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goals of producing safe, efficient & convenient system, which will meet the current & future needs & preferences of the community, and shall also promote social & economical development. GOALS OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: 1. Safety 2. Saving in travel time 3. Reduction in operating cost 4. Increasing the efficiency 5. Mobility 6. Beauty 7. Comfort, and Absence of strain & nuisance of noise 8. Reducing air-pollution 9. Minimizing disturbance of general environment 10. Increasing productivity & economy 11. Minimum demolition of housing 12. Removal of through traffic from urban central area and residential area. OBJECTIVES OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: 1. Basic employment center should be properly developed throughout the urban area. 2. Population service employment center should be properly developed. 3. Minimum adverse effect of future development on environment. 4. Minimum impact of future development on adjacent area. 5. To develop the transportation plan of various system on integrated basis. 6. To prepare a plan of dynamic nature to reflect the change and accommodate unanticipated growth pattern. 7. Transportation and land-use plan should be considered together. 8. Planning should be void in scope, covering entire area anticipated at horizon. 9. To have the most suitable type of transport system out of the available funds. 10. To promote economic activity & efficiency through reduced costs of transport & optimal development . 11. To know how to & when to improve old roads or construct new ones to meet future needs.
12. To establish priorities of construction & maintenance of roads. URBAN TRNSPORT PLANNING: UTP is an element of comprehensive transport planning, intended to reach certain goals related to the development of urban complex. It is a continuous process for developing, in advance, courses of action for establishing the urban goals by maintaining the best level & balance of all modes of transportation. The process of planning has evolved in response to changing demands. UTPP is accomplished through a basic sequence of steps as indicated in FIG. A. A] INVENTORIES OF EXISTING CONDITIONS: I. Road Inventory Data II. Traffic Data III. Economic Data IV. Financial Planning Data V. Engineering Data B] LAND USE FORECAST: C] TRAVEL FORECAST: D] ALTERNATE PLAN PREPARATION & TESTING: E] OBJECTIVES & STANDARDS: F] EVALUATION G] RECOMMEND PLAN & IMPLEMENTATION:
STUDY AREA:~ The area covered for the purpose of data collection & planning by a transportation study. CORDON LINE:~ study area. An imaginary line enclosing the whole
ZONES:~ For the purpose of data collection & aggregation, the area under study within the cordon line is subdivided into smaller internal traffic areas called zones. Zones must meet the following requirements. - They should be compatible with past or projected studies of the region or adjacent region. - They should be areas of similar land-use & other tripmaking characteristics. - They should be reasonable in size & number. - They should be commensurate with district boundaries, population census areas and/or local authority boundaries. - Wherever possible, they should contain principal transport network nodes at or near the centroid. ORIGIN:~ The zone in which a trip begins. DESTINATION:~ The zone in which a trip terminates(ends). TRIP:~ A trip is a one-way movement between an origin & a destination, independent of length or distance, without any significant stop, except the time spent, during the transfer or mode. It is conducted for a specific purpose as shown in Figure. INTRAZONALTRIP:~ A trip with both origin and destination in the same zone. INTERZONAL TRIP:~ A trip traveling between two different zones.
THROUGH TRIP:~ A trip having both origin & destination outside the study area. HOME BASED TRIP:~ A trip which has one end of the trip at home. NON-HOME BASED TRIP:~ A trip which does not end or start from home. TRIP GENERATION:~ Trip generation concerns with the estimation of number of trips produced in or attracted to a given zone. The objective of the generation stage is to understand the reasons behind the trip making behavior & to produce mathematical relationships to synthesis the tripmaking pattern on the basis of observed trips, land use data & household characteristics. TRIP PRODUCTIONS:~ The number of home-based trip ends in the zone of residence. TRIP ATTRACTIONS:~ Trips converging into (or within) a zone, are termed as attracted to that particular zone. Activities attract trips. TRIP DISTRIBUTION:~ A process in which two known sets of trip ends are connected together, without specifying the actual route & sometimes without reference to travel mode, to form a trip matrix, between known origin & destination. MODAL SPLIT:~ Trips may be made by different methods or modes of travel. Modal Split is the process of determining the choice of travel mode. TRIP ASSIGNMENT:~ The process of determining route or routes of travel of the transportation system & allocating the zone-to-zone trips to these routes.
FACTORS GOVERNING TRIP GENERATON & ATTRACTION RATES:~
1) INCOME:~ It is obvious that family income which
represents its ability to pay for a journey affects the number of trips generated by a household. A general trend is that the higher the income, the higher is the trip generation rate. CAR OWNERSHIP (OR VEHICLE OWNERSHIP):~ A car represents easy mobility, & hence a car owning household will generate more trips than a non-car owning household. By the same reasoning, the more cars there are in a household, the more the number of trips generated. Of course, the number of cars owned is itself related to the income of the family. FAMILY SIZE & COMPOSITION:~ The bigger the family, the more trips there are likely to be generated. Apart from the size, the composition of the family itself is important. For instance, if both the husband & wife are employed, the trips generated will be more than when only the husband is employed. If there are many school-going Children, the number of school-purpose trips will be large. If some of the Children are grown up & are employed, the number of word-purpose trips will increase. Old persons are not expected to generated as many trips as younger ones. The occupation of the family is also known to influence the travel pattern. LAND USE CHATACTERISTICS:~ Different land uses produce different trip rates. e.g. a residential area with a high density of dwellings can produce more trips than one with a low density of dwellings. On the other hand, low density areas may represent dwellings of the affluent society, which may produce a large number of private car trips. The rateable value of dwelling & type of dwelling units affect the trip generation rates. The most important assumption made in transportation planning is that the amount of travel is dependent on land-use. DISTANCE OF ZONE FROM TOWN CENTRE:~ The distance of the zone from the town center is an important determinant of the amount of travel that people might like to make to the town center. The
further the town center, the less the number of trips are likely to be. 6) ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM & EFFICIENCY:~ The accessibility to a public transport system & its efficiency determine to some extent the desire of persons to make trips. An easily accessible & efficient public transport system generates more trips. 7) EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, FLOOR SPACE IN INDUSTRIAL & SHOPPING UNITS & OFFICES, SALES FIGURES IN SHOPS, etc:~ The employment potentiality of an industrial or shopping unit or an office establishment directly governs the trip attraction rate. Similarly, another factor to which the trip attraction rate can be related is the floor space in the premises of industries, shops & offices.
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