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BRAIN - Control center for many of the bodys function Brainstem - connects the spinal cord and cerebellum

to the remainder of the brain - 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from it - Posterior part: ascending tract; spinal cord, cerebellum, cranial nerves - Anterior part: descending tract; motor control - Control of heart rate, blood pressure, breathing - Damage can cause death Medulla Oblongata - Most inferior portion of the brainstem - Extends from the level of the foramen magnum to the pons - Contains discrete nuclei with specific functions: regulation of heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccupping, balance and coordination - Pyramids extend the length of the medulla oblongata o Broader near the pons and taper toward the spinal cord o Involved in conscious control of the skeletal muscle o Decussation each half of the brain control the opposite half of the body Pons - Superior to the medulla oblongata - Contains ascending and descending nerve tracts as well as several nuclei - Relay information between the cerebellum and cerebrum - Bridge - Arched footbridge - Breathing, swallowing and balance, chewing and salivation Midbrain - Smallest region of the brain stem

Consists of four mounds collectively called corpora quadrigemina - Each mound is called a colliculus o Inferior: major relay centers for auditory nerve pathways o Superior: visual reflexes - Contains nuclei involved in the coordination of eye movements and in the control of pupil diameter and lens shape - Substantia nigra dark gray or black in color because their neurons contain melanin granules - Red nuclei pinkish in color due to their abundant blood supply - Cerebral peduncles descending motor tracts forming the anterior part of the midbrain Reticular formation - Group of nuclei scattered around the brainstem - Involved in regulating cyclical motor functions, such as breathing, walking and chewing - Reticular activating system arousing and maintaining consciousness and in regulating the sleep wake cycle - Damage to cells of the reticular formation can result in coma Cerebellum - Attached to the posterior brainstem - Little brain - Smaller version of the cerebrum - Cerebellar peduncles attach the cerebellum to the brainstem o Superior cerebellar peduncles midbrain o Middle cerebellar peduncles pons o Inferior cerebellar penduncles medulla oblongata - Folia ridges in the cerebellar cortex - Arbor vitae white matter of the cerebellum o Connect the gray matter of the cerebellum to the rest of the CNS

Connects the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei Flocculonodular lobe o small inferior part o balance and eye movements Vermis o narrow center o Posture, locomotion, and fine motor coordination thereby producing smooth, flowing movements Lateral hemispheres o Function in concert with the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex in planning, practicing and learning complex movements o Divided by a primary fissure into an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe o Subdivided into lobules contains the folia

Diancephalon - Located between the brainstem and cerebrum Thalamus - Largest part of the diencephalon - Yo-yo - Interthalamic adhesion or intermediate mass - Involves with sensory input - Sensory relay center o Auditory, visual, and other sensory input such as pain, temperature and touch pass through the thalamus - Controlling skeletal muscles - Limbic system and emotions o Connect diff. parts of the limbic system and influence mood and actions assoc. with strong emotions such as fear and rage Subthalamus - Small area immediately inferior to the thalamus

Subthalamic nuclei assoc. with the basal nuclei and are involved in controlling motor functions Epithalamus - Small area superior and posterior to the thalamus - Consists of habenular nuclei and the pineal body o Habenular nuclei sense of smell and are involved in emotional and visceral responses to odors o Pineal body shaped like a pinecone; controls the onset of puberty; sleep-wake cycle and othe biorhythms Hypothalamus - Most inferior part of the diencephalon - Involved with autonomic, endocrine, emotional and basic body functions o ANS heart rate, blood vessel diameter, urine release and movement of food o Endocrine through the infundibulum, it regulates the pituitary glands secretion of hormones; metabolism, reproduction, responses to stressful stimuli and urine production o Limbic affect mood, motivation and emotions; sexual behavior and pleasure, feeling relaxed, rage and fear ; stress-related and psychosomatic illnesses Mamillary bodies visible swellings on the posterior portion of the hypothalamus o Basic body functions temperature, activates sweat glands for cooling and shivering for heating the body; control of thirst, hunger and sexual arousal Superchiasmatic nucleus master clock

Cerebrum - Largest portion of the total brain weight - Longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres - Gyri most conspicuous features on the surface of each hemisphere - Sulci grooves between the gyri o Central sulcus located about midway along the length of the brain; separates frontal and parietal lobe - Frontal lobe voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, sense of smell and mood - Parietal lobe reception and evaluation of most sensory information, such as touch, pain, temperature, balance and taste - Occipital lobe reception and integration of visual input - Temporal lobe receives and evaluates input for smell and hearing and plays an important role in memory o Psychic cortex anterior and inferior portions Abstract thoughts and judgment o Separated from the rest of the cerebrum by lateral fissure o Deep within the lateral fissure is the insula (fifth lobe) - Cortex gray matter on the outer surface of the cerebrum - Nuclei clusters of gray matter - Cerebral medulla white matter - Association fibers connect areas of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere - Commisural fibers connect one cerebral hemisphere to the other o Corpus callosum largest bundle of commissural fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres - Projection fibers between the cerebrum and other parts of the brain

and spinal cord; form the internal capsule