. From 1900 to 1930 inclusive..C. Lumleian (1868) and Harveian (1875) lecturer.. 160-2].the "Guy Medal.The Rt. a motionwas put forward by Sir R.to determine by its methodsthe laws whichregulatethem.223 on Fri.S.receivingthe M. Flux. A Popular Introduction Science. in 1908. "The Guy Medal ofthe Royal StatisticalSociety-foundedin honourof the whose name it bears-is intendedto encouragethe cultistatistician distinguished in theirstrictly scientific vation ofstatistics. had been medical men.F. in 1930. pp. having the care of outpatients... pp. wherehe studied underleadingmedical men. Guy was an outstanding physicianand was "oftenconsultedin medicolegal cases.R.E. The definition expanded by the Council. 8.S..part I (1870) and part II (1874).S. in 1900.B.From 1846 to 1858 he served as dean ofthe medical faculty. pp.namely." Then the schemewas expanded: a Gold Medal for"workof high characterfoundedupon originalresearch performed speciallyforthe Society". Guy a of the Councilin recognition gold medal shouldbe awarded "at the discretion of the originalstatisticalworkplaced at the disposal of the Society.Sir JervoiseAthelstaneBaines.B. Vol. "wherehis male ancestorsforthreegenerations Guy was bornin Chichester. five persons won it during the nineteenthcentury. As to the Guy Silver Medal.. T.15. degreein 1837. C.I. which was frequently reedited. Dr. In 1844 he was admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. He was Swineyprizemanin 1869.he retiredfrommedical practice. and in 1842 he was made physicianto King's College Hospital.and The Factorsof the UnsoundMind to Sanitary (1881). in 1894. 1891. W." He studied at both Christ's Hospital and Guy's medal of the Medical SoHospital. a Silver Medal for "workfoundedon existing materials"[51. Professor Francis Y. 1856 and 1866. as far as possible.In 1862 he was examinerin forensicmedicine at the of London. Hon.C." This was approved was further at the Annual Meeting in June. in 1907.Major P. with a view.

Then he goes on to enumerateeighteenfields. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . its presidentfortwo years. all previous presidents had been eitherhighgovernment officials or members ofthe royalty. pp.373].L.was one of the few Britishstatisticiansof his time to perceive the need of utilizingmathematicsin describingand analyzing economic and social problems.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH 6. Vol. HIon.he emphasizes: The last subject (divisioneighteen)in the list. W.and this workcontainsmany elaborate statisticaltables.." The inaugural addresses are given at the commencement of each presidential term. 88].economist. It is certainthat by meansofaverages. p.Previouslythey had been made at the close of the term-a practiceestablishedin 1851 by the Rt.makinga number of importantchangesin this periodicalforwhichhe was praised. and thediscovery ofthelaws ofsuchsocialphenomena as can onlybe exhibited by a numerical notation. Newmarch.C.1855-61.and variations of increase and decrease.141. First. editorand statistician. the exclusion ofsuperflous integers. among otherthings: Let me now state what appears to me to be the fieldsof statistical researchwhichin thiscountry mostrequireearlyattention. K. Investigations of the mathematics and logic of StatisticalEvidence. Secondly. He was an earlyuser of index numbers. the true construction and use of Averages. Newmarchenjoyed two distinctions as presidentof the StatisticalSociety of London.editorof the Journalof theStatisticalSociety ofLondon. and therefore. Newmarch's contributions to Tooke's History of Prices is regarded as a masterlystatisticalreviewof the economichistoryof Great Britain. Hon.the deductionsof probabilities. "Progressand Present Conditionsof Statistical Inquiry.an authority on monetaryand bankingstatistics. he institutedthe custom "of a regular series of Presidential Addresses." beforethe Statistical Society of London in 1869.banker. until he became presidentof the Society in 1869.it is possible to arriveat conclusionswhichso far resemblethe law of several cases that theyjustifythe enunciationof probabilitiesand predictions [32. The Society's publication also records that "the Council expressed 'their approbation' of Mr. M. WILLIAM STATISTICIANS 51 NEWMARCH (1820-1882) William Newmarch. the last one being: 18.. at the end of the second termof office. Later on in this address. 1869-71.223 on Fri.G.15.'It is forothers to say how farhis successorshave lived up to his standard" [51. Newmarch's'valuable services'and theirknowledgeof 'the practical and scientific characterof the Journalunderhis editorship. that is to say. D.. Gladstone. As the Annals records: "Since that time each succeedingPresident.. succeedingthe Rt. He was honorarysecretaryof the Society from 1854 to 1862. has enrichedthe recordswith an address. reveals greaterinsightand foresight than most of his contemporaries when he said. and servedas editorofits Journalforfiveyears. as manywillthink. .. 365-6... and This content downloaded from 146. 32.P.in his presidentialaddress. E. Earl ofHarrowly.relatesto the mathematics and logic ofStatistics. presentedby large masses of figures social representing phenomenawhich occur withinlongeror shorterintervalsof time and withindefinedlimits. to the mostfundamental enquirywith whichwe can be occupied.

of the well-known work. Newmarch'stwo concluding volumes.and Cheshire. p. Scotland. 17-8].coveringthe years from1836 to 1856. He entertained the HistoryofPrices great hopes of bringing up to date.15. Newmarchpublishedindex-numbers fornineteenarticleswiththe New Year. p. 5 and 6. as a starting two years he treateda similar point." Vol. peared severaltimesbefore in 1857 before the of of Commons investiSelect Committee the House peared Bank of gating the Act. 115]. p. 3. MARCH 1960 in theirmass theiraddresses forma contribution to the historyand developmentof statisticswhichis unrivalledelsewhere. but pressureof many duties preventedit. as a basis [57. Tooke passed away. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Newmarchwas an outstanding memberof the StatisticalSocietyof London. 169. Newmarchwas an earlyuser of indexnumbers. being a leading critic the famous Peel's Bank Act This content downloaded from 146."CommercialHistoryofthe Year. 1851. Robert Giffen. xvii-xix]. fessorship pp. the six volumescoveringthe periodfrom1793 to 1856. p. During his connection with the Economist.223 on Fri. He was regardedas "one ofits most eminentmembers. 101. Newmarchcollaboratedwith Thomas Tooke in completing the two concluding volumes. "Electoral Statistics of Counties and Boroughsin England and Wales fromthe ReformAct of 1832 to the Present Times" Vol."One publicationofthe Society records: He "had for more than thirtyyears been identified with its work.Westergaardreportsthat: In 1859 W. p. These two volumes attractedmuch attentionand were translatedinto German and used in several German universities[42. When Mr.having contributed many papers on the leading economicalquestionsof the day. 14.and in the following his investigations extending to twenty-two articles. withthe years 1845-50 material.52 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.K.the Historyof Prices and the StateoftheCirculation. 359. "Electoral Statistics of England and Wales. 115]. 34." in the London Economistwhich continuedup to 1882.. Newmarch was an authorityon monetaryand banking problems and apa numberofParliamentary He also apcommittees.S. 32.afterhavingread thembeforethe Society.he served under the editorshipof Wilson. 143. Newmarchplayed a leadingpart in securing fundsto establishthe "Tooke Proof Economic Science and Statistics" at King's College [48. In 1863 he inauguratedan annual section. Some are: "Progressand Present Conditionof StatisticalInquiry" Vol. "Attempts to Ascertainthe Magnitude and Fluctuationsof the Amountof Bills of Exchange in Circulationat one time in Great Britain." Vol.141. p. F. Bagehot and Palgrave. 20. Lancashire. pp.C. are not only a masterful statisticalreview containingmany elaborate statisticaltables but also a carefulmonetaryand bankinganalysis. Vol. An article "On the Statistical Society of London" appeared in the 186061 issue of the Congres International de Statistique. 22. 204]. From1793 to 1857 (London.England. p..respectively. Newmarchpublishedseveral articlesforthe JournaloftheStatistical Society ofLondon. 1857). and taken a prominent and guidingpart in its discussion" [51.B. 1828-47. claims that Newmarch "was remarkablenot merelyas a statisticianbut as a man of businessand as an economist" [51. and of Bills drawn on Foreign Countriesduringeach Year. Vol. 1856-58.R. a distinguishedeconomist and statistician.

Yorkshire. STANLEY JEVONS (1835-1882) William Stanley Jevons.now knownas the ratio chart. xvii-xix]. Review. Incidentally. 69. Finally.in strongly recommending the use of the chart. 115]. 'Economic Science and Statistics' " [32. London.Part of thisworkhad been read as a paper beforethe Statistical Society of London in 1851. first undera stamp and thenwiththe Yorkshire distributor Fire and Life Office.Vol. 50.He was years until his retirement also a director ofseveralbusinessenterprises [10. in emphasizing the superiorvalue of the geometric mean overthearithmetic mean. 35]. p. and remainedwiththis firm until 1846 whenhe joined the managerialstaffof the Agra Bank of London. were anonymous [33.15. Besides serving one timeas secretary. 34. He held severalpositionsas a clerkin his hometown. Some of his articlesdealing withthe supply of gold attractedmuch attentionand werelater publishedin 1853 withadditionsas a book entitledThe New Supplies ofGold. p. the Statist. 176.In 1862 he resignedto be appointed manager of the banking house of Glyn. Newmarchwas in 1861 also presidentofSection F of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science [9 (1861). After1846 he was a frequentcontributor to the Morning Chronicle[48. second. p. pioneerin statisticalmethodsin several ways: First. 1420 pounds and 14 shillings of were subscribed toward "the foundationof the Newmarch Professorship Economic Science and Statisticsat the UniversityCollege.is well known for his influential in the fieldsof logic and economics. Mr.141. He was. Vol.223 on Fri. 368-9].economist. 352-4. He was electeda Fellow ofthe Royal Societyin 1861. moreover.logician and statistician.formany years secretary of the Political Economy Club. In 1851 he resignedto become actuary and secretaryof the Globe Insurance Company and distinguished himself by carrying out severalimportant financial transactions. Arthur Bowley in his presidential addressbeforeSection F (1906) states that "from1835 to 1855 SectionF ofthe BritishAssociationwas devoted to 'Statistics. His colleagues' highesteemof Newmarchis partlyreflected by threememorials: After his death the Statistical Society of London "subscribedtwenty guineas to the NewmarchMemorial Fund" [51. p. D." 7.. and Co.Tew. and also an active memberof both the Adam Smith and the Cobden Clubs. 49. This change furnished him the opportunity to become acquainted withmany leading persons. Vol.in calling attentionto the several of an index number. pp. Some of his writings Pall Mall Gazette. and Lord Wolverton [39]. 540].and educated in the schools at York.and finally. pp. p. pp. 11. 14. M.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 53 passed in 1844 [23]. Mills and Company and he remainedwith this firm nineteen in 1881 when he was strikenwithparalysis. third. 367-8. W.some being Thomas Tooke. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he wroteforthe Economist.. Pochin.He should be writings Jevons was a equally well known for his importantstatistical contributions.pp. a memberof the Council of the Society placed at its disposal 100 pounds fora NewmarchMemorial Essay [33.as a graphic means of showingper cent of change.'and it is onlyfrom1856 onwardsthat it has receivedthe curious name. pp. Newmarchmoved to Wakefieldin 1843 to serve as one of the cashiers in the bankinghouse of Leathem.P. 93]. Newmarch was born at Thirsk. Besides his contributions to the MorningChronicle. problemsinvolved in the properconstruction This content downloaded from 146. H. Fortnightly and the Times. 12. Alderman Thompson. Vol. 201-2031.

etc. Great Britain.but have neverbeen so fully of course. the various itemsdealingwithpopulation. has fallenalmostentirely [30.I am now thinking monthly quotations atlas withplates about 6 by 8 inches.and I finally tionmight For the last year this statistics. when at Jevons'earlyinterest the age of twentyfiveyears "he began to formdiagramsto exhibitsome stain the BritishMuseum Libraryforthe purposeof tistics"he had been collecting Atlas. exhibiting .are generally Most of the statistics.government debt. It appears that not ready to appreciate these statisticaltools and the knowledgethey could impartabout the immediatefuture.the price of corn-as far back as 1400.54 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.but in statistics. Library. I am very busy at presentwith an apparentlydry and laborious piece of work. and the mere drawing of diagrams deal oftime. as maps are used in geography In a letterdated December 3. that I contemdoingtwo or threediagramsthe resultsappeared so interesting After to me that publicaThen it occurred a seriesformyown information. numbersof curves combinedor exhibitedgraphically. Then in thissame letter. in the formof curves.he records in view would involve too great an expense "looked Mr. I began to form and metsomestatistics. ofcourse. whichhe intendsto cover.he says: known.. plated forming atlas of say thirty to form a statistical undertook be possible.and if possible. Towards the end of last October I had atlas has been my chiefemployment. the method. 1861.15. in statisticsdates at least fromOctober 1860. exactlyresembling to be almostas muchused intodisuse. Jevonswrotehis brotherTom: of a small I am at present goingon withmyold workofdiagrams. 1861. They of the limited market.seasonal variation and cyclicalfluctuations.I think. with several publishing However.. . Jevons was unsuccessfulin his efforts of were the opinion that the work houses to have the atlas published. and lineshas. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In his letterof December 28..223 on Fri.publishedas a Statistical exhibited Almostthe whole of the statisticsgo back to 1780 or 1800. comprising This content downloaded from 146. to his brotherTom. were worlds business the and the academic him" [30.. all the chiefmaterialsof historical plates. he wroteto developinga Statistical Herbert: his brother. 1861: About October 1860. Later in a letterdated April7. 1786] was published. minein principle." takes up an incredible Jevonswrotein his journal on December 8. a large part extend to 1700 or 1720.from1844-62. MARCH 1960 time seriesin the formof secular statisticalmeans of measuring in improvising trend. having then recentlycommenced reading at the Museum some diagramto exhibitthem. 1861.I findthat a book of Charts At the end of the last century.. The mode of exhibiting beenpracticedmoreorless any timeon thisside oftheDeluge. left I so that soon a without and almost word. ..I consider. p. agriculture..141. and PoliticalAtlas.. Jevons remarks: "My statistical matters proceed slowly..forHe thengoes on to enumerate eign and domestic commerce. in the first copy. and some-for instance. p. and thoughtit diagramsmore or less finished some twenty-eight timeto arrangeforpublication[30.compiling Atlas. of Trade [correct indeed. The plates will. at my diagramswithoutinterest. titleof Playfair'sworkwas the Commercial nevermuchused.rather whichI shall exhibitin about thirty quantityof statistics astonishpeople.money and banking. 1862. p.It ought. 162].whichare to be concerning quantitiesof statistics namely. 161]. 157-8]. Newmarch records how He also in his journalon December8.

indeed.but as an economistwishingto convinceothereconomiststhat theirscience can only be satisfactorily treated on an explicitlymathematicalbasis. pp." and "Gazette AveragePrice ofWheat. pp. 203-4]. 1846-61. 173]. etc. Vol. a close resemblance to Playfair's with whose work he seems to have been acquainted. controlled imagination of the natural scientist. he was a trailblazer also in the fieldofeconometrics. and Its Social Effects Set ForthWithTwo Diagrams [28].. so as to make quite a small gem of work. 1845-61 and 1825-61. But Jevons compiled and arranged economic statistics for a new purpose and pondered them in a new way. 1845-60..For one thing." This investigation enabled Jevons to discover the nature of secular trend movement of prices [29. Analyzingthis study.15. nor as a mathematician.Jevons... In the former paper. However. 53]." He employed four diagrams revealing "Average Rate of Discount. all fully reduced.in thispioneering mean studyexplainson page 7 the value ofusing the geometric as an average in place of the arithmetic mean to combinewholesale monthly pricesnear the middleofthe month. pp. He would spend hours arranging his charts. This mathematicaldescription of economicprincipleswas to earn Jevonsa world-wide reputationas an economist. "Notice of a General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy. exports.223 on Fri. This little-noticed second paper was to be further developedlater and publishedas a book. 32. etc.. Next yearhe brought out his pamphletofseventy-three pages. tinting them nearly with delicate pale colours like the slides of the anatomist.141. He found that "it is interesting to observe that the monthlyand quarterlyvariations are of preciselythe same character.. It is somewhat the same idea with which I just began nearly two years ago but I have learnt so much by experience that my firstdiagrams were The atlas would contain quite laughable besides the little gems I now produce. One paper entitled"On the Study of Periodic CommercialFluctuations" was read and approved. a very importantstatisticaltreatment..this atlas met the same unfortunate fate. some of his diagrams bear. 157-9]. how few followers and imitators he had in the black arts of inductive economics in the fifty years after 1862 [35.. "On the Study of Periodic CommercialFluctuations. perhaps twelve plates [30. analyzed." "Average Price of Consols. sifting them. A SeriousFall in theValue ofGoldAscertained.Keynes points out that Jevons: was not the firstto plot economic statistics in diagrams. It is remarkable.1806-60." This work thus reveals Jevonsto be a pioneerin the fieldof mathematicaleconomics. In September1862 Jevonssent two papers to be read at the annual meeting of Section F of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science." Jevonsstudiedthe natureof seasonal variationsby computing as well monthly as quarterlyaverages. 2-11].NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 55 of prices. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He proposedthe use ofthe geo- This content downloaded from 146. looking back. The Theoryof Political Economy(1871). 523-4.. p.the pricesbeingthose of 39 chiefcommoditiesforthe years 1845 to 1862 [57. and all the time pouring over them and brooding over them to discover their secret." was merelyread [9. Jevons was the firsttheoretical economist to survey his material with the prying eyes and fertile. as will be seen. imports. while the second paper." "Total Number of Bankruptcies.. pp..He statesin the prefaceofthe second edition(1879) that: "I do not write formathematicians. plotting them.and.

a further developmentof the theoryof index num28). which attractedconsiderableattention." Keynes again appraises Jevons: of mind applied.In Chapter 9. enQuestion. pp. titled "Of the Natural Law of Social Growth. reporting that The last page of Jevons'pamphletcontainsan advertisement he had "in preparation" The Merchant'sAtlas and Handbook of Commercial indicates that Jevonswas again a pioneerin Fluctuations. MARCH 1960 metricmean by calculatingthe arithmetic mean of the logarithms instead of the use ofdiagramswith usingthe originalnumbers. 133-64. "On the Frequent Autumnal Pressure in the Money Market.Thus Jevonscan be In 1866. broughtout another statistical paper.may be the answer. bers.It sold only 74 copies.No reason. 485-8]. modities to include.appears to be a variant of Playfair'schartinig runnerof our current of the problemsinan excellentdemonstration technique. Thirdly. The Coal use the geometric appeared. etc.223 on Fri. with a sure touch and unand originality For unceasingfertility labours for involving immense controlof the material. 247-301. pp.A SeriMerchant's ous Fall in theValue ofGold. Seventy-nineminor items were also employed as a check on his results. (1889). failing his way through withno precedents and labour-savan unaidedindividualploughing of our ing devices to relievehis task. however. 29). unfortunate until 1887 whenProfessor and use ofindex numberswereto markslow progress Francis Y. the foreratio chart. indeed. (1890). This book resultedin the appointmentof a royal commissionto examine the available coal reserves. Jevons advanced the thesis that futureprosperity ofgeometric leading progression wouldincreasethe demandforcoal in the form to a possible exhaustionof coal.and containeddata goingback to the eighteenth mean and the ratio chart.56 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. and the Action of the Bank of England. the numberand kinds of comquestionof weighting. (1887). This content downloaded from 146. he consideredas a pioneerin the fieldof secular trendmeasurement. 53].can be found for the failureto publish this Atlas.This originaleffort about the currentstatus of business planningto sell businessmen information conditions. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (1888). It is quite likelythat the poor sales forhis pamphlet.In 1865 his famousbook.and publishedin its Journalin June1866 (Vol. description of statistical est in the history the theory that after Jevons' pioneeringefforts It is. 181-232. pp. This paper represented He continuedto century.141.he offers various aspects such as the indexnumbersby examining volved in constructing the choice of an average.15. this pamphletstands unrivalledin the history diagramsand chartswhichaccompanyare also of highintersubject. pp. Edgeworthcommencedhis excellentstudiesin this area [9. In 1865 he broughtout anotherstatisticalpaper "On the Variationof Prices." whichwas read beforethe Societyin April 1866. Thus Jevonsis regardedby some as "the fatherofindex numbers. and the Value of the Currency Since 1872" whichhe read beforethe Statistical Society of London in May 1865 and publishedin its Journalin June 1865 (Vol. He even applied the theoryof probabilityto his work.Secondly.he demonstrates variation of prices" with verticalscale forobserving"proportional logarithmic the horizontalscale showingarithmeticprogression."he pointed out that many ecosome at a growth.This diagram.He goes on to apply this idea to the growthof Great of Great Britain Britain. 525-6. nomic and social phenomenaexperiencea law of geometric greaterrate than others. The numerous [35.to a mass of statistics.

141.15. merchantwho was a writeron economic and legal matters. and the Action of the Bank of England" (Vol. StanleyJevonsto give the first powerful impetusto statisticalworkin economictheory. "The Periodicityof CommercialCrises and its Physical Explanation. 1876-1879). Times." which were published in two articlesin Nature: Part I appeared in the November 14. 7. Furthermore. 1868). forexample. (1880).." In 1870 he served as presidentof Section F of the BritishAssociation forthe Advancementof Science. and "The Progress of the Mathematical Theory of Political Economy.In economics. and "Statistical Use of the Arithomometer" (Vol. and Methods ofSocial Reform (1883). The Annals reportsthat "no other economistso distinguished was so closely connected with the Society. "Conditionofthe Metallic Currency ofthe United Kingdom. 1878 beforeSection F of the British Association for the Advancementof Science and publishedin Volume 7 of the Journalof theStatisticaland Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. PrimerofLogic (1876).and the Value of the Currencysince 1782" (Vol. withReference to the QuestionofInternationalCoinage" (Vol. 1878). 1865). He received his earlyeducationat the hands of a privatetutor. National Review." was read in 1875 beforeSectionF-Economic Scienceand Statistics-of the British Associationforthe Advancementof Science. Studiesin Deductive Logci. This paper examined the nature of the relationshipbetween commercialcrises and sun spots.withan Explanation ofthe Principlesofthe Theory" (187475). Contemporary This content downloaded from 146. 28. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." was read in August 19. The latter article referred to the use of a French calculatingmachine. he wrote a paper. "The Periodicityof Commercial Crises and its Physical Explanation. 31. In the fieldoflogic. Corrections were made in subsequent papers. The Statein Relation toLabour (1882).Later he contributed to Australian newspapers Spectator. 134-5. p. pays tributeto Jevonsby stating: "It was leftforW.Some are: "On the Variationof Prices. 29. 115]. at Liverpool.and at the Mechanics Institute High School.pp.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 57 Jevonswas a student of business cycles.was the son ofan iron Jevons." which was published in the Journal of the Statistical and Social InquirySocietyofIreland (Vol. "The Solar Period and the Price of Corn. Review. and Pure Logic and Other Minor Works(1890). entitled "CommercialCrises and Sun Spots. He read several papers beforethis Society. 1866).then known as commercialcrises.MacmillanMagazine. in his famous book Business Cycles (1927). Wesley C. pointingout that thereis a strongrelationbetween the solar period and the price of corn. Mitchell. While livingin ManchesterJevonswas also an active memberof the ManchesterStatistical Society. 41.Money and theMechanismof Exchange(1875). "On the Frequent Autumnal Pressurein the Money Market.Elementary Lessons in Logic (1870). and read several papers beforethe Society whichwerepublishedin its Journal. Economy(1878) whichwas translatedinto French and German. Anotherpaper. bornthe ninthofeleven children. His first paper." He served as its honorarysecretaryfrom1877 to 1880 [51.223 on Fri. 2 volumes (1874). to the and one volume (1877). 661. He served as its vice presidentin 1868-69. p. Another workwas The Principlesof Science: A Treatiseon Logic and Scientific Method. But he remainedonly a shorttime at this institutionand then 5 Jevons PrimerofPolitical was the authorofa numberofotherworks[49. 1878 issue and Part II in that of April24. He was a contributor in earlieryears." Jevonswas a very active memberof the statisticalSociety of London and "made numerousdonations to its Library. LondonQuarterly Review. 50. and as its president. "The Work of the ManchesterSociety in connectionwiththe Question of the Day" (1869-70).1869-71 [2]. 1879.

A. but his interest Vol. receivingthe A.D. Because of financial circumstances(his father havingbecome a bankruptin January1848). 13. While livingin Manchesterhe became an active memberof the ManchesterStatistical Society.B. 811-5. In 1876 he resigned his teachingposition famousauthorofPoliticalArithmetick. En route he stopped offat Paris wherehe spent two monthsat the Paris Mint studyingassaying. of 1851 he had won fiveprizes-three being metallurgy. tended the UniversityCollege School at London. wherehe studiedmathematics. In 1875 he receivedthe honorary degreeof LL. 1202]. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Early in 1859 he is well indicated in his writings resigned his positionand returned to London by way of South Americaand the United States. a developmentwhich to reflect opportunity afterhis returnto England.In 1876 he was Examinerin Logic and Tripos at the University ofLondon. MARCH 1960 he atenrolledat Beckwith's private school. 10. 12. a younginstitution oflogic and mentaland moral philosophyand in 1867 was appointed professor also Cobden Lecturerin Political Economy [10.editor and statistician. at the age of fifteen..he resignedfromteachingin 1880. degreein June 1863.141. In 1872 he was electeda Fellow Moral Philosophyat the University of the Royal Society. p. This content downloaded from 146. administrator. SIR RAWSON W.C.and the University College. (1812-1899) Sir Rawson William Rawson. By the midsummer firstprizes and two second prizes..223 on Fri. His residenceof about fiveyears in Australia is said to have given him much on various problemsand subjects. Because of ill health. degreein 1860. Vol. Jevonswas forcedto leave college when halfwaythroughhis studies. 8. and is well knownas the first presidentof the InternationalInstituteof Statistics duringits formative years (1885-98).In October 1859 he enrolled at the UniversityCollege to study mathematics. 2. This business failureof Jevonsand Sons probablyresultedfromthe depressionof 1847. At first later shifted to Adam Smith's WealthofNations and JohnStuart Mill's Logic. (1957). 389-91]. 35. K. Gold had recentlybeen discoveredin Australia.because of his dislikeforlecturing.15. Late in 1853 at the age of eighteenhe leftEngland to accept the positionof assayer in the newly-established Royal Mint at Sydney.wherein 1866 he a tutorat Owens College. pp.M. pp. i-xii].B. and the Ricardo scholarshipand the M. 38. fromthe Universityof Edinburgh [42. at Owens College in orderto accept the chair of Political Economy at the UniversityCollege at London. In 1850. RAWSON. In 1864 he joined the Statistical Society of London and remained an active memberforthe remainderof his life. 8. In 1863 at the age oftwentyeighthe became in Manchester. He arrived at Sydney in October 1854 [48. Vol. an as the firsteditor of the authorityon internationalstatistics. he was interestedin meteorology.is remembered JournaloftheStatisticalSocietyofLondon (1838-40). C.G. pp. Vol.Australia. pp. 30-1]. political economyand logic. 474-9. the first economistso honoredsince Sir William Petty. In 1868Jevonswas appointedan Examinerin Political Economy at the University of London. Vol. wherehe visiteda numberof cities. pp.and because of his intense desire to devote all his time to his writing projects. and in 1851 he enrolledat chemistry. In 1874 and 1875 he served as an Examiner in the Moral Science of Cambridge. biology. 11. He won the gold medal in philosophyand political economy [31.58 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.

Walker.containspapers preparedand read duringthe years beforethe publication of its Journal. Porter. Rawson" [51. 139-40]. To reviewthe workof the Statistical years. Heywood. p. whichheld its first meetingin Rome in 1887 [57." Proceedings by the Society. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in the directionof prothe uniformity ofstatistics. The Golden Jubilee meeting was an outstanding one with distinguished guests in attendancefrommany countries. June22. Rawson contributed duringthe first on as many separate subjects by papers. 23 and 24.1834-1837. he mentionedthat "my public career in the colonies afterwards in the workof the Society forthe third separated me fromactive participation postponedone year on account ofthe death ofa century.15. 155].deliveredthe openingaddress [33. 60-2]. p. one being "On the Collection of Statistics. over these lishedin the Society's GoldenJubileevolume. Mr. 1885. 57].In this volume Rawson has fourpapers.141. His articleswere of a criticalnaturebecause it papers and otherstate docuwas "the custom to commenton parliamentary of theStatisticalSociety. Mouat. Sir Rawson.such as Edgeworth.General Francis A. a volume published ments." The objectivesof the Jubileebecame: "1. An excellentset of statisticalpapers. pp. read by distinguished economists and statisticians. 260]. Guy. Lister. In 1840 Rawson was succeeded by JosephFletcheras editor. pp. of the Duke of Albany.and others. Presifrom dent of the AmericanStatistical Association. Galton.are pubMarshall.It has been published continuouslysince that date and is probablythe most outstandingstatisticaljournal in the world. In 1876 he was reelected to the council and remaineda memberof it until his death. R. Five times he was elected vice presidentduringthe period from1876 to 1884. pp. Romilly. von Neumann-Spallart. Mr." This content downloaded from 146.foundedat this meeting. and as editorofits Journalbeginning 1838 [45].the Society had set up a Committee"to considerin what mannerthe Jubileeof the Statistical Society may be utilized forthe advancementof Statistical Science and the extensionof the Statistical Society. To considerthe possibility Association" [51. was elected to the council in 1836."he again took an active part in the StatisticalSociety of London [51. To considerwhat has been achieved by Society duringthe past fifty the InternationalStatistical Congresses." froma distinguished "On his return colonial career. and by what means that object may be further Statistical an International ofestablishing moted. 246.The Annals reportsthat 6 ofthe decade ofthe Society. Korosi."Mr.was held in London. In planning this Golden Jubilee. 2-12]. In his address at the Golden Jubileemeetingof the Society. 2. In 1885 the official the Royal Statistical Society. W. This scholarlyperiodical continuedas a monthlyuntil April 1839 when it became a quarterly."This Golden Jubilee.As editor.was the sole representative the United States. Giffen.223 on Fri. served as honorarysecretaryfrom issue of May withthe first 1836 to 1842. W.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 59 Rawson became a memberof the Statistical Society of London in March 1835. pp. presiding sessions. Boileau)" [51. Rawson was assisted by "a Publication Committee (Mr. 3. and he served as title of the Society was changed to presidentin 1884-86. He was elected the first presidentof the InternationalInstitute of Statistics." It also mentioned"13 contributions R.or by othermeans. and Mr. Dr. He suggested Rawson was regardedas "the Nestor of Britishstatisticianls. Levasseur.

1884-85. Galton claims that he is the "first treat the subject in a statisticalmanner.Britishand ForeignColonies(1884). eugenist. . includingReportson MauritiusCensus of 1851. many papers to its Journal.60 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. to treatthesubject manner. In 1854 he beernorGeneral of Canada. Galton. Alexander Baring who succeeded Mr.In 1842 he was appointed civil secretary to Mauritius. vice presidentof the Board of Trade. Rawson was chairmanof the LibraryCommitteeof the Society. Poulett Thompson.Galton says: has beenadvocated by a The theory ofhereditary scouted.created a numberof statisticaltools.C. Statistical Vital BarbadosCensusof1871 and RainfallofBarbados1873-74. It wasin arevividly deviations units. Castle.the fatherof correlation analysis.141. 50. explorer. and in 1844 treasurer came colonial secretaryat Cape of Good Hope. In 1830 he was appointed private secretaryto Mr. 300].and in the same year he was honoredwithK. on heredity." In the prefaceof this work.B. 6 Besides contributing of otherworks. p.G.and an Account 1845-64. 1. and he left the statisticalportionof his libraryto the Society.and I forgot Theretheidea flashed sideofthepathway. everything in mygreat for a moment delight [18.223 on Fri. was born in London and educated at Eton.p. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the eldest son of Sir William Rawson.M..pp. 1071. Thompson in 1834. OceanHighways Kingdom(1894) [49. In 1875 he rein 1869 he succeeded to the governorship tiredfrompublic service. to its developmentas follows: I first under which clearly grasped arebeing Asthese lines written. duringwhich period he was ofthe Bahamas. SIR FRANCIS GALTON (1822-1911) Sir Francis Galton. is .Our Commercial Statistics (1885)." whichhe acknowledgeshas been used by to the famousBelgian statisticianQuetelet. in his workHereditary niques. 9. though usually genius. SynopsisoftheTariffs totheUnited or Approaches 91). 200-1. and served in the same capacity to Mr.. But I mayclaimto be thefirst fewwriters and to in a statistical to arrive at numerical results. and honoredwiththe C. thecircumstances weresolely concerned with thatthelaws ofHeredity theimportant generalisation in statistical recalled to mymemory. In 1864 he was appointedgovernor of WindwardIslands. International Barometer (1890and TradeoftheBritishEmpire. 588-9]. statingon page 26: "The method I shall employ . K. .6 Rawson. MARCH 1960 tonof exportsor imin one of his papers "the use ofvaryingprice of an average ports as a sort of an index numberfor measuringthe change in the value of money" [46]. He again servedin the same capacity to William Gladstone in 1841 who to the Govwas then vice president.B. pp. This content downloaded from 146. in thepast as wellas in modern times. recess in therockby the in a reddish A temporary shower drove meto seekrefuge else acrossme. As early as Genius. One obituary recordsthat "the Society has been deprived of both its senior Fellow and of one who has done morethan perhaps anyone else toward placing it in its present satisfactory condition" [45].psychologistand statistician. theoretical law of 'deviation froman average'.15. Vol. [59.began to develop statisticaltech1869. expressed hadbeengiven to ramble ofNaworth where an invitation thegrounds freely. . Reports oftheHurricaneof 1866 in those Description oftheBahamas.Rawson also was the authorof a number of Cooliesand Valuationof theRupee in Mauritius. from an average" intodiscussion introduce the "lawofdeviation Galton describesthe incidentwhich gave rise As to the idea of correlation. Immigration on Islands.

ing.But I could not see myway ofthe mother one mornAt length. His two grandfathers motherwas related to a numberof prominent wereboth Fellows of the Royal Society.and his children.exploredcertain unknownareas in Africa.graduatingin in1843. Walker. leaving him a considerablefinancial travelforthe next and so he was able to spend much timein foreign heritance.He devised the ogive curve (1875). the quartile deviation (1879). in Warwickshire. then studied at the Hospital.of an adult person.His father. Charles J. after the statureor othercharacter parent"to expressthe averageofthe two parents.and poringover ran in the diagramin my notebook. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Galton's statisticalcontributions knownauthorities. being accusconcentric ellipses.141.and his cousin was the famousCharles Robert Darwin (1809-1882). few years. the symbolofthe coefficient but later changedto regression). 225]. drawing strongly Galton firstused the term "correlation"on December 20. quency of cases in whichthe various deviationssay in stature. the median (1883)-although Fechner had the same idea independently-the percentilesystem (1885).15. a memberof the Society of Friends. persons. I had long used the convenientword "midmid-parent.More careful satisfied me that I was approaching tomedto such things. r. Galton joined the StatisticalSociety of London in 1860.and was vice president the Society. (whichfirst (1877). was the youngest of seven Galton. Galton also relates anotherincident. "but his association with the Society was not close" [51. His fatherpassed away in 1844. "Co-relationsand Their Measurement" was read beforethe Royal Soin 1889 that ciety. was responsiblefor the introductionof graphical methods in mapping the of the use of statisticalmethodsin the field weather. 55]. the first corroborated impression [18. Cambridge. In 1850 he. 270-2].it struckme that the lines of equal frequency but my eye. had been changedintoits male equivalent. meant reversion.was a banker. the index of Galton correlation (1888). the solution. Galton attended King Edward VI's grammar school.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 61 The date of this famous idea is 1888. to expressthe resultsof the completetable in a singleformula. when his paper. Birmingham His parentswishedhimto be a physician. Andersson. 226--7. and the use ofthe normalcurveforgradingchildren. pp. which went This content downloaded from 146.but he later changedhis mindabout medicine and enrolledin 1840 at Trinity College. while waitingat a roadsidestationnear Ramsgate fora train. An account of his experiencesresultedin a book. Afterbeing educated at several private schools. born in Duddeston. 1888. He served on the council in 1875. along with Dr. are associated withthe various deviationsof staturein his measuredalong the side. and completedhis medical education at King's College. The Narrativeof an Explorer in Tropical South Africa (1853). He read threepapers before from1869 to 1879.268. The cases were too few forcertainty. of correlation. line: whichpertainsto the regression to display the freI had given much time and thoughtto Tables of Correlations.223 on Fri.302]. 179. Karl Pearson and Helen M. It was not until the publication of his Natural Inheritance the terms "correlation"and "regression"became known [57. pp.that readersare urged to consultthem [43.and he was the originator are so well describedby two wellof biology. measuredalong the top. to the theof Galton's many conltributions Thus 1869 markedthe beginning oryofstatistics.

15. 6.C. and the Copley Medal in 1910. The Royal Society bestowedupon him threemedals: The Royal Gold Medal in 1886. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He was presi1872. and was vice presidentof the latter in 1875. Galton was a mostprolific writer[49. 562-3. pp. 1167-72. ever since its beginning[10. Sc. pp. Galton now turnedhis talents to the study of fingerprints. the laboratorywas establishedat the Science Museum. 89. pp. 12. the Artof Travel. He was the recipientof honorarydegrees fromOxford. Vol. Galton now became interestedin meteorologyand in 1863 published his work Meteorographica. Vol.whichalso wentthrough several editions. Vacation Touristsand Notes of Travels.Kew Observatory of a 1889-1900. 50. BlurredFinger Prints (1893). whichwent throughseveral editions. 44]. and several works appeared. South Kensington. Four times he was presidentof its Sections. Supp. His Memories in 1908 lists 182 writings. 47]. The publication of the Originof Species by Charles Darwin in 1859 encouragedGalton to make a study of heredity whichresultedin several works.which conferredthe D. which measuredover 9. ofthe BritishAssociationforthe Advancement Galton was generalsecretary of Science from1863 to 1868. namely. Vol. 2. Duringthe years 1860-63 he was the editorofan annual volume. Because of the possible anthropological significance. and Natural Inheritance (1889). He was. twice of its GeographicalSection in 1862 and Section in 1877 and 1885.This later became the foundationof the well-known biometriclaboratoryat the UniversityCollege. and FingerPrint Directories (1895). Chair of Eugenics to be occupied by his close friend. p. as well as being connectedwiththe Kew Observatory. the Darwin Medal in 1902.the meteorological committee council. 427-8. This systemis now employedall over the world. Pearson has listedover 220 papers and fifteen books. He was knighted in 1909 [58. This was followedby otherwritings in meteorology so that he became a member ofthe meteorological and its successor. in 1895. This explorationearned him in that year the gold medal of the Royal GeographicalSociety and in 1854 the silver medal of the French Geographical Society [19]. 70-3. pp. MARCH 1960 throughseveral editions. In 1855 Galton wrote another work.At the close ofthisexhibition.141.000 pounds forthe establishment Karl Pearson.62 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. 553-4]. and learned societies at home and moreover.Finger Prints (1892).and twicehe declinedthe presidency. 59. He was also ofthe Royal Society Chairman. Galton servedforseveral yearson the Council ofboththe Royal GeographicalSocietyand Statistical Society of London. and twice of its Anthropological dent ofthe Anthropological Institutefrom1885 to 1888.which honoredhim with the D. 11 (1910) pp.000 persons. At the 1884 InternationalHealth Exhibition in London he set up the firstAnthropometric Laboratory. pp. p. London [38. on him in 1894.He was thus associated with the meteorologicalcommitteefor about fortyyears. This content downloaded from 146.L.In 1856 he was elected a Fellow ofthe Royal Society. and fromCambridge.223 on Fri. 265-6].a member of many scientific abroad. 11. Inquiries Into Human Faculty and Its Development (1883).English Men of Science (1874). In 1901 the Anthropological Institute awarded him the Huxley Medal.Hereditary Genius (1869).Committeeof Management. In 1908 the Linnaean Societygave him a medal in honorof the Darwin-Wallace Celebration. In his will he lefta sum of45.

and its presidentfortwo years 1882-84 [51. is well knownas the head of the statisticaldepartment of the Board of Trade. He was twicepresident ofSectionF in 1887 and 1901." to the EconomicJournalfromits first volume in 1891 up to his death in 1910. as the editorof the Journalof theRoyal StatisticalSociety(1876-1891). With an acute perceptionof the thingsthat were not measuredor unmeasurable. if not the ablest. and a courageousrejectionof measurement wherethe inaccuracywas forthe relativeimportance of numbers. 227-8]."received fromR. He read eleven papers beforethe Society and threebeforeSection F of the BritishAssociationforthe AdvancementofScience. Anothernotice containsthis quotation: I thinkthat one ofthefeatures me most of Sir Robert Giffen's workwhichimpressed was its extraordinary rapidityand certainty. he first surrounded the official statisticswith an atmosphereof caution. he was composingthe luminousand originalmemoranda. to whichhe contributeda numberof articles. in which he held office as vice presidentat one time. statisticianof modern times.knownas CityNotes. or ofthe modcould not." He appearsto have had littleor no knowledge ern mathematical but arithmetical sense was so strongthat he theoryof statistics. This content downloaded from 146. frequently called upon to presenthis views beforeroyal commissions and committees. whether he was piercingto the heart of a complicated or whether mass of statisticsand extracting theirreal significance. He was vice president of this Society.One obituarynotice observed that he "was the most popular.. SIR ROBERT Sir Robert Giffen. pp. He contributed articles.a feeling factorsused.G. He was an outstandingmemberof the Political Economy Club from 1877 to 1910.In the mostcomplicated mazes of figures the realitiesforwhichthe figures stood.In 1867 Giffen became a memberof the StatisticalSocietyofLondon. was able to proceedsafelyand withknowledge calculationswhose validity through could onlybe establishedmathematically [21. economist.223 on Fri. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. now known as the Royal Economic Society. He had an intuitivefeeling used to expresshis conclusion as to the adequacy of the data by sayinghe could.which he tossed offat lightning speed withlittleapparenteffort.15.and he was editorofits Journalfrom1876 to 1891.He was chiefstatisticaladviser to the BritishGovernment.and he neverseemedto lose his bearingsor his finesense of proportion. "givea figure.1880-81. He has an almostuniquepowerofcarrying his statistics in his head.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS GIFFEN 63 (1837-1910) 10. and he first servedon the councilin 1871. The Royal Statistical Society honoredhim with its Guy Gold Medal in 1894.and of the BritishEconomic Associationin 1890. and then cleared away the mistby the use of bold estimates.. He was electedits honorary secretary for1873-74 and 1876-82.. pp. 529]. 319-21].He too great.For these estimateshe had an ofthe arithmetical sense almostamounting forthe probableerror to genius. theywerealways at his command. He was singularly painstakingand carefulin weighingstatisticaldata. He assistedin the founding ofthe InternationalStatisticalInstitutein London in 1885.141. and he was forwhichhe preparedvarious reports.. As a statisticianGiffen was highlyregarded. and as a prolific writeron economicstatistics.economicjournalist.and he was neveroverwhelmed he neverlost his gripon by them.editorand statistician... He was also one of the foundersof the Statist. and his power of imaginationwas of immense use in suggesting to him the key to many an economicproblem" [20. p.

In 1862 he moved to London wherehe workedforthe Globe 7 He was the author of many books. StockExchange Securities. Giffen moved to Glasgow. His book. The Growth of Capital (1889). 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . TheGrowth ofCapital (1889).Statistics. 99. Still anotheris "The Use of Import and Export Statistics." One writerstates: a prolific on economic. but did not graduate. 50. 49]."(1882).and he rendered much valuable assistance to royal commissionsand committees.SecondSeries (1886.64 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.15. and EconomicEnquiries and Studies.7 was born in the small Lanarkshiretown of Strathaven.Against Bimetallism (1892. During his twenty-one years with the board he was mainlyresponsiblefor the noteworthy in official improvements economic statistics.greatstoreofinformation. second editionin the same year). pp.financial." Anotheris "Recent Accumulationsof Capital in the United Kingdom.two volumes(1904) whichcontainsmiscellaneous writings and addresses. Vol. This content downloaded from 146. is one of the early estimates of national wealth. 6. Essays in Finance. First Series (1880. MARCH 1960 This obituary closes with the last sentence reading: "Giffendeserves to be honoredwiththe Masters of StatisticalScience." was criticalat timesof Giffen's handlingof some statistics.223 on Fri. This volumecontains nothing on statisticalmethods[49.He lefta manuscript whichwas publishedin 1913as a book. Anotherwriter declares: "Giffen's numerousstatisticalstudiesare models of clear expositionand of legitimatestatisticalinference.althoughat othertimeshe praised Giffen's statisticalwritings [37].His instructive handling of statisticsand his keen eye forpitfallscontributed greatlyto raise the reputation and encouragethe study of statistics in this country. p.p. Vol. Supp. wherehe spent several years (1850-1855) as a clerk in a solicitor's office.and received Giffen his early education in the village school. and shrewdjudgment. fifth edition1890). In later years (1844) this Universityhonoredhim with the degree of doctor of laws. thirdedition1890). His papers and books comprisea remarkablerecordfor a top official who wrotemost of them outside his regulardepartmentalduties. Some of his papers are regardedas classics. Giffen. They reveal his wide acquaintance withmany problemsand his "unusual powerof accurate generalizationfrom voluminous and complex evidence. 1875-85. some being AmericanRailwaysas an Investment (1872). In 1860 he became a reporter and sub-editorof the StirlingJournal. He attended part of the time classes at the Universityof Glasgow. One is his presidentialaddress beforethe StatisticalSociety of London in 1883. Essays in Finance. thoughhe did not develop its techniqueby the highermathematical treatment [10. 656-7].He directed the first national census of wages in 1886." (1890)."whichwas followedin 1886 with "FurtherNotes on Progressof WorkingClasses During Last Half Century. editedby HenryHiggs withtheassistanceofG." (1878) followed by "Accumulationsof Capital in the United Kingdom.a distinguished Americanstatistician. The Cas8e. an intimate acquaintance withbusinessmatters and methods. UdnyYule.An Essay on theGeneralCauses of Fluctuations in TheirPrice (1877). He paid littleattention to the mathematicalanalysis of statisticaldata and was acutely aware of the limitations commonlyinherentin quantitative material" [12. 104-51. who termedGiffen as "the greatest livingstatisticianin England.possessed a writer luminousand penetrating mind.141. entitled"The Progressof the WorkingClasses in the Last Half Century. and statisticalsubjects. At the age of thirteen. 2." Richmond MayoSmith. His fatherwas a small merchantand an elder of the Presbyterian Church. pp.

periodicals. method of least squares. In 1885. pp. was mergedwith the statistical departmentand Giffenwas then appointed of the Commercial. Chance. From 1887-90. p. whereinhe advanced the scientific basis for the theoryof statistics [33. prices. "Methods of Statistics. This epoch-making paper served to bringthe calculus of probabilityinto practical use and demonstrated that 'in the apparatus foreliminating chance the most importantpiece of mechanismis the law oferror or probability curve" [51. at the age of sixty. 179-80]. At the beginning of this same periodin 1880. and in 1868 he became associated withthe LondonEconomist under the famousWalter Bagehot. He was honoredin 1895 with the rank of K. 12 (1910). p.B. in 1891 [58.and statistician. 184]. scatteredin many English and foreign century. 582]. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . labour.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 65 as sub-editorand served until 1866. p.C.15.B. During thisdecade Edgeworthwas greatlyinfluenced by threeworks:Lexis' Zur Theorie derMasTodhunter's History of Probabilityand Venn's Logic of sener-scheinungen. Labour and Statistical Department Controller-General [57.deaths and marriages [57. bankcorrelation. p. is highlyregardedby many as the philosopherofstatistics. Vol. afterbeing made a C. 4]. In 1882 he was made assistantsecretary of the board. ing.In 1897.223 on Fri. he delivered a remarkable paper. FRANCIS YSIDRO EDGEWORTH (1845-1926) Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. 180].he retiredfromthis position."employing ideas of leading thinkers such as Laplace. and Venn.rates of births. 8].At that time six papers on the theoryof probabilityappeared (1883-84). During part ofthisperiodof 1873 to 1876.types of averages. originallynamed Ysidro Francis Edgeworth..cover a wide varietyof subjects. 230-1]. p. Pearson and Yule became his statistical companions [51.Some claim he is the oustandingstatisticianofthe nineteenth His writings. index numbers. and it was not until around 1895 that Bowley. This had previouslybeen entrustedto the foreignoffice. In this scholarlywork he not only ex- This content downloaded from 146. editor. pp. Giffen was responsible forthe considerable improvement of official economicstatistics. Edgeworth was appointed Lecturerin Logic at King's College. The decade ofthe 1880's marksEdgeworth'sinitialand strong interest in the theoryof statistics. This paper was the foundation of a later paper of the same title appearing in the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions (1905). law of error. Edgeworthwas busily engaged in the study of index numbers.141. economist. and also served as city editor of the Daily News [11. as an assistant editorforthe years 1868-76. He joined the Board of Trade in 1876 as chiefofits statisticaldepartment. 261. 11. the first one bearingthe titleof "The Law of Error" and appearingin the PhilosophicalMagazine (1883). p.he contributedarticlesto the Times and the Spectator. 57. 181-217. a thirddepartment. He then joined the Fortnightly Review underJohnMorley (later ViscountMorley). includingprobability. at the Golden Jubilee of the Royal Statistical Society.holding also office as secretary of the committee of Section F of the BritishAssociation forthe Advancementof Science.law of change. but was now made a part of the statisticaldepartment. and was also placed in charge of the commercialdepartment. In the 1880's Edgeworth was a lonely pioneer in the somewhatunknownworldof statisticaltheory. Lexis. In 1892.

the readeris referred to thisvaluable memorialwork. etc. Fourthly.cases being taken to ability. "On CorrelatedAverages. but he also showed considerableinterestin the several economicangles of this problem [9. J. a chair distinguished forits outstandingprofessors. Bowley points out that: The numerousstatisticalstudiespublishedbetween1893 and 1926 are to a very largeextentthe working out ofideas expressed or latentin the papersalreadynamed. Urwick.. pp.223 on Fri. Thorold Rogers..in the applicationof mathematics to the study of social and other problems. No subjectwas too greator too smallfortheuse ofhis analysis-the theory of banking. von Hayek. Reverend William Cunningham. 18881891 volumes].the flowof wasps through a cycle of operations.and to relatethisprobthatit (or a multiple the probability inthisuse always performs The modulus abilityto credibility by the inversemethod. He was the greatestacademic figure the last fifty of friends yearsand the mostcharming to all those who werehonoured by his acquaintance [51."joined the Royal StatisticalSocietyin 1883.. Edgeworth.In the introduction Bowley states: In the arrangement of subjectsI have endeavouredto followthe logical sequence that was always presentto his mind. and served untilhe retiredas EmeritusProfessor in 1922 [10.the use of the methodin measuring the accidental (or random) fromresultsof directcausations. p. First comes "Probability"and "Credibasis of the whole is laid. psychical research wereonlya part ofthe materialto whichhe vigorously appliedhis in the innercirclesof the Societyin tools. In 1892 his firstpaper on correlationbearing the title. the rationale of exchange. Since Bowley has so well classifiedand described Edgeworth's statistical writings. held verydefinitely Edgeworth the opinionthat it was not sufficient to measurethe variationof a statisticalresultsimplyby the statement of a standarddeviation.."in which the implicationsof the postulateof plural causationare workedout in the lightof the theoryof pure prob" where.15.. withnumerousapplicationsto a greatvarietyof problemsand withcriticaland explanatoryreferences to the workof otherwriters. MARCH 1960 amined carefully such aspects as the relativevalue ofaverages. this completefunction. from1886 to 1912.withshortintervals."The Law of bility. 237-9].chancein examinations.whichdepends championship on an understanding ofpartsofthe previoussections.141. variationsin the rates of births. pp. E. In 1891 he resignedthis chairto succeed Thorold Rogers as DrummondProfessor of Political Economy at OxfordUniversity."in whichthe philosophic Error" and the "The Method of Translation. Secondly.and FriedrichA.some being Reverend J." appeared in the PhilosophicalMagazine.66 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL.marriages.E. In 1890 he was appointed Tooke professor of economicscience and statisticsat King's College. The Annals records: His workfortheSocietylay mainly. As to his statisticalwritings..the appropriate weightsto employ.servedon its council.0andwas its president in 1912-14. 118]. eitherthrough papersor through contributions to Miscellanea. 284-5]. 622. whichthe theoryis definitely variaapplicable. 1922-30. and deaths.the applicationof the law of error. Thirdly "Applicationsto Special Problems. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and in distinguishing ofchance") is illustrated tion ("the elimination in manypracticalstatistical problems.but that it was necessary to connectthisstandarddeviationwitha law oferror. 7.Therefollows an accountofhis This content downloaded from 146.a shortsectionon "The Best Mean" is mainlydevoted to an explanationof Edgeworth's of the median. p. Throughout the two scorepapers listed forthese years run the threadof the importance of sound fundamental ideas on probabilityin all mathematicalstatisticsas opposed to purelyempiricalwork [52.. Vol. to assign ofit) wouldbe exceeded. regardedas "one ofits mostadmiredand trustedleaders.

and finally issue in M\Iarch 1891.on of the relations between the theories and methods of probability and of political economy [6. servinga term as vice president.the official quarterlyof the Royal Economic Society. 4-5]. Mathematical to theMoral Sciences. 5. death. youngestof fivesons. County Longford.born at Edgeworthstown. p. He was apparentlymore inclinedto writenumerousarticles and many book reviews. In or theMethod ofMeasuring 1887 he publishedhis thirdand last work. degree Philosophy. They containthirty-four to statistical theory. Edgeworthwas an active memberofthe BritishAssociationforthe Advanceof Section F in 1889.edited and revisedby 151].by the Royal Economic Society in 1925. New and Old Methodsof on IHenry Sidgwick'sMethodsof Ethics (1874).223 on Fri. Statistics. These threeworksare the only books Edgeworthproand Utility. 234. and finallya note on his concept. He was a veryactive memberof the Royal Economic Society. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Y. his paper "The Philosophyof Chance" appeared in Mind. 875-6]. He was educated at home under tutorsuntil the age of seventeen. CONCLUSIONS of the featuresstand out in the lives and accomplishments Many interesting men whose workhas been reviewedin the precedingpages. bearing the title "The Method of Ascertaininga Change in the Value of Gold. 397-8]. Dublin. pp. In 1883 he An Essay on theApplicationof Mathematics SocietyofLondon (now the wrotehis first paper forthe JournaloftheStatistical Royal Statistical Society).holdingoffice a Fellow of the BritishAcademy in 1903. In Ethics. but apparentlydid and in 1868 to Balliol College.embracing reviews. but he never practiced. part of his time duringthe last thirty-five in economicswer e selected.Ireland. so that it may be determined how far a claim for priorityin its development is valid. p. Under his inspiring achieved internationalprominence.being a commentary Psychics: 1881 he publisheda slendervolume of about 150 pages.15. Vol. These activities took the greater years of his life [34. class honorsin Literis Humanioribus.Metretike.and publishedin threevolumes.A. He servedup to the day beforehis Journalsince its first this scholarlyjournal influenlce. pp.the great school of he was awarded first year. where not graduate. as joint editorwithJohnMaynard Keynes. Edgeworth's whichthe Royal Statistical Society publishedin 1928.He distinguished as editor. pp. was the Edgeworth.He preand lecturing[12. His contributions and seventy-five seventy-four papers and nine reviewsare collectedand arrangedby Bowley in to Mathematical Contributions 139-page volume entitled F. In 1867 he wentto Oxford.the following until 1873 [58 (1926). February 13. In 1877 to spend his time writing ferred he published a paper-coveredvolume of 92 pages.NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 67 early contributions to the theory of correlation. 1926. Of the eleven lead- This content downloaded from 146." In 1884. himself.B. Probability duced in his life. of the Economic board. In 1877 he obtained the M.then as chairmanof the editorial by servingfirst moreover. He was elected as president mentof Science. this being a critique of Venn's Logic of Chance (1883). although he did not receive the A. His principalwritings Edgeworth. degree and in the same year he was admittedto the bar.as well as to edit the EconomicJournal.141. 36.Papers Relatingto Political Econpapers omy.and in 1862 attended TrinityCollege.

Edgeworth. Giffen Giffen won the Guy Gold Medal Rawson. Galton. Edgeworth distinguishedhimselfas editor of the when he sugcontribution EconomicJournal. MARCH 1960 ing British statisticians.ratio chart. Finally.. now known as dispersion.werecollegegraduates.Edgeworthin the areas ofprobability. Farr. werepresidents Guy.Porter. Jevons tistics. Galton.now known as business cycles. [2] Ashton. Rawson was for many years presidentof the InternationalInstitute of StaFarr.Only one.were at one time presidentof Section F-Statistics-of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science. of the StatisticalSociety of London.intenselyinterested findsome means of reducingthe death rate. Farr. Orme.and and Obitutary. "The Workof StanleyJevonsand Others. Jevons. Babbage. index numbers.now the Journal Guy. Only four. and marchand Rawson. He thusseemsto ha-ve possessed shouldbe placed moreon a mathematical than most ofhis contemporaries.15. Giffen.seasonal variation. as the founderof graphic methodsin statistics.. correlation and index and Jevonsin the fieldsof averages. REFERENCES Vol."The Manchester Statistical Society. while none received the Guy Silver Medal.Three.and Porter.1824. numbers.foundedin 1885. it appears that.Not one taught a course in statistics. Babbage. probablybecause of the fact that Britishstatisticians in generalhad a bettermathematicaltraining. and the Statistical Society of London in 1834-warmly aided by his friend Playfairwillbe remembered Quetelet. Galton in the fieldof correlation. This content downloaded from 146. Giffen. knownsince and Rawson. 1861 and 1871. S. Galton.Giffen. 8. in vital statistics.223 on Fri. were physicians. Three outstandingcontributors Galton and Jevons.Giffen. and Jevons. wereeditorsof the JournaloftheStatistical SocietyofLondon. werenot.and particularlyin his 1869 presidentialaddress when he stated that statistics basis. to the theoryof statisticswere Edgeworth. of the Royal Statistical Society. Babbage.New1885 as the Royal Statistical Society. Newmarchand Rawson. London: Longman. Eight.whilethree.thefamousBelgian statistician. and developingthe well-known Britishstatisticians century.and crises. [1] Annual Biography Brown. and Newmarch.T. Playfairand Guy.and Farr forhis outstanding for establishing work in developingBritishvital statistics. Newmarch of theRoyal StatisticalSociety. Farr. Four. Only Edgeworthhad any legal training.wereFellows of the Royal Society. Farr and and Rawson.forone thing.namelythat of 1851. while five. Giffen. Edgeworth. was connectedwiththe national census. Newmarch made a significant gested the use of variations fromthe average.68 AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. 1833-1933.Playfair. Edgeworth.Hurst. Jevons. worth. Jevons. Edgeworth.Rees. Guy and Newmarch.EdgeGuy. Galton. 1934. wereknightedby theirgovernment. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . S. Finally six.to Guy.whilefive. King and Son. Porter and Giffen statisticaldepartmentof the Board of Trade. served as honorarysecretaries. even in the nineteenth to the theoryofstatistics contributions weremakingnewerand moresignificant than Americanstatisticians. will be remembered Section F-Statistics-of the BritishAssociationforthe Advancementof Science in 1833. London: P.six. Ltd.Farr.secular trend. Two.Babbage. werenot.had post-graduatetraining.141. and foresight Babbage morestatisticalinsight as the founderof two importantstatisticalorganizations. Giffen. Guy. Newmarch.Six.

. 529-33.W. I. Y. Guy. of theSocial Sciences. [81 Bowley. 1863.. Press. London: Bradburyand Evans.S. JohnKoren. various [11] EncyclopaediaBritannica. 1908. History.223 on Fri.. etc. WilliamFarr.. 1832-1928. Letters and Journalof W. "MiscellaneousNotes. G. 186-90. 280-90. Also contains several photographsof Playfair'scharts.. WilliamA. and Reports Documents Relatingto BritishBanking.S.. F.. "The London School ofEconomics. 2 (1934).NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH STATISTICIANS 69 London: Longman. [27] Humphreys.45 (1882). London: Oxford University Press." Journal ofTheAmeriHarold.Francis. A. [101 Dictionary Press.. Society. D.Passages FromtheLifeofa Philosopher. 1948. 113-24.. Spon.various [121 Encyclopaedia volumes. London: Contributions to Mathematical Statistics. 69-71. Edgeworth's Royal StatisticalSociety.. Noel A.65.. Biography. Set Forth in Two Diagrams.B.R..variousvolumes. [24] "Dr." Journalof theStatistical 46 (1882). Society.L.C. 1918. Longman. London: Methuenand Co.. VitalStatistics. F.1928. 6-8.."Economica. A. [7] Bowley." [22] Greenwood. 20 (1910)." Economic of Playfair'scharts. [171 Funkhouser. C. ArthurL.. A. L. H.. "Playfairand His Charts.. "Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. [141 "Dr.1895-1945. [29] Jevons. London: various volumes."Econometrica.H. E. A. 3 (1937). F. Vol.... Foxwell. volumes.. [4] Babbage. [15] Fitzpatrick. SelectStatutes. F. Stanley. 318-21. F.New York: The Macmillan Company.141. ofthe RoyalStatistical [20] "Obituary-Sir RobertGiffen. London: Edward Stanford.Major.P. Sir Jervoise ofStatistics. 1929. and F." Osiris. S. L. 1885."Journalof theAmerican 21 (1926) 224. F. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. 484-7.L.B.. 1884.Babbage'sCalculating 1889. 'The Historyand DevelopmentofStatistics Athelstane. Engines.C. [51 Baines.C. and Statisticians Today." Journalof theStatistical 48 (1885). 25 (1930). II.Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity volumes. Charles. Effects and Finance.S. ofNationalBiography. S. Statistical Data.P. [181 Galton.15. NewYork: in GreatBritainand Ireland. ed. 1910.Sc. StatisticalAssociation.R." Journal 74 (1911). [32] JournaloftheStatistical Society ofLondon. 13 (1946). Paul I. F. [31 Babbage.Memories oftheRoyalStatistical [191 "Obituary-Sir FrancisGalton.London: E. [31] "ProfessorWilliam Stanley Jevons. 314-20. various DivisionIII. [23] Gregory. Investigations in Currency London: Macmillan and Co.E."TheHistory The Macmillan Company. can Statistical Association. and Walker. Edgeworth.variousvolumes. Gray. 2. and Its Social [28] Jevons. [211 "Sir RobertGiffen. D. London: Macmillan and [30] Jevons. 3 (1935). [91 British Associationof the Advancementof Science. "HistoricalDevelopmentof the GraphicalRepresentation [161 Funkhouser. 53 (1959). T.S.A Serious Fall in theValue of Gold Ascertained.'" Journal oftheAmerican Statistical of H. Societyof London. "Leading AmericanStatisticiansof the NineteenthCenturyAssociation.editor. Co. W. Y.Helen M. 28 Jun 2013 06:54:07 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .D. LL. 650-1.R. 1886. Stanley. This content downloaded from 146. N. "British Statistics [26] Hotelling.H. Also containsseveral photographs of My Life. 103-9.London: Edward Stanford.. HenryPrevost. [25] Hayek.Green. StanleyJevons.1864. K. Reportsof. [13] EnglishCyclopaedia.. Oxford:OxfordUniversity Society of London.Robertsand Green. Medical Statistics fromGrauntto Farr." Journal of the StatisticalSociety of London.C." Journal 73 (1910). [6] Bowley. Economic Journal.D. 350-1. F... C.

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