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“There is only one substance called rasa. In its eternal state, it is composed of eternal bliss (nityananda-svarupa), and in the conditioned state (bound by matter) it is composed of material happiness or material distress. Thus the names, relationships, activities and results, which are characteristic of material rasa that have been described by materialistic writers and poets, are all present in spiritual rasa, but in a pure form. Externally there appears to be no difference between material rasa and spiritual rasa. They can only be differentiated by their nature. The spiritual rasa or cit-rasa is eternal and material rasa is temporary, cit-rasa is glorious and material rasa is contemptible. The shelter (asraya) of spiritual rasa is the pure jiva, and its object (visaya) is Bhagavan. The object (visaya) of material rasa is insignificant bodily beauty and its shelter is the material consciousness. While cit-rasa is intrinsically composed of bliss, material rasa is composed of material happiness and distress.” “Material activities, material speculation or the opposite of the two in the form of impersonalism, is not worship, neither is it the sublime spiritual rasa.” Bhaktivinoda Thakura
Sthayi-bhava; five principal devotional rasa’s.
Rati, having attained the name sthayi-bhava, gradually achieves tastefulness by mixing with the four ingredients of vibhava, anubhava,sattvika-bhava and vyabhicari-bhava.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
(1)santa-svabhava, peacefulness, neutrality. (2)dasya-svabhava, mood of servant (3)sakhya-svabhava, mood of friend (4)vatsalya-svabhava parental love (5)madhura-svabhava conjugal affection for the beloved.
Vaibhava: Cause of tasting bhakti rasa
Alambana: Support or shelter of rati. (Krsna and His bhakta’s who have rati in their hearts). Visayalambana the object of rati (Krsna). Asrayalambana the receptacle or shelter of (bhakta’s or jiva) Uddipana: Stimulute rati for Krsna i.e. His dress, ornaments, Yammuna, cows, peacocks etc.
Anubhava’s- External expressions of bhava
Visible actions that illustrate the spiritual emotions situated within the heart (dancing, singing and so on). The sight of the outward actions by which the presence of rasa is expressed in a devotee is called anubhava. They are of thirteen varieties: 1) dancing, 2) choking up, 3) singing, 4) speaking loudly,
5) stretching the body. 5) twisting the body. . 10) salivating. 6) roaring. 12) wailing and 12) grinding the teeth. One or more of these anubhavas will appear according to the nature of the action of the rasaacting internally. by theanubhavas arising from sattva. All these vyabhicari-bhavas move towards the sthayi-bhava. It is not that all of these symptoms of anubhava awaken at one time. and by sattva. cause it to swell. In other words an emotion that moves distinctively in the direction of the sthayi-bhava and that serves to intensify it is called vyabhicari-bhava. 11) laughing. The vyabhicari-bhavas are like waves which emerge from the nectarean ocean of the sthayi-bhava and cause it to swell. 7) Asru: tears. by the limbs such as the eyes and eyebrows. Then they merge back into the ocean and disappear. Different descriptions of the same 13 external symptoms: “External indications of bhava (anubhavas) are the external reactions that indicate the emotions acting within the heart. Vyabhicari or Sancari bhava’s (33 in number) Thirty-three internal spiritual emotions. Because they are specifically directed towards and offer special assistance to the sthayi-bhava. 10) drooling. when the heart is overwhelmed by emotions in connection with mukhya-rati or gauna-rati. 1) Stambha: becoming stunned. therefore they are also called sancari-bhavas. 9) neglecting the presence of others. 9) disregarding the opinion of others. 6) Vaivarna: palor or change of colour. It can be broken down into three parts: abhi (towards) and cari (going). and then merge back into that ocean. or in other words. and 13) hiccupping. The word sancari means moving. 12) whirling. 8) sighing. 3) singing. 2) rolling on the ground. which emerge from the nectarean ocean of the sthayibhava. or in other words. 3) Romanca: standing of the hairs on end. they are known as vyabhicari-bhavas. 8) Pralaya: loss of consciousness or fainting. They consist of such actions as: 1) dancing. 11) laughing loudly. 5) Kampa: trembling. 2) Sveda: perspiration. Thevyabhicari-bhavas are made known by one’s speech. Sattvika bhavas or Asta-Sattvika bhavas: 8 Internal expressions aroused in the heart 8 symptoms of spiritual ecstasy arising exclusively from visuddha-sattva. 4) shrieking. 4) Svara bhanga: faltering of the voice. The word Vyabhicari here has a special technical meaning. 7) yawning. 8) sighing. 7) the mouth gaping. 6) hiccupping.
is called garva. gloominess. This mada arises from drinking honey and from excessive conjugal agitation. (9) Trasa (fear) – The fear that arises suddenly or unexpectedly due to lightning. tremendous outburst of emotion and bewilderment of the heart are called avega. is calledglani. heavy sighing and other anubhavas are manifest.There are thirty-three vyabhicari-bhavas that nourish the sthayi-bhava. anxiety and inertia of the limbs. change of colour. qualities. obtainment of the supreme refuge (Krsna) or attainment of one’s desired object. The causes and symptoms of each one are described below. The symptoms of trasa are taking shelter of nearby objects. displaying one’s limbs. tears. fear and offences. youth. Nirveda arises from great distress. The symptoms of dainya are speaking words of adulation. jealousy. awkwardness (incompetence of the heart). (5) Srama – Fatigue or exhaustion accompanied by perspiration which arises from vigorous movement in pursuit of Krsna (like Mother Yasoda running to catch Krsna). crying. dancing and conjugal activities is called srama. (7) Garva (pride) – The disregard for others that occurs due to one’s own good fortune. by mental oppression or by conjugal activities. perspiration. nonperformance of duty and performance of non-duty. (10) Avega – Agitation. The symptoms of garva are disdainful speech. The weakness that arises due to the waning of this vital energy. trembling and perplexity. (3) Dainya (wretchedness or humility) – To consider oneself despicable and unworthy is called dainya. horripilation. stammering speech. anxiety. The symptoms of mada are stumbling movements. tottering. . the enemies of Krsna). brought about by excessive labour (srama). change of colour. lamentation. (1) Nirveda (self-disparagement) – To reproach oneself considering oneself to be fallen and worthless is called nirveda. inactivity. breathing heavily. (2) Visada (despondency or depression) – This arises from nonattainment of one’s desired object. weakness and restlessness of the eyes. from inability to complete some endeavour that was begun for Krsna. feelings of worthlessness. The symptoms of glani are trembling. Sri Krsna. Dainya arises from distress. is called sanka The symptoms of sanka are drying of the mouth. not answering another simply to amuse oneself. beauty. (4) Glani (physical and mental debility) – The principle of vital energy and action throughout the body is called oja. feelings of separation. looking here and there. and hiding. concealing one’s intention and not listening to another’s words. (6) Mada (intoxication) – The delight or exuberance that extinguishes knowledge is called mada. In nirveda anxiety. (8) Sanka (apprehension) – The apprehension of calamity arising from having stolen something that belongs to Krsna. due to the appearance of some calamity that befalls Krsna or due to committing an offence. a fearsome creature or a fearful sound is called trasa. yawning and heavy sighing. from committing an offence or from the viciousness of others (that is. The symptoms of visada are seeking a remedy and assistance. excitement. The symptoms of srama are sleep. change of colour. becoming stunned. rolling the eyes and redness of the eyes. change of colour and drying of the mouth.
(21) Vitarka (deliberation or reasoning) – The deliberation performed to determine the truth about something is called vitarka. it is called mrti. there is non-engagement in activity arising due to satisfaction or fatigue. it is called jadya. The symptoms of jadya are blinking the eyes. and loud shouting. (20) Smrti (remembrance) – Recollection and love for some previously experienced object brought about by seeing a similar object or by constant practice is called smrti. Because the symptoms resemble the condition of the heart just prior to death. (12) Apasmrti (confusion or absence of mind) – The bewilderment of the heart that occurs due to an imbalance of the elements of the body arising from some great distress is called apasmrti. The symptoms of vrida are silence. (18) Vrida (shyness or shame) – The bashfulness or shame that arises due to new association. slackening of the limbs. performance of misdeeds.4. dancing. foaming from the mouth. breathing heavily. throwing up of the hands and legs. (19) Avahittha (concealment of emotions) – To display emotions artificially in order to conceal one’s true confidential feelings or emotions is called avahittha. delusion. (15) Mrti (death) – Giving up the life air (prana) due to disease. severe distress and fatigue. In apasmrti there are symptoms such as falling on the ground. fear. looking elsewhere. Srila Visvanatha Cakravartî Thakura explains in his commentary to verse 2. covering the face. shouting and behaving in a contrary manner. In actuality it is the bhavas or spiritual transformations of the heart arising from separation and severe distress that are called vyadhi. (13) Vyadhi (disease) – A feverish condition produced by separation or due to an excess in the humours (doshas) of the body (mucus. bile and air) is called vyadhi. aversion to activity. drowsiness and sleep. This deliberation may be instigated either by doubt or curiosity to determine its cause. futile action. dizziness and absence of activity. In Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2. rubbing the eyes. The symptoms of moha are falling on the ground. fear or despondency is called moha. running. (17) Jadya (inertness or insensibility) – When one is deprived of the power of deliberation due to separation or due to seeing or hearing about either that which is cherished or a calamity. Jadya is the condition just prior to or just following moha (loss of consciousness). The symptoms of vitarka are contracting the eyebrows and moving the head and fingers. writing on the ground and lowering the face. trembling. despondency. running about. The symptoms of alasya are yawning. futile action and impaired speech. praise or scorn is called vrida. shallow breathing and hiccups. .4.(11) Unmada (madness) – Bewilderment of the heart that arises from extreme bliss. laying down. cessation of the functioning of the senses. incoherent speech. change of colour. (14) Moha (fainting or delusion) – The loss of consciousness arising from jubilation. in spite of being able to do so. The symptoms of avahittha are hiding the limbs which betray those emotions. calamity or acute separation is called unmada. separation.90 of BRSB that this imbalance of bodily doshas arises from severe distress due to separation or hearing of Krsna’s defeat at the hands of the demons. anxiety. The symptoms of smrti are moving the head and contracting the eyebrows. The symptoms of vyadhiare becoming stunned.102) Rupa Gosvami explains that the vyabhicari-bhava a known as mrti does not refer to actual death. remaining silent and forgetfulness. The symptoms of mrti are indistinct speech. it is called alasya. The symptoms of unmada are loud laughter. physical debility or an assault is called mrti. (16) Alasya (laziness) – When. singing.
sthayi-bhava. ~ Ingredients of the five rasas ~ Santa –– fixed. unwavering devotion to Krsna and complete detachment from material desires. reprimanding and beating. The symptoms of augrya are killing. scowling and raising the eyebrows. madness. rashness or impudence) – The loss of gravity or the lightness of the heart that arises due to attachment or aversion is called capalya. inflammation. (31) Nidra (deep sleep or complete unconsciousness) – The absence of the external function of the mind arising from anxiety. and closing the eyes. inertia. To think. ***************************************************************** The mixing of all these ingredients viz. vaibhava. (26) Autsukya (ardent desire) – The inability to tolerate the passing of time instigated by an intense longing to see or to obtain one’s desired object is called autsukya. (25) Harsa (jubilation) – The bliss that arises in the heart from seeing or obtaining one’s desired object is called harsa. turning the face away and admonition. lowering the head.a desire to serve are added. blossoming of the face. natural disposition or exhaustion is called nidra. fickleness. fainting or sleep is called bodha. anxiety. The symptoms of autsukya are drying of the mouth. (33) Bodha (awakening) – The enlightenment or awakening of knowledge that occurs upon the cessation of ignorance. accusations. (27) Augrya (fierceness or dreadfulness) – The anger or fury arising from another’s offence or injurious speech is called augrya. The symptoms of supti are cessation of the external function of the senses. The symptoms ofharsa are horripilation. The symptoms of cinta are breathing deeply. haste. sleeplessness. and seva-vrtti . anxiety. tears. (29) Asuya (envy) – The malice that arises upon seeing the good fortune and qualities of others is called asuya. tears and meekness. harsh speech and whimsical behaviour. (28) Amarsa (intolerance or indignation) – Intolerance arising from being rebuked or disrespected is called amarsa. giving instructions to disciples and deliberation on the pros and cons of a subject. The symptoms of asuya are jealousy. closing the eyes and shallow breathing. The symptoms of capalya are want of discrimination. binding. seeking relief. breathing heavily and unsteadiness. breathing in. lamentation. (23) Mati (resolve or understanding) – The conviction or resolve that arises from ascertainment of the meaning of the sastras is called mati. weakness. (32) Supti (dreaming) – Sleep in which there are many impressions within the subconscious mind and the manifestation of many different pastimes is called supti. (30) Capalyam (restlessness. shouting. inertness and bewilderment. The symptoms of mati are performance of duty. . trembling of the head. change of colour. absence of distress (due to one’s relationship with the Lord) and attainment of the topmost object (bhagavat-prema). writing on the ground. (devoid of material thirst). Dasya – mamata . change of colour. disrespect. In dhrti one feels no distress on account of things which are not obtained or those which have already been destroyed.possessiveness (“You are Mine”). “Now what will happen?” is called cint_. annubhava sattvika bhava and vyabhicari bhava collectively are called thesamagri. trembling of the head. The symptoms of nidr・are yawning. The symptoms ofamarsa are perspiration. slander. lethargy. is called dhrti. impassioned outburst. perspiration.(22) Cinta (anxiety) – The thinking which arises due to nonattainment of one’s desired object or due to attainment of an undesired object is called cinta. projecting faults upon the qualities of others. (24) Dhrti (fortitude) – The steadiness of the mind that arises from knowledge (here meaning realisation of the Lord).
271 “Although Sri Krsna supported the great weight of Govardhana.85/BRSB p. 2. 1. Vishrambha means a mood of intimacy. Vatsalya – (protecting/nourishing. 6. and (chastising and rebuking) – “I am His parent. His eyes widened at the torrential downpour of water (adbhuta). are added.laughter 2)Viraha. 4.Sakhya – vishrambha – intimacy based on feelings of equality is added. “I am Krsna’s guardian. Sri Krsna as the Asraya (subject) of all twelve rasas at the same time svasmin dhurye ‘py amani sisusu giridhrtav udyatesu smitasyas thutkari dadhni visre pranayisu vivrta-praudhir indre ‘runaksah gosthe sasrur vidune gurusu harimakham prasya kampah sa payad asare sphara-drstir yuvatisu pulaki bibhrad adrim vibhur vah BRS 4. He displayed tremendous prowess to lift Govardhana in the presence of His beloved friends (sakhya and vira). 7. I have to discipline Him for His own welfare”. May that Lord Giridhari protect you. He looked at Indra with eyes red with anger (raudra). He trembled before His respectful elders on account of having spoiled the Indra yajna (dasya and bhayanaka).chivalry 3)Adbhuta-astonishment 4)Karuna-compassion 5)Bhayam-fear 6)Vibatsa-dusgust 7) -anger. 5. Tears came to His eyes when He saw the residents of Vraja tormented by the powerful wind and rain (karuna). The 7 Gauna Rasa’s are. nurturing). 3. devoid of reverential attitude (aishvarya). and His hairs stood on end when He saw the young gopis (madhurya).” . serving Krsna with all bodily limbs. He smiled when He saw that the small boys were prepared to hold up the hill (hasya and vatsalya). is added. 1)Hasya. He was devoid of pride (santa). Madhurya offering one’s whole body.8. He spat at the smell of musty yogurt (bibhatsa). I have to protect and nourish Him”.