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Anatomy of Muscles Origin most stationary end of a muscle Insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement

nt Belly between the origin and insertion Tendons connects the muscle to bone; long cable-like structures Aponeuroses broad, sheet-like structures; short, almost non-existent Agonist a muscle that accomplishes a certain movement Antagonist muscle acting in opposition to an agonist Synergists members of a group of muscles working together to produce a movement Prime mover plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Fixators hold one bone in place relative to the body while a usually more distal bone is moved Muscles named according to their location, size, shape, orientation of fasciculi, origin and insertion, number of heads and function Pull applied to levers; resulting in movement Lever a rigid shaft capable of turning about a hinge or pivot point Fulcrum pivot point Weight placed at another point along the lever Joints fulcrums Bones levers Muscles provide the pull to move the levers Class I Lever System fulcrum is located between the pull and the weight Class II Lever System weight is located between the fulcrum and the pull Class III Lever System pull is located between the fulcrum and the weight Muscles of Facial Expression cutaneous muscles Auricularis muscles move ears superiorly, posteriorly and anteriorly Buccinator retracts angle of mouth; flattens cheek Corrugator supercilli depresses medial portion of eyebrow; draws eyebrow together, as in frowning Depressor anguli oris depresses angle of mouth, as in frowning

Levator anguli oris elevates angle of mouth, as in smiling Levator labii superioris elevates upper lip, as in sneering Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi elevates lateral side of nostril and upper lip Levator palpebrae superioris elevates upper eyelid Mentalis elevates and wrinkles skin over chin; protrudes lower lip, as in pouting Nasalis dilates nostrils Occipitofrontalis moves scalp; elevates eyebrows Orbicularis oculi closes eyelids Orbicularis oris closes lips Platysma depresses lower lip; wrinkles skin of neck and upper chest Procerus creates horizontal wrinkles between eyes, as in frowning Risorius abducts angle of mouth, as in smiling Zygomaticus major elevates and abducts upper lip, as in smiling Zygomaticus minor elevates and abducts upper lip, as in smiling Ptosis droopy eyelid; usually indicates that the nerve to the levator palpebrae superiosis or the part of the brain controlling that nerve has been damaged Buccinator and Orbicularis oris kissing muscles Zygomaticus major and minor, Levator anguli oris, Risorius smiling Levator labii superiosis sneering Depressor anguli oris, Depressor labii inferoris, Mentalis frowning or pouting Muscles of Mastication Temporalis elevates and retracts mandible; involved in excursion Masseter elevates and protracts mandible; involved in excursion Lateral Pterygoids protracts and depresses mandible; involved in excursion Medial Pterygoids - - protracts and elevates mandible; involved in excursion Hyoid Muscles Suprahyoid Muscles Digastric depresses and retracts mandible; elevates hyoid Geniohyoid protracts hyoid, depresses mandible

Mylohyoid elevates floor of mouth and tongue; depresses mandible when hyoid is fixed Stylohyoid elevates hyoid Infrahyoid Muscles Omohyoid depresses hyoid; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Sternohyoid depresses hyoid; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Sternothyroid depresses larynx; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Thyrohyoid depresses hyoid and elevates thyroid cartilage of larynx; fixes hyoid in mandibular depression
Digastric muscles most important muscles for opening the mouth

Spinalis extends neck and vertebral column; maintains posture Deep back muscles extends back and neck, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column Quadratus lumborum - one acting alone: laterally flexes vertebral column and depresses twelfth rib; both contracting together: extend vertebral column Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Rectus abdominis flexes vertebral column; compresses abdomen External abdominal oblique flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax Internal abdominal oblique flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax Transversus abdominis compresses abdomen
Linea alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall; consists of white connective tissue Linea semilunaris a slight groove in the abdominal wall running parallel to the lateral edge of each rectus abdominis muscle Rectus sheath connective tissue

Tongue Muscles Intrinsic Muscles named for their fiber orientation Longitudinual, transverse and vertical change tongue shape Extrinsic Muscles named for their origin and insertion Genioglossus depresses and protrudes the tongue Hyoglossus retracts and depresses the side of the tongue Styloglossus retracts the tongue Palatoglossus elevates posterior tongue Muscles moving the head and neck Levator scapulae laterally flexes the neck; elevates, retracts and rotates scapula Scalene muscles flex, laterally flex and rotate neck Semispinalis capitis extends and rotates head Splenius capitis extends, rotates and laterally flexes head Splenius cervicis rotates and extends neck Sternocleidomastoid one contracting alone: laterally flexes head and neck to same side and rotates the head and neck to opposite side; both contracting together: flexes neck Trapezius extends and laterally flexes head and neck Muscles of the Back Erector Spinae Iliocostalis extends, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column; maintains posture Longissimus extends head, neck and vertebral column; maintains posture

Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum Bulbospongiosus male: constricts urethra; erects penis | female: erects clitoris Coccygeus elevates and supports pelvic floor Ischiocavernosus comoresses base of penis or clitoris Levator ani elevates anus; supports pelvic viscera External anal sphincter keeps orifice of anal canal closed External urethral sphincter constricts urethra Deep transverse perinei - supports pelvic floor Superficial transverse perinei fixes central tendon Muscles of the Thorax mainly for breathing Diaphragm inspiration; depresses floor of thorax External intercostalis inspiration; elevates ribs Internal intercostalis expiration; depresses ribs Scalene muscles elevates first and second ribs

Diaphragm causes the major change in thoracic volume during quiet breathing

Muscles acting on the Scapula Levator scapulae elevates, retracts and rotates scapula; laterally flex neck Pectoralis minor depresses scapula or elevates ribs Rhomboideus major retracts, rotates and fixes scapula Rhomboideus minor retracts, slightly elevates,rotates and fixes scapula Serratus anterior rotates and protracts scapula; elevates ribs Trapezius elevates, depresses, retracts, rotates and fixes scapula; extends neck Muscles acting on the Arm Coracobrachialis adducts arm and flexes shoulder Deltoid flexes and extends shoulder; abducts and medially and laterally rotates arm Latissimus dorsi adducts and medially rotates arm; extends shoulder Pectoralis major flexes shoulder; adducts and medially rotates arm; extends shoulder form flexed position Teres major extends shoulder; adducts and medially rotates arm Rotator Cuff Infraspinatus laterally rotates arm; holds head of humerus in place Subscapularis medially rotates arm; holds head of humerus in place Supraspinatus abducts arm; holds head of humerus in place Teres minor laterally rotates and adducts arm; holds head of humerus in place Muscles acting on the Forearm Arm Biceps brachii flexes elbow and shoulder; supinates forearm and hand Brachialis flexes elbow Triceps brachii extends elbow; extends shoulder and adducts arm Forearm Anconeus extends elbow Brachioradialis flexes elbow Pronator quadratus - pronates forearm Pronator teres pronates forearm Supinator supinates forearm

Muscles of the Forearm acting on the Wrist, Hand and Fingers Anterior Forearm Flexor carpi radialis flexes and abducts wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris - flexes and abducts wrist Flexor digitorum profundus flexes fingers at metacarpophalangeal joints and interphalangeal joints and wrist Flexor digitorum superficialis flexes fingers at interphalangeal joints and wrist Flexor pollicis longus- flexes thumb Palmaris longus tenses palmar fascia; flexes wrist Posterior Forearm Abductor pollicis longus abducts and extends thumb; abducts wrist Extensor carpi radialis brevis extends and abducts wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus extends and abducts wrists Extensor carpi ulnaris - extends and adducts wrist Extensor digiti minimi extends little finger and wrist Extensor digitorum extends finger and wrists Extensor indicis extends forefinger and wrist Extensor pollicis brevis extends and abducts thumb; abducts wrist Extensor pollicis longus extends thumb Muscles acting on the Thigh Gluteal Gluteal maximus extends hip; abducts and laterally rotates thigh Gluteal medius abducts and medially rotates thigh; tilts pelvis toward supported side Gluteus minimus abducts and medially rotates thigh; tilts pelvis toward supported side Deep Hip Inferior gamellus laterally rotates and abducts thigh Superior gamellus laterally rotates and abducts thigh Externus obturator laterally rotates thigh Internus obturator - laterally rotates thigh Piriformis - laterally rotates and abducts thigh Quadratus femoris laterally rotates thigh Anterior Hip Iliopsoas Iliacus flexes hip Psoas major flexes hip

Muscles of the Thigh Anterior compartment Quadriceps femoris extends knee; rectus femoris also flexes hip Sartorius flexes hip and knee; rotates thigh laterally and leg medially Tensor fasciae latae flexes hip; abducts and medially rotates thigh; stabilizes femur on tibia when standing Medial compartment Adductor brevis adducts, laterally rotates thigh; flexes hip Adductor longus adducts, laterally rotates thigh; flexes hip Adductor magnus adductor part: adducts thigh and flexes hip; hamstring: extends hip Gracilis adducts thigh; flexes knee Pectineus adducts thigh; flexes hip Posterior compartment Biceps femoris flexes knee; laterally rotates leg; extends hip Semimembranosus flexes knee; medially rotates leg; tenses capsule of knee joint; extends hip Semitendosus flexes knee; medially rotates leg; extends hip Muscles of the Leg acting on the Leg, Ankle and Foot Anterior compartment Extensor digitorum longus extends four lateral toes; dorsiflexes and everts foot Extensor hallucis longus extends great toe; dorsiflexes and inverts foot Tibialis anterior dorsiflexes and inverts foot Fibularis tertius dorsiflexes and everts foot Lateral compartment Fibularis brevis everts and planar flexes foot Fibularis longus everts nad plantar flexes foot Posterior compartment Superficial Gastrocnemius plantar flexes foot; flexes knee Plantaris plantar flexes foot; flexes knee Soleus planar flexes foot Deep Flexor digitorum longus flexes four lateral toes; flexes and inverts foot Flexor hallucis longus flexes great toe; plantar flexes and inverts foot Popliteus flexes knee; medially rotates leg Tibialis posterior plantar flexes and inverts foot