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Networks Classification
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Network
A network is a set of hardware devices connected together, either physically or logically to allow them to exchange information.

Networking
Networking is the concept of sharing resources and services. A network, therefore, is a set of interconnected systems with something to share.

Difficulties in Categorizing Network Classes
As with most other distinctions and categorizations in the world of networking, the lines between these various definitions are not very concrete. For example, wireless LANs are usually not entirely wireless, because they contained wired elements. Similarly, trying to say absolutely when a network is “local” and when it is “wide” is difficult also one person’s local-area network (LAN) may be another’s campus-area network (CAN). …..and so on. Keep in mind that networking categories and terminology may overlap, complement, or be independent.

Network Components
The following are the main hardware components of a network: Nodes: Computers and network interface cards (NICs) Topology: Logical and physical Connection elements: Cabling, wiring centers, links, and so on Auxiliary components: Peripheral devices, safety devices, and tools The software components include the following: Networking systems: Network operating system (NOS) and workstation software Resources: Server software and drivers Tools: Utilities, LAN analyzers, network monitoring software, and configuration managers Applications: Network-aware software

A set of rules governing how to communicate (protocols) Devices that use for network connection. all networks must have the following: A resource to share (resource). .Network Content In summary. A pathway to transfer data (transmission medium).

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Networks Classification (1) Networks Classified by Communication media: .

we can distinguish four generations of networks:  The next generation encompasses the transmission speeds for the “traditional” LAN architectures: Ethernet. and ARC net. anywhere from fewer than ten to a few hundred kilobits per second. This includes FDDI (100 Mbps). At these speeds. . These rates can be obtained only through multiplexing. The earliest networks operated at kilobit per second (kbps) speeds. since hardware devices (such as disk or tape drives) cannot supply data fast enough. Very roughly. and fast Ethernet (100 Mbps). However. Token Ring. broadband networks support higher transmission rates. and there is considerable overlap in transmission rates. That is there are lots of baseband networks that are faster than some broadband networks. These have speeds in the 1 to 20 megabit per second (Mbps) range. even Networks Classified by Transmission Rate though broadband networks tend to support higher rates. the entire Oxford English Dictionary could be transmitted several times in a single second. The traditional speeds are 10 Mbps or slower.  The up-and-coming generation supports transmissions in the 100+ Mbps range. there is considerable variation in transmission rates for baseband networks. the 16 Mbps Token Ring and 20 Mbps ARCnet Plus are improvements on the original designs.  The next generation of networks will support transmissions at 1+ gigabits per second (Gbps) rates. Networks Classification (2) Networks Classified by Transmission Rate: In general. ATM (up to 600+ Mbps).

Networks are either: carrierband broadband .baseband Networks Classification (3) Networks Classified by Message Capacity: Whether the network can transmit one or more messages at a time.

Networks can be categorized as .Networks Classification (4) Networks Classified by Range The geographical or bureaucratic range over which the nodes are distributed.

Networks Classified by Range Abbreviation GAN WAN MAN Meaning Global Area Network Wide Area Network Metropolitan Area Network RAN CAN LAN DAN HAN SAN NAN PAN BAN Regional Area Network Campus Area Network Local Area Network Departmental Area Network Home Area Network Storage Area Network Near-me Area Network Personal Area Network Body Area Network NFC Near Field Communication .

Networks Classification (5) Networks Classified by Line Configuration: Line configuration means the way two or more communication devices attach to a link. There are four possible line configurations with directional: Point-to-Point Unidirectional Point-to-Point Bi-directional Point-to-Multi-point Unidirectional Point-to-Multi-point Bi-directional .

Networks used for generalpurpose computing and operations are most likely to be PC-based. Networks MIS departments and Classification (6) universities are most likely to Networks Classified have networks that include by Node types: minicomputers or Nodes in a network mainframes. networks are networks minicomputers. mainframes. known as access networks. . or even whose “nodes” are actually other networks. smaller networks. Backbone may be PCs.

Networks Classification (7) Networks Classified by Node Relationships: The relationship among the nodes that make up the network. Networks categorized along these lines are known as : .

nodes.Networks Classification (8) Networks Classified by topology: Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links. it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted: . Essentially. etc.) of a computer or biological network.

and star-wired ring. ring. The network’s logical topology (logical layout of nodes in the network) and physical topology (physical layout. The main logical topologies are bus and ring. mapping the data flow between the components determines the logical topology of the network .Networks Classified by topology Physical topology refers to the placement of the network's various components. graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Distances between nodes. yet their topologies may be identical. star. Physical topologies include bus. physical interconnections. while logical topology shows how data flows within a network. regardless of its physical design. including the wiring scheme by which nodes are connected). including device location and cable installation. transmission rates. and/or signal types may differ between two networks. A good example is a local area network (LAN): Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network. Conversely.

You have attention to the following points: • Application S/W and protocols. attached to the networks.Networks Classified by topology: The term “TOPOLOGY” refers to the way in which the end points or stations/computer systems. are interconnected. • Cost. • Geographic scope of the network." We have seen that a topology is essentially a stable geometric arrangement of computers in a network. • Reliability. The IEEE defines topology as “the interconnection pattern of nodes on a network. If you want to select a topology for doing networking. • Types of data communicating devices. We see:  Common layouts  Overlay network .

Networks Classified by topology (Common layouts) Point-topoint Point-toMulti-point Bus Star Ring or circular Tree Cellular Hybrid Mesh Hierarchical Daisy chain Hub .

Nodes in the overlay are connected by virtual or logical links. A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical . each of which corresponds to a path. perhaps through many physical links. in the underlying network. The topology of the overlay network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one.Networks Classified by topology (Overlay network) An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network.

Networks Classified by topology Networks topology can also classified as shown :- .

Networks Classified by topology Cable topologies .

Switching networks accomplish this by multiplexing. switching networks allow multiple nodes to use the network at the same time.Networks Classification (9) Networks Classified by Access Possibilities: At one extreme are shared-media networks. In contrast to this. Networks can be : . in which exactly one node can have access to the network medium at a given time.

terminals and transmission media. network designers have developed general blueprints(they are generally called a network architecture)that guide the design and implementation of networks. protocols and software to be used to accomplish accurate communications. The New Network Architecture is Overlay Architecture.The philosophy and organizational concept for enabling communications between equipment at multiple locations. The most widely referenced architectures—the OSI architecture and the Internet architecture . To reduced the complexity of the networks. .Networks Classification (10) Networks Classified by Architecture : network architecture . detailed specifications outlining the processors.

by the method used to access the network.Ethernet/IEEE 802. which is defined by the cabling used.3 Networks Classified by Architecture: The network architecture. and by the format of a data packet on the network. Common LAN architectures include: ARCnet Token Ring FDDI .

25 Point-to-Point Protocol .Frame Relay Networks Classified by Architecture: Common WAN architectures include: ISDN ATM X.

Networks Classification (11) Networks Classified by Transmission technology : Network can be Classified by Transmission technology as shown: .

Routing a transmission through such temporary connections is known as switching. Switching is used for networks on which many nodes. or parties.Networks Classification (12) Networks Classified by Switch type: A switched network is one in which temporary connections between two nodes are established when needed. Three types of switched networks are in common use: . may be accessing the network at the same time.

Networks Classification (13) Networks Classified by function type: Network can be Classified by function type as shown: .

Appliances (microwave. refrigerator. Computers (desktop PC. lights). Entertainment (TV. camcorder. Some of the more obvious categories (with examples) are as follows: Networks Classification (14) Networks Classified by Home networking: Home 1. 4. VCR. thermostat. intercom. shared peripherals). furnace. MP3). fax). PDA. Every device in the home will be capable of communicating with every other device. stereo. smoke/burglar alarm. airco. . and all of them will be accessible over the Internet. Telecommunications (telephone. camera. networking is on the horizon. DVD. 2. 3. mobile telephone. notebook PC. babycam). 5.Many devices are capable of being networked. Telemetry (utility meter. The fundamental idea is that in the future most homes will be set up for networking. clock.

Networks Classification (15) Networks Classified by computing power distribution: Network can be Classified by computing power distribution Into three category as shown : central computing alternative computing collaborative computing .

TRANSMISSION MEDIA GUIDED UNGUIDED Networks Classification (16) Networks Classified by Transmission media: Various TWISTED-PAIR CABLE RADIO FREQUENCY ALLOCATION physical media can be used for the actual transmission.Transmission media are roughly divided into two broad categories: guided and unguided CO-AXIAL CABLE TERRESTRIAL MICROWAVE HOME WIRING SATELLITE COMMUNICATION OPTICAL FIBER CELLULAR TELEPHONE . delay. cost and ease of installation and maintenance . Each one has its own niche in terms of bandwidth.

Networks Classification (17) Networks Classified by the signals in the transmission medium The Transmission Medium Signals can be classified as :- .

Wireless Networks Classification .

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS .

market growth is being fueled by the promise of multimedia applications and Internet access for wireless laptops. at the beginning of a new century. and messaging devices.Networks Classified by Generation )1(: The last two decades of the 20th century marked an explosion in the growth of wireless and mobile communications. The delivery of such services depends on the ability of future networks to combine the mobile freedom of the cellular telephone networks with the bandwidth of current computer networks like the Internet . pagers. fueled by the demand for cellular telephones.  First Generation Wireless Networks: Wireless Access  Second Generation Wireless Networks: Mobile Access  Third Generation Wireless Networks: Wireless and Mobile Access to HighBandwidth Services  Fourth Generation Wireless Networks: and Beyond: Universal Access in a Multinetwork Environment . and personal digital assistants (PDAs) . Now. cellular telephones.

In reality. Such characteristics as fixed or mobile. and standardsbased or proprietary are used to define the network. there are three types of networks: . licensed or unlicensed. point-to-point (PTP) or point-to-multipoint (PTM).Networks Classified by Types of Wireless(2): Wireless data networks are often divided into several categories according to how the networks are viewed by the user.

Networks Classified by the place(3): Wireless Networks can be divide into two networks according to the place of it as shown: .

Networks Classified by Network Formation and Architecture(4): Wireless networks can be divided into two broad categories based on how the network is constructed and the underlining network architecture: .

Networks Classified by Communication Coverage Area(5): Wireless networks can be classified into different types based on the distances over which data is transmitted: .

Depending on the frequencies involved. the network : is known as a: Radio Wave Microwave Infrared .Networks Classified by frequencies involved(6): Wireless networks use signals that cover a broad frequency range. from a few megahertz to a few terahertz.

wireless networks can be categorized based on the access technology used. frequency.11) Satellite . These include: Bluetooth GSM Hiperlan2 Wi-Fi (802.Networks Classified by Access Technology(7): Infrared CDMA TDMA Depending on the specific standard. and spectrum usage.

for example: .Networks Classified by Network Applications)8): Wireless networks can also be categorized based on the specific usage and applications they support.

It may by consist of several Local. . Metropolitan or Wide Area Networks interconnected via LAN. MAN or a WAN oriented communication technology.INTERNETWORK An internetwork maybe defined as a network of computer communication networks every authorized member of which could communicate with every authorized member (node) directly or indirectly. depending upon specific context of use.

An extranet is like an intranet that is extended to individuals or organizations outside the company.The Hybrid internetworks connected through the Internet: The Extranets The generic noun internet is a short form for the word internetwork. The term intranet refers to an internal network that uses TCP/IP technologies like the Internet does. so care must be taken in determining exactly what they mean in any given context. All these terms can be used ambiguously. .Classification of internetworks There exist three classes of internetworks for most practical and analytical purposes: -The global Public Internetwork: The Internet (International Network) -The Wholly Owned/Private Internetwork: The Intranets . while the proper noun Internet refers to the global internetwork of TCP/IP networks we all know and use.

.  Regional networks connecting. Currently. and networks owned by commercial organizations for internal use that also have connections to the Internet.The Internet networks The Internet consists of the following groups of networks:  Backbones: Large networks that exist primarily to interconnect other networks. for example. Also known as network access points (NAPs) or Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).  Local networks. such as campus-wide university networks.  Commercial networks providing access to the backbones to subscribers. universities and colleges. the backbones consist of commercial entities.

Multimedia Internetwork An internetwork of autonomous computer consisting of LANs and/or WANs. in which (depending upon the specific context of use) it could be possible for two or more participating entities to get an assured minimum quality of network service(s) during their exchange of one or more components of multimedia data is called a Multimedia Internetwork(MMI) .

 Intelligent Multimedia Internetworks. a partial list of MMI classes might look like:  On-Demand Multimedia Internetworks. One of these is to consider the type of service-solicitation as the criteria for deciding a class. .  Desktop Teleconferencing-oriented Multimedia Internetworks.Generic Classification of Multimedia Internetworks There do exist a variety of way to place the MMIs in a specific category or the other. Based on this.  Interactive Multi-location Telecollaboration-based Multimedia Internetworks.

 Point-to-Multi-point Unidirectional Multimedia Internetwork applications. These include:  Point-to-Point Unidirectional Multimedia Internetwork applications. .  Point-to-Point Bi-directional Multimedia Internetwork applications.  Point-to-Multi-point Bi-directional Multimedia Internetwork applications. the major MMI applications can be grouped into four broad classes.Linked based of Multimedia Internetworks MMIS also can be categorized on the based link classes. Going to the basis/yardstick.

NGN .

NGN (Next Generation Networks)  NGN is a Voice Over IP. for integrated voice. CDMA & 3G) and packet data network together. . Wireless (GSM. by passing the regular switches to save the investment on Switches and Trunks.  NGN is a Flat telephone network over Packet Data Network . instead of traditional Hierarchy structured telephone network with reduced investment. combining Wireline (PSTN). data and multimedia services.  NGN is Network Convergent Technology.

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