V,olum,e I

c "M" 'N":' ",-,

,',", , ,'. ' ,iiU"Dl

'D "0" ,',...I 'T'h' "'-d" E'd'''' "

,Ae l ,I JC~" :n,,' "~ _,1,11:'10 D

S(Uilft:b, ,A:jlaJ La:ngua:l,e ,&; ,A'f¢~ 'e'en,it'e:f' 'U:n:i'Vc'lIi t~:y' o.,f' ChiIC:;t"go

nn~9

INTRODUCTORY URDU

Volume I

'fmj, " d "F'i..'" d 'fi'?..:II" -"

,~.e'Yl:se :, .II, ,nil:f , l£.!falUO·n

S !i)ut'h. A~ la L;a:n,gua.ge &: A ir',e:'3 Ce:;m:te:~' On:i''Y'!i:1::ts:i,rry (/!·:f Chi e iiIi'C'J'(l!

1~9'9'9 '!:'!

:R.ev,ised,. 'Third Editm Copyright: e 1999 C. M. Naim

Comments aljd, qJuer:ies ,albou~ tEre bcek may be directed to: '1. Soutb A~Sl, Lang,u.age &" ,Area, Cen~er,: ](;e;]~,y Hall 311 j U![l.~,V,~~y. of Cb~JC38'i); Chi.eago~ 1[, 60631

2. c. M. Nairn; l ].:30 :18" 59~ Stt·et~ ;, Chica,g:o, n, 606:37'

lmpo:rtant Notice

Please famllimse }!'OwJse'lfwith tbe Prefaee hi, V~,li1m~ I, t'he futroducti!iYJ:l. to' Ite Glossary :un. V,riIJll'n:m '[]'~ and tbe tables Qf .oOrrl!te:li1t.s of'lEI.e two ''I,i'ollllme:s 'btl(f:b:re winlS tJc book.

TheR: must be DOW at Je:aft sixty, :miUioo :pe~lc ~ SQu1!h Asia, who mprd Urdu, as

:iL.. ... :~, 'm""'·'L~ :'!ii"rniii:n~~ "iI"l.~ m IlliSii 'i. ... ~ce as -~n~ '~"'r\~ ,........,...,. iL",'i., ... , .. ,....;II~ ..... .A 'I· ~u l~Hi ~y~; [~~ •• ~ IJ ,I~J-e , ' ~ -e- ~ .'.' ~ - "~. __ ' !I~!!!!-~"I! It,!\r.~~ng~-~. ,.~~~. ·~Jru ',!.I.;.ulJ~~i!J"~-W.N, IU'''~~_'

ad wouild. $,ve:n, 'US~ it OrIJ, 'occ~~(m~, in oonv~inlil, if~Q't i~, ~tiQg. 'Y/bjj[e tb~ H~ uro:ry ,ofT}rdu ,goes, b~}i:, ~o ~ fH;~.ei!.mt'IiL ~~tury,. S:p"l:metl}J, of i'~ begin 1D '00 :fowtd as, 00,), ,as., ~ dJj~. Pt.esenU,,:~, U~, IlSi, 'Ilbc omciallan,pag:c: 'D\fP~ao ,~d mK of 'die, sixteen majOI' latl,pa,~ OODSti®1i~~~:dJy ~~~ in, '1n.d1ia~ I~: rus: 1be slal~ ~iUi.fl!i!:ilige: illft Illdiiu Kas'Im'rlr.. ,hI~ iUNru, lilt«aJy aclivjti&Sl,'OOlnftiRue :in .:Ba:n,g'li.d~'h. Urdfl,l ~~e:rs aDd :p-o'i:dltcati,om;, Cim, ~ be :~ :ifl, ,substantial t.lllPl'~ m me: Middle ~~ ,Englud~, artd N01:ltb };.mmca. ,1Iin, SOlJi1b. Asia,; :peapl,e ,o:f.a1I: re]igiO'liLS c:Qnm:buti.!i'dl 'to ~ d~'t~:d:O,pa:ii(:Dt o:f UWiu, ~lte.g~m:ej ,and, me,' Sililll ooolime to' dQ ,$~" DI! major' cen1~~, 'of'Uro!\l ~itCi;ity ae~i;rilJ ,iR~ :Laho~ ~Iti, S~ and :E's~ahad:~,a1pimJi: in P,akis(rl'll!, wlrlle Del:ltij A~i~j ~clb:tow', Pama" Hyd~,ahw ,i!.1iid, B~J:nbay' ~Jl'tN",U~ to, p]a-\f lila! rele in :I'nd~a.

H~w dOes, Wu difter &Qm ,RilID:.Ii,?' It is m>1; ani ~ ql.le$!~~~ to an~',~ ml" wbie at, one :Iev,e.l. ofl~ngu:i$1~C ,diisa:U,lf;Se 'lil,e two, ~pe~fI,~fu!'rTI;S SMw halrdffi,),' MllY d~'fl\:rorn,ce',. ~ ~O~ 1~V'e'1 '~y :~e: mutu.ali~l1' '1,\I~fe ~lmimeUigjibl~. Tht f~ iiS ~lh;a1: ~, the ,~tim;e 'HiBi,-U~ ,ft,IiQn~ o:r :for ,d ~ MHiIMli and, Ut:dti~ '~':e ac anrj!" 'mnmbot of ~h v~ies;> ~d every :S,~m k:n¢w,$ 'mote 'i~ Qne~ Th~( makecs, it po~~ible' :fur an Urdu ,~~:cr' to ,com:mlm£C~le~ :in. 'wbaJt :be taIl'ls: U~li; ,w·tID ~ :peB@n w:1w ,claims, ~~ be :ltSio,g Itii:Jd'j~ 1hi~ :slate· 0'£ aKm~, Ittowe,vcr~ CXiSi$: ,oDI~' ,a1, tile b~'Y,el of :~imp~\e oF.t1 '~i~a:ttQ~$~ Hb\di and, Ur(lg, b~gj~ w dlffer ,oo~iderably wien put: into wndEi,~ 'Q.lf if tib,t, sUbj~t 'miter' :~cs, 1000 31bsu',act or ~lrLQlarty~ :H:~ ,at ~ p]lonolQ,g:i~ll.e\i'eL~ th~re wiUl be to'Ul'id ~II :nuij~,:t ,dii~~Kn~~, 'in'~ ~re: rormiIJ, ~: f'O:DlilS O'r. tw~"

<l)UJdlil"c~naats .f'X.,~ G" ql are generally :rep'~a«d 'in !H'~ndi, by Ikb~ g~ 'k/5, ~jv¢l:Y", Urol!J, I~nf ,~~ a6G but ill Hmdi" On 91J.e ,at~,~' :1mruiI, :H~Mi i':S :ri!!~~~ nam e~am is .a<uI ~I'iil Untn: 'tJ), ,be d.mu.1 IIV'.

(2) UOO,U, b~ .fe,wet' initia'i oon3on~ clust'Crs. 'oo~b i;m, ~: Wild, :IlFUmJb~'~ and mosA: @f'iIJb~m are of'lille ~ ,oonsammt pIllS lU~ Irl ~' tyl", i-l.illidei ~ ~',mm Ln.j~iM otmsoaanlU 'C~W:it:tm. ,FOf lnal 'di.ls.t!!lfS~, Ufdu :has, 1m} :pl\is ,I, mn-:~n.ti,C, s~'ep, 'Of ~piRn~ !hi plu'$, anoti1,er consonant and i IBl,ge" v,aril!t,y ofCOilsonants :rol]lo'woo. by 1'$/ Of: .IV-rwn~ ,or ilbese is!: fo'Lmd ~Dl Htmd~. Hindi) 'OcIi, the: ,eili!« ~md~ ha$ ~ d1l5k1'S wtillh filila'l, ,aspnt~

~~~ ,~'d as :su~h oam'bImnltm.s; ,as, ,a, OOD50Mn'l ,:1ll$, lw/,or IyJ; whidl do :H1, ~im'UHbJ~

(31). :H~m~, 'Urrlh.il amd HiM~ ,do, mat wHet' rmiCailly wiiftl, ,~tJC [0 'Vowels" The _:;1 im]lOnan~: '~ff~~e: is mat, ml \Wi:n~~ 'Hiin,(lli, ~'h,eN II' OOj: tigl: sbon ~Ibii' tfl~, :it

'ill '~re~, '~' f..A ' ....... , ~ 'ri~l~ ~. . ~JJ;.j' ,~~ r ~·..oih ~ ,t ... t'.... . a,i; an ~ ~ C: orr: ~ .. ~ a~ ,aniI '1''I'Ii~''''''''''a~

:1' ,. ~ ... -_'_ ~ '1Y'<i!'I!!!U,~ Orn,~ o~ ;l'1IlI',. \,,,,01, ~;I,\g,L,cr ~nl''LOO __ f' ~_ ~o:rm_ ~ __ ~_, UIll'WHL_

S~, in ~t H.i1nm, Ricgieil Lani~ge Mea," by Job Jl. Oumpm aoo C~ ,M. Ndm., :io :Ihe ,111~1t.r.m'(j1 Jmii7kli .qJA~ ,Li~ie~ Vol., ~l6~ 'N'Q~ l~, 1960, :pp. 'Pl,,'1 Ut)

At 'Ole ~loaleaJ! ]~j, 'lb,e: ~§ ~ Hmdi ,~, UrdUJ :Qft :mrOMily in ~ ana, 'ofl1\QC~L\uy~, but. ,a, few QIMr fGa'l.wes, ma, al. iDe' :F,l'Ii)~m,edJ ,nl.

e ru)- ,mil tlJ.e: ~ct comttutCto".B empl:O:'~J1i8, leailhtyW" w.e Iml, ChM thd~ ,a'bo uses :a pl~'~ fOmll. JQ~;,

't]1: Ali" &...,..'\;;_ Itrcjii ,... No,·u~.-J' 'I! '[ ,_* .. ;\1 'k; ,,~,

H!I-!I~, ;l'H~I~;U"""M~'~',,_~, "",,~~!yw~_,"

/mUIJlIa kiWbccN CIihii,)w~ "i 1 na:iI 'lbc '~ ... thdUl: IJm;~ukc ti;d ~i.)r~" '!i-~[ :Il~cd the 'boo'k.'·' /m,lUIjhoo t.i~~N ~~iN.r:r 'Ii I lteed ~~~ 'bO~K,jij;

tl) m~, en,oit~, ~ e0n5m:«Jl~OOl~, Hi~~ u~~'lb~' ,has '!jtl:: ~lItiilrli~~~, :fi1ilMliomn,g

''''iii 0, .',!II. tIL.· . t·· . 'I . 11..:; ....... " . f'·!lill:..' .,.-..'11.. I' ~,_·A~r. ' ... ·"..W~·oIi'~

as a 'CQmPIcmc:~, ~,g, W1iUI,' ne pammaJIiIt3 51l~iw'" Q : '1.!I!le ',",~IIil'~ 'I!..!Ii!!~~ ,.w. "",.! ... Ii~

.~ c ~lf'''r Il;. ...... , ' ... , ......... :',. '--., -~. '~., ;~ ~i.'I·iiI·I·Iii:''''''" .. ,

OO........~~' ~_~ !!!,n,1I,!' .... ,~!YUIL'!!~-

u:;..."a·,. 1m :-!I." IL- ..... L 1I'~I"'.JI;.· ..... 'I!;;." :I.&.~·--'·.t....:· L,<"l!ro.lIIJ "": ,--.........!II ..... - :Il...",. ~ ~ 'i. ....... irs '~~.

Dlinul.. _ ' ilIJillOO iII..~liI M. ~I'II: .NlIaDiI!.!ID.I,1 YIlII;~: it! ,~ ,m~ ",'0 ~y .~ ~ ~~~ _. ,~,~ __ .

Umg~ h'filijhee rr~b :kj!~N ~uii~i :hajlNl~, ....tin~,

Im~jb= tum alli.lb«N ~:a.rii;'dnaa, hWN/.'" ,.,it!.'O--

'1b~; :rtJth:m.j\tIl8, :~~t bow~1 'wjU k ~h~ $D\ce m: H'lb,:Him:Li ad 'Urdu: 1M~,j~br'rni~~~ i:IPlt.c ~,ad. mm 'him.'~~

InlftmS, O'r-"~i w:~ imm:cdi~ ,~'$ oo~cs ,a1l'emtiolil :ilSi1ftCi 'Ilk~a)f IyahI ~; Jv..~' b'il Hb~i wI·Ihc: ,sing,u:1a;r' ~Q])stt·Mt"!e:: ~il!la11 mfimnccs Bid Qr'/~ amd IVt!Ctl' for the ,tual Umu 'U~ Q~)' 1y«I' amd Jw.O(jJJ'j, clwu,sb the ~I wnrlteo, r:arms, em) :i~, ,[I, kltO!i)TIi hHi. 'M_,~' ngW'lS w:hich He: 'maK-'ililJM ~ClIl 'Urdu ,E: focmtit1imc: lin Hjndli~ ~he: ~l-i#"~ aiSo .e, Othe!l" dif(.~ rqJ~: m~jVy from, ~h~ ,fad tha~: IUllLdi ~\VS 'ilt$l~~ ~lIlanf :~ San$kriJt ~bn~ 'UJdu fbo:rm'¥iS :ftom fmsiiim ad ,Ambic.

.

'l.~

'-

lI:aj~ts givtm,g th.eir~m tx:p]lIIri(!l~,. ,t!!Q.~'~sl.Wd liSt:: th.e h:dex: tOI diI..e O~'i! as, wen 8$, the K~£:e.s :~, fhe ,giQS:fiarie;s ooJJl the no·tes, to. iclcllilitY relev31n ,~ sOO11toos . .f~:.'1iI.e ~I;S. 'to madl ,on Ifl:eir ·own.

We mwe ~lldliCaited. these· 'ni~"'o!'",_: .·IIi' ·'I.e r1:;U~wJ I ", . ~ . ':

, . __ ~ .... ,t"'~"'~_ lil WlI, ""~V 1i1!1i,!,~,

(1}. G~ $edlQRS ,Be m.-ernd, to W~1Jh ia ~ing]e number. E.xMlpl~': S~; :[,42.

Sec :sed~1 142, ~11: 'dte: 'Gmmmar.

(2) No.'tc~s, [0, 'the.: _Is ,M';e :r.cfemd t'l)) 'Wlltlru. ~, m~ tie fim i!D:dlicailiIng ~, number 10£ the inQt~, :the :socand the Dumber of~h{; :~'i'. EXm'g)!lle: S~ ,8:: 6. ;;;: ,See 'no~:e: 8 in 'lmU'6

D,c· ,onpnj1 ~b ~-e.d. rn.ercin, 'was pedbmm hQm ] ~63 to, HI6.S pursumm to a (lonnct Wirb dire 'Umited States Oftiot of:UucsrMli, DeputmJL~nI,ofH'~lItll, ,iEdil(.8tLon and. 'W~, whim is in DO wa,¥ qmlSibh:: WI .Y 'PB.11: ortlle. m;p;t~hd 'p~ented heM W" ~~ :m,lI1I1.ef o:t-its :pttS;Cifiltation" The boo):, ''INaS fi[$t ~blis'hOO. in 19ttS:, ~Ili ,I, mimeo"~ f~", by' 'the Se'UIb Asi' wg-se ,It ARa -C,mte~l" of'~ht UnWmity' 'Qf Qieago,_ It 'W~ f'l:v]Si!d~ Q,panded and pro:p«ly pl,lblisn«!, by ~he SattlC imtitutiml ' 1m, 191'l,~ dum 'repMt~d Illi 1915. A ~nd "p.~ 'Wi .. ::some Clbm;.es, '!M!Jj. bfiO'1J.Pl OU~ m l,'9,SO.

Tbe p~' third cditian;, 'oo-~1'tr'll is; king bJo\l,pt 0'," :~ ill whom. re:lfisiou of'ft.;:.: entiJe teXI'. The.: ;g:rammu' ,odJ no~:e.s bave ib~D. written 4lRCW" '.ile' suip~ ICSSOfi-S h~~tClI been, :r«asl:, the ,grammar l~¢lie~ ilJa:v;c :bccn, [lcv,is.ed and expmdtld ... ,Dd (tossICfeRae;~I, has: 'bc:c;g, mlumc:ed 1hro.~. '"l'1hiis, '~--ii5 :made poslibte by the gfnenulii fSUP,pott. oElke Ul:I!hrer.!JLy ofCni.ca,gCJ,., Dilii]dQ!) mth~ H~des, whtch ga'~ m~ a q_efs ilta:ve 'Q,f:ibsencej amd ~ American hilstiiDl~: Qrlndlan Srudies:? v.1deb ,gav,e inC :11 *i1, tQ". pm1: ~ iJ:avCll to India 300: \\fOlk (JI') 'Ilbe 00<ik '.~. I :ml gralcfu] ee 'both. 1be'ir grants also $uppo,iWd preparation o.f1he Urdu po:nitms, ofthe,'t9J~ l Sc.houiLd also ~baDk 'the Ameii~, 'Co1.iPOi1 mr. me Teadhimg ,of,f~iIB ~-SY It!!, (ACIF-L). for a sr,amrt to· 'COVC;f' Ute cost of l.cttim,g, 'thei pummat ~tkm, 'ke;ycd m: fOJ" 'l'C,vjsioo.

I am ioocebmd to, ~ $Q.;\lrlh, Asia. 'lan,guige & Nc'a, C~n1er: and, 1l1l~ Omuni.tte.e. ,ott SouWetn As:im SWdies ofilil·~ UmVimim,)' o.f.ChicagQ' fOr Utri.oe maDrfiig po,Slit' c :ilw puliJkalit'>n oftbis;booi:'" amd '0 m,' filtn.dS! Q.- Sbakfl"Ahmd" S)cd. ,S,a!marm' adili ami: 'Ihe lale M. Aaw~1 Haq, who, save D1~ 'Valuablle :wistan-ce d,1:uing 'the: origitlal pooj;~1'.

,.., 'i.,iiI ',"", • '11...-. lwll. ~;i!!J3Jm

Chka' M 12~ ]999~'c

• ,- "i, .', I

§-O~ ,.' .a,' ,.! .,,' c.'

F'ho(miiQ8Y Script

TAB -'E OF -CONTENTS·

httroducdon SCriP-It 1 Script: 2- Scrip,t 3 SCriPlt 4 Scdpt S Sc,rl:pt 6

s.cri]l,t~ " Sc.Ji:p1: 8

Grar.unw

:milex to 'me Grammar OGmnlW Bxereises

Glossary' for' Gl'aDUllaf Bxereises Sen~] (Hossaries,

Urh:~t ] Un:itn Unit UI UmtW Unit V UnLut VI 'UnitVrr Unit vm UnitE{ Unit-' Unit XI Unit ,X]] Unit ,XlII

J

lS ],' 20 14,

29 32 36 -41 ,44

5S

D.-SH 1.'95 230

24,5 248 2:50 252 253 256 258 216-1 264 267 2,69 274 2'18

'U-!"X"n,i"

.' ·UI~, ~ y;-It

·i"mt.XV Umt )[V)J UJl~t XV[( Uh~,t xvm U-pjJI; xtx

';"VV'

.m1.~ .

. "It'~t~,XXI Unim'XXn:

Uf;ilit XXII U~it x~X]V· Un'"t.XXV U:nil: 'XXVll 'th1iit X.xVU uotm: XXVIII 'Unim XXl''''

"ii'i;~ti 'VV"!i.1!'

1 ~~d ... ,AAA.

2&2- 286, 29'1~ 19S: ]·00 .lOO, lOi1 su ::U4 lU1 121 32S )]0,

3133, 315: .33" 34.3·

PH· ·0' :··N·· "0·· ···LO··- G'·· Y" ,

, ........•........ , .. ".,1 : ....

URD;U' 'PHO":N' O··LQG·· .. ····r-¥··,·,

.:.. ,', ...... - .... _. ":: ,",

T.he fo:Jlnwmg [chart, indicates the ,sound.s QfUtdil.

Conwrlalmts:

1 [Glottal

Voicel_ unaspimt«i VoieedJ unaspime.d. Voicd~. aspiraflM Voktd., aspit,l.t'ed

'BiLflbiiil Uental Rl.tmj]~ 'P;alaql Ve'lar Post-'w.dat,
~;;~~
P t. T e k q [1
b dl :D j g
ph th Tn ch 'th.
bh db. Dh jh gil, D.

'Voi~l~ Voiced.

t :ii, ~ X
Vi' 2:, i G "17[-L

.,': .

{mh M lb]

III II. ••

iI! aa e t,e :Ii 1Il C 00 U. uu 31 au,

'N (lDwcates ~bat: the preoe.dDlg. VOIWi!l is lluaJised.)

The cmisomms in Set I: are mcstb' mp$~ 'while; those in Set II: ::ne :aU ~inmls.

They ba!'Ye 'been ,ut; in ,iii. chart wmch roughly indJic~ '~.ej]" plumaic DB.tue (rlQw1s of ardC1!llation) and, theirredatiQntSltip with §.eli other" The CO:IlSQ~ iL1l Sets m and IV nMfe sim.p.ly 'Menlis-ted 'wlthout Wl;Y nd"~08 to 'the' phontmc durl. SomG: OfU1.e conson,:mb NqlJlire ;I, ~. WMd o:r,e;(plarJa.~ion.

I, fI has. '~ dassi.fkd as a. g'Lcnil'al stop. ,It is of rim) OCc:tlff.t:fiC~, Ji.mit'ed to' ~he sp=dl ofru;gbly mw;a:ted :peopi]C'i OJ;'thnsC,i 'W.hD :like to app:roximate th~ QJiginal pronmaciati(m, of &abic lo~ml. It is. ]lot ,as em.p'ha:hc8l]ly pm.ooWl.ced. as ·the g~o131 stop :m. Mb[io; the conS:triotiorI ln we 'lMoat is. In.on ,and tent alive in TJrdn.

5

S C' . R" .... : 'iIfP. 'T' •.

- _. .~,. .

SC~· D"I1DT-' '~ I tr . ··d· .. 'I' ~ .. ,.

' .. n..J!J;:" C.·F . n . O· ue .. 0.0

Urdu script' is a modified. fo.:nn of ,th~ .A;rab~c saipt; k's~~. 'tl~ orig'iul Arabi.c lettees ·it incladtes additional ~ett,ers· w:hich r:epr:esen.t the sound$. exclusive to

. dJ ·U'.....3 Th . , . . e d.: ].. n.

P'erSUUi an Or ". '11; uili.. . '. e cmen'! alphabet CQJlS'lftS, or ~m1y .. seven meal" ~ett005

ad. a. :nwnb¢[' 0.£ supplemelltmy diia-crilrics.. M.Oit of the oo.nsMantd soends are represen ted. in the a·Wphabet. by a ~:i'ng~c diserete ]eu:er; a few', however, are represented by :mO.{'ie; titan OK. '!'he muJtipUeiity arises out· of th~ fact -th.a~ Arabic snd 'Penian words borrowed '~'Il.:'" U· , ... ~. have rot:a1llro their orlo.imal soellinas while

, . • r • _ • • _ ,- \ ' •• " ••. ~"-!I .,lUU. _ _ . '. - ~ _ _. ¥~--' ,. !=~ . " .

their pronunciations halVe chang.cd, ca1!lsJng the loss ef Hie: original p hoillte.t] c dlstinctloas. As fo([' the vowels, cm]y two of the lon,@; V'ow~[~ an:; uniquely indicarm--oa1.y in the iimttl :pnsitmon:,-tbe: mt. espc~iw]y the shott: vOW$ls~. have to

'l... ... j)'iii,Ae~~'~ ,.e..A'n"i. ,.'11.,l1li, ... ~ ... _ lI-C. ~~~.~ U,~-~ Wv ~Ij~~~-r

U··.;j .•. • e ."'1...1- "I...A Th ", . . 'I... -, .a •

. IuU ES written nom fl&,H. to k~."" .rne scn.pt 18. CUfllilVe-, .LI!.owevet':~ rr is not

• -';'~ "" • ..:I1~, U....1·.~ 0 L • ~i' fl' pl .... 4...:1 bo

'Sh1I~u.l' JJm~8.!l': Uli IOI,\;.AOary .' . ww 'Wn1nJ,g ,eon.necttong ~!!~~Tt~fS are 0[00 piaceo 3 I' . vee

Of' be-low each olber. Th'Ci'C aIle: seiVlerW. call:i~hic 8ty·]e.s.; m,e cne most eommcely used 'is ca.l1~d Natali"! ... 'Until recently most ,of Urd.u printing was done. by U'thograp,by; DOW it 'is !mostl,y done by pboto-offsel The earlier process used. band-wriuen ·Wasta'iq,;. the :iiew process, ISCS the s.ame Of the mo-r~ '~t and iinc:rea&ingJy 'more common dcwce ·o·r co:mpuw' composi~.cm.. (As in this boo·k.)

A' .. ··ft .. _ ..... ;!L...~ ..... JJ' h ,-,~ ... L..... 'i~_j ""I ...... 1 • '1 it.'Iili'lih 1" ,11... d" 1l._

:SlgtU "eant:n~i ui Sc......:O·.I.W.,ltjr wOil\;$ weT~aRi,w.SO ~I~bv..:,y ~~dS.ll~e,'ln tne

styLe called 'N,~ which. :is Ute, font sty]e ailso used in Urdu. 'typewriters. Apart from. certain. ndfiot details 'wMcb MSUlt from the lexi.ger:Jie~es of ~I' 'Pril1ltjE;g~ t.he two sty I, es do Hot d.if&:r much .1D. Urdu. The. 'ioUowimg script lessons, ·tb£!;re.fo~ wiU focus on the N'uta1iq .s..~)~the ~qe studcn.ts mlltSt]earn EOI write as wen as ~~but some: inf.tmnatio:m.,olll1h~: N~kh style will abo 'be ,added. ,iIS, needed,

Ui dl.~}- - -.. '1... ... d'" ':··d~.:J· "' if"" ...... ' ~.,.. '. neeie ........ .JI.' , .. "",.,...,

.1!Y!.~Mers:may~: _lVl .~:I!D"""'lWO ~J.':Fes:. coanec o:rS·~w.D.on..cOmtWLiQrs.

Seme Urdu, j,ettlC:'fs do liO~: join wid~ aDotber letter, even within. the same 'Word~the:se 'We shall esll '00 n",oo·ttl..fiectow-s. T~IJL:: rest wi.n j '0. i:n, with the: letter ~ .... ~~ ...... ~'if'i:i) "''''''''';in' -i.ft ,..11.. ... ce;QiM"'i~' ·wmd----th.el!',,"· shBml be eall ... ..:II. conaeetors,

·1l,'I;J.:!!JIv""!' ~"'G ~~, ....... UD::l' ~II."'" _ _" ""'" _ . . e . ~ 'Oo'V-.!J!.lIlIN'I!;<, _ •

Urdu ~me.fs, do not distin.gujdi, between IGwe:r~ Mtd upper:-case forms.

] ~ .......... ..i U . .J\... I' ...:I: U'-_··h d'" ,..... ... . " I,_~ ~~'i.. !Il~~ ,·.I.rUu . etters W·£l"'.(· m is tape aocof_mg. to 'wellI' pO"mta.o:n r:.e~[v.e to eaen

~~ oftern. dependiing, '.1'0.11 the. letter that. pRcodos or follilows. These variants. a.r~

" .

'·k..... d-;i.,;.. ... .iJ .L ~ ... L,~ I:. '11 . &: ., • {'Ji 'L 1 )

to ee unc ~~..uw. In. terms ortne ro owmg ,our POSlbJOn.S. \,ff .~ space; . 1.lett,er:

1. Initi.m .. L ._ ,N. Not IC·onne,cmd to an~ PJ~ng letter:, but cennected to

- -

..,\... L!: ...... U· .. , 1_....... . . th·· ~ w ....... ~ne .LQ .. o~ng .L~!L~f:m "J:', :10\11 u. ..

2. MMial. l_ L .. CoU!~t~ 00' bo.th. dJe'pXcOOmg ,and. foRowim.g. leners,

3. Fin8il,., #~ L. C~~ toO ,th~ pru,roin,g :l¢'ttt1~ but not OO([inec~ ~o' uy ~~ef' :f~,nO{wmg it with:m the w@m

4,. mdepenie:nr1. ~ = it U~~ on ~jth~tI:" side,

TIuus: whi]e ,8, OOJm;~ct,"'r [~'-"""', 'r.....,~l~ ,O!iit' ',-C~ffilY "'''', ,t"""'iii" v."...:i'''i'iIt~ ,'I,": ... ·"I~ ........ ,,"j-.'-....,1

,~ , _, ,i!. ..... , Q"'L!!Oi~ ~,.;~ .IlL\CIve IiiI..;]I m_~,l GIl;;! .!l""~ """'~ "':J; ~ DOJ'Ill ","",,],LI¥'I!;o!ou,

caJ1i :~a(Ve only iwQ:--.,--.fmat gdl 'ind-epemd~nt Note mS(i' tb~t mi,ti~~ ~ 't~ijl'llal: do not neeessadlv m",,~,ft w~l..,;ii'ij .. i .. t , ...... ,,fI ' .. erd -finsl 1'·- the , ... ;I,.'L. .. bet. U';r..ll-. .. , ]_.'i'f' i'V'i<'" 'r

" J "-.-.~ ,U.lU _'~iI-I! dlW wn... .tUllllLII. II. c: i:ltPUi.1II.JQlI;!; . J,UIJ """'C~ '" .............. .h

, - ~L .' - " 'd~' :. l ferm Each' Uum' ]- " al 't.' aiI-]- be . .

] . . ' , . .- .. ' .. " ,. . .. .... . . '. '.. , ". ' , . . ....,...

~n ' n m , ' ,en"" . is. "", • " ~,_, ener ,SO,.:iIlS:BI, name., USiU """ gJJltrIi~,ng

w.ith the oo'U;'md, it 'rep~r~ which has 'to 'be memorised for eu--y teferenee,

In the lessens nun, follow, Urdu l~tws win m:ot 'be presented in their:ail,ph.abeticil oli'der;, mSi1ei!d, ~ w~l1 'be preSiented, as large: or .SD.al1 sets of 'I~

.ebl""'lilii'r .,.......''"- .. , .. ' IL.:' • "il'"oinO AJ' '-', 1" IIL.~'II ,t:::~. .' ,.. """- ~i ... "' '.- ,'h- :1· ""' W"1."'C 'UJ:'JUogr;2pru£ SIM 9n)ues" .... se, "Ne Suw. nrst Presen'i, me i,~l'e.fS W. tc ,]

:rep:resen~: ex.c1l1lsiwly Uniu wUiDds 3m.d o:m~~y- '1.:a:Gr ftc letters which Me used onily in Mabie" 'loan words.

Wi1'b. reference to every' 'Urdu ],e~~r~, 'tl,e; teacher sll,~'1!l[d. ~pla'in each in

terms of'the following five qUS11JOllJ;.

] . Is the: ]CUer a conaeeeor, 01 a nen-eenaeetcr?

:2. Does it have '[p<Wttm.rnlal 'v:ari.ants? If SOj' how :mmlJY? 3, Wh~t is tts mati\'''$ ,size co:mp~ to cme:r ~~?

4,. :H,o,w dees it,allirugn, with, ftbe horizontal iine on tile paper?

.s, \Vh~. does it receive a, :precedm,g ,ooueotM? In ,o'dler 'WOT&~, where does :aJ. preceding ]e1Jtm' join 1\ 'mtI,cr 'than blow :i't joins a. following Ee-l'te:r.',

The teacb~ wouldl, flnd ~t" uefu1 tiO ~1Jl~ U~ .~~, ofwbol,e words in

~ ,

.. !I...~l .. a; ;s,tAnfl" tlillU; ~~ ~!!!~aP~1'I

] , :Uiit flu.'ll ~,~""",'";i!' 'Ii'Ii .... ...:I .... .;I, ...... ijjIi~te· I ,oio'l!. ... : 'iil!rnr~, ,ift 'tho ..,.:,.. ,iil!'i~oiIi<iI"i;_.-~~+ .-f" .............. ; -:"

_ q.~ ~_~~IQ ~~'-~ "-' "',~," ILIl,iC: ~·v.~U 18'- ~!!i.?U H~~~l-~' lV.~~~~II~IQl.

2. Name the posiltiom. ~,lme:r QCCU'~es (wiooifl. ,Ith~ w:ow~l ~d, :r(!laJtiv,e t(l ,eacb ,otber~ as die_ted, by rmbeir 'bebt;g a. oorn:tOOI'O[" or a n:on·oonn.~]").. and wri.'~ the relevant illO,S~tionai vmants, UEdcr 'I!b.cl mdep~M!t slWapoo.

.... D '-I' &,~ '.II...~, .. ~ .. 'I.~, 'I,~~~ '1.1. 'L b' - -

j .. ' . .law' a. nne on 'um w~.'~ ~_u.~_u ~~D. 'Wn¥ he ~,ust: ,~'[\J. \\ITiJtlng ar ,8,

eert "iii -. '~-i'ilt "- .. '[ ................ , ,""""- .... "L..""~. L,- -'. - - ...... '~ ]. - - "T"i.,' ,,,,,'b..-" . - " ..:i~; - -,. ... .Ji -b' the ~ , . '. l.i!lI. PIJiI~,n m -rG ·gmi.Lli. "'" !l.WU.. llWlZOllLGI me. J. JlL-'C ""nmCc ]s wctti~GUI •. Y . u'e ;I~.rsl

]. ..... .• 'l. ..... 'Il. ., ,0, ,g.- ~'!ii b c!;O'i.. .. ~ .Ii, 'i. , • ..;1 . .:1 •• ~.'k - .. , 1..

'Merw~I1Qi, occurs m, lIts .ldlliEllll, sr ape W.lUJ..iU. uile WO'J.Uj ana wnere rt reoeruves '1'II.,e

p~dIDDg, connecter. [(The nfth questien abo,-ve.)- 'NO'W' -write [he complete word, dearl.v :iJ!ld-k~ati'l'Ilit me ,oonmmot lette:m

.. 'J . -_ ~ t, "' _ , ], " I

-4" ]n each imtm~ th~ 'teach@f' shouLd, emphasize low IUOS'tt Ooi' :r,nllcl1 of tbe: 'W'Ou is w.ri~ m one smooth mOVteilien~ and how diacrincs ,are added on~y after by OF aU co.nn~ b~ic ~ ha~ b~~ ',,!1iit,e~,.

SCRIPT: 1

] o I 4-1.,: . ";Ii- •. '. _ . .:1.0 ......... - .... _ -'f . - . +~'i letters e" ",,)II t· ... ,j,l!. Jl.._~1

, .•. ,. TIl nas 1m)", we m)tr.UUJ~ a wli. 0' . oon~@ ,,!;il!i~:;:J;,~ r-e:~jeH"'cu. Q:$S me lu~

series, and fum other ~elters:. Tlie laner rue used 1:0 :repmstIDt ,an the ],onS v owels of U·roUlJ:/.~ ee, ii, CO~ Wl.,. oo.~ ~. Th~ 'win be studied withJn mtlllosyllables of tbe type: opliona.1l. oomscmanrt followed. bya loo,a; vowel. The 1~ ar-e first: H~t .. ed ~n r'heir' independent shapes togetaer' w]th their t'UWm'lles. Suhseq.ue[i,tly~. eaeh is dri:$Cll.ssea separately in meee detW~.

Name

Sapnd

....

. ~

!heel /peel II'eel rr~~

,~

T

n

... .-

laliff Iw,aaooi /chooTii yed lbaRH~

aa

n, ,I:),

...

y,U.

"" .• .:...c.. ~~ ".~ 'I,;'!;,o, m

1.1,. ,1OOeI smcs::: AJ] 'the letters in th~s series are IcoOO,edfirs" As is mdtmt ftom ilell' independn sUpes MOVe, they .d.iffer from eaoh other :maJioJ'y in the Iilfl1m'ber and -posru-nion of' we~r dia;criti .. cal dots, They dam idGnti(;al lni.tiall and medial variants. Theil" fm~ shapes are die same as the independut

N:aD1I!e, S~und. IndJejpendmt lnitial 'M'MI" 1 Final
, . ',-C la

Ibw b - =' 1< . ......,
,. ~. ,.
/peel 'p . ... '" ~~
1i' -<: .
" .,
ftee! '1: ~ "". .. ;;;:..'
... '"
/T,ooJ T ~. , ~ ~. .~
"""'" .,. ... .......-
fnwunl . 0. l:J ... ... t;J
¥ .. l .:l. lJD; 'me ~ ~han 'wt have :~ 'ODly o:nG :im,ti~ ~e ,fw I~ letmF. 'nu,~' rus dtG norm, 'm. N'ag'tb and on Unil~, ~ttrS, :m, ,or-di1illaIY '~ri:tiQB, in the Nast.tl'iq style, however!, there SH: other 'vmamts::

I~
~
"~
~
t'
f:
:t, i
..
I
~'
i
j:
,
i - I'
U
-iI;
~
..
, !,
tJ
~
,
0
d L, ~-

L

J

-

~"eOO:Siona.nt, it r~J:~ts th~ long VO\VeJ faa!. Diu;: ~ ~ cJba:a/,; . leal' ils indicated by'/aUfI ~tb ,3 su~t caililed./madl: ....

~

~I' :a Iaa'b~.

1.4. Iwaaoo/: A :noo~eotQr, ilt lt1lf~ the: OOMonant Iw/. llJU;s;:: ~;:;;;; lw,aa/. 'B,u,t 8'lim' co:nsonaDJ~ lwutiJfJ! :roSf :['~: my of the: t~, ~O~I bad:: vowels, tuu; ee; ailil~, ~be ohoi~ bems ,d~~nt: on 'the :5~fl.c ·woro. Thii:i.S i :-=' tboo-~ 000;, baWl' dlpenWing OJiJ d~c conl~~

,in:al, t.

'II" ...

l.tL 'Read, the £onOWIDI 'by fim nllDinrg, tile: eOIiiSAlituO-IiI: ,Iett$l',s ami illeo 'the oombin " ,syUable.e

bai ,'psi ~

~

bee 4.JreC"r tee: L.

iii·

Tal. L.

bi Q pit q tij J

boo J! poo J

'!II'

, ..

nUll J

....

'tau. j

.i>

Tuu

~\I!i1 ;

~

Too .1

".

nan ;I

~

.ROO' i

naa t-

" ;, Li t"'i' II! ;6'
tii-· j 'rl:
.W 'if
;~ I!!!I ~
m' d'~ ,L! .J.J!
Ur I( h'
~ ';" -,' '.
r,) iI3
~I~ i: .~i ,~! i. L.~
~~
'" - •. ~$- ~
~.r ~ ..
~~ L.-t .IJI ,-"L Ub
.. - ... ' ..
.. iii· ); }~ .l-
LL,· ~ .t:~ d....lr
~!I!I!I
... L~ }I,
.~ utlL
~J~ t"·t U ..
'- 'III 'H-~
~. ,~ - iI· ~ aj~ ..
LJL J)~ L~t ~~'J! ott
~ .,~ . -',. 1.8. T~strlbe m.e: :foJlo~ ,Uno Urdu.

. a.at1;aa ~ ·buT • pooli tloopn aatce
L' • ~ .•
'poOl. -waabee yaapii y. na.ahoo, T'UiIlTaa
. .......
1l.aaD ill!), y"Ullii yaa-wii waayai bu ,', ,-
- -- ",' .. oaaJUu _'l1lnee
aaburu :pauyaa Taapii ,amee IlJ(I\ITU toonii
'Tool= t,aatai. baIyaa. l.loo1UU hmlioo, pal'ee
'JmllOO "J:auee UYUIIi 'wuTaa 'ywJnaanii aawm.
,:, 1,:, .. , , '. __ I 19

.2.0. In this 'lUij'l we sball OODisilid~ ~ sy,l] 3ble=lyp e: oprionail consoneat, '10[1£

vowel, fcUo/wed, by a ,COI]S01llmt. We, stan wi~ftl sy[i,ab'I,es. 'begil1l1l1in,.g in a coasonast,

lb~pI .... ~ ~ ...... + L
'"
llamf cle"' ... c) +, 'I:"'
Ip_TI j, .L, - ~ +, '~
....... '\ipiP'
':;f ~ 2 ... 2.. C +uu, 001> au+ c: IwMfjo/~ a nea-eooneetor, has no :separate medial shape. The final CmIsommrt~ theref~ win be wri,tte,n, itt 11'$ h'a;d~~ndMt shape,

lruu~ too~ t2iupl ''-f(i -' 'T" + "}
. ,
101llU'n", 'IIDODil,. ]uturn/ e)} -, :j -+ ;
, 110,
lTlJ!uT~ reer, TauTI .~ i I~ + i'
~"", _. ,2.3. C+l, l, ee, ai -+ C: Icl'HlOTH y~1 ,and], 1b~·Ri:I. yeeJ are ccnaeetcrs and have 'iden.tic~d initial and Medlw varialJlhij whii,ch we caJJl siJnp~y Iyee!. (Script l. 5.J n e final oons:otu.mt ~~ ~n now eccur '~[jj ~ts final sn~, [0 the case of the' leners of the; (bee! series, their final: .pe~ a,Iie the. S:a111e as, the indepea dent 'TIiH!: importsnt thing tQ note here is that the 1:l]iriaill censeaant before a medial ty~ft.1 ma;y have a di"ereo~: valiam:t in Nasta:!]iq than :it 'wou~d. have before ~ 'fJinw, le~'ooTii :ye-el Of ,/baRi:i yeel. That w(nJ'Ld be the oa:s.e ~th 'the Ibeel series 'Iettet:s-l)~f,o!,~ a, 'medial /yuJ t'tley ap'p~' in t'he ~ei mape Wi 'GOO beim-e a final/alit}. (Co'mp!iJ"le Script .~ .. :2 .)1

n.. .'" ~

or /Iuh 4

'I'

.&..'

L T,

~ .~

~ . lp~paiJ

'NoOw eonsld!eli' 'We :r'o!~lowin!, :;

'CombmitdW1ord ~

JbeeTaaI I~
'ifB;7:.
lbe:cT'jil ~
~Tee." 2'
,.' ~ .
.-
Ibi:iwiil d'~
~ "Iii'
In~il c~
A... _.
Ir. .. "if tJ!'
p'i'it~- .
/pll aaI ~
nr~
'VI. Un I ttJ ;S.!p!nI.1e ,Syllable IT:aaI Ie

+

Sep.rare'Syllable'

ibcel s;

,i

..
rriil J
,..,
{feel l.,.,
IwD/ if.'
C,~I
.Iwiil I ""
I .. - J
'tul
Itaai t,
tmara!' ~ +

Ibeel e:
i,
~ef L,
..
/b·ii ~
~,
-..
"'
mw ~.
. .....
Ip"'/ !
1'1. U
"
/piiil ,
~
r.
~:I 2.~,. ·Ia, + C' : ':S Immeoned eutiiC:Ii' (SmJ,n 1"3,.)~ ani 'ini!tial/aaJ 'is represe1Jl~OO by JaUfi' ~~IJi1, a sU1'l.lfsajn1 c:alted 1madIf' , :1: 'Illefill f:o.Utows mli.t ", 'wilrn be \muen

.", J:" ,r

8&"' ,i

2. S., u~ •. 00, au + C,: n.1Ie thr~ lomS 'back 'VOw,c;~s am tl~~~ 'i'n the luitia1 'po,si.tion by lalifl followed. by iwaafJoI. Thus;i 9fu~ /001 er JaruJ,. dqendhig on 'th~ t01;Utx.t.,

IUll.ibl = ,-"",~

- - - .1

-'

N'o!e that ;I) ~ Rowe-V!!!r., ',""iU be r.ead ,as, I.a,w/- a Ions ''lowel: foll.o\,,~'ed. b}~ 3J

COIi'i$OfU1At

2,6'1 H~ ee, ai -+ C: n~ three long front vowels De repr-eSOtlte4 ill'iriaUy 'b)' a, ·com:biMtion, of Ian., ad Iye.d+ Thus .IaJifl 'p.las Icoool'~ yecl Ct.1,uals I[~. wb~II:e:' Idifl plU$ Jb.aR:i] '!lool eqmds, JeeJ 0:' ,tail.

lai~ : .... ~ .. ~ ,",""I

2. ] O. "fAnSCribc the foUo'Whlg into Urdu.

boon peeTii ,', aanu. Taet booTH
n.eew:u
T"' aibii bii b~1"oo :piitee
'POQ D. :Il,OOn. Nn
nuat ;if' T II II. TuuTu aabuun
'nee ~ aJ!pll )l'UttmiSaD.
aibiin paaPI 'Wrtce D .. pi wOO ceT
-:-,oopn
bUn biinee _bastii beeTee TuuT,ee tainii
tiinii pc:~nau mWaa1l biim.m TUnl!l1llwj untccn 2.3

SCRIPT' -.

····f ,"; -' - - '"' ''::1

I ,'_. _ ',: ~ I! ti ~I

'lUll. This., unit: ,mtro·duees '1910 sets, of':no:m,-OOIlDoct'OI'S" on.e OODliulictor., aJRd a.

'v,ariant of'fJluunI 'wbtich is, UU'd '10 i:ndiate nasaJized v-oweh;-

B 1f!CCI... ~- .. - '.- --, •

f , . • •

iI ' "_' _' ~._ [. _~. : Ii

J

J"

).

N:am,e ld1iall ,1Daaj

n.J fReel 1"IMl'

l7#l

-

800ud ,d

A ,.daIY. '., senes',··· '-"-."

• -.- .> 'I _

I • _ .,' ' ••

1Afttr

J: ~, JlI

D'

:z

-,

c. D.,

"'....JI... "!i":'" 'Ii. ........ ~

,tW~,I,lll, ;~

Inu ~

~ -, _,' • _ . I. J ~.

iW]". -'. - _ .

b,

'nasali "ion.

IdaaI IDaaJ Examples::

pm,1 ),

,..
IboodBI ~ ,IJ;P! hiadI JI' Il - fl.'
Jdiiidaar.1 - J-!) ldiidl II!!!! ,.v . - ~
/l)eedJ
IdiiDi tlJ' lD 'bi ;j, ~'aaf{ jl..Lt
!~, _ uD t ,-, ~.:JIJ =
-,
.... - iIiI!- ,3.2. .lr'H' :seD'e'$: lb,ey fOG I.f\C Don~c:,(jnDea'Of$~ IDd ~;bcy tGO ha,Yo :slpat-atc ii~d~~: and, flUl, dmpe$.

7M:J ]' IB, 4,,:, l .... ~ _8 ....... --...,...ilv ,., ....... J,I 'f,ft, ~ .. ' ii' ....... ~1fi.-.-,;4 .. '---' "",,,"'NiJ; e~ ,~ " _ _g UI1w. ~I !lHViH ~1l~L!Hi1V~,~ ~l"-ll LII'--r.}~,ut!l. UUii [~WB..tI, '1-:0. .IIlIGLIIMi ~'~

~jbfee ,ather :lJetten whi,db tee ,pc 'pt'ODoooced IS III in U:rdg,! bu~: ~1Ic.ir ~ ~:C is

'.....III ... '"""""h';' !I~~_- ~,..- .. ,,,", "I'll 'i.. ... .:.::: ...... .1 iI .. ;i; 'iIo.T - .. '- . .., .......... 11 ~l· ""~

mma~ 10 ,;io:UI~_' fre ~; i~~ 'WI' .~ '~ 'wSti!S:.Gw. IUift', l~Ote Ill.-: 00lI,~' ,t~ 'IS 'IJ.~

,:M

- - Ll· ;r:;, II'· ..Jl..,.1.... U;oil

~O' rep~r. UJl j,B ~nl!~hull ''W'Ol_:m J tr~,jd!L

f1JU:J ~ '~m a ,vc~" SMaU m,RtlMr' '0" 'words, bottow«l fmm iPe:rsilfll- i:I'

'~'_" ... • __ . . ~. _. ~_ .".!"!l'~'. ," J ~ •• ' '," ~. ~ ~- __ , ~ I

m~.y hQ'w~v'¢1!" be· uscd t·o :f.~:r-e~eJ:l.t the soo;ndl Izl in ]o,lm wo rds 'fro U1 other

_ 'll'!"1t" _

lqaq.~ too.

"feel series Ittt~j',s hav'e tW'i) 'finl3il '~:aril.ni:S,,, Oue (,F':iinall ]i)1 is ~sed m Oi'C.

,_iifi"o-'Iiiw :in .... or,A:.iil'll'!li_~ ij,~i"-1!'Ii 'U' U\. .. ~ .1.. ... , ,n ............. t[C':".' ....... 1II '21\ "',.., 'iili .. -...il ,. 1t._iIo.· . "".,..,.,.' ... , .. c

"""",,,-.lIIiUIWll,llI~I~ HI, VII'!I.YII.IaiII,l ,"'~ 1 " ·!I I, '.' iI.Uu!~ IL~ ',,",~~. "!.-~., ,11m '.'1 I.... u.~ !~~~,,",I!I.3iJ]~_ '''1

'" h L ti- -.-.... - .lI '-U.41 ,~ .. ..:I..............!L .~'I~..iI I - • oiI!Il. ... :if': i>.'

~II. b.e ~'1im: m~ Y' ~D, pn.iU~ . full .. ~iii,W;:nu! ~!I!,OW~ lcam; to wntc ilIIltG I~r:st!, u~~'

be ;dert ~;Q t'b.e ~ ,0:f.6 :S$OOfl.D. NotG _ d1at ,3 fima:illldRIl WQtlild roo~ill'e 'litre

__ .:I" -;.i. b- - 'il. ,LI J!'!:' ... , ... '11 I -.I 'Id • ". d L

P'f~!ns 'OOml~I'Or at' 'UI' .~ ot«m1~ WIlIIIC: a Jilru;ur~~ woo' ~I:'II~ ~ts pmce,'ui,g

C-O:CUleet-O'f ,at me '001'.

N:ime

,il:blill J f'

~ tiR,e,e,

lz=i

j,

j

j:

;r '",

l"L~~

......

Eum,fa:

IrwJ lti:ir/ !ta:1zUiY ImrnJ

I '":,1- aarnillf

IteezJ :' ;l

lbeeRiil :~~ o~

I .. / t!C!!L"

~. J.beetI Ineed{ ~'
't::::l: ~, B' ~ .:
-
II!i~iV ...;;;;,;", :t leedU' ~, ,UI:.,I l 'R~iI cS,.1
~.:_L :g'
. ~. 11111i l.l... I:ehoorii heel: ]'n had .. Mltten NaSitaPU,q:!, fc'boGTU htel has a n~;mbef Qr v,ariau, ill the foW" defmed 'posmonG, as ~iS'ted below:,

14_- ~'....A" I' will i

,- J~
'haaN ut haiN ~ lu)otiiN r.t J.! hootii
ill'1I
beezasr ) 'I! 'f1eehilll!u ;t!.l ,zo1inaa .. ; prddlaa .1';:...-
;:; ~, .'l!I' ." 7' ~'. '.

Read th~ foUowln~ using an posslible prommciarions •

.!S.

~;:'-J!' ;i ... JI:.; ._l,}
. ~.J' ~
fl ~
-, ~ . " ,l.J';' ,.;.I,; ' .. ; "J; IN
fo JU ~. ~r
-
"A ,~ ~ ,"" 11 tJ)s, o.trz un
~
,!,
uJ• ... · ~A t£)t: A ;)+ j,J,j ~
J. , ,IJ1 ~J
~ "" ," ~
If;'' ~ .L6 1# :~ ~~J, ~~
.' J i'"
~;( (j",.t!L ~';"'J r!..l A J:-i J'jr,
J!
.' ,~ " T .u iwool

'me 'I<ih.,., it. lIat

"-~~~ .!I.j,

~ h~i

'!II!! J'~

this, these

'~not daily

Ut lliaaNi J.~ farJifl

~ and.

nine

,.

0' It~inJ

~. JhaiNI

;.,i I~

"hiJ1" •

'l ' .. een

tj~ Ibaarul J.,[, ldiiwaarl

,tw'cive 'waU (F)

beed. did diidaa1f DUUib '~ beeR
'"
beeRii nHz ~RilJ am oer ash
raah'" reehu.ru. piihaa tiin 'l1.oo~iN h o.
U . nota
n;a.tl 'baaN' diUmat iiNT ·Jdind. ralJ.!lNdii
. . ,: " - '
reet beezaer b~ naalhud JiLl]] rau,du
,;marooN mazee.: .. naedaan hoonaa
'pUm1.l ,aa.waaz 28

sc-ru;' :P·T'· 4

-" ...:. ~ .

.... , R ~11"\1.1'

~iiml 1eI:eJ'

..

J

Iv, ...... , ,~~

x

fgufl g

c.

1I1 .... _.j 1'~~1I11j

.;......,i." ...... Jl ~uu;hw

I' .. ... --1, .... #0 I'

~llm~.~

A:<aaf Hriesf .Ilaaml·

hniiw

Iudt·l!!d. " '~ ~

J

J

(

:).

..

....

#' !,

4.3,., The 'two ·mIT.em initial and nmiial variamn of IbafJ and Jpafl have the fdlowiq i~rmiblltiOJil::

,( 'befoJ'.t~) 141iD .and Ilaantf. Thus,; J' ;0;;; 1kaaI; J' ~ laull. I' ·elsew.baa ThWJ~ ,L = .lkeel~ ,J' ~ "til;·, ~. =: &eekl.

4 .. 4·, l~tuunJ '1:8 ·the tIL ~es! lett $[ , Two ,tbiPIS 'sh,o'u~d !be :IlQ.'tcd about i.~. 1(1) P ,ecedlng i ~s..Jom with. its, firuIlI shape ne11her :at 1i&.e top, of'tbe :~eJn nor at

~ 'iI.. 'b'" tb ·"d·..:Il P2)' T ... 'I!."" .... JOiL • ' Urd ~1., b"' .. f .ij ... 1

'm; U"ot1om~ .' rut ~n. . , ; e ml e e. \,: , m ill.iaW-'Wl'lCim,· :nJUj tne oommanon 0' I u,a3iil1

,amd flU:' is wntten ~m., vmofllS· '~s which dlcmld be .~plained 'b,y the t.eacher. ..

,4kS. R'~cad tk fb·]lowUi,1 by firSt' 11.:amiI,& the, oo.DstjJmm~· lLene.rs arid. 'iJ&IleII. t1ll.e·

oolIilbined sy:~~able or sy ]Ibl~.

lail

,Jt j

l'I

"

d.eeNge.e '~J kaaNT~ e::r

Il']]aa

mua, ,~

" ""I

ml~

JG, LJ

.D~ ·i~

~ ,J~

, T'

~ (i'

JJ'

'iou;;, .".

II,;i!'de

,

Jaml.

koof.'

~./,': !i!!oo""

l;

t::

muwU

~;. u"'" /'

(I ~

'bwn d~ di

..

kuljiN r$-Ilf

k~i'~I?':U;:,:':' t v:

~AU [ . .t:.

k_~,:;,I11""",", ',- .-, '''"'-,;r;. ..

U.tUL~ .~

'1' .... "'Lf,~ i~'liO, ........

'. ' )'.~

xaal~~ U'i"

mcau ,I~

·r U;

'[h:W i;etiiN

dU ~

I .. eelaa, k

:1":' ,J~. au " ,eu ~ jo'

goo I,

L' L- Lr .s -.Jl .... , (;;.{
.,' - ~ r ~
. - ~'I ,.
,/! ~ ..k: ~ ~. ,;~ t,J,y'r
Ii'
... -,
f~, « ,Jr;;} ir;. ~ 1",1 .~
't
".
l:!! Gt ~ J,r ",~:~ u~'j· (
~-. . ... , J
1;' Y:: v l - ~ Lri: ul!:
, i!J 'T'
~
- . 'r ~t ,JJ
.L£ -,if . L ~ .
':;''"' , -iP-I! u(. tcaudu/ 1·4 J~:, /caa'llaMd
to .t. Ijtlu!(~ , shce (td) (!-t &eelaal
-
JI fgoo'U ~d (f lkaaml
ell' iJmmlI 'who:?' [fI-:~' luuNcaaI
• , 1.
. ._~.I 'T
~~ /nucaaf '(- .Im.ee.tJ
OW ,
'T ~
~ Immaal' :81,1, mrin~. ".. Jmai'
..... ,~
U:' lt~aal W$Gk. J~ hcWiil
';11 Ipdf IW, 1DWi.(f., ~ J .... ec.NJ
., 1. jooR. ·t.uR. lam,

bij.maar· Daa1naa me~H

.me.c1aa. wuN.s.,aa. :x.an·

]~","J'" .. 'L",::~,,~,.: [.w:",,~_.'li.: ":11"

lWi"l1I" !,11t:!,11lI,!\;I'U' ~.,

moomi, g,eefilil. rui(lct xaamii

''luNcH ejiZ

booN'f meedj

puNgee dllllN',n

31

gaaR- ..

" J ~J

U

:meeN

1m]

bantma(M) work (IwJ) high

table (F)

1:

M'i" kce~ee bUwatV

'I"

'mall:·

SCRl' -PT·' , " ;0. ,~

.. ' " ... ~ . .. !iiI;'

:Letfer' U

J'

~

J L

:8.

~:amiC

iSjw

.ISimt

ffee!

./qaaO

JGainf .I~heel

SoaH,

f

"

q G

5.l" Positi)onm v.ari.ams:

,JDdeMndut'

Isiint" series

If eel IqaaU lGw

lIiliili:d Media1 'bud
,,.
.,.., ~ V
• ~, ...)
~ "
s ... ..
oJ w'
'. }" t.
'. S:.2. l~ dtffers, fiiom Is.jw only in, the addiitioo of thrN, supmcrl,t dots [0 th~

b . 1. 'N .d. .. 1.,_ ~_':"'::_1 d ... ..:I~'al . 'L .a!l. ............ L -""",1...... l .... , .... , .......... 1 , @$.I,c SLIL'ape. >ot:e ~at ~ JB:I.IlUIl ,.' nL~' 'vmanm nave ii,WUl ee liiou,u, or _!~"

:10. NQtiliq, ,~.etters: oftbe !bee! series--amdl that includes tyrAl-=ilSe; the M]] V.arlPJt hem Isiin; :s:jm; :fie;, quf; GainI. 1lms:, ~ '-lsaaI; t,r';;;; 1:0000."; LI ;:::; Jkaisaat; 4 ~ lpaisaa/; V;:)" !:::: Id~;; '~1 = l8Jsaai.

Isiml and !!Un' lav~ ,am.ot'her set ofvariams Whicll, arc :mQre ~Ey IIlIsed, when too many idC:nt:Lca1/s~ 101 hoeks ,aft:: likely 'tIo 'cause 'OOJruws,lon Of' when

.. oirI' iIiiiiiiiO

some space needs to be fi.U,ed, for an,' aemhGiic, reason.

'm.itiall ~ ,..1:/

fsiinl I~iin!

Medial "~

.s«:

" 32

J!,aadiiil ~age (f) lbaiIht'iul to si.t 1khaanH/ w ,ea~~ meal (M)

f,.;kee :pru~cheel 'behind X lajsaN of this k~l1Id; SUiGb

.:f e» baiThee ~
siikh ooRhee ' -
-
'.
w,i.: .. -' ,zaa.G tr
Cl];11lhaa teeGaa ~ ,~~
• 3. J T -~ ~,

,,~ /baaOY,~ (M)

bE) Ideeklu.laaJ to sec

...

til" ~£..

'!Ii""'

'l:(.~ t-t;

Ipu1l!Cimaal to ask /wallisaalottut tiM" mcih

~ - - = -it ~- ~ ~

1':1 ......:IP'

..

L~

lWi!.

Imii,Thaal sweet

bWlRh IhooRM, bMD.ee; SbooR,ooN puuch
Dh.i~']a.3J, tiilhu. -i<Bl bmTliin siisii
81 .. , la,a,
~ ~
saabaas s~l!khoo piiehee kaisee Gaur
.
= =
aaOM aadhJi '~ii ] baaGli
ees
baaqii CaaQjUl!l SSiU,q)lUl p,iiTh. dleeld1,
b'h" bbil mee~ji h_aaddi ~b s]lriiN
_~Ui . .; 'I
sHGn sl~eeN beedh deeG
uuq [ .. ~ '-.".'": -, - .....
".R 35

pooNlch ~b b~Gi~ (I,aiai. seexi~, pa]G~aln

m"~

6,,:0 n~fe ,~ in U rrdu, rD. :short vowels\!, Is, L rJ~ of widle eecerence, and ~o sl\'o.,rt'vQ'Web" le; (',jlj' 'w.'h'cil, are pho'Deli,caUy distlncr. ad eeeur in some ve.!ty. oommon W{[rdS h'U~: wbi~b ~' be, ~m,gmfittWIY '=-Iass:ifi,ed as po:s·'tiona~ v.ariants olr {il ad IW:~ respcetE¥e],Y-r ]0 our ttuscnptiOl1] :bowe.vcr'I' aU fliW; are dis.timj;.c.1~y

", .A' -'--edI

~nulC8f __ .

6.1. Initial lat, Iii and Iw are usually indicated 'by lalifl mODe' Th~s: ~ ...;../abl",

"·"W =: ,tr._ ~'i',I. . I:'i ~ '~I"i:!, "gc"""j,. J.\tJI ~ l .. ----i. ~',.n '= I~dbar u.d.'ha!r./' Jm II .. JI - landaaz!'

r~ ~i!11 UUI~ V'II r,_..a." :5!"1i _'. QI~/~ ~ r#- ~'- - 11 '<" . . - .!IJ

"';';1 = ,~~ ... II~ .. ,..;

~l J'H'~I"I'

6.2~ ~1~ed1aJ ,&fum vowels are :00'1: indicated m all; 'IR,' c.onso:narulS ,ue \\lTitfGll to,Ie.tJlet and tbe inmvemnl, wwds, are dcJl~iXI 'by IlibJc OOruCld:, (S01:'i1e.tiliNe5 ,m, '~pdQn may be '11110-. to thi's rule while 'trlnsorib~g some European name or W'Qrd i:m. Urdu. in. whIch ease a, Iy,~~ or a, /walOo/ m!ght be ,add,;d,,). Thus ~ ~ -/tab/.; J' 00i3/1111;, ( lrumJ,;, J lej]J.; J = Itall,;, ,~~' Iba'rasl~ ..,t;....,: Isis.alJ·' ef1lj, ~ ld'a.maml;, ,J'( Iband; J:t . '..:iab Ill. A'ms.,Q" .I,lt "'gm.:feii' ..

6.3" In UfOU, S]1ion vowds do, not geC1lt" 6~lally extqt in ,a 'Few wonts;, \Vh]di, De 'wr;iUifl wirth ,I &al !c'beotii:be.ef (n.ow ~os.t in pl'OJluno.i.t.~Qn). ThIElS: .:,. ~ /riw;, ..1,= IkiI 'O'F' ,lkel

,6. : ',. Urdu ,seri~ 'w,Ukc ' .;evPagid . has D'G 'i,half.:.ld;t'eri 'to write, CODsOlil1nJ ,O:WSIm" If dle ilWO' COMOnD,ts, :im the dillS1m' ~ different bo1ltiJ ~ \Yri1t~n in t'~e. pamMM ordermd :ShIpG mqu.ir>ed by 'die word,

Initi.al clusttrs~ is, - - Ipy,wi; ~;! ;;; fgyamaa/;. if =: Iky.aai~ ff J:i'j ~ IDyoo~l'iiJ. MedhlJ ,cl~: ~ = ~amnaal: ,]1;:11 = ~; 7) -- Jdaft:ad1 ,ufo, Ik ajri ill.

:fina1,d~sters: eff ~/ nf; ,~.1 ,=lfaas.tf; ,4~gee,rid/; J'~' =Jb', ,

[fme e1mmr consists, [of"lWO' 'idmticU [oonstmrants only. OllIe. "is 'wntteDlJ 'wi~1I1 :1 ~ p~:ed supe.~]Jr. cIIJIerl l!&lldaa( 'or I~iidt p]amd abo'v1e i,t t,o, ~ndleate 't'h,a,1 i1' Sllould, be prQn,O~1iced ,d'Qubted,. This ~lUperscript :JS[ emp[loy.ed. fairly 'M,plady in, all kin4s, of wririDg. ]~ is, ,also, ,sod, wh'm a u~ted, c:onSORWlt is

t-. .11l .• ~~~..iiI hu, '... ~ ._- ~ ;,_,+,~..iI . • cj; ...... ,t, . _:I".~ '1',_' .,'1.., ... , t ~ ;lot. .... :IiO .. UO'W~, 'Y'j :l .. S, 0'WIl ~D~~ vana:m .. te ,mlOImi, ~,~m, ... ". m 5UCl'j, ~ @o ~Jil ....

OOnSOUDl is writtm onlu~. "'iH1h a JSaddaal abm.re it. and, is dum fO:' towtxt ~ ..

. - . . -' '_. ". - . '_ - oil· ,¥\I~ ~"...:. __ ' .~: -. .,' - ~l I. - -" • " •• - - ~:1

'a/dotl~ beel. Bxa.m~mc:s:

1- I~

....

~I '~/dbul

r~.~i' [:n. .... nn'l.

~JJ c ,~~aa.!

:~ ;, [e '~"' ... , ...... 'L ...... 1-

,~ [-/1~1IU1

V'~/~aaf J '~J~laBDNii 7.,. ~ .IrakkhooJ

. ""'

(~ c; "iffYumJ

U'J,,j ~ IOOdBI

,,:;1 g;;: .Iaddhbl

..

,rf. j ~ I~assiil

S~m~ vct~, fbrm.s, (inrlm&thre~ ,partic~p~,es) ,aN.: p:ooninilll«d as, if '~' emUail1l ,8 c.hIs~ of.ldm~, 'IXmooJJ:iaPl1S; 1h~ :ho.wf:.YU; n ''Nria:m, ,- Of. w&1h a lsaddaal b~r.

wi.th f\V. ... , ~O!i~ ""'ftt'li'/!'lI"uoIiI'I'ft"" "iI"ii..,..~~~ l:;f'~(Fi--"'-A ""' ....... , .... I/'i'i'intll' I,to,f.·. ":. -~ I"'mull ...... "

- ~ - y. ~-r!l:lll.'~ IJMIV~OiIi~.I:a.. ,1I.1L'~11 - - e~:w~ ~ ~~" ~~ I. - , .~_ -~

, " .r

,ijS~garcane'Ii).; I~ :c: ljiiUUl ,I :pmtiiciplc rOM, ,of l]iitn3al~gl win, Ii (ICt: It; =' flDatdV

.i'W~ ""kil')"

.. Ii... '.

~ '.:: ·0':...· "·lM'~ ..... ,r··"tw· . '0 ,." .... ,W· ... il~" ;oi''I'[d; ~i'Ii,~:~i!Ii~, .... .,i1 1''1'11' U'-,A~~1Ii k;. .. ~-n]' AvI>IIiIOI >!III e-iii1i"1~"'''1i·'n.

V>!.,J, "_' rUla!li"""ra V. . _. - 'I'~ ,,~i.1i IiiI'V ~~~JII;Q .111 - ~I:u.~ U,J 'ijI!l'ltll'·_~"'1 !IIIO 'R ~~r~·"'JI.!.JI r'

oaUGd, lhamzaaJ~ whieh h> 'Wrilte'D vuiously:: ~"O((,'" + 1"Jil Anab'ic.. 1li1::imtllual indic.ated a, sl'o1ital st[OP;, lin U'rdu"li.t is. used 'in ,Agbic loans.;o. a pm [Qlf':the. [llri,gind sptn~ngs, ,and.. mo:5J; Unportant1,Yt to 'mmGlic 'tho [occuaen" ,o.f two vowel's w:i~nO~l an intmlterliing conSOfl.mlI1: lin ",all kinds of words. (.A. third 'ill.' is explarmed in Senpt ,,.) Ihammaf a1rwQy,~ indli~, tm; S;COlitd wwtl] in !tM, c1~. When used to indi~cat'6: a, 1iI"QrWd e.l~1' ex~t :m, COMbination 'Mill .Iwucoll, tu:un~ alrwl)'s, OQCWS above its, Seat or Jkunifif-;a I~ i\HntiCid to that. reqWred to,· ·''(e;1

,IL .... "'" I ,;;,~iIo;il;, 1_,_ :in ~L, ... j, 1I'!Ii~\~'I~'I, ...... , , ........ _, ........... I~' ~!I;'~ 1I~, = IU---'! ~!Wi~ ~_l'l;~t..

1. :Lon,! vowe'i fbllowcd by ,;a :sbmt 'vowtl: .;.~ ~ t.r~: ,~t ~ fnaaeb/; J f ~ Ikoodaal' r~' -/QuemI" ,t...~ -/jaaiyw" .t.... r -/uiyee/" Ly', lw.o'tye.eI

.. 2.Shart ~I rol~~'-a'~P8 ~~:t: n.:i!;I "'11~; a, ··~·/~.

"

]:. 'L.om:g, vowel rOUG~fed, 'by ,8 IIoD! v,owe): L,~) ~, Jjaaeel'~ ~,~;: llaajri',l1~

J~ ~: Ijaw:NI; Jw g' J1bhuiil ..

.'

,

. . .11

,r~~~~.':\.,~ f~I.W

J' AfahjJil

lkahool' "

~". -".:

It( lkahrtaal ~ JkahtMt

iii Acabaal' L, Ikahftl

" ~-- . .

V£',fkib~uNf '~,~Nl

Ir,;:( 1bhriiNI LJi ikahiiNl 4= JkD~

'.8~

f J.'II~..-.J'I!.'l."'-J. ~, ~'~ii:lIi~:J~

" . -

.~ - .

J~ IJlIlI!huW'l f'a:mous ,i' } .Idint day 6\tl

lAo, IwahaaN'I mrc. W lacchaaf ,o.,ood,

- ~. . - ~

J lIe.ekiW mu: iI:; IpMJJaaI 'tbe 'lnt

vi' likyoo'NI wby? ~ Inayul :mew

.o!:t'-- I~ pm11aps if ~jU/wha1?

,~ i!1rf.Y.

kjJoaa Iay'R ,baNsii

:nrolk 'W,aqt' l<BUf ,iMi'eaahiy-ee.

wT:nu, lImaTtaa tuIiyce kM1"~UN kaTiy~
~ - "-'."
'ky'-'" ~R',-N mho'ON d ,~om leetJin
:,> a,a, ~,oo, . tt' , ,ee )t~~
dusman tyoorii, Jew, ~,aKkU I,dluyaa'
,- , . " ~. ,",
jqi.b ~UUI J18fliiN' t"aii 'ra~_
....
*t 'qismm: jiSM jaJd zyaOOaa
~
~ f,_W~ ra:-usiyaa.1N kO@(I)1
, aeehee
r , -
...
WlNif' jtwUQ, raddii laEUy'OC dik'b~, ..
dj'.' jaauuNmaa aa.e.e.N ".. d"umSl' luliN
lJlyee gn • J~_
, ',' S"'~C'R' IlIlDT" ,'" '-,.'." .~JI~ I

1.0 Below we give tlu!: remainin--s lcl1«s o:fthe Uldu a])p'habet. n~e afte 11I~d im haJ1;ric. 'loan words in 'UI-dU. In. Ara!b:k\, tby rr:'~ented imldli.vidiUifdly dj~ni[ljCit oo~oonut~ 'but in Urdu 'the. '~rii~am pronunciarlions bve eithu been Lnod1'i:i.ed. Of ]o~ with the: result thilt the 'Ur-diu, script oon1ains four :se,ft, of letters wb.iclJ, sound. alike,

11' ~, ....... .II..ilI::IJI,'I:'.r

'N8II'te: lseel ibaJ.ti1 heel lzaa] JStwa,a·d{ f~,H.dI J~ J'71oo¢t/ Jain!

h

t

,~

see below

L ~ gd i. ~ ttl
2. i:. V ,~ ,1:&11 hi
""'"""'t ,
aad
""?Ii l.- and frIJ
.:I'. ' - . , '"
4. J~ ,. r.I .d ,k Iv
s; ... 7.1. Iseel isa connecter WI,d. belongs t'OI the tbeef seri es; it ]nas the same po~d~~ OR8Jl variants as the either letters ,of tba,t set, Thus: Jf:;;;;; Isaanil ~

.. ,if .". .!'iI'.e'i!!iI:',~ ... I,., ~ - j' .... 1~~oNi'/· . to, . .! - I·~~ ... j

~'fIiiii!#'r -J,tIi~;~[I! r' ~"~.~~,., ~ ~_.~~r.

1 . .2. lbaRii heel ~s a ooonector:; it bcilongi to, ae ~Uml series and has tn,e same PQSlInoq1 variants as tbe other' leners of ifbat: set; 11ws: J"" :1:l·1haaJlI:~ ~ ;;;;; ltiJaj/; ~. -- fbah~:; S' = Iq~b&iih!.,

7.3, hw ~s a nOO'-COlmectof,; it 'belongs ~:o the Id:aalI S:lIid-e~ and, has the same positional varia.n:u, as the ,()~bet letters o:f dl.at set, Thus,:: .,:..Jj~: lzaa'tl,; . '';ii. - fmt1iJ.!l~d. ~ ~ - 1I"'\1!10~~ ... _I, ....... "i: - .m ..... _.l

~,~ ,-' - ~~~]I ~" ~ l.I'-iL~Y-~·'~ ~.rN ~ ll~!Jr'!I

7.4. Iswaatll amd. j'rNti.dj. are oonnectou,. neii' (mid and, indepmdmt varimts are identical The initial gd Pl@dial,variamts ,ar-.e ~ and. w .. :~ti,vely. Note the l!,oo'!!JaI after the :head o.f the l,ea«,; it $ho'n:lIDd 'be 'wHUen in an :r:ned1al .d, rUNnll oco.'itiD'~tto.es of'~ lctwrs. (Some. people ~ea:ve Wls I~' out before Irte.~; tbe studen~ howevett should not) Thnas: J~ '= /saaf/; ~)r Imasru,U!I:; )~ ~ luruur/~ J' ImOW.

1.,6.. Imni is, a OOMectof; '~t has the :same 'posinofial vWinlS as ./o.air1tl,. ThlLS: ":"J! ~ lam-ail; tr = Imaan:iiI; ,ef -- /jamaat; Ct,} ,=:l: '!um'~.

Iami is a ~aryngea[ stop 'm, .Anlbic. In 'Untu" 'me origiD.a1 'pronu'Ciatioo bas

I\... ~~Pi, enti _1~. 'n ""'-'I!'j" N" '0" 'U' -"j~ ~;!!iIL-,.s .. nTftt'io' IiIlft.-._ ~'" ,~,j!!; a 'l!:rI"!ilnD'~~,1 P-,.,...._ <!I:ifflt- i6'V'C:~'"

~LIj ,...,.11." UlI~.1 !I!~~la; ,,' . ,I I ·.·.W,UIL iai~ y'1IIlW' •• · ~~V:;I!i ~'" ~I ••• ~;"~3~ !W'U.I.!~IIi=~!t11, ~[::""!I""r"

perhaps. a :S,ta'!111ch At',ab~ci!t; Jl'UlW,tvC,r,~ iD, semler edaeated spe.~h, /aiini Inay-' be. heard" as a, glottd smp in ceIltaim words. More oommODly.~ lain! is pronOQ!n~dI. differently in diftercnt 'Words., The fo]1Qwin,g tf"Il~,C\St are no more ,th~ulJ vague glddld;me.s"

[I) At the ~ of ,a, wom"/unl'is sunUar to la[if1 in that lit ind'\ca~s an. initial v,ow~l~, short vo'WC$ if by ihelf and a lOil-i vow~ if' 'f:01lowed by either Ihli'f7~ tyee! ,or. Iwaaool. Thus: Jtt:;; /ahd/; ~/ ~ il1s:mt/;, ~';; fl~matl~ r~ ~ I~,; .:.r..J1 = la~; Jt! ;;;;; 1iidJ,.

(2) M:edia:Uy~ lami may' aet, .like Jbamzaai!' as a market"'between two vowels.

Such words are oom.nomy PCQll,O~ wrulh. elmer' a. 'vowel cluster: or ,R rupltfl:mng. b!Iilt in lir<$l',aIle ~ th¢Y.lmlY be proDmmced with, a smJ.ght inm~:vooa]"c glottal

,&

closure, Thu.s: ,~~ '-IbM"~~ 'Or Ibaacst;, Jr;;;; Isa~<u1 or f:sauml; ,pl = /ba,"HdI 01

~ ~,_, -8

.L .";i j Iv@11W.

En most: cas~, hO\VlVm':i it would be best, to learn .!!Ilclit WO,fds, together with their s,pooiai spe]J.irnfJ,S, PI! 'PfO'riJllUlciations.

"",1', Read the fon,o,w,ing by 'first namhlg the constituent letters and t'hlcil the whole: 'word.

taraf

hukm

42

'h:='i!!~QQ l_~~

bud ~l

~UWU (JP'

' .. - .j-.ll' "-,,,~T

matlab

'~' ..oi/ ,J'

nUil.bab'bat'~ ras'~ I~

,.II.

,sawwal ~u'

_.

r:

- ;)'

"""'""' ........

,iIII,

,~~

... -"!.p - ...

,(/.

,.t~

..

;00;

/ ~ Itas'WiJrJ mcrure '~I

iii!!! - l ,t'illr. . \~ ,J.

! ~-y ,f! - - - - - - -li:: I - -.J:: .... A'ftJ' 1'I.ir 'IrnaamU-Ui ; JIj!' 'Ol'l;IIll;"';,~

~.Jtf f~maatatf 'buUdiDg (F) ,-i,')' l~ :slde: (F)

..;.J't.- ,(haaJidl oonditiOI!i, (.F) J~ 'S/,jjj1fj clean

!../";~ txaasi' specla[

,eJ)' /mtah{ marum (F)

, .... L,;,..,..rl, .. '.I'!L:.w.;_~lI!'Ii II !Iii ll~]Jl' ~JlM~V.~~

,~ I,,,,,'I\"~ ... _, 'e ,~~ /:' iI:I!A~' OJ(lU:;Ui

~ Wi tkaaGazl paper' (M) ~jl Jaw,at/ ",~, 'Cf)

,~ hat/l'elte! (M) ~' ~$esali sbare (M)

81"0,, ['[i the 'f'c~'riegoin,g pages, we pfesenJt~ aJ] tbe letters o:f'dl.e Urdu ,affiplha'bet Oipll~~ :in ,I; m.tN\« to :["imitate~ I~q, 'rho smipt. B*w wo give ~~le, saine

-] __ ' ~;~ .'L'IIII, 1ifU'tiI,~ ... il,p' .. , .. L.-..:: ........ 1 "'iO'l"'~ "T'io.,.'~ -_.:il"'- ....... 0\ ......... _ ..... ~.~---!'di.. t'L, ... · 'Ill"'-- ,/f'ij.l:'.I:.,,'WIi""I,~ !RJ'..! u.~...,: 'r'~lr""'"" w ,;I'~~~ ''''~'~1i'. ,t,!!diS Of~:t> '~e~UKli' w:IJlIIIl .1~ ,J~~i!ll~~ ..... ~, '~I;~G:

~nt~ rnlllS[ be ~Ori'2td :iD ,mdm to :use di:mo.ll~

'L-u..., ~~I'I~

aUf ~ ~:

b

,~, rlilii;l!l'

'11\"',~,....,..

,iIiii'

~

~,

.

j

'coo

b,

dMI Daa1 zaa1

d D

,. !lll!1

J

,,.

SilO"

is;

-

,J'

j" J;

" t

-.; ....... , ... .i ,..riiW~

:z.

~:

ZOO'"

,.

,$TA,

..•...

'Gain 'fee q,aaf :kaaf ,s-f' lum,

G

.

'.'

wi

f

q Ii:

J

:1 '~

.'11

mlimt

c)l

~- '"hee

,,; .

. ~ ~ r '. •

-

~J

,

chooT"dyce bdiiyee

,A. _""''''Ii." fti5Ii'il1i~' ~"''''!iL;iII!..::maaRI: - n AIBfUI.! ,(~ tJ·~~-¥"",; . u.

S.l., The. above alpbabcticaJJ order'is, follo.w:ad in all, Urdu dietiQ1luies, llhoqgb .s.om'ttim~, wUh :~r vadations.

(I.) ,A, dis Iftc~:io~ Is mad,e ill some ,d:~Giio'n,ldes between

iaJi~ ~m~uda11l, ie.laltf * 'mad/" ,arid laI~f+maqsumnWlj 'die simple 1a!1:i ' • '1tiis entails puniDg. ,all ~Ile woms. 'wijjtb, lalif +madl ahead of tb.e wards b~pnins with a :si'r:np,]e lafiO" W:e 'bav,iC not made this ,djS'linetian. :in QllLf glossaries"

(~O Most: lexic.ognph~,s do mot ~opize./cboor-u hetland, Jdoo-ca!mJi~ Il'lel as :s.eparate 1.cthn.:, theylt- 'howiSV¢'t~ d,lo, give p~edtmce m order tOJ .IChIOOT'il 'bw~ nus eftJ' tdahanl ~wid oome before cfJ IdbuaJ iB amy dictionary,. We

4$

~,

,ct

,~

~,

,"'

';¢!, ,~

d' [~

~ /~

r if

~J

,It

~ " J'

"

J

,

,

~:

'J ,t, .... .JqS

,~.,'~,..::. ~ ii~: ',~di.,'I~ ,,-:~,

UI - !lII'.,~J I .~... ,,".~,-

~ Lts:1J' 'J

• iII... ',".l

'""'~""'I-""": • """,""'W',,

.' ~ ..,-....,.,. l ,~~,

L~ '~""""J."":': .'

_ -. 1[' .' .'-. .-", .'[11

"'" ~,~ . 'li' e- JA,~ ,,;j

- . -

GRA,MM,AR &

INDEX T'O THE IGRAM'MA,'R

L

woo 1aRlaa. hal. m~N laRkii nuuN' up. au~alt haiN

He is ~. boy. I aim a. gir].

Y01!l. are: a '!WOman ..

Subij'e(:t: woe maiN

P'rooi£·.ate :laRkuhai :iaRkii hu~N

''[be predicate: itselfi. in tt:u~ a:b(llYort" 'COIl!ris!1;~ or a :predIDcati.v'~ romp1en:i~ Il~ 'lalRJdiV1 and a.. 'vOlt:a1 tonn----i.n .the. above ~~,~ 'Ih~ prl~ '1:en\5e auxibary .forms of th¢ veib /Doonaa/".

2. In ~uatiiIJil:ail S~!l~nc:~s:! UrdU,. 1ml.iJre Bng'lis~ does nO'[ require "'dummY~ su~ja::is-hl

EllJglis:~. '~erer and. j't'~'-iD ,oWeI' to complete a semenee. lh:Cl' f-o]!,cwi0 g,. oo:r'lexample;. are pe:r.fec'tly oo:mplete Urdu; 5ent'enc~,.

,.., ..... , .. 1.._ '11.00" Ir .... ? .:"Ullii ~ 1lJ .. iI'l>~.

Them was a.road. 11te:re is notmng here, It is en·moult.

3. Ihoo:n.a.af; ~t.o be; t'o become." B~des. its :rc.gll)Lai'\'CmaJ pua<iigm. (see 'lOo.)~ iho.o~aaI bas

'tw'O addljti'O~a! 06$ ,of :Form.s whlch we refer ~o as its .auxiliary :fonns ·or equ~itio;ruil pmadipns.

,4. The lVoro sets are.: (1) paB!t Wlri.se ,awirariiesi. and (2) pUStfit tense auxiJ\arie$- The pasm:

tm:se am::Hiaries deuribe an acla.iwed stale considered io hay, exi.sred be'mre 'tire speech act and fI~W no longer. existent The p(f~; ieme allJ.l:dli~cs, ~rlbe an BchievH S'la:te which lD.ay:ha.V.i!! lb~. ]Ii the past but wmeh ,(I.lid not come to :an end 'before ~he: speeCb ,act :and" :imt,ea41 oormnlleS to 'be ~~. (iYilm OO'W. This di:nin'Ctioo. 'oftCl:m:I.makd V>Cl'S-US wex·lste:nt, :is. DDt eanied huo llie :fu~ which i~ .ge~l Y 1li.ttnlefstooo, in Urdu gmmmar as imvoiltving :prewmpt~on. and. probab.iUty .. Slnc.e:: th.C)" would also 'imPly s!)ID! ref~m:nce '10 I :non-ac'me·veo $tate~ the '['egular' fu'hIfe 0'[ Siibjfilfictive fOO'm's IOf ihoonaal~ with '~ir' :P{ri~ ~m.s:e a,f. ,I! ;-"roce.ss·~ or seree k]Ilrl~. afie used in eql13'c:mnal sentenc.es too. (See lO(t)

5.. F'resent: Tense Auilimes (lilted. wi'lIi. 're]t!"lan~. pronouns):

tmJuN '~t person, singu'l3ri with! ImanNI

000 s~OOld peesen 'in:fQm'lal;; with hum!

hai l1.o:n.-fifst ~rsa~ s:ingular; wi.ti;. itU'U! ad /wool

Past, 'f~$ AlI,Ucilim~: thla.a,

t'hotc

fhii

1bi~N

~i!.'lil&rit-c,~ SmSii1ilat :l1:lasculin~ 'p'lm,]

" ,

f:mnJnlll¢" ~im.plar

fe:mimlj,nt~ !p~1I.1

"'. 11K ' " .'Li!' • ..'1. ;jL, """",,'I.,i " • "", __ Ai t..,~~ ~·'~':I iII!..~,

" ','" ~~ t!ZP~ au!!]; Ia::nCS a,pec MILU iw,car Q~J~~ :bl :~f',$Qjl1 ~N, :D'Um";t Willi e: IU.N

,~, '~: ~~I~~~ lI~ i,ti, ~~ ~, !i1W!fdH~'. ''Wi~, :~.ce: to me, former" r!O'lc tmI1, ii.\m1.y' ~be '-1'$1: ,pefS(ffll ~m.r,u~~ Md .~ ~il)~1 ~~ im'iifu:r:mml f"brols ue Wllarnll:diguo1i.l5i, Thek _dil'lig,S~ I~NI and, i-ooli' \V,in be r~ iu Ql\b~ \-ftrtJal Corms 'tnOll' ~th, s:imUar ~'bigu~w; '[eterenocs.,

8" ~U~il number m Urdu ~sis~~ of a iDitiaii)' ,tU5rllllct~!.m:: s:ii~atr ViCU!l!S plur:aW. W~th

Rl'CI'Col1i,~ ro, ~ nwn'kr :is simpb" ,!!i, :ma'R~ ,i)f'~e ,Betuia'i 'CQlI~t: !~ ene" \!\mm, ~l'm~ 'than wc:~'~" 'With Rfe~oc ~o ]J~ and '¥~ how'e"'!i;\~1' ~'h.e ~tc!)go'l 'lOf flIwnbu 'wo4""S: ,~Lmuil~ with :em: ~~gmy of~. As, ~ rcsuilt, 'O:lb~ .~lmctlQ~, dso 'be-co1in'ie 'i)~l1"C 'Qidi:ae d~y l~, r~ md~ '~_1U!a!ll :£:onll!;:" 1(S'~e: 2:21"2:1.). We,mB:Y:~' ~~f,I' mem~mn ~e:I7C: '~t wbiiltc 'Ilbe: Si'mph' ,a~Jl]W$-"" ud, ~ r~ ........ YriU ~'Iw:~ :t~a,~ a.. ~i" 'plura~ sUlbj;ecl'," ·~c: plUral auUiarie~ and ve[!ba:l wtms t-an 'hav~ both ptuml ,~ '!lOO;o:pl~ml ~!Lll~~iec~, with ~he ;a&ltd ql\JiiililiitlcatiOOllthat tile noot'"'PlwID ,suld,~t w.(J;u[d, k someene toward, ~nm tlric ~£r wis:h(!S 'to ~ ~', This: ~al'lef ase 'may :1xI1 mt~, 10 as f'ie ~~ bonorine plW'al.'~·'

He is ~. \' ilitr b£11ig so:m,OODC: 'wilb w!wm 1he: sp~ em be: info·IJll~~ 3Jldjo:r d()~ :llOt D~~d ~o ~bDW ~,p~al ~Ii~ess.}

H" - , "- ... ..4 "~'H-n II... ... ~ .... , .. , ",e:l~gQ~\ """"Ii: ~

SC!UI~~ 'tow~d wbc.m tkt:

~,~ iC\f,I(itts, to $hOM' -" "~~,),

:iQ~.c: '~~""" "., '

"""D:u.abl"!t ... .., .. in ;~"''''1''1~"':".i' ,.. ...... iii,-..... i\,~~""'o!'i; ,,,, ... ,..'Le- '1.. ... 'I'k'f[t can 1,. ... ,., ... 'ii\..~_, .,...,.",,,,,,;i;nla41'" ~.,u ... : 'I";:, "'W,,; .. 'I'f"

i'J.Ao. 'J.·~I ,QIa !liili.llil. lL-~~ 8~ i:l~'iIlGLI.~ IW-~~ ~~nL·~ JnM;I~,'1I~ . -. ,~~y.~ ~~,Ui-~-~ .aJIJi~UJ_.""8~r ll;J;~! QI . I;U,

,~ji~)~ ~!''l~ ~~ we115' (mfQnn:a:~~ ,~d, ~Jt TMY are wel]" W()U:te). G,ivila,g, it SOllle ceD~exi 'wou]d immd~~l!f ~~~ ~~ ,:a.mDJIFlty:

,,' '~~~ dLsrli]' _ro I~~~ ofpmdJe~;, 'l'WO ~cJOlies: ,of'PiDmlhe:r~:and~" I~.

"ii"i....... ,~.'. ~ fI ii'L,,",, IL\.. 'i.~ 1. d-·~' =,~~:...~~ -~.:I~ i/!,'....iJ. ~ ~

,u~.e: iIlIlSl~·c!tE, _oTliii uK;;·IIi.iQi$l @a, W,!i!rJCllj '" tu~l, :w..w:~ P~N_' are 'IJjOOl:il~ \In, II"M'Uu",

(ruer dm~oo~tbl as !',a.Jb~t· V.$~ !~abstr.Hi1:i'I!' iO't' '~._:'~ ~llO!,mS 'lIS. o!;eQ:~ta.bl.e:~ :1l0li1iJl~ :Jt'c.k,~, ~!i) i$,yntactkJJI, .~t 'w~(m vm;s ,aDd ~: :mentioned, la~i' but, ~Y' ,do e1,

dtCtl!i:e: :ho,w a, Mm:., is infleel.'ed,) "

Ail UmlJi no,tIlRs are ,~matj~MJiy d1b~' masC1!i~i~e ,ow :rarrinine. 'T'hmgs wihich hav'e ill, :DMa1 :8.cM,u am !U54;pm tin:a;t, AttIe gelldtt,. 'De ~~d~l, ,PMCr o:folb.er th~gs; 'h,o'WiID1'er~ :~ lu, b~ ,~~ I~ ,Some ~ ~ f~mtin~ pndi~' D~ imp~ dg"ifi1ilti,v~~5 ba, ~i~. D.arrc,aR:,

also some wmm wbidl cou'ld be eith.ft' ~1~aief~'Ii- : 0: ~ilit~ d~~n~ en ~oo' 'Iih£: ~Huioil~_ 'is

--- - - - -'-- '--' - - -- -, -- ~- --~~-- ,T ) ""iI< .... t""'''"'''"' ,0:;, - ,~,

Dum. n ~ to K 'dlOI, gv~,1ttj~5 wmm 'wat ~ij~., lfl, Ea:iifa'D, {J.P'., .A'Wdb ;amd Bibar ~-~,- -- c: '~'d~ [~, "n DeUl~ ~ 'llie;' ,: ~,'infi) ~ 'lif': jg ~~ No:w,KM'i.!i'!C; ,'hcr~er

were _O'JIS], _ _ . - ,m " ,aR-i!, U!" - -,ry - - "'l.'.......... ---'.1"-" - - ~,

with Uite migr:~on of'iP~le: hm Jmdllill, to, P~tan: and, '~c=--,~ .ami 'W'i-ftilJJ, the 3,v~~te mmaDS o.f:rmass oou:e.a~ioo aru:l co;mml.micatilm~, suc'h ,~ ,dlis~twni ale' 'ham, too' 'p:jn. OOV,!'Jl. SLlDilar disq;reemeDts mily be round in the:,~ of:':lo31l, wonts :lTmn hMh :e~em and, non-'!u.rop~ lan,glLQCS. 'This dolt~, not mUD, tat: them aJ,'ti no fOl'inSl marter!s 'of gmdu in Urdu;. 'I,lim are a :ftw~, and ,~e; will h di~$edI ibd~w. (A~ ~; ,21,2,23'5.)

1,i1!1o 'TlI. .. , __ """I-J~~ ~,:r.'~", ...... '4._ !'!>'_'. ,.,jfll'iioiiJ!ill~"'" ""--'0.11 '1tIi11..-l ~1Uc"i'ik 'II\1l. ... M do"i'"" ~.:",.....:II 'IiIJliil··~iiI.

Uliol .I. iblil' !N-!I!'II~ ~,¥c ¥r""fW"IIi_~' UJL 11oir_~~~I, ~~~ I~~O.~JJIDL.I -itI~ ~,~_~. ~l U~_II, UI"~~ !IUJ~ "!I.I_~ n!"lllJll.

o!I;~~","",ri:~ ,~~-..:II ~ • ...,.;L,,,! '1_, 'iiI i;iI'l; ,;o;NIOI''II},'' uA:~'\i..1 !I'I\i!!j'lino!it!' ~1\i,i3.t ~'h.e',v e=, .. l •• I",;,\!',eli!ii' '''i!:i' .... ~ to tile: ,::t.£,fw'"; 'ililiii'i"1.. ...... ,nf

!IiiIYJ~!Il.I,l!'~~' ~~iIl~ ~~, ~~J ~ W\IIlJ~" ""IIY. ,1H1!IiI:!IW_~ l~±I!J_~_ ~~~;J.l _~~ _~" '!If"_~~'." _ ~ ~._ ~~~,tJ~~.l!'~'"·

thi~gs., 'W~,th adj«li'¥~; ~ 'wm~, ,s; :fu.nhcr ,ooms~d'C:l31ion or:polit~$~, ~1)IS i~~IDlY alJ~ becomes ~1iw,

The iUu'~ !C~~ ,ai~ : (l} v~..,ti,\iI~~ i.e, 'W:~~n tbe:1l(MJlfi :for:ms !ii, corn.plete llI:ltcra.nC'C mLtsdf u.d ![m pmdica. [ofuy ~ !is oillb,ci' ideated ,Of ~mpiitd;, (2) ,dircctj i.e, ~en, _ ~'twn ooc;urs 'withn :8. ;~D~~ but wli~~l qv fiI?i~.~$idom ;after. h;, :and, (,3-) uIDii'rilUt; i .. e. 'wh~ 'Ilbc Mlm is,

,}[~~~ .. ~

,'1thft :iO.nditmi'~ at M,~' ,- torul»wed ~f a,'~51ini1L.;:)i!tioll. In 'the 'iJ"OCaIi¥e(;UC a,:nDWl rna'" ~ - ~ - - -- - --n.I - , - - or - - - - -¥~ ,F-~' - - - -- "'~.

be,~eded ~';~[ae'Qf'sU'(ib ex£~l:.oDS ,~,leJ:~ JW" _aaN/~ ,aDdJ I3Ji~. Ue ,rumon of' b ,,·ocaiive case' lLS; gID(';'(,'Videni; b imc,1i~.: ,(jil-~b.e: 'Qthet"~ eases, w'JJ1i. be d,iscum ilI1:cr .. (~~ec28.)

In Qtlf' ,glO:f!sooy,j as, i~ aU Urdu. dictiQ.~iC-St. 1he n~ ,EU't ,a,W-en in 'their ci,lliion ~;

,,11: ...... ,-,;;;, : ... "'. '~-'iI'IIGf'(.III"''''m-~:--'Il;- ....... , A-', 1~]'- ':rr'f~.", ... ...,.~iiI~, ,"---,-, ~'h--""'"- '!UMo'''''~'i'', ,ii:;·- i withlna Slente".r\a .. ",mru 'be:

YYi';;"'''~' c~" ,5 ... ~!,I!:I~ ~~~,." '!I".!'~;YlIii !.!"""""'.~ ,ID" , ... .Li '" """~~!O! .l!!I.Y_il 'L ,.JIQ ~ __ _ _ __ _ _ . _ ~~, _

,: .... iII'_ihe(l ,;j.'" .. _,,.;.,.._L .............. 1 c.~--· ~riiO t .... tN.-e lilIi!!iliF::idtCT;i'!l iIh~'~km'fi' :Lo The 'fOllf ml~io.JMil

11I1!11j,~_,_, ,N-,I!, ,~!"""'m~l 4-lI:M ~_ ' "'''Cj; _-v [W _- ,t"~'~ 10""" __ ~~ _"" ,;,:;" ,. -,. ,,",~--

_,_d''' -, ",~-, 1II"II'.-..I'~. ~';_", . 1 ,""" ,"' .... :u\""_~~

"'-J~IJ1il!iil, ,L~ Yil!~~, I'flioiI'!IIoY.IaI :a.fe _ ,"~-.I~ •

... ,t'.-:. -nenas, s-'- eh ;"" .... ~--,-~. ~1. ~~':Rillr- ,.' , ....... Jil Jdaadmaf '., ,~if:id:father/'" -whlich 'eM, m I~ 'bW d-u not

,n. ,I}CW no., " _ ~,e_ _ ,raaJ __ _,~ , _ ~i\ ~ _ ~ ~'-" ,

('O:~low' 'the akJve: pnd!~ w~JU b':~ ~o k: ~~i!d. as, ,e;xC9tiOOi~CY' 'wim :foUGW '!he :pu-adtg.n, O'f'umllanl'od RtU-CU,1illt; moUDS.), 3IS ~U • ptOJ«' ~ w~ wascwime [or :fmIimme.

J,2. M.Irli:'td, P:cm.imR: A .wge mml1Kl' of'U.rd11i, fmi~ ~~ nd ~I] 'dlleir ,ci\1aliOlii: :OOliDlS, .i~l

'tlui: i98: vowtill",ii1~ j'l1.dic-ated in: tM $\Copt~.y 'lih.e l:e~ l:elIoolUii ~., l:u.!n'IJpJ@:' J]aRkiil ii',8jr],,~"

laAId~ 'ldUcii ldW.ii

diT«t, Mnplir obnq~ :::;illpJu yCK:a1~~ silR,plu

59'

earhHldm. csar bllt:kum baa~d;fiL'i . ..s.ee.

cur ~m.OONRSH:

Ciii$' Jw:kfteaMti.-Seei saablb='See

mo. saahlbooN-see 'lllDI. saahibMn"'S'=:·

:(QUf' TiIiIsm

rour rulers

willi 1he rul,u

wi:th .roUl1'rul~ willi :fbl:lr :rnlm with t'b.e gentleman

w~·,'" .. i;."';l; .... ~ _ +'~ .... en .. hu. uw_ 11:'- YN.!!I!.~ "

with ~ g-mtlemen

In thTC cas~ of](Y.3n 'Wor. fmm languages Odl~ 'lfum. Pmsian ,and Ar.abk;~ the ,original ]lLm-od fo;rms are Re'VC'I U$OO. ill Urd~. Thus , 1h!J~gb wo:rdls like U n.dioilf and, j';:·trari1l'~~ arc a. part of 1t'V.erydiao/ VOCaibUl~lafY," tb~ir plUf3lis r~radios/; ,,. trains") M'e fle·Vel 1!15~ ... M for such English woods as ~j mes'n ,Dd '~I matcbes" (/fils! Imaac-is/), theY' ,Me conside:r-ed si.lu ~11 Urdu, and.

'.,.;:'11 ..... '1"'" ...... 1.. lI_.AI .r;.~:,~,::

W.Ji4'eot~ . t .. 8 ou.i8r. w:u:mar~ :t~.lIJiDdJ!!!l! J!.~.

JaR:kes-kii fiis ]~oN-kii :fiiS4eN

the booty's fees the bo.y.~'1 fees

1.'7. Th~ irn:filDitive i.or.ms of au v:eibs. am grammaticaUy a]&41' masculine nOWlB;. meyl :howey.M"~

OOCW' cmlly cl:rhe:r ill th.e direot. si~ :furn:Jl~ or the obJiquc, Slingular.. They neilo~e.--I·OOcur in 1ihe plural.

un-leu JUDD.

.• in jI!.o - - ~ o!I •. ;s ........... II'-.'IIi'Io N ..

!ILI. •.• lIi.~ J .... s.UN".'U, .., .

,jamee-:Iooe l~

.j aan.aa. taantaa h.mJN

'&dSgomS ijnhi$gomg ill 0Jdier to go ]'wmttQ go.

{..waTf: add~ to lbe '[oo1;s. o.t dQuble ac:tivc and. :s±m,l~ ~ative. verbs; ionns feminine a:b5tracl :m.Oi.l.iilS.

/-<JOt::: addled ~o fhe: fOO'ts of doubl.e ;active md. ~dm,le camati.ve 'voms:; fOWlS m.-ascuJ~ne at,:gtta'C1. ~.o1l]lS.

baeaanaa >. ~a~ b~ :>,baliaaoo,

."- - - - - -

defmse

'~~"".

LWri'

f "'.:1., ... ~..ii""'" t. ... .oil.... . ..' ~'~.-" • ~- .-. .Mo..... ......:II..~.~. ..Ir: r' .• '.- ".:1.."'.- ·t, ...

·'111;1" .iIW'l;;I~ I~Vllj[le reets QJ; SUDpm cai\Jsau'lJ'~ Vl(;;l~J lo:rm.s .I.'~lmTlS ;;:ws~rac~ nouns..

I-iii:: ~ :10, '~c. roots o.f dollbl~uve 'vGhs; fwm$, fetnini.lilC, ;~·i 'fm}1iifU, 1]1,ca:niQg: j'~waati fOr puing fle ~t dcm,~'/'

~"~'!t~aa :> ,k'Q~J'!1i",i; ~,~-~~,~ ~H~

ibmi;,\l'g'litaa ::> b~w:_i

'miil.,>m~ 'pup] > ~J.an baccaa :> bacpan

~~ uml'C'Iy

eo.o:r ::i;, ,~ii aoohaa > ~'batdii

;L-"'"--iR-, ...... '> 1II,,~~,'li(i [~:.gliililill [~m,

tbe'D: ,~~ ~h!;bi~

I - j'. ,-,.:I...I~-..:Il '1ft m" -'g~ ...... 1~'n ... , "';'''''1,11 .. ;'11'''' t'~s- ""--:, .. ,; .......... t· t'L_ ",oii_ "W'II oiIU.~U, I!V ' ~¥W.:.u~ w.~;~1Ii ~.v!ll.1I.I ,,~,~.~ W-' J ,.nt: Q@§U-~J:

mwt(jji > maalm:tt

-.. . --

II..'L~~; ... ~-=" >- ~'k~l'",· '. 1U.IJ1I!~!I,L 11jjl1'Q.II'!i1aan1i1,

f:em.ale gudjmer :begga:r: WQ:IDUl

,_ar .. w~aa, ih3J'·"w~Ui;"I5M' ~,ee .. waal~ .. 1tool

1Iio. ..... AI ,"'4 'L~.~",,'L ..... 'I,AI 1i., •• __ 1..~_ . .;1

"I~, '0'.t UI,C ,1A!WK<.IW"'''!h I!II~

wi11l, 'Ib;: miStm:s QI"dte: hUJSiC 'OJ' dl~: 'V/,flft ..... tOE: ~1fiI W1,'iliL, '"It.'1! m--u.m:al!

w _~_ ,r,-_IIl--- _ ~ ~l_ __ _ IJ

:ms~nt

to tho&~ who m,gomn,g

~r.rii.'L~"-e w"'''' .......... t. [iJI.1: U,UJ.:jI -. '('!LV [~,

jUllCd;..w,amooN-mo iP~~~w,aa'lOO'N-:k$i:

the food; ~fOUSbt fro:m ~'h '. mafb'l, Illi'!t shop me' . "'lhc nDnSe: ~w'ta.o'e~~d,

.. , -~' .

'Th.o.s.e w'h<), wcre~ go.mg, :havG l~ft.

2.0~ 1b!~ is, :b,Q'W:C:~Ii!1 ,fmcuiher OODlmOn C'CH].$bucliOll :iiml, 'whicb inbiitive5., &Uowed, b:~ ~

a;plOpri:pt~ .r~, 'o.f j-~Iaaf" occur 3$ prcmea.tiv,e c.o.m,':~~l$, 1':h.m" i'l1i~:iti''lie~ 'pL~s, l·~f331lu{ bas a m~,:8 'V¢fY' dift~9t from the, ~ d1s~~cd ;iboVfi~ Examples:

b~d! $S.Gb;!', 'boolnee w~: :bii dtee

ki ...•

'The ~i!iI is ,about to leave, The sg, WiS ab@u~, to :~M:.

The ttmm lnd: M .'iiit '1:0 leavc DO'i".

..'

'1his, Uiage: is '~Glin, 'b~1h. 'th-e cOIW~u.jaW ,_,(I the Slmdardl 'written forms, ofUrdt.1i. It is, ·afton, ;~ '(I~ ~ 1.- ,~; w~*ptiv~--' use o:f'llhe In;mul~:''''~e...

12. ~,l PronO!J.1tlis: The (,o\llo'Witq 3fC 1b.e variens ,emonal ,ronnlms of Urdu in t'ileif:

diiuet ,C~ r~;

nmN ha:lf),

t~u '1i1:Qm

all 'Woo

n\" Jhaml is, ,pmmll:tfuaml.y plmnd~ bUI, it is. ,often ~ part1cUllarbr by 'W~~, Mth ~ 5~lar

M~' Ot~; l\'G1' '1iI«l§S.milly have 'lhe ~ OOl'ill'W'tati,Q~ as ~.h.~ ,j'llmpma~ ~\l~~." ilII E.~, ) In ~his ~F" ,t~ ~'~I~kd,'~ ~~I!l ~mm~' ~ m, (he~~cum~: ~ruu~ f7~~. " '~ .. . ",

24,. lttwl: 7.,hi~. 'OO~ is 1!I!lal to :ref« '~~ GOO" or 1:0 ~.k11~ childlrem, or as om, ~X:~$).on oJ'

e&li],er ~cn.t m' '~1Mr]llt~ d~d~IlI'~ 'Ilhe 1000000tUt. 11: alW·Sf,S :req,I!JITes, tli~ :I'da~, ~~ to, kin Ilc ,sillguiLu.

~5, .i~~'~·is l:ie ~st l~mmom~11\:ls«l (omilitilr adikei.5L11lg Gq~a'is rufi~.aJ.oo lilbo;se,wDo.are

)'Olmilset !i)l" ~ower i~ ;.~ .aDd ~ia!l $1»1.1& H~"B", ·~.h~ 'usiq, lhi;s r~lm 'W,imlil ~~ '¢qiI!Ldi5~ one ,~ k-M. ,~m miM tat it, Mti.ei'~ somt= kjOO, 'of-'m imlbmlal, 'm1miadiJl '~I'i'lllb~. It: \VO'l1t 'be ~~. :fnr Qampl~'!; witlw D, 'eqHl, w'bo, W.IS ~t 'ariy ~rul: bo~ :10 '!!be :~'CI., 'Eb11l!l .. pmrmi~~, CQ1~Q!~ ~ 'pm:p:tc wbiQ' bow' ¢ac;h Q'i:;ber 'but ~ ~j)1: Q.11J mt_~ 'lUIn;: v"cfQiJl'(J, n.~ tht mOOle p~lite: :p:r~ 1~:pJ,~ ,~~~: b~IO'w.

ltUmJ CD. refa· to, one ]lerson as '~I, as ~.oo-e 'm~, ~O~ GrammatJcaUy~, i~ ]50 .lw.ays p~!U.al,. :i.;e, u :~!1: ~mrcs plund .fbr.m;s ,@.fv'erbs, and, .,clj,~~.,

lum~hH, ·tuml g,iJ@C hmlgayi~"N tum jaa1~ ttfufie

Yoa~~~n.

You €m~ln.lC:) ~L

Y· Iii"-r~~~~-.'. )I'~'· .. ~ (Ii IW ..., ,l!1~.!'~ !~11Il ~ .'. :-ni~.

You; (m~,~liin~)' iiii*ed, to .go'.

lJii 'i!q:ualinnal ,s,cnt,eltct4l:; 'oowe~l:[t if tal~ preditativ¢ oomp]e:mmt of Itu!1il is ij, :mas.'C,~,dbli!! no:~n, that ~ wi1J1 ~w.ays be in the, :plma!. HOW"tWfl, ifili~ ~iCi1i""~ Icomple!JW~1 j~ i~ ibm,immc :m~i1!i4 '~Jt vrouhl k '!imh~' :~Lar C1:' ,1_1 acoo;mru...D!g, t.()· ~ ~1_11IWit'ibe:i~

WJMj, :I~:b.oo m~, 1dkiffi loo

rum, 1~'i"H'~:'!i.I'~~'~:T 'It"':""

. '~.i.~." ~

Y¢t]l, ,~' .:;iI. ky., Y~Ul ,DC lbo:ys.

'lJl' "' ..... o!!i; ifii;..iil

]; 1011l,'1IIJI ~ ~J ,~I;l~.

y:01a, are' gids.

I' ..... ~I\l..~;· hoo '~umla~1JI ":':'

You ~ "~'It (MlSClIliUne;.,

• , ~"-1"ii!io!iI11iJ

Sl[llP~U'OJ,':P """'~~·'1

Y(;!l!J ~ ~m, (F~ill~~

simgWat or pl~'I..)

'u' laap/: l e:xpmss.es po:l.~te.D.~s, Mld, fta-m.atily. G:rnmm'ai~ica1IY'i it too is atways !p~u.m'l., btU ~I!L

.equstimal se:n1~M~S i1 has, the ,~e: '~m~~ es hum! aboR. (A'~ ,S~ :2S3, .. ~,

Y ·,tl··'iI~m. jF'I;(oii~""'~"Iii~' ~.' i .... ~,;I3t:, ... i"Ii'.}iur.:d .• l.·, o:~ ,... .... !L \I'"~~ :sJ~_ '!o!'~ 1t'1!~.", ..

Yoo wml (FI~, smplar: or ,lUill:.)

Y ~ 'Ii.. .... 'V'~ '~..,. Qf,!I, au:: a wy..J: eu ale R:I~'

Yoo,ma,p].

You are pr.!s.

You He well. (MiSeUlin~ si~'llir (ii' :p'Luml)

Y 00 ar:e weU. (fC'm!~miru; :s:imgmar 01" p:Luml)

lit Iwool: As raJ ,~~ '~i' ,Iwoo/ m~ ~~Ht-;dIUjl"i :and ,also ~lliey.:·" G~MicaUy;. in (ltM:r w~~ it may 'be e~' si'n8lt!iiIl:' 'OJ' ,p~wa]., de.p-e"l1diQi, 'Upoml ~hc oontext.

woo acchii. hai woo ,accbii, ]millN woo.,. woopyilN'

'l-i,. k [II • [I

ne lS'J, :S'u~ ~S~ It ts

the .. y ,ian'

'He is ;j! :00)1'. 11iI.ey' ,are k:rs.

gil.' '~I

1lI,1! IS ,3, pn.

Th.oey ,ate p~s.

N'· 000 I" good

f:~ !I.;S, 'ilJI' .: ". I[ I'''', ~,',:' •

-- ~I- - - -~, --

~ .

They are i~.(M'~c;~~)

Sile is good. It: hi. good., T.h~,y ,at'Ci:POd, (.f'~i[]iil~) They w~iU. ~Iilne), 'Flucy WG!U. (femii\iG~)

We em ~ :~ ~ ~: tilJat: 'lDie amll!!~fnlJii:r :, 'ij'Do'l"·o!:I'?'lin,. :lie: . ~,.....,,~l __ ':~, 'vatIDO'Wit~' :ii'O!o>f'ii'iol,"'H: ~;, '(he

~ ~~~ ..... ~. ~ ~~~~~ ~D' ..... )! IJ~:" .''''0 .~~~ g~~tI! liS ,;!' ,,_. . '""'~

OODKOO!l"' 'b'i' mi5!ii1~ent in ~.il!! ~l~'V'!!' loom :·Ie:ment" """:,,,;1: I!i<,'i,t' ,iIi:.. ... ~ :a _. ~emm1t. '.!Ii, the 'n~te' V'~,

. . ... :to -y . ~ ~ ~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,~ ,. t'\I'_~- ~.~t - . -~)Jt ... ~~~'" ~I'I"I! !II.iI,,I" 1bI!~ . ,gre .. ~ ~~ .. ~--~ .. - ... ~

1Otm;, A. ~.mpIDc; :S4IikliCc, {woo' l~H haJJ~ wit!. ,alway,s be b1UI;Slat;d as, nShe IS, a Sirt.'j~ ~f.pfie' did -want to sa;y:; ," H'e js, a girl,n aile: 'would 'probably ,say in u'rdu; I~ too [aBldi hail. TM w~ md the "Be, ,of hoo/l~ ,a, ,StrOJilg emlpbasi~ marker; '\WOuld m:&:c 'one'Ps ;illa1iGlU, '~mlbiplO'UlS.

1h~ is, howe:\:rcr, ra mare ~1iJI""'; wing, 'to H1c $00ut I~~. Wtifh me ~d :pcn;on 'pm1i1DUD.S we :saw ~bll, ,3, d.istiE-.Hon 'W~ :madi; ~n Uldu ~~ '!!-in:lbrmal'" ~'h wndl ;2i'IPDIti.t-e~; speecb~, ]bjs; eOll~t ~f~ poni~m£$$;" i~, ~ bn.p!l);rtaQt;, i~: is: ~J$-O' ~li;tmutM 'te' ~m:oneC$ M1h a dMd P«SO[J, :~~,Q~. 'he p~lll.ail ,~~ .f:~;; in it$; di~ ~ :fb:iDl~ MIJ.'~ rtlS'Cd, ~[]j botbl '" :inf:W:mail~'" and, ' •• po:l~ite"" shuations~ whi~ U:le plW1l1 f~ Qf tb£ vs:rb wi]] be w;e~l t:o mdi'Catc'

i.. -'Ii't...... . ,u, 'i'- . ;oI\!,.._ .. .. '" .'i. ... ' .. · ... ; ........ 1·· . f .1. .... - .....,;jl~ ..• il'iio:lill"i' . f.'IA.. t_ ... "", .. , I:~ ,: ..... ;".. t-.<Ii,

po . MoUI!SS. ,1;[1. Q'iI.~u:;,1" WOf\l2i~, ~ 'PiIM~i~ 0. ' UL~ 'plwl~.C ~~ 0:, 'lie: ~' UMo(~~ WOUw, .L.IINI,C,h,...:

the distinC1io~"

',,",roo ,aoelwl,:Di

' ........... _, ... ~.~~ 'L~~~JII """"""" ,~,~ U".YII!~'

WH aeehee hW'N woo ,acc'ti&i haii woo acchii hajN

'j..'::' i. ... :N' woo acC.Jilil J:Lw. ....

He iis: 'w~~t (~~)

H'e ~$ 'W'cIDt. (Fcli.tc} 11rey,are weill" (Mg;UJ1ine]1 Sbe is we:1~. (mf'bmi-ail)

She is 'W>eU. (pal:itc)

The;:y am w-cll 'W~mfunfne)1

1m 'the Ob·q!.l.e ~CI ~~" we did sec lbelowj.lwo.o!·~ :&a~ ~pd1:e: :s"l~pillilr.and plri :lbm,. As ,opeotcd~. Ite: 'plal ibml. 'MII: iil[nca:~ ~~pi3Iitmm~'8'

Zl~. 1Umi.mg: to. ·the nom-diireot. ~ :forms orb perwmil; pron~J .~ cm :dy' 'l$tll '~re. Be

'n-o V'ocali\!'~ cue :fC!r.ms. .A fmm/ Of laapl' Qta)f be shoutoo ro ·rtttnJ.« ~hc :al'l:entiQn tt4 th~ ·per.son eae w~ to addti~$'Ji but 'nwmaJly some ,(l(Mr \vow, or 'pltmse W'lil.s b~ Us.ed. Th~ at¢; efta IUicftlTtd to .as ~'~ ,,*CI.unI~HS..,~" .s~ of Ule; m,Qm ·o.o:mm:on :am.;

ruu ~an up

wOO (~i'i,gWlU,) 'woo 1(P'I~I)

Oblique:,. :!Illlfiljin:

ham

tllljb

·tum

alp

u

lO. .Adje¢li.ves,:: 'Ufd11i adjmwcs. bl.OD IS: both ~ftl!fS ad. 'prediQliv'C' c:ompi.emems;

'me)' cm'). al!110 :a!t't as ~i)mi~lals. "I1teJe·:a![lc 00 se.paIB.tc oOmp!1f..at4,\re and ~uper.lMiw. ft;;1ms :fot mO$.l .at1j!C1j'ves~ the e"xe:tp'doM ~g words ot Pcno-AD:bic ongj;n" ,(SeG 141...) Both :id1w ,aM ~.P~ 'wi.1t me be1.p ,ol'tlac postpMjliOD l-aPJ, in ~e. :followiftl :miDl.ll-er: faec'ha;alJ !' "ood;'" X

ycc~u~klm miiThaa thai

~:II.~-~,~I see , ............... -~I, k.',.... ..... iIIIKU~q .... ~~ ~~ ... ,

hoo-~hai

~ kal-see ;zy.gdaa prmii

'Ib .. ; ,I,ld.:!,

one

T.his. mruJ,go' is, ]ess sweet tHm tha! one.

Who can be better 'lJitan Abmadi?'

Note '~ ,eUipses ~n: t.b= last, ~"O Sl~~", 'pa!rticularl:y that ]n the: lUI (ij'i,c; wh~, wl'Uilc: 'i:llli'l~ commo.ll, is a1£o depmdsmt en fh"e wmmbipity, (Ji.f tb.e oWlmxt· ... -bi;t!OQ ,are 'usgaUy net oompand. wit., p~]'is.

'Tht good one: hes 'oome.

Dc ~, ones ~i'C::miimDi!:,~ 'plural} s~d. ,',."

67

Only the ~gm11 oaes ]mQ.w wha'~. olilD.Ce~ the ;'peat o:n.es,~"

As· ·no.mina115~ adjwtiV'c,s. may abo be used in tile ,\"ocafve· :pJma1 fom1 but. only mre,liy--e .. ,g. in. sucb hodBtmy OJ~ ~\;

,iii nau~o

'00' gunab-gaaroo

0: ,&; . ~;::. b ..~

. :w.OOiLIS ,WWS,. •.••

,sl.l:lllel'Si • .• •

3:2. 'In·th~r. 'I;W{). majo'r fimctionti.---(l) as, qlullifim, OT modifier$. bd'me M'~! and (2) as

[Jr:edi.ca.fve Qo:m:p:lemetl1S to verbs iii the 'predicate part of.a. sem,~,~Urdu adjeotiws display' two pacad~gt'M of illiflecttd, :fonm on wlID.sc bas.is, t.lleY:may be classified as beiq eit1bu ~iJlia.l'ked5 or ~;'WWlark,ad··. Note tha:t 'qu.a1itY.mg~ a no~ ti1 ,s:dj,ooti.ve:'MU agree wUh it in gen(i.eEF murmbcr:t,find cas~.

33. M!illfkeil, AdjccDveS: The c-l'l:a1iom. ferms of most mal!ked a4j ectives;, end. in th~ letter laJ]t1!

tiw! ooail. sy]lalbl,e thw being: I~·. Thtlre are, hQ.wevm~ some very' OO'ml'il(um marl.'ed a.dj~ive.s which end in ,the .1~t1« JdtooTIi heeI~ ap:in.pronD~ .. :aIS 1-,asI. (~l;:oal1y~ miiWY-:J1oopl,c wri~e 1he' L8!ttJsr w.hh, a tiDal !~iD' too.) Other' ~ecn-vcs, ending; iIi '1hG syllab e l ... aaI but "rittel1 with a,

j;.".Il.. ........ Tii bed .1I. ...... U\I:II.'I:N'IiI" Me b'0at~;I .... , n_~ ... ..:L,.....;I ,a.~.i ...... i'l·ves:

. ~l~ ,!, .I,ll-v. ",''''---'Viii !I ~ . ...~ ~ jWlO~Iic;u. ~:J~ __ "

'MMked adje.ctives are ];n1l'ee~d for .w:m.de1", nlmUber, and case. The irnfltloti0.l:UlJl ending!

-J]

mascn]int! slll,gUJart dif.t.c~ ~u]~ne.!, sm,8Ular~ ,o,bl'iqJll!; m~uHn~ pl}W'al~. ,(iired, and, oblitqllJe

femi'nim''!:" sin,SIililar and, p,llma], direc'l .run d (:Ibliqj\le

68

:J)le 'tbt.1:he ~ o.f·Ga$e is mofC: ~1idliy' md:cdl ",,11h ~Ate~ to li185Cu'tmc: ,I~, and that I~ed is M·t: sifmpJ.y' (i;r' aJlWaYs, plu.taJ...-jt cam be ,s"plar 'obl~~le~ t,oo~ ;3$,:in die ·ease 'oithe, 'fillh 'lSi(ampile. ,al:to.:lfc,.

An. ft~C of! lliIrked adjed~ve ,ending In a khoo:ni heel' would. ,~ fu'e word 19andaa!; '~i fill1l-·v. dirty. .~, A bwm'WiiUt ft.om P·mi~- ,it 'Wu on i)~u]'iv 'wrlUell wurn. .a 'ifimll/choo'T'ii ·!tce!.

~~ ... ~:! -. OlJLIoI e- ~.' ••• --0 ' - [ ... of. ' •• ~''''--O- -. '~' .. ~- '. --_. '- --' .. ' .. " .. ~

t1tollBb :OOW' :moM .t*J'~ wriille it ,wit. ,g, laUa. "fJw. 'reJJat'ed a"s,tmc:t M~ 'b.o.wli.tii'~t'~ is, II.andagiil .and not .IgaDdilt rtlIw,:s oo.nfli'mu. ~1lS QripnaJ, R1:iU ldloo'fii !hi _'._:.

-,-;-:u.l~. pndee loo;g

S ... ttii kiitaab

:"' ... - A'i"'~ iI..;u," rUifW. ~'~:'" ~;

k d~tty ~o.,~e Ikmnyiook,

the ipO'mB 'bGY' dle'~t'~" mcj,~tp~ the ~pomnt lim

Th "]-' , -

e. .git_ is "FQI8llt

w.ith 'ignOtanl boy,s ·t1~bi~u

.11aky brtad

",,~. ;I!""l..-~:_ ... Iil 'J;.~i·"""L. ---," 'T1..~_ ",~~~-""~llfti,_:Iij."'D:lin Urdu § .... 'I~I~ 'i!nrnut.iCd ,a(J.iecliv.:cs- FUJljm.

J;J'~ 'l!.Alli1Q!!l.L_1.iI:!i ~-',I!IIW.W-c!.D .• ,iI .. IJIIiO ~'WJIIiIlIi--"4l! iU.~~ ,. .. .. '1M"'" ,~'11L' . ,;;Ii. -. -. __ ~_

'lbere :are sep'amf!:: wofdi :tbt' aU num'b~fS from Q~ t,o one bundrtdwmm';, dCspir~ their siliIIilng: mm,':, oo~mmon EC!!i1U1~$~ mtl$'t b$ ,krjividualJl.y :mem.falri_ ••• ·w w'e ~'i$'t aIm the (~din.11 mumbem from. 'ODe· '~:O <me: tnmdmd. ('Ihe ~,ca-chcr: shooid ~p]a~n. the' $pi:;lUng oonfv~1Iions Q(the :rm~ 'twenty -n.umM:rs.)

u* paaE" e

'[gf,U, satl8l'U iildd;l$ :p.~ccijs mmw iai.<-ti$s,

~iN!1tis it~ib. ~aiN'taaU~, 1lmcau tirpg a1ilatW:-

dOO

,diu:

das

e:aad~, a1'-lhoor,a.a, iaanris. oha.bbi.is iiis caUNhis .aRtu~' ·t4yaa1~i~ c.li,Q'aa'iii$; pac .. ~a:n. am.wID

li:in

saar gy~,

,adar:u umiis 'l:eeiis :~~s ilktiis. :PaiN ns wuaditis:

~ooNl~Ub;

" .' taa]-~II

sg.' -~ _L~S

'.11 p 1~v:", ..,i'il'c;;,ft . JIU\'.l·~H'W-~

,acp.mll 'Wl&aTh

cau' .Th

~ :$oo.1aa biis CilUJb~is a:Tni.ai'·s;,

'baLlios, eflauiiis., (adi~s (:a.w_l~i.s. ,aRtaaliii-s. baawan ,ehappan saa:Th,

iks~n. paiN'!iaTh ~mar ~ban:ar

is ata.ftaI i;~yaas~i. ~sjjj Mw,aasiiii lirianWU :S!d33:1!)~

baa~n cln,~,~~1b ,sa~ ,~~ld:t.Mbr ·a.Th.attar baJ&5U dleyw&i. ma:MlI=::

C3"utag,W'ec· an:bau.wee

maTh ~Th '~kbabf: --:iI.Cih~

p ....

·timiiUiJi 'tnraa.rii ~ii ~!W'Ce. pac-c~~e ~W~

cauNsan .dtrs~Th !ba!ll:dta:r

... ~ -:' dl::i1r '!!,.{I!te,1--· .-

,assii ~uraQSii :31Th~.ii ro~ c-b~~~ ~

,~...),~ ,"""'1" ,A~..,

~. ~I ~

~~ ,iI' .... ~ 'i..~~~~.

~ ~ JJJ 1iKMIII. LNiD:U~

'~' n~ :~,It

IH~ ;8:12

l"tm H)O,OOQi

H)JXM)~,OOG

l6~ ru:ie1, 'Nlum,~: !x''oep~: :fer ,il. few jJidti~ :1l'lLQlkrs~, UmUd ordi~. ,aR 6riViOO, ~m *: ,crii.na~ nruD11'tu:rs !by addl]]!: th~ $~ffi.x f-w.~/, B~~aw' ~ gi:v-e the· ,o:rdIiil\lld fO,i:':i:ni for numibm, hm ,ODe ee ~J['ty,. Not~ the :fomw~ £QcJ' ~~ 2-·n~ 3rd~ 4'th, ,and] ,61h, ,SILd 3lbso :Dil~ ,~$ :for ~u.m'00rs fiom ,elewmll ~, ~~ m 'W0i.ch" ,co:mhIJ' 'to ~ti pfaCo1ice w1irllh 9lI~ RilMed. ,car1tiJla:1 m.£m'IlS" ~B: N

t ... ,..IO:"'''''iI\ ....... ' 'n ' ..... ~-rint .'. ""I" . .......iI m'!l.ld&IDI~ l.LI, ~~!I.-~ ~-o!"'Ii"': :a, ILSiil JlOOOOi!.\m.t-w"

~

'Pi;!i;,!i 'M""w.~,~t.:'I· ~"'I!~.~~-~

maw&~ ~mwaaN mtt1llmw,aaN'

OO~r,a.a ct.aI:ai, diliW~ ca.wa~· an1l~'

t~~~ _mr-aaN'

~\\ruN p~.d:rmw,HN wmjiswa.i'N

~ullbaa. aaTh.w"aii"N' ~amJwwaN sooJb.waaN' bi:i~aaN

'me i[$1 ky the fJtrs:t gIDd

fi'ofIn, the :5ccaoo, lM()'U~e 'Ilhe: m ..... 'i.., . -"!iii

.. II!i~~ iBl

'ilb.e: 'k~thl nu~: to, '~he: OOntb 'ooly

o:necune

Give me two.. Tak~ 1M ~nd.,

'T'1._ ~'ik:...;I [[ 1 'J • ..,'11

A ,!il,l;.' 'Y4!I:!j,I. ma e_ Salu •.• ,

I met. V.;ID only thTtee [,Q,f tbe:mTI. "The! tcmh, [:femue] spoke!<+.

doono.oN l.aRbe doo:nooN hiRlciyooN ... see taiU'OON :I.d.kee ,aa~ gy,aualrooN=see

both m~ bo)!'5i

. "b 'I!._ ... L. n~'''' Wit ' IiiOUl ,~ .. s

AU :ro'uw ,L')!n;b~ 'boys Cm}e.

widllU elevc:n '0-£ them

39. There, BtTe 'otherwordlsi which OCCW' either by 'mernseh"eJ or with otl,c,r DlWflber.s to indiGate

b.cti,QAs... Some of th~ mOM C:O:IDlIL'OD ~e s],'Y-en Dtlaw.

Icau1baaiif~ "one-:fbmtb. i<i 'Hxamp~es: ICil\ltbaaii m~.iU" .iqllJ~~ of'a milc;'" lcaurthaajj,

ki~-~Ji,.1 "'~ .... if'i ........ ,"':....~+'L. "..~ ~ .. ,":", II..l!'U'Iok' 'f'

. ~_W~:. !\J..I,,u,.P",lUW;--W. w,w; tLIWi IU..,.... !o

ls.awaal= Whm used alone it means ~,on,e ,and a qu.art,e:t;,'~ 'but folbJ'we(I, by allumber it me-.a.rw... U[Ilh~ number] plUiS ,3 ,q~r;n' b.amplc.'S~ Isa.~.!,azI •. ~~'cmi!' and a q1J~~·YaJds;~· Isawu tHn p.zJ" ~i bee y,~ and ,iI qillarter. ~~ (Earl1.er~ a sepamte word~ IsawaatJo/", was. used fur ,th-e: fust pmpcs~ 'while /sawg/ w~ use.(!, mte.hu[,\/cb' foI' ~'h.e :s.e.oonc[}

1'!i"i,~~mJ'1..I. •• ",00"" i"'f-..11 ~De--bBlr.'·· Ex; Ii!I lie' {D' ~D' ... I ifi~~f. U[ "fR",'I! II" v,-an:ns n

I~. . ~ ~'Y"" e- II; ' ,~.F!Ii ."' .. ~-_~,J[~[f' P-I.II,L-U _.~ ~.' , •

lDiiaaiU::; "Two md o'II're-:Rl'alf.D ~~lhe: ID'Jm.aH gW~ ~2 and. III ym:-d5\,~ l~:.... . tmlIbe:r] p~us on~-haJf,t It: is not used MJth lcekl and ldool. ~1e:;

lis~ dinl~ .. 3 and, 11:2. ~

laadbu,!': j~ One~hl1r~ E).:;:mJples:: laadhaa~. "half'a yard;,~ IDdb:iii. k1rAabl, II bali the . beok," (\Vbile.' la.:adllaal is lnficctedllilre any :m.:arlred ,~ecti.v~ 1he otber. 'woWs dl!iCiltssod aoo,~e :and below remaiD, mtinfl,c,ct:ed )

fpall!llJ!; ~~T~q.amn:« of (som...e one unit).J, M E-.xam.p1e: f:paw r;a:tJ, ij,tlJ.ree..q,wadet o.f ,a yard.'"

Ipaaneel::. Alway,s, UI~Bd,'Witb some numJbu! lit m~ '.'[1h-e m.llIIibei] mU:w; Olle=quarler.,~ '~Jes: 'paUllee d\oQ bilij~ bmN/, .ilt is ],~-45." Ipamtec',w ki]ooJ:! '~9 and 3/4. itS."

Qb:lli.WJ: Case; Ius! (sliD,guilar)1 IULTJ! (p1m'al1, lis! (singJillar) lirJ (plural)

The dmromlrative pronouns :rm:'tt 10 both aailma1e aad inarili'm,t:e M11,llIl$~ diH:ero.n'tiating only, as indl.cMed. .abov~ between tJ.e ~wJ;iirni(y or lYCm.ot,eness. lotnh-s tmog Oir :Per:K'!D. ~~d, 'to. 'There

'11,

W'~ ]i"-'DiI,:"" .. I ..... ,~

.¥¥~,~

VPiI'" '1'._1) "~:':: :Il. ... :

J ..... !iI"~~uu.

yee,~'hmN y.:!:: ,aedUii hm

~ a«liii, blli, US~p3F

lfS=p'i![

I,

Wl-par

He i.s a, 'oo'y.

Tms ~~ is a girl.. 1hes.~: ~~:al'C giid.s", Tms,isi:S~

TImt iii, pOO~,

..... n, II-"t iI'WIi, ~,:""" i!1WIi L. - - ","", ,d.. '.' y.g _ ':Ij ~, jpl.I!J-L~ !WA g- . 'vn Lll'._ II

,on it, I~ ld:m, 'O]!a, 'l'iori, ,om 'liWs. on 1hani «t:m. ithost:, 'On, ~ [;;!Ii) her

on 'them, on these!, Qn him:; on her:

-tlus'book tl10se ~aniS ILe.sc Si;l,

wilh '~ese; 'boys. i~ thm;~ 'boob m,tbalDool

".,1. wa.;: ~

?i1l~, g;gSi ,~JI"

'~ 'miaiN 'him ~H, ru.m aap

woo

n ~ :~ ·tc~ ~,

~·ba ~kD. 'Lm~~

m

:lid;},;, ·mine ,aur:,OW1i· tb...,.. dUne

Jt

yo.,ur.;. :YG1XS

'il!n'''''-' ''Un'"'''''' ~ .. U1.~ I'",r.;u,~

rug;. hu;; ben<;; Qf~. ·1IJ.eir:. atciIs; 40;£ them; .'~ (also, Siiogullar;~ 'poll!}

".2

is-iou, iim-lea

of: Uris; bl~: her; ben O'Hhe~e; 'their; theirs; of' thpJr~n" (also s.in""'~'!~'"

,f~,,"_ ',!b~'~

JOite)

my 'book

Thi book" "

"' '," ,'''1''' '''''"'''fI''I"",'

m' ", ,_~ ~.~.Jkr.;

Y'O'W' ho\1SC Y01Jir bmBIl~ hisd~gbitm

with hls daU,Shters, n~'isyoum.

43. Japnaat: BesJdes me poH,essiv'e pronouns :mm~iancd :above them, is ene moe roM,

lap.ma!jo whic.h hu:it I.dod of'ir.e.£j,e;xwet ml~.g- It mpbm§ 1he reg.uar possesstve p.onmnina] WImJ when '!hI!:!' su'b~ect afm!! verb and the ~~Qf'J are on~ and 'the same in me saDiIi~ c,~af\)Sc.

maiN ,a.pDii dukaanju;",f'lhaa. huuN 'Em gain,g tn. my shop. WQO apnee w,aalid-kee :pas ,p;y.u He went ~ hls fadi,@[.

us-nee mu.jlhee apnaa ,ghar dikhUiYH

bun-nee ,~~ bam, km-]i,ya?

'I'ihc :simile 'W'OUlld! 'be ithe! C~e :i:n ~nd.iject, oomlrncu(i[ls, lftlrUi!! ~POSU:~lD\i'; is. the :S~ Q '~'![liilll.m. or pmnOWl before I-too!.

I ""1"""1I.,.~ ,bo" ,1I;_'Il."" 'L,: __ 11<",: ffl'Il.P ii.~,n.,..o!Ii, !kll1Im~' W IL~~ .• u:J!J:U, IL.U ' • .Il. •• ~ ~"':V~.\r'.

'l1l'L.~ .iL.. '. ' ,j. , IL" ,'1.. II:iJ 'IT <Ii.I.IiiiU '1iII.V you. w.m ... yom 'IJIOQ\K~"

0) DM you, see him bumill,g :his

b. ....... 11.? M') 'D"d " " " 'JI.!-....o

0'W11. uuJlO,,, ",00;., .1, you see ,1;m..H

bumiDg 'your book?

73

:1aJ&cc>Q. titaa"

'1 .... 'DL,""~ .. I._~,J·M[i"u.iI\;!I;;i; ,~[~!M'·~~

'1, .. D1·-- .... N,.lil~~~ J·., ..... I11- l~. ~.UUJIi~

~, ... 'In.! .~ .:~:r(.1 ......... ,,mt..!!iIii" ~yOii).M'!!c Ail!151u~

,cK!&1lolk:ee gba.r

~~boOk. ~hbots:sb~ tt.~~,1mcs iflbe ,girl~~ hGuse dle 'um:'lff$ ho.u.sQ~

Cf, ce

cs cr.

[·e·llt. . ,;ill,!!

ilatman

that :rnanl,s name

bl. tha~ mE!D.!Io~ ma:m..1!J '!hose good boys,

'1hG: !hQ1jl.s;e: ,of ~Qse Aood bol}l';S, Alilmad,'is youn,pr In ., _~.

. ........ ... ............ .1'.. , . ." . L·c .... , -

'W']!!,I;I. ,,!I'!II.!IlIIJlIG.II.ii :5, youm,pr ~dl)[IJ..ie.r

yow' Qlmimg but

O~ your: coming hut

'~: a!tsaa

imaa, 'WOO:: W~SllI, 'I:IlDaa m"Sii kitaa~b 'W~ji kitaab

,: ',' ,,_'ti.;;" kj., ..... '1..

aJiSU ,aclr.i.lll!il ~~

aisd.i ,a,och]i ki~' i.tItec gb.ar

imii wTlmaii,

U!m!e 3~ par'

nCib~, Qf'i'ris kind

.j·L,':'s, moen; t'hes'e 'millll'll"'· ....... ft;'i!lfnv ~.. 1" ,~,,;)'I.!!.iY~~

S1lcb; ,o.-f'ltiatt kind

that: :mncti;, 'Ghat, man:y~ so many ,a book o:f'ithis. kind

a" book of'that, kind

such a good book

mch pd. boo'ks

.,'I!., ~ iII..-

'~I.6;Se many ncuses

so mllen candy bJus:es that good,

lwaisaalls not U oo:mm.on in wrihe:m Unllll as it '1$ in, the ~:ken. In WflJtten UWu. when. the desiired, emphasis d,r;)e8 :ii.M so :i:'m1Cb moe[' to. ~~,this kbld"" er " 'Ml.art kind" as, ~O< the de,pee of :tintm&iih.J' , eelv lalsaal is, us" even -midi!!;' mfC1'mt oelQIIi-a'.1: to the ~mm.ote'" categ, '!lTV' In o'tbe.r

. ""!' ." ,_.- ---. ........,. , , " ,,' "~ '.- ,'... _ ,,"".!-" ..

wOlds! in writttll.Ur.dU, 'o:rury laisaaf is. used:as an. ~xplica.tor to. ~ji~ti,vu.

48. n.tnaar and, fl1tnaa1.as adiccdves of llumbet' Qr nWilfLt~:lu :m.o,:;tly Oeclll befbHo plural, and,

~ ~ ~. "

mass :Etmms.,. they d.o not ooour baforc. olrlinsmy :singulu 'OO~ un] es S. a slightly diffi~rimt

m,emill,g is bnpUed.

utmee. lanee litnil! paanii ~tnii kitaab

. " .. ki . =~L~~'i\.."

lbili' 'liiHlg~J,:~'

'tba'l; 'man-y 'bo.ys this much ~ter.

1!." '-b f';o;.\..

'tillS mll.c ,1 () ·~e

'bop'k

so many boob

49. mtertt)pti.v-c ::P-.roooml.na.l A~jeeti,v'(~s~: Ull.der trus beadi~g w'= discuss f~U1r w'or&~: !ky~~

&mmJt Aci.'lnaal~ Wid, Ik;a~;gf. The'fim~, Jkya3I.m.dlkaunf. fundian primarily 8S pronOl\lILS ,0( we~atio:nJo 'butt. dlsy also· ~ in ~joctifval. mull axpJica:tcr function'S. "fbs two, share a COI'OOlQ{I. ,obliqu.e furm. Jki~. (See S7'.,,) 'The last, two~, lkitnaal ,and /b.i,saat., are intelTO.g.arive a4jcctivesJI but a1::iO 'OOCW' as '~~pHc:ator$., They bltb.a:ve Uke: :mar.k,ro adj,~ti,,,,~.

50. Ikyul ~s: leneraUy ttat!slati!d in dictionaries as, ,j! w'rurt?';" but. in one of itl imocuons :i4 bas n.o ~pccific le:dcal 'm~g. At &e beginoio,g ofa ,s:mten.ce. ilt $~ to. :iMi~e that 'Wmt ftillows: is not 8, statemem but a I";~nn"'" ~, 1lI.e5tton. Ho~wever:p ['m: is tlo-t n.tcessary W me !ky,w ~Il every .,. yeslmQ'~ ~ype .qU'e'Sitl~ for th-e tW'l,C1i,Oll mllY be ~E,i1 in 'the ~po:loen 'language 'by jusr thfi i~1onati.on, and, in wri:lt:em ]aalp~ge 'by 'Ihs pUlJlctW!tb:n~ m~k:., I(It ~0IIJ]1d. be berne in mind,

75

that Urdu IGrigi.~.lail[r did m@<l:bIVC: :pmloooaliioil mut:s ~"J~ for';a :s:en;~JlWJ. matter. ThE ·o·~b,cr sy.m'OO[:s m use· today 8R ;aU ·bor.rowed fttun Englisb,')

1(yu 'kaJiim aa,ata. bail'I kdp. aay.aa haiJ?

"""aa ~H -i!l.' .... "4~'I~ii :w, .. '~- !i!IIM"i..; ~-" " .. D .• JiM .=-="'~---.N._ .~D.I, ~r'-

neesunii,?

'Wl~ m;ng...:kiii ~_ U;p--:n.ee $lllni~.?

'l2I: v",'i ii; .~-;;!ias· ~.cem co'me:i-

·-ditto-.

Did! j\lQh:ear the 'news; '0" ms

,AI ....... ;,' .... ? ~g~1l

.. dIil1to~,

'YlhQ,(, did. h sa)1? ~iitO\Vha~ his ]jJ;,ante? ,~ditto-

s;'ru.. As,,~ i~termga:ti_ piOOO~.lkJaaJ ~tm:m.ny Rfin, 'ro :~e tru~! ~hougb it may hl $.Om.!:·~ ;ailso ttfu to :b:umt,m, ·beim.gs:. lUI ~Jn:,e 'bau 'C'.Q!t" holr.'l'e¥e.r,~ ll,-yaal:1tas a diU-trent Mecmimr,g,

aodJ ~ ... _!f __ "'_ ,~.~, .J.b . .,....,I· ~.t'. ''''I~·L-"", .. t· !iinY ·D~l!."'" ,~""-I' .k.,~_ tn_oS :b,-~"; \l~u'ldI.jj -, """,_n" . '. 1Iii-W.1ID..:i!liliil~1 -!D'i!UI ' __ ~It .• JI,t~UIllFlJ! ... ' llW.~ .a.II;.J" ,!5il-~II!.1 ~~~II1JIIW-u!v '~..JI~ ...... IIlm." - 'V __ ' _iIj .' !II.m~~.

, - '

oK Widt is '. ~,?~' Bi1lrt if lwool 'in (M .Jiven. ,e.mu.ex~" f'Cfm 'l~ some bum:3D 'lxmmg, ~ht: ~".

lif(ru]dI mlZm~ ··j''Wha~:·is; 1lI.e?;·~t ''W01MN. ~WR: ~ (b~stIlP~i"'e.: :ru:t[5:Wef, ~l!loh ~ "'llH~ j~ a dooto;r'i!~~ 'OJ' 'n He 'is ii,ltudarJ,'" In $lle:ll oont~ /ky,Si2/ ,e~ts vridllbun!. lwoo btm, b~if wQUld mean '~i'\VhQ is bd?li It, wmdd Mquill:e ,I more: mdividufzed, WUWM ooncemilJJl the p.mom.~s. identity.

(fO't aft e$)!Cial use of 1k'I.aa1~, sec 55) •.

5·2.. Ome· :im~J: b.ng ~D' 'bear m mind] abo01 Jkyaai is ib,litU in dross .• ' 'iD)flnal type

m'" nt·~li'iigFiv<" !""_.- wi..~ ftl'I ... ~Ii:!' ~i!iIi jilA, ~eur as: '~L.~ p~"";-ea~ '''''';m;,'I!lIfemad iii i~

.• ~~I_IrIif'~~r~ ill-"'Il¥V.H9¥~~""rI'liHW- ''';v ~._.__ . !KI~Hi,,''''j~ .. _ .. 1IJiii' __ ~-~__ •. ,' ,Vol

more 'OODW~.:m·lW!a 'IDI 1P~,"·.it 8$ a ,~i'.er bdlR IIie. fCl:CV:gt now. ~. alho:r 'won!Is, Iu":~ nmmill iky. iud?I,. ,j"'~id?,s. -hi'S DUn;~ ~ we:md mmndLy' be. :r~illDd in U!ldu. u: ,f,un~aa :tyaa iIi.tiam. hal?1

'6

'What kmd, of book :lis, that? :H.o,w is that 'boo'k?

''n:ri.. ...... '~..:.~,..:I f ""~~ "-'It . 'L. ]::1,......')1 n J UI~ J5.J1.uU, 0.' : ,~, g:o.e s .ll~ , JJ.M:ii~ ,

]'n ~'hat kmd of house does :ke:

,':- ? ,uve.,

woo k:aisH ,!Cc'oo ltitaab :hu y" kai.5H ae.chec gbS4" bdN

\\rthat: a :fin,e ooo,k 1hilD: Od :~s~ Vt.lb3Jt: fin~ heuses these m~

kibree aaee ImiN? ki'tmooN"r:I!!re 'yee kahaa?

How JtlaJI.y books,'? How much of'the 'book? How m.udh cMdy?

:8,0'\\1 :Illmy diff~t 'cand~es? to bow many bo'Ys,

ofhoW' ma.ny :a,oo:ts

How many bwc 'IX1m,e,?

H'ow saiid that'

- -,-, 'mao;y,' ., '-'".

yee kitaavi kl!tn(il aochli hail yee kUnoe aeehee .• baiN

How good '!:his book ~.s! How fme thes~ houses are!

50'. M oo.tedJi tlte three ror.m~ ikyaaIi /bIi.s.aa/" andlkimaal. may]~ their speci Ie ~nJtlmoptiVG m!aDimg 'Won they occur as expli,e.a,tors bemre adjectives 31i~~ hil.s.t:ead~ :sim--ply imdicate am. ex,o.lam3!to.r.y at1it1J1d.e on the. speaker"$. part'. The foWlowing lhree 8enU!i,i;;es.1 tb.ere:w~ do ~1: differ' mn memDg.

'IM_"" ...,:. '1...:': t..: .. ~~'L, 'Ik_:

}"e.G ""'J~' mt acc.u:u M~ ,.w.

ia - .-. ~~1i..~. 'ki"'~~'II. 'III..~,:

yeG I!o.!W1Sl:! aecnu .. '~I IUm.

~~-. •• ''''~'. 1I1.."',,;,;.;,;i., 'L~;"

yee 1&.I.mU, a.c..cIJill. ,lIO~~ ,D.:ti1

W'hat a. fine book this. is! ... ditlo-·

=d!i.tI:C-

/brUI'IJ(t. ,OJ], the OM h~d~ rel.ah'is its 'i:Me:rro,!ative s.ensc e:vetI in a Sitfitence o:fd~.e foUowingtyprz,., a1b.dt oruy Ib~todcaUY' (ie.. ac.:hall.y imil~ying CiQlmplele o.cpli,Q][).

"IT' ............ L!lli '";II..~i'" '1L..~~'k: ani..!' ~? ~W . UI.W'~l l~ , ,'/ l~[i'

61.. RCatirve; ~ooJniBil~ :Fom1~;: IRelan,we pronouu,-nulfk£d, mily fur. nwDbor-amil reladve

adje.cti.ves-m.arbt1l ,for mIOlOO'm1d geooer-oOOJ!r ill IIe:]atFVle clau,s,es w.bicb, in. ~JWn, 'may occur b~:tbre, embedded 'witlW~ Of ,afltr the ~ elaase, The: relJanrve pmno:minals Sl'lOW nei'tite:r ~ mstinC1ion for 'pe['S,QJU :nof"(OO ~r«fiotelproxima1~1' ComtillSl. The rudy OOllstmt ,agreanent betweee 'reu.tiv~, pmnomm:aJs and their ~ is in 'regard to the. eartegQl'y. of' number. As for t1J.r; case dJjsti~li:b!.')nt i.e, diret'l cas.eJobliq,UJi!: case, ithe cllQICe 'wiU depend 'OIl the iuncti.o:n. o.ftne nlative !PT'OJIDmUnW mOl. wjthln 'lin: c]Ml~ of its loccun~t:e.

is; us

,jipj. nlPi .IW, ~iI'

imrooN; umCiioN' ai9aii:~ 'Waisaa lwaa; 'umaa,

In:teD'9gati.v~ kyaa,~ 'gun ]cis.

'kin

kiDhoQN kaisaa

kitnaa.

Rlita.t~~ joo.'

jis,

jin

j 'iImo oN' ,D.la.]~. ji1naa

Th.e aOO·'U\c table $bows 1be varl;'01l8, daito.nsttal."\i''C', iflrtf:rroptir~, anJl 'rc'ld.ve plf!omomiruil :fQmus in Urdu, m:mged '10. im:llicaD 'b.GW tll~y relate to eaeb ,Qthm". The ~rela1ionship!' b~ee:n these: :fO:r.m9~ howcvler~ h;,'lllOt so' much in terms o:f'how one fQlDl, migh1:'Jiefer to ;aru)'dier',a.s bow the

ii."___ - ... ~ .il........... ;,'L, ~:&...:; -. I· - , 11.. h . * ..... ~ _1=, .,...II.~

:l!I.!I1l!!ui m 'LuG 1II;U-,~ :s:~ O,ldief 1j.IU-mg! !being eq1)J:JIJ~ m:lgM:~ ;ce eaen GteI' 'Ill y.J.t; SMn.t MUt 'W]IYl:Ln

a claflilse; llriIfu.o:U!t Mqumng a chang,1'- :m 'word. OJid.er as ,~ would be the ease :m Eo,gli:sb. Onily 'ID:1C (rcmo~e~ dmu:miS1trati~l~ fu3l~, Id. al-a:re. 'Il!-cd ,:IS ·oorre.lativ,o :mar-loers in the til.abm. C:la'llS£ ..

b~aLives

I" '1~1n;'I"'::" _. 1 )00 ,.~d un woo.,.,

!" n-L ... QI;..II Yj,'b.." .. ."rijo.... '~~

,. ~ ;1!t11I"- ¥ ~"!L" .....

J"' 1~ ».'1":'" 1~~~ ... 'h,& ....

l]lS,~J;-~~

aeenae bai woo .. 1:~ "'The ,girl w~se :b.o~ is

ruce .... ;.;

la&mad-kGO 'b,isti lcitaab I~d-koo jaisU. kitaalb'

caahlye.e'?li i~'Wb:M: son c~iyef!, wai:stL.Jj, ~ Th~

Qfboo.k. does Almur<l, so:rt of ~oot Ahmad

w·atnits •.. , •• ~;.

~Idmlityj

I, 11.0 ' kj' ~.~'L.~""I·

1ilS-.I'i.OO JJIl.O . -~.~,

caahif~N .. .I~, i.i. The

'i., __ ·I~i:" he ..:1 ~i

1iftJ.U.l\,,,,, IIJI, neel!,l!.:S: •••

Ijoo WRkee

m;!;l,Ili.,..,.');; ~'~ee_ • J, oIlIi The

~J~J.;~~, ~_ :I'

'ooly.s whQ']! ,gQ., ••• ~

6io [aR.kooN~:kc:e ~ .. J~ ~''l1:tebo,ys, whose b.om~ .... ,'j!i Ijoo kiUlabeeN l~iyeeN'! tee .. Pooi" ,~! T3kJ! 'me books 'that YOil :1'lI!!edl .....

Ijaisee bRkee ,j~Ngce ... I,. j~ Th~ :1cin.dJ of boys, 'Who 'I]

~jiitneoe ]aRkee

J~ ....... "","!" .... tlDP"" .J', .;;, an the~~e"!ll!'~· - f. nI'

t.,""''IJ'C. w'bo- I'JJ' 'n

UU.l'" ' .' " '. g,o •• , ..

E,;'....... I ... D L.. """,",T 'mr' , . IJlI.liI.lI.I:lS 1I..lilf'io..Iri.ooJ,"I-lf!.ee

ghar ... J f .~ A.U the boys

w:h' ""'''' .. he 'In, ' .. s ".

~~ _.~. _illIll,

(jiJ1.nii kita;abeeN c-aahl,yeeN, (ee,.[ool~~1',ake as many. books as younlXd.H<

,Ci,2. Re[atj,vC!; 'pronomiu.ls may eeeer wiil:1Un a f-elafvc: ela~~ le~,th-et by fuemsdJVes-=as

subjects o.r objects o.f the ~ as· m,oo~fim~ As :mOOifieI'S:. ~ec:iaUy whn. t~ miiIY ib-e ,other moolfiers precedin.g 'Ihe 'modified no~ the 'wladv,e pmnomimd forr.n:s may,ooCllD" m various positiOl'la. In fact, it is quite 'dliffwult; to ,dlesc.riJbe tile ukllV:e ,order 0.1 their Q!PCllttOOOO in ~po'lren Unlw. In wrirtml, If.rd, hi!.lwcv'c:rt eertai~n Iineer orderings are pref:en'ed as, de&mbed 'be:~ow.

63, A rela.Jtiv~ 'pll)nOmmal :lb:rml film.ctionm,g as ii, modifier,·, w:o:wd ()cew"immCidi-ately before

~ ·modified M~ iftt~ latttM &xs, not have another modifier.

TL- '1... 'il.." L, ., A' Ile: stoU: wmcn lS nere lS g,QQiJ..

M· ,- ~ ... - ... ~~. ' ... ,L. ,

eet W'C'ii oJiv,}!WlU.O cam;e; ..

The hou~ I am now in ]5, no~. goocl..

64. 'If the '~J'ltJer m,OOijfie:f' is. a ,domomtmdye pr-onominal :fo~. the re~atjv-e pronommal w0111d

[levw. OCCW" 'be.fooe ~t; ig~d it. would occv ,either 'bc!:[orot er after t'ke modi(ood noUlil.

woo joo 'kj,taaib b.ai~ jis-kaa :raag I.aa1J baiU1U

That lli~e) boy is. good.

'liNhat b:ppmed to mat book tb1lrl WlIS

'i.~? t!~'LII;;~

'That 'book ,o,v«' 'there" wbese ,oolor is :red.m

(N~t-c ihat the lise of'1~c dlCnlOllslm1ive in th.>t above examples ~ ·the modiified noUil mMe specificall, i.d.efi1wfied 1hm wou]d be th~ ca$G othc['!Nise·.)

65, lftlle pnceding: 'modifier is ,I!. po~\iiL'!; poofiolm--lu?-kaal! lmuraaf, otc.-thc; l."e]atiV¢.;

PJQROln.inail would uwaily come ,aftet it wdm 'om PO~8e.ss.i,'Ve fOnD t15t:lf is preceded by at d.em(lDskali.v!·j' in. which case :it, ma,y ceme bef'art; it.

,~p .. kaa,joo d.no!'iit'~ llI5,.:lo.oo· kyaa.buaa?

"Rl Ij~ is, ,an,lC' ~,~ ,m:"OWlS ood, 'prono>~ will [61' 'With~l!.ft ~ imiWr~m,.: I,,:k~~ 'w.

mUl!: ad;;~,'f,afI, '~~::: :X·· '. !i""isaa/ i'ti[ X·",,'Ii,; ...... J·'''';;--~ Ii' ,j!!; "'il!"~'I;1~· .. "~ 'TlI. .. ~,"'"".:'A:IJI' 'l!U!iJIi .... "'- 'p·m ........ :"'.~

~ .J' .F'!---- - - - ,,~- -- ~ - "Jll~.J~~IMi~dlll ,.1\,[ !Ii.~. tillw y-!l~-il.i.]JlOI .'i!:W.!iI.Il.Il 'II.!"-Jj , •• 1lft;a!".1iII.I.iI

MIl, ail.ways, 'be: 1m iu,~ g~li!lIe iC~ wb.rilc fjaisul U~ ju$lal) 'wouM ~ wiilb eM :(lOu im; moWi~ Q~ ~m: ~D. Sm01J]y s~ini, m 'll,m ~§., a: di$tiJ'iC'ljiom ,of lillie' ftd~;o~q '~ ~lJ!))1fi11d be~ ob~enred: th-c: o'b\liq~ :fol'ili'i1Sll"~Gl,a:n,d I .. kiif~, :s.hculd b$ pQn,Q;W be:fore:jja1s~ wb~ t\V{) ,iOtuiJly SqlMitc ~Rtitt~ ,8ft; D,pl:i¢d" !:rut 'wben, itV,\':o ~atM.c ~1iitid~ :are not m'Yolv~~ Me SMiUikl, use f]iaisaat by :it~U: nus didi~iQQ,- :1MT~~r~ is :not a'lw~YSi o'b~ ~n ~uy sp~, and wring,.

woo sk*ii1Lkee.j~ caalaak ~dUiiH

~i] .3lamsaa, c~I'aak .dlmi:i (fa]li~: nahliN kar-:sakt'3.i $'h*il~·kuj~_ ~l~ ,~D'ill i""la1ti; , ...... ~;.N' itt , ..... ,..'I"1"a,a

y", ,= J4,\!;II..J!trul ~a:r ~' _

D~m~J~ii W~~,~'C '~Ha ,~

'mjmaa~ii:jaj'&i !aRkii,,,.: ~ ,~~

sll~ii,oo;k'tl! j3!iua iaR:k~ ~ah:iiN mi'lugu

:1i'UniIi ,~:,,"~:, -~ :a:adm'irui-;sae lI.. ... el'iUi

,---~J~j - - ,-, -'" - I""~L,_, ,-

;e1Uk1i\Nii;i'i!:

'0'- ~--.J~

~~cj~~ ~,yooN"'®ee ~~aa eaahiyoe

t~ jai~ ~"OON, .. see 'b.~u::ma e~'yt;

,A]so ,ooMida tho fio$I,Qwilin;g~

.

~jb", rs~·.{liijaj,$ii ki)~"i ~~N

w;,..k:n: paas 'Immh~ jaii5B ghar' nahliNl

H'e is mt CWl..m!ln,g ,m me same WQ)" as Shakiru is,

A [!l~ll!lllntfl!, m~, Sl,[di: ,as Sbm~ c:QmQ!1: :m~ a mtst1ke"

~il;lo.-

.one ,~1d 3,¥O:i'd 3; p~1 ]Ike N"ma.

Oat ,i$litcru~d, ilVOW II :Sh'lliikc 'Na§1tm3. tA~" ,~~ Oit.¢' :silL'0<Uiid. ,;i,:V(lIwd! amy ,gid WOO, ~", n~.e Najma}") Yon w~'\t fl:nd ,m~[ boy Hk~

Shaldt

[OJi!,e ~S~l1, ~~ ~li.~d R~ fbI' ~e,

'kiln.d - 'r" ' '.'.' 11:0. ... ,.

,_'---_:..., '01 per.soD, !!!U;;' Hi.

()ae ~:Iloubl. il~Qid 'the :people 'who ~UJ«:R:am

~ditto,.,

'ill' .... ........,;jj '1.-_. ~'I", _ 'I '"II., - C;b .... :L..:: ~I '" '"' ,III, '~!~_:~ , : KG O;YJ~1IIi.!I1II ~~

:Eli's: ~;'~, h;:ave 3J ~~ :Ilib y~~.

'Mm, IIL~"""""'!X SOQl,e, ~ mwli'ril~'C't e.a. Ius 'q,adarI~ 'OCOW'; ~t ,111.S ~ k'i~ I~rlbh 'OR dlc :00Wl. :i1t modUilt$ 'Of :~, '1.'0., 01ko, 'the :pitticie IlhiiI :might ,also k rased .,0 filrth¢r ¢n.pil3.~i~ ~Ik litn~t M'le~lil'U{t~ •. '00 ~'o~ ~,Ahj:i!!. d~'ij.i~l' WTuld ~,c:,~,~ i11., iiJllit,

Or·' ,

[ .. ~

".-,:", _ 1

ce

, ......

'p~ ~ake ~l!m ,""""i"- D '~: of e;!i;nA~ ~

,~.,~ - ---~- ~~ _.!Wi.mL - - -~lN.y

you need,

:Pl~ tab em" as mu,ch candy

'''':''" 'iiN'!i'", ,..~,~ . .ill I~ ,J'~I~ 1~~~!1

1ioo ..

72. lnd~firu~ Pro~mln:a] IF'orms;: Ikooiil and: Ikuc't¥ ~t es ~th proD.~ ~ ~j',~1t~,

fL,... - i'il ," " , ,.. . ~ - ,- ,',." '1' . . . , ' ' '"'C'" c', '. • .' n~ 'Ii! /k ...... kl ,-'.' ans 4., • • e ',. .iI~.cKl ii'· JIl!oit..rs ~~..ooH ~ somt~patt:lC'1l a:r'Oru~I~ ectIUU.Jl~ ,anyll' 'anyQ ... !,~c!!;!.\il"'"n:te._... $Om_. ~'''.:C ~IJ: ~'.i"'~,

'I, ........ iii.,. 4~ n .. · ... .'L. ..... , ....,·C· t;,..i"'iIH:: ,,","'II!iI".n:ftDi::, ,_,..Ai ,,;;,;,;- 't- ..... , "L,;up ... "'"'-ti.,,11 er iI'!i"" .... IClWl'"p ~d-'I'Ni , ... .'1""'"' '"It

'~~rW I~ =g.u~J Vt Inm~r v r~'~~ 1!IIil1.1WI! ln~II!i.I'dI·'!iI W1IWI~ ~.-!I.~~..:--!liI!Y Iy .. ~,~~=_. _ 1 __ ~ ~~~I!Y ~,t,~, ~~~i3V~ ~ I

'IS' ~. _'I ..... "' .. iIW...;".,....t,1,, ~i:,,"''''1 iII."":'" "" ,""" ...... 1Ii ,ftJi\i' ...... ~, ... Jli..1 ''''F'r_ ~mli":='lw' ,i,.;,. lib, e ii'I1'1:m":f:~;. ':1, i'" ..... ..-..:11

[ 'IAJJ!J' ,1YJ..JI.)l~~~I_~,,· 'II!~ ~~w~ IIJIi!I!! lJ-"UI;!IU 11Lrvw.J1ioi1 lilii.Y'¥I_1I [li!VJ!lirI.J~ r'~~Mt .. ~, •. I!." '""¥.' __ ~[~U~,~ !II _ -~ I~

mosdy with mB$; Mum;. ,ud ,1w31~ ,Q,f,oo.mtabtc, DOtIDS. [f~ v.-ilh Ibe: 9m.pkr f'btml of,a ~~13b:lt:, :Re~ ltu~hI 'nl~ ''''~ ~,o,f Ii 1,]",'"" Whn QQQu:nioi .,'Y ~~I\YC5, ;15, Il\defmile: '.fQ.~~,,~iiJ' ~ ~~'OOmle.:~!t'l!! twd ~bI' ~ ·"~mab.int1:.,!~ '\ViIh~J'liY( p:anje~ ina; fith~fNli th~,y $aVe' 'to tinAi~alO'~, tcWil a.b$i!fU~~: OW f;fCptio.fJ1. T:h.G obliq,~ (.~ knn Qfi1Moii1 is l)d$W; tM l~lter does '[!;(:it ~.W"'~ plW-,a), ~01;,IIls. tk:~ebJ~ t):D the otbe:r h~d!, dQts no1 bu ,a. :S¢p~~ tbUq~~ ~ fOtm"

~~, ~ftr.eN' :kooijj udili14 'Y8,~m:ceN':bJeh:~"N' ~ .~!e,koai!i d:oMl,,~ lW!N

baahar .--Ik,e.e, J:U'CJr.. d'eos1 aaee haiN

lm,,;,Dloe'N,,$Oe, koaii ki~N aap~

koo 't.$liIid ~ too l~ .. I;iiji,~

85

ruck acdhii k:itaaib dHj iy;ee koo:i~ acehii :kitaah >diijiy~ kya.a kuch kUlD, n1m, ~,yu? ]cisii.-;s·ee pu~,yee uan·:meeN~e :bI,eb.~meG kahu

_lI.,T '1"=" - 1_'IL. __

llm,"nw~~ .... -see ,II:,:ISJiI,-:n.ee ,r;,jIUilliii:l

'UW,~meeN'~see :kJJJclt loogoo:N'anee k"ahaa

Give me al SQmew'h~t 'better book, Gi,v,e me s-ome' gM, 'book,

Did YOM, ,itinisli ~ of'1lbe work? Pl~~ ,a*, ,someone.

SomQ nt't~miI1 sarid ... ",

SommD.G ,among ,th~ 58~d""" Some :Pro:ll~ alm.ong, 'tll.sm said.", ..

71. llum~ is :00 :$ep~~ dri~tB mthc]s i.n, lJI'G'u; tOB absenee of M1Y Marker of '~mefIDi,~ess~'

'\Vlolllld ruxmla1b make a, MM ,ddili~.te. A mOUfi mary alsc ib~ madle ·',ddlimite! b:!f' :plac:Wg a dlernOJ[l.£~fve fom:t before it As £~(r' ~ifJrlJml]i.t~n.ess'~ ~ it is, iindicat.M in 'Ordu ill varioo:n;, w'@:ys. In c8B~, wh~ ,~~ ene" is ,ac,Wia'lly a iIl'UmJber~ U~ ''!NQldd use' tef.'kJ~ (1iheD']se 'Ii.e noun 'WOuLd. coeur' by i~r Qf' win 'be Ituuk,$d. 'W,idllk~iI. (No~e 'tha1/eek1' is never. moo, m. g;eMratizi.I!!,g :staltem~nts elk 'kind: ~~ A IDUD its ]lever:" as ~ ,m, 311lt:h. sentmm~ th.(5 sUbject would ~.al]y be :pJ!ecoooo '10" ~ooiil,)

De]lenmlJlg u:pon. the :pw.tWalf OO~Jd~ 'mh~ :cng'lis'h. definh:e ,artiel,e~ .,j, the," :may oom~imes, be ~,RS&ed, in Urdu b(Y eoo{P~Qy:i.@g lyreI, Iwoo1~ or Sonii.c:: appmpria.te relative pmll.O'Im. O~ :ifthat:'llO,1m :h.a'ppens, to be 'Ute dlim;t ,orojec~ :ilJ! 1be s~tmc:¢!, its "definit-eaess!

"''Ii~"""",1'; ............... ~i!!iol!'"",;j b· '!U" ii'iii.i!i,;o;~'i1i,i'i!''''ii.~ 'IV'Ii:!~ill·I·""'''' I ~1'l!'U"i1 "",A~ ~~ I'" ...... ,,. ....... ,,"" .. ~ .... ..".,. ...... rra:o .. ti. .. ...." 'H'!'v.U..I~ ~ ~,~~,_~.:I~. 'j;;; ~'~ l~ y,-:w~~ .. ;~~=~~. -~~. ~~~J. ,!l~.; .,.l.,1~~11i:i!.l ~~l.UunL_1I"".,~ ,UL .... _L~

would 00 no Ol,,'ert eq,Il1.V,ailGDf. io Urdu"

"ek; Idlooe-.nss :kahaa, 1~IJ." k!ltma,

'~dm ]~~"[le-e l\rijlh~

kooii ~chii ki~b l1~i? aochii ki~1'l, ab meeree :p~ ~ahiiN'

]aRk:ee,,',koo, bataa.oo maiN,~nee ~k ~aRkii ,d=kEill mMN,dn-ee iaEUd~:"koo deell:;haa,

I'd], the bo'Y,,, I.sawa"glfl.

I saw tliC &11'1

74~, P,oooommal ,M '"reiJl i\S ,oth~ a{l}ect~v~ ma.y OCC(U: douJb~~d of: r!p!!.i1ted to empbi\Slze tbe:

~~ di5tribm.ti~~ a.s~t. of'rbe p]w,aJ n~ tiu.e,.y ro~OOifY,. ,3 nmc1ton ,s~m:ilam:' ID tha!t. of tlte En,gUs'h :p~~;~ !~ each and 'SVGry. "'" A doubled ,wjectii¥e dotS nm m..pJ.y an ~DtsmifilC::niIm, of thlZ j'quiIJityi; iml&U1, it adds ra jiuiiL:nne of '!mJ1jl~Lip]icit;Jl or ~1em:umC1'3.1io'J]': lhe ~ng;S ~ ~~ ,good" nill jlil5t c~Ulati,,.,.'ely lUlJl also ~in,gly,. -(OH, the ottilm: haad, ~,rcpeii~'Cd, adverb does emf a, ~rng.e iOIf 'Iiotm.si'fica~]oo ', Sec tl],)

WQO.~bU~i:d~,~, pya

jhnaa,j~mu:iI3p I~"sec,~ &ace'

Xua.ab, ~,c:&aaiNT ",ltw:':a.lq,

--.1.5:.. "'I_.~ J~UiIlI~~1

H$I~ed pay UCil aDd ~ :finc tmO,8.

As mill(:;'!:'. ,as: ,t:aeh 'OM of"~, ean

db .. "

Sen e,ut 'lb~ bad] ones: and :put ~hUll

~~7'.

'7Si. 1'5iU!I:. Like rnat'kaI, adj;ecIi,~ it'~'~ ~m~ '-11, ISEfd~, ,and] kiR J~; '~Y' be added

10, ,iiDY adj,~ri\l.~,:~, 'Of::~~, .ml'ham ~:m*,Y 'b~ ~ ,adjceti,,¥\~!; or as: ,an ~1icaW:r 'kf01~ '~~' adjCdi~, d~ ~m,l" on d'le ":be:d~ of'dw. 'p~ '~~e~ 'OtC '\\~, ~t)' p~Iq I~., It :iSi diffrem~: ftJl 1ii'lo'C a smlle::p1lccisc m~: WI'lA.3Ij, we:ctm, amy diKtiY.lt :in, the OOt!Iilt:xt 'o,niS, "w~· '~;"' .. (:/\1'&11 gc Sti.)1

"!J'~'., .~ .. ",--,~ un, ,.';0'1:.. "'''!W ..... ~: .• ;iIi; .............. 'mMll',. """",,"!",,"I" !i..1~ ,j',,,"" -0:-', .t., ........ ; "';:oii.~, ' .... iii.,.. ,41:.........,1i' "'''';iI!''''' ,;It.,.P,ft'i\ _ ....... ~1., ....

i!'1 U! ,~-~. ~I.JW lIIu.1!'!!U.UiaI. R u.u'IU.<.J I . ~ ~~ I~~~I.''' I~~ ~~w-~' I~IJ .,.1,;3 W",~!L IM~ J}WI.IIII(I~ ~ ,~_" uu;:;

,obiliqu~ no1 ~rilJ:~Itin.1 ill :a,:mJjiN'lldl, i~ m~, 1I\el~'ltant,:p~ j~, :bollt,,~ 'wmdd haWi a ~~ Simila.!:',t.o thEnglitb ~"X .. jik~~ or'H;:X.li$h:i~ ~P<l~ ~ 'the

~001~btwo'·\\iOQ'IdM'Qt·~,t>Olow.in8.~. ~

;ii'I., .... ,D,,",., .j;~lj'·O!iIft'I'WIi!iU" ~~'iiMiil.tII ........ ,~I!liiMJ

,mi ......... D,.cc saa llliIJilW,U ~~ ... . ~ .. "

,jl;,. amiDtll Hb~ dilc: hiHle~~' -ii,Ii, ,1m~llkc mimar~'

u:e luis. II Iio ........... : j'!b,e: I,,", ~.' =

,lI,it ~ ~ ' _ ~N.!,~ ,l~ ~ J,'~.

II. :is Mt kind lM way A.bm;ad is.. :1 aw oome~ l1kc a do,8, ,BOmS, .,\VJ'i, ihe ~"

Just 'U!ien ~2: dI.at: looked, .Ht!~ ,1m,Q'ke; WII, ,s,en 11m 'lite:

di~Ci

A kind"ofRdbcss,,~ ~n the,

~

,~;", :~~, 'dlu~' ., tw'O ~_!~" Um" lsul is ~d in wbat ~ be tdled ,lIS

Oli; Ndueti,~ ~~h)ll~~, :~i)D: 'iUolt~ 'bln H-me(biq Ullce: ~~;, not: ~,ever :$0 c!eaJl'ly" blIlt :~""g; jib :it. ~ is; ~ e~ in~:, 'y"YI$ins,I$~1! 'the spW;~ ~'br wants

' ..... ~, .. ','j! _' __ ,', '~U;i;,~ .. ,11 ''Ti. ... , ...... , 'cA, 'ii"'"'~"'.,\iio,"".'.AI,' ~i'!iil-'''''1iIII1 'Iii',.ft< .. ~j"",--., '--:-,;j't- ...... i O!II_,' ~ •• ·"';liI,'" , ......

"' -r'r'---; '!~~'!i!" ''''''':I ~ l!!'~'''''''''~- ~,,!~, ~ _ .... .,!,~''"' ~ ... ",,~...,.;..,Ji.1"' ... ~;~N!_,~ Q~ I~ _ ........ "'iII~V .....,.1i.1II.~"'.,

in Ul4Y!.

us-~'~1i"l'book;~,kai '\l¥OO' d.m1Kl w, :mcc:t, 'fillbiiN' ~;!PU'eek ~ su,,~, ~

i~mctN dl.UJ.V, neh db:'OiwW41 ~4ikkaiJi d~,

.-

''1.. Same:dm. 'the ~Ior t~tuJ iind,laal :1DI.J:m,\-QI\~ a '~8 o-fthe;~,e:'1:WC

<lie d' ::'.--.-~;I: " .. _iI<·I' ....... ~.I'ii ,,,,'11.....0;_ 'D..·&_·n;'I_~

~ .~~ tII II~. I~..al.I!, I·" ~J ~'@I~-Lr~-~~

i~IK"'t. sal, ]iJ]~uNb1"i!I!I! l~k~ mlLg~kaa.sal ~)UIlUNhf:: "a bo:r,s;c.Ji'ke: &ce. i~'

l~iil- ... ;I ..... , ............ "",''k1' .. 'I''''''''''', ,,,"-: '~~"'''''''';I' i!iiiI ,r-m·ijIii4~\;;;o."""",!" ...... '1I\,1: .. t._It~~ .. :»:cc:, ,5eS

~~~jj~,-,t,~ ~.~ !f~'l!iiIyl~Wl ~'111 ¥~~lJj-~~~ ~~ ,4"~~ ... - "~

tyoohaa£/:~ ii tesliivals; liuntl'ic: Mulimsi tlitVc,,'jI,

IGaaI:ib.-~, si1i, ~NI' _: ,1Gai'Jlib-:klli Gt.zLQON~kH sli 'GuJ:HHII,; 'i~I,giia.;Js; ~im:il\af' 'b) GJ_li:b;i':s. ,~I$. ~t

Dmj~ aa, aa.dr.IW

'110 '11._ .... ,. 'i..'!i.::.' '!i._ ....

,I'J;Bai ••. wu, ml saa wlUll :UW~.

t"n.- ... ~i!. .. , ,~'i.'f'!IiJ.'" ~oIL, ,01\'_, 1-1jI~"""'nil!" ~~~ 'II~ ~~t~ 'q .. .w, ~ J.\iP-;IflIi~dl~,,1i

n ~,dJai 'thoBib h iSJ~b]o;'to ~~,IEp~,:~~No;;~ bun titaah'~,lud?l" "'~b.O'f~ '~b,dbJOU :lik?'i' it, wou!IdJ k:,fttdk ItO, :~y,~.(kM,;rt-;~~N,~boo r$ii JdI!aa1J, p;3:sgd bi?/~ Otha; ~;la,.

],. k~C)QU gchU$ii ~i ,di~~

i, irnn sti,mi,~ri-&u mD~ bu, :~'UN

,~' ~_'"'''' ~1..,~,'I!i'~,~, ~!!I;: ...... "".' i'ii;,n. 'i~'.~, ~r.fI~1~~8~!IiiMIII1~r"'

liJl,~N ~ (too ,raa;dmj:i

'\\'~ fImt';sh 'M I .. .1ii~' Cb

.. I:' '. I' . '". ,..: ...

~, ~,:.. J)'lI, . ._ .~ . WI; , ,lS\!I ii,

,~ " a11,'i!liiRAUiiI'if A'1~"'nA..>?

~, ,_ !!M, ~ 'V, ~D,IIi.f ,.

,c:o..~~'I'Ii.., :!:I;, 'L'ndl#, 110.-: •• ;;;,,," ~" ...... ..I1 in ~1iI r!iJi~Y ~ llol~~ lIN~-L~ _"". w~

Iiml"llD _'110, 'ii'oi;n ,_,.,JI , ·~·tI~'~.L~~· !Ii:~VI ~.~~

P~ ',il' , _Ii;.,.."., ., ,. ..... .,;1 ti .. , • [:w".,"

,1IJiSa$G ,~nDW' tn-~ :a F!JQ ,iilJl, e- ~"IlIY

:aN )'W $ho~1l!S '. OW; bad onel~ \Ybal: :~td ~ do ~ildJ, 'Otis, mooh

~Iy?'

Std, ,~, 'bjS ~~, im. ~t :1i.~1l8: (lrlJ~ NtO, ~Si!'

'Bccnsc I~ is 'idcdcd I~, 'In~~ , .. .!I~Cdh!'tcs, 'i~ 'comCS cllRful 'whm ,am ~~ u.~cctive is;

__ .-. ", __ .l. ~' .. r ... [ .. l~' . __ J!,r. _. ... , _ .. _ -.-~- :1.---

'~, in ,th~ Qltlil}JI :fl.tnct~ ~'lOcn t$UI mBk'eS 'the ,geniler ,Wid 'DlIDiWM o:£'1hc impW'ROUP 'Wlamb~,

t:ee rtamlC: =Ill,).!' fittI ~ (De'

, . .' ... ..~. . .. ~'. ~

fiC:{~C :is to, ,some: ('emim.i'tM

:mcnal'.)

,82. WiOOld ~ ofiadj ~Iii,\f~: 'The .l::hik~ ,Q. Qfooj~li'Vt$; i~ ~ 'tong Seq;UeMC in 'UMirl is, as

":i,ilii_., I~U .. '!.iP.'W'Ij!lill·1il

00·,· wnda.I --'~

~'I,' '.' .~ .. ,,' ~ .......

•• • ~l _.~_ '~" ,~

'~~kUaab

,~ woo k_lJ1aab 'me.erij ~,:ldJ~N

'~III" ~~.- ... ,IL., ,.;;~-I.::i, 'l~il, ... _'L: ........ '!ii..~' !lJc1~ll_ 1Br.1LW], !Ii!I~1i M~]'

.~ le .. _ii" 1.._~n~·' ~,~-.iIi..:'. iI!~ ... ~_ .. 'L,~~"""f

1!liIii:m1 ...-",",I]i, ~W ,!i&I!;.v~lI, 1~~~"!I'

my~k

tb;at !book ofnlms

smn~'~ ~t:J~lillt!;

so:mc; ~ boot$ ofmme same ~ :good boo:k;s; ofmim'$!'

$.om! I()f my !books WiLd, wme of Y,OllJ$.

1.0, Ott;,~ I~,f moR: min f.wo simp:le, ,idjCC'lmva ,oomi~g '~g~ bttlbm 3, ~;'I:l'~meabjllJg not t~, c~,m.m.4.lflIY d~ in UMu--.-'dlCiY' alii, Slctml to >C~ an ~'Uall ;~: of 5,ped~G [pOwe'-J:.

.. ~ -

'W'hrn liO 'cxp'licU conapari~O]'[ is m., 1hc C'xplilC'.a!ton I~ ,~ Ikaml may'be UKd Wure~ ~ adjKti,~~, whd'cb ,.ain, ~ains rwwhlDl,cd.

"",,.mA, :i~l~aai. ~_o!!I'ii;;;,o:!i, ,~i baH: !I!"!fI~ M"~_V~~'~ . ~~~.~ .

a3j, mmA~:1mm :i(~, hili

Th~a: ~ ,~b:Q' t\i.'1)' ~~i~ilO.~sl' '~be mutpabH~CE!l'UzcNf and! !-tii IlIisbatl" w-mm at~ 'Used 'WUh. ,adje~d'V,~s :fur oompmtiv~ :ptI~~jo ~&11!l :in combirtatiQtl, with. some ewcl'~~awr.

"IT""" '1"'li~""J"" ~!~Ii'! ! .. :,: _~~'L..~ '7'!U ..... -;!I,;;;;"'" ,,;. Y"" [h, I~_~~I 1~~~1I.JIll ~~_, ~,,~~,

_ ~...Ji.~~ - •

~11U~ !Ill 1'1,

Comp',~~ ~o t1:'Jat kt!k.~ dnID~, 'book: is bet1«~

:" d ~,' l .. kcc tt.. _".' " .... mm, 'tam xarub 'b' ~

c~ to 1-adiy' ,"' e "i~ is, " .' 'bad, 'bldl, ..

.. " ~ ... "L;' . :t. ... :11 -- ;.,""'io. ....... J 'I.. ... ~ .. 11!IUdJi1lMY-tet; WI~ ,,~

, , . '1.._.,/1."""':;' ......... !1.~'1' 'Il;. - 'WOO '1YU-...rIJi], ~, n

1 iI'k. ... IIPo"", ~" !~, 'i(iII 'IlC'I.;,. \I',;I!1"i;I ",

IE j,'v.MJ.v._'!I J~_-_HIi!J ~';#,lIl

11;., ........ '[ '"''"' .... ~;il w ........ 'io. '~N~·~-'JN~

...... _ .. "Iv' ~~j, i:"'&,~.j e:XUl'Iii mo""l!' "" .... '_~ ~'I;JULI,

"F-'I.~: ". t··, ]]....-..A ,i1"m!-:5, 15m] "t . _ ~~'.

,Ii!' .;i'I~"r"~1i.. ~'. i.~ iD'~.I'Mi.o;Wio."j;, o!ii ~:;iliiiill!'.~~'

~. J!',~-U'. !IILV, .... r'!V. 1I]!Ii!~J' igI ~~~~J~.

yeo' slUb" '.' ,~ibj

6. 1dLoo1._= 'i.t:wm~:hi[i, i lil~e., ...

"f'k:s '1.. __ 11. i:. ElArD" ilRi<r'ilo.--:1 ,~ &~::II ~ "'~ ~ !lpC!I!"I'IMI_' a~~1

. " . I·....... if"'11 iII.~'"

, 'jfjW'llIl, s, [!lin .. '! ]~":er.

,~-~ .. t. .. ~ ...... , ........ l!'iIoilio doost ''''),¥¥''-Q~~v~,[~~~·_._, __

hal

H# is Ill," ~~1Gse, :fiiaKlof mine.

Tii.~ 'k-~~"'"' ~ ... , ....... A, _ .JI$: w~, liS :LCSS ,,",,!MI.,

gr l~rIIfli • .-c", .. i,,~~~ '""""""I!"i".!~' lln..:rIItiIr l .... _'k'lo.:'C')· _ •. iI!lt~"'I. IIlWUl~II'.lll,I.Ji'Ii.II'Ii"-" ... \UJii>~ ~ UIUlU-i,.

9~1

amu ~,

thil~ b~ ~,

~O¢Qmo: ~b"~,

to, ~\i'e ~[le~ ftd lQ.,'bc;~

10 mike

'LO,~:'W. 'be. ~

Urdu inf:in.ilila, ~ or a. '~; .;em ~ ~ &1JfIix;, !..:nul. The: '\!I'O'ibal item :ma-r 'itself. ,oo~.,ofa Ycr'bid rtMJt, amd HIiM suflilX., In 'the: ahovi tx- -'-It$, 1aa..J;,l.Id1aa~ ,~~ Jban I ae i!]impl~ veillud roo~K' cum.ot, 'be. ~ c.o ftmist. of'~ef '~~l'icUGIta-Nn~c·rii)mn.g I.S va1baJ1 s'iam. '()m, 'th$: other and Jtmlwaa-ll, Jbanaa-l, and j :: . ~/_ "Ball ~j ·ad.·can be

.. !II.""~ ..... f--"io "'''''''n~I~'''. ,iI'iiili",~~ ._..Iii ,~~ .. r.I'il"",_, ~'LnJ ~ ,¥¥~~~~. vI! ~~~ illLU . ..wwIlJ~~.

'V'~ ,~ m~ :also 'tw;rc·,· n' -' .• - ~., o:f difltmU aKlinp :adckd, '10 1~am, '(.0 f«rlIn 'Cbe

~MliI'IilII'IfIiI!I- «tf- .~!~, ~ ~_'Ii ,"~ :r ... , ..... - - .~I-: 7"i~,~ u_: ~"r .... NII_Ii!'-,"",:, ....... ,i'..!i;i" fi b , .. ~ .. ill

r--'MJII."'CI""""' "" ~L V~ll,11111 ,Iuu,.~. HI, uQi ",ts.e~,~ __ "",~.liiU 1 ...... lll!O~ _ 'u.!!' ..... ' "" "'. "~lW'iIH

__ .:r;im'I~' ;i!<iill!o-;il"_hve~ 'ib1:me~ ,i...-.l'_"'· 'p"'i1i:dp'lc·· 'and! ~""""""!i~;:"=Ri1l.. 'Olber ,\I:....,. •• :MI ,,. ..... _;t;,

paad"!U~~1i ~~~g __ , __ _ ,_ 't ·"Ii:.f.r-litilh.~ _,AI.~_ .' _ ! ~_.J!I.!'Ir."'IJ.JIIJ ~.~ .. ~. _' . BUGJ .lIU,I;U,g

'dlm ~ shaltll !be! 'ref~g. to win M: !lhe ~i, Md, 'paM. auociUuy ifttmii5, of ~~ \'ariOLL~ impmtjv, fomu" iDd 1hc! ·coni~livc pmici,tc. -

A NJati,wly simpJc! UrW:i, "rub n:dgb.t often Mq"ua: :ii, :~R: ,ogmpJa: .ivlilutl; :Urn EDtlJlidi=, -dte ,SIDl~ >Qf'eo~, would be! ne; Eke: OIM:f ",'q' ,~., Tbi·· olJlrious ~ii~li is, mmty to ,~ze that 'Ilb~ :is. :rsn;ly :I o,'·' ..... 0. ;~mQn*ip, ,or' 'CO~£IlOC kt.~ 'die: ,rahalI.

~,_"" ... .t'lI!'!i'IiiOh. Ii<HllOi'IJlCNl!!:'C if_ ,oIL'::~ ~t. ~;r;A"" ftI_ r\_, .. l~c.Ii, ... ml .... jl<,;:;iII'i:j ,,"!Hi< _,;;._i;ail1ijJ. ,- '-- -- ~.. ' I

~J'-a.~~Iv.II~·rn. "~....a,--o~ .. lUI: UII!Ii!!I [~ __ 1_.:'.!t~ .. ..,..,.... .~~ ~:!N~l ...... k~IrIH~~·,. '"

mMllm11~ :i.e, 'What W().'Uld Hkcly'ht oW '~1 ani E~l.li$h, ~ in dte'pm~culu Si~Qm or oarum ~ed'" 'the Um:kL 'Ibc smd~lt :*.(1 ,atway,J cctr..sider' tJtem; ~ while· mrakiq ~ tD Wi/dftSQ;ndi, hDJ ~ :lishC. of:'~hc '!ni%isb S:ki~ OR 1r:_:mti'li~J ¢':Qfistiw~WI$. QttJb,e, ;iattm~e: i:'n! Urtfli, C_1>jeet:, o~~~ vab;, "leo) dlo'relQQl]sNps .dWdn, 1k cemstlfttalls (t.::., HfW~, tb .

.... ;1;.""","",, , ......... 1 'tiie,.,........ . ,~" ..... - ,.;'1:.. .. ··oIio,. -..II 'its ftIl'lIi'mlmiiilJ1"'- -·11 ...... ' .. ;.~'ri. and L. .... ~",.,;,"' ... -.i!JlY:~"'.t""~!'!!!II. ~ "'~9't o.r. '~i"'!!.lm ~.ue. iQ:Ju Uioll ~ ",Cli"',_. __ J.CI~ iD'l!P..IIl.: T'J' .', Ill'Ur;!!I IUIw.K

,~'I'"",,: __ ..... .-!I!'!i - "'_ ..... "'.-...I!liU ,~=..Il1·~"'"'~..IIi m'l .0li0.''': ,~_.-...... i_ ,{II' L., ... -, :t;.2r1'l· i· i'i'" ,i'iA~ .. -,". ",lil'A' .,.... , ..... ...,~, .. i'i''h

,I, "",lUIWMfI...;uI!"_. _I"", Y."~IIIII", .1UUl ~Ri!!.I, IUIP _!IJII.~I!!oO'1ii' 'Il.""~!:!i" 1-.,. .!r- I!o!I. i!I!,I! r-"1'""''''''''''' I"" YdI "'~~'!!I~5I'.1

,!fii~.' m" " .... -...t-'-<4i ,..,. .......... .;-). -

..... - ..... , .-- ww.Dw.~;."

H Gra.mml'litillr~ ill Ur1l1ll, ~lllfi1Uli,vcs"m NSO md.1d nu.s-cUiline:'~ cx;ccp,Jnhluh~y ~tha' OiXm in 'Ik pltmd;, 001' iD • vQc:-llh''Co 'm, 'alb. w~ 'Ik immitiY~e Ii.. .. '. , )'1' IS' , MUll, ~, OD1~ 'nYO :1'o:mI!: (n ,~" ~'IIllilllC'~ siDr(,uilar" diNct;, and (2) t:~~ mu.cuJr'io.c'" &-i.1Q'I' (Jtd~CIDUC.'. As,:nD~ they may. be uSGd.,ssu.bj"W oi:"o.bJ;$'l~s of'ct'hu"v-em-s, andl iill$o, roUer-wH, by :~ili'OM. ']'he: t'OMolUal r .. 'ji£C1: of a ~11ilimtiYe: wiiIIJ 'be mll"lmd w:id1 Ui$ pl~e p.JS~ifiOIii J, .. '-':-'- '.

,~~d~t~jaanaa ,il1mad ... k~ jaan«,.,psx'

iii .... 1~~_ :"'iA.h ~ ................... ,-'kct:: ........ "" ... : ~,"i~~iI!IIIIIIID~· ~'~ ~

~ ta:hJIee"iSet.

]lrn~jlllC:ilj '~u c:~.~

acoha.al"b\~ ~

y,dlHiNs

W .. :x1Jid~ :~":rahm k~

''I11C$C ~rad\l'~ ~ ~,Om1J iQl 1hc,~~s w~'(h~ ~1JJj .vmj d~ Gommami ma:y '~~bly ~ the s'ult;:jcct >0if'1h~ oC:Q~ "Wiitll the' PQoom~nfili! .re~ thaw", fS'~ l4.}

88. So&j.~1i;¥es: fh,e: :wbjlm~W tim Ut:d~ 'b~ci!lay '~pre~e;s 3, ~~"ea:t'" ;as.s~'ti!~:Q, 'Oil 'Ih~

PW1,'Qlt:IJe~. ~m$ ~ptto, i:s,~Jbt ",rlMbI :re;r~e ~o ~m~' act w:bidl iis, ~u_t.o:r

AI·· ~I ',~'i~_, i'... A.:t.., '10.....1 'I.':: - 'b'·

'~i!:Strt:u to ~~ piliiIDe .aJ.~:et' we' ~IL aet, ,an"", W,liWicll, may,~ O:i':may':l'l'ot, .• ~ oomln..p~~ \I,poll ..

,f4:m.etbim,g. S!~Q:jwwtiivc:~ ict.ttn!l!, ~herAom" am '. in. 'both. comtiti~~l ~Q:fitin.cti~ ,and. ~~:fo:r:m.al, I~ds. '(Ai~ see rtlite, :iRXt. ~io~. :) Ftu.I1b~J:', whm '~ m ~~IOO1tti,\l\e, ;s~~l~ 1iJt~ imns M\IoJi~dl o:fl:e1!!! be p~d\HI. 'try the· ad,~,;, }~Y~~:i _I p$b3p&~' 'Tht= ~lWilCli,l!\e: ~g,cS~ adtkd '!:OI verbal ooots and, S~~~ ,~: ~, :w]IQV.\'S", (Se~ lOOI fbI': th:e ~itl~ar foms ,of: fh'Olonuf.),

... N "00' -ee

ilst pe1:M-nj smlD~2; <,%:~jth 1ma1~ :2mt ~m;, (wi~b ~I

,2nd. and. 3:rtd p~n, si~~.m;~. ('With ~ru:w", Iwoo/'~ 'etc.)

pffiwraW ,and ,alil~ 1(W'itb,Jibami:" iaapl:, iW()fj/~ 'e~.c.)

laayacl woo U~ i~d, ~Dll ,D~N

,!!8;Wi' aap jaaftNI

,gp a'b ja.H~N 'lWlkaihoo

_gar Nml taboo Hp:~~,rhlg~

'NOie~ tbt lloou.JiJI, II ,su'bj~ i;mp.l~a, a .~ H'[ioJ]~ .it siml!il['tan~ly' impti:es;·on '1!1a 'pan of tM~ speme:r a weak; OT'~emJ!,i:t'~ .as~iQ'f:.iJ 'C0l1lCefJ'IJeg aQ)~ ~b:ilruty (Kr~al ,ae,i:Qll co W~tb: del future wm~ 1:n; sptatcr's usumptioJt booomes, [ltl3J:i,ve.l~ :mo:rc ~fti! .and R1~Y ~en H: sen $S an assertio.ll ..

~ ~ $iikiu).Jga too, W(!O,'hblii ~i~

'N', ~e;ml~~; We: 'have: :~, mmUian,odJ 1l1!le 'l!!l&~ 'of'th¢ \~ :iimt!1lllJSi ;:md; ~ubJ.:Ull,otl~ :8

i~\I\es. t:br.ce oamt fo.~. Retd to' 'k ~i.onm be:re to oompil~:¢ ~bt :li~I,~ '~ Bpe:nthl'e~, porte imp.: ,- tiive:~ ad ~tr.".polt=: impcmdiiVe-.",

9~. N¢U'il'a:I, Imp.c~liv,~: The 'mfiniti,v~, 'by ii$e'lf~ may an;so Ib~ used as im :im~tiVe:. t:lt~

_nat. 'pimlO'millal re~m bcikn:g 11!1.ur!I. In. :(hi$ use, ~ ilUinidvc mdi~ mol'O 'poUte:ne~s tbJJ.m .e : .. b:jW'i,C1!i~c,. IFw oam,pl~ ~1lh, ltuoot C"'Bri~I!") ,andl11llUmaat f~ B:ringr~). would be ~ with HlI)X WihQ.,., wilch f!!fellm.ce to idrLc ~c:r~ are )~oun(F ~R !lit-oJ tolWOli :Ln, :socld statmi or DDitiDlate fii~, 'b\U IilMmiIBI'wcWd 'be -prc~, -whem ~~a, :~;:uc'b. ,as a rMfeel, ~I" QI" a ~ax.i dR\"ef pat1li~ly :iir,Ol'm ''Wi.~~, met 'to soud, tS1lpm(nfi',. :For 1lhe~ 1m: Qt,~ ~'

w.;il,~ we :",;HIi '". ~ ~i'lfllll' ~"":!I" illl:!~D:<!i, !"<!' ..... ,~i)i!iA11 ir;n~,i'!liI-Jl~V. iC"-t~ ...... ;c., -w;th neunll 'iml!l!-'i,: . ,A:

__ ¥.IIU!' J _ ~~ !I!~Or IItlU!il1 'lfi4ilJIipI,D.i~J1 '~~'@11l ~.T·-'" . ~IJ ~JI'_IJiiI!IjI"""fl!lr-.9 !Ii'W'l!~'~" • J, 1F·~JI;~liJ ~

Ctmsl1:uctians 'Wi~1 oSen a[iQl~Ol1lJtain, such ,pt)]itc irnteg,ooti-mDs, M ~I (lit. ~~a Rtdc' ,.) and lblli!Jiu. ('Ibe: latter, t'h.cu,gh d:eri';,rcd fiomlbliuiii,,- i''bmriu~i:'t'" b:lSi IIlO lexical eqU:fva]mn iIll !!l,gUs.h. It: can be·USt.d tOI ad&e.is mmales~ it dees n01:~:!the fbmtailru,ty of'~'Sir'" aor d~ i'l: :inJiicate :intimacy

Ii:: .'1" • - .•. "' . .:.... • iI.

or' :lI!iml1dfmJty-\I~, am.o1i1II,lS; ,to Jd ,~~S ruce.~l

[~ll'Ii] liIi.ivcc

!!l--:~' _ '#

W1! .. S~ i['~] mrulllr nilfuyec

:P1I~r:; oo.mc'. :f.Yjeas~ do, 'm~~~ him.

:Pcna'~ 'commtJ:riIl''fe1b,(:i\l,1'iow,twe-r., baft s~i8htlJ ,dli:ffam~ pcli1e wpcrafvt: :~:, ~ s'homl\di he memmized s~ely.

93,. 'E..xb,ii3i",PQlhe Imperatlv,e.: The pontE: im~illi;vc ftmns :may ~a\i'e.1~ WtllaR Clldiq~ ./"8,''- _ j

adted ~o 'than (:or additional :po.~iteneat. 'ilii~ ~l1Mt furm can also ~iO:i1 ss ,simply :aDotbt.r 'ruwe~ OOfiS~ (~::1S'- )1

Be~ sure 10 ,go to, DJrt:,l!hl.

'p,1. __ ~:",: 'L!"" .. .A m' ~,' ... ,.;'i,..;<ot 'L.: ... :'""II~. [ ~ ~w ,. ~ UIQ~ uuu...R...

'WiU 'you _ to Delbi?'

'9S~ Pm:IU&iiliva, or ,:' epJjv~: Commands: Tba:t are m:ad~ "Y pl~img OK oltbe dIree.

:pldlibitive miU~~;' A;aIDiiN/, and 1matI- ··'before' dle imperMii\"C' fttnn. T,m:: c'hoiee :i.$ mads on d'te basis [ora notim. ,~ipo4Iitl9iess: ,trW ~s' omlSi4ered ~l,lifnl; tllahi~Nt mere eIQpnatie; ,and I.rlfiJ'tJ Sllmlgbr , ~m ~t pfOhjJbj~ilvc., ,I't 'fo'l. OW'i 'Iht'!Jl mat 1_ ,-,rou dJ he 'p:refmed 'With Itc mON 'po'll.f.e: f'Omlfj", w'tmUc ImtU w,@~dl k USedl im 'lffile ~~ intonnll.il ¢on,~h: (:i.e", wtm :~md rd'rren1ts~ huul ,3I1ld! lrumf).

[up] 'wMil_~ :MjHircc tt~,]1 yei!' kaaro, m11 ktroo

[,1:U:ni -]' ';nil:!!; b .. ." ..... mat t.---

___ --',_1 J'U"'" ~,~II .I\;GIl~

(Inmt:~ w~ uj mm:j;aoe ~lwl], aaj wM jaa

I[U$] ~i ~i:iN jaaiyc'el :taa~) -.]' matJ$UeN

,mgat' tum mat ji aaee too ky,aa kooii \\fo.llldJ il 00 so bi:ut ifYOllil, don''t, go?

buraai.i :hm?

kJ',aa,;Up-kee xayaal-meeN' bam ,Do you ttJiiIik we :shonldD.~t tOODle?

mat,~~N

96, Pmiciples: 11le:re ,are ~ verbal :iorms, wlDch 'we !ban lr.~fCiir to as, patticiplcs on the basis

oidle :fact 'that 1h~' may al:;o be lISW im llI.O.11-vabal :funClions;g ,~i'i~l;IS$ed in, d~tail bt~!rw~ Alse, as op.~ to the abeady wsclmed. subj~cti,\f'! ud !1iJtw.'e toml~ which imp.~y a dJdirurte; time t~f~ v.is.,a ... ,Yis tb.t\ spc«h aet, the :lPanicip,les dQ. tiD1:. ~ three :panici:Ples., ~ f) ~j~.e :pm1lcipJ,e.; (ii) im,pM~t puticip~~; a1},d) 00)1 perfect :p.art]Cip-lB.,

91,. CoDjuneUve: pmicl,pl~ ~e mad,r! 'bJY ,arldmg i-karl or I be! to n:n~ 'lferba1 ~t.ern. j~ml is

m~Ve.r adfl,od, tothel.stem ol!1he. v.«bIk8Hliaal ~i'to d01.!<to Witb 'oilier 'v'erbs" either I-wI or lmk«/ :may be. 11'~ d1c fonner bem,g preferred in writtm prO$e~, me latter' in lhe spOkClIl, In ~try., tlH: cll-ol,cc

.... , ... ,'II d .01,~ • 'l~ " . IT... . •• h:L.. "'['1 'I\.. .• A "~iI..

l!l1)UWl!y , ~GnUl:j 1000l'fiC'lnCa req~w:remenlS. ~Ull. QIUl'" 'b:anrScnphOnj a, ,YPiue:R WL Il,ir;i :MfalJn.eri.JL M!I.II.W,

tI~l~ngS.}

'W -"'''1 om.' , , 111 • • • • 4." "0 £.-' it l , ..... ,1.. ..... :I., • ~ '. -'\;.,

.... e'~. 'l!IIl.L$ parti£:ii.:PL'e COilJ1mCUVI! m View (Iii; 1!1s. ~.II;I!.III.cbO"lil: It, Ji~i .. ne a.cilll.on or Us. veil,'

with 'the action of~etvem'~ as ,irither Sftj/!!Ien1iallly l'q\~lqg '1:1ile laner ,o'r'bemg 01,' iC~" of 'Lts ieffed!;; :bo1h; ':verbs, havingvh~smne §U~jiS't

13 .. lb.",

la + Ib~

2a.

lb. 2:3J,+1b.

,;;3. ,lb.

~, ... oj'b ,,;.118,,.:;' t,

~ l~aNs]i . aaii usee Gussaa aa;ya:.a

'usee biINsii, ,im-kar IGUu.aa aa;yaa

1 will meet him, ] WlUgo.

I win go .after mreetm..g mm.

Hemet:yoo ..

Be lmcame. :happy ..

He was happy to meet you.

No.te 'l:list in the second e.x_p'~, me two :p:rosumm oon;tiWe..nt senten~ ,ar~ stnlcl"w'a]ly quite dif&r'mt The first [2a] is a idireot" ~1riIiIc.ti~ with/wool:, u:h~" as. its mbjcea~ both, ~mJiny" ,and ~gramma.ticaJly~--the v:erbal ftumll! lmilaal" .ay,ccs with Iwool, ~ second [2'b] :~ an

~i""''''1''''@<.;r!(iIo~ ,..,-~- ~Ii'ift w:d• ~~","~~J 'I·'" "'r· ... ~iI1JlO!. ~~"hii>""; ... e ]~",.", '~'i'\iIo"1' oC!,"'lbj. • ect 'lI..ut.lxusiil as its

. ,~,UI JL'!i.:. .... !I. 'tIIIL~rIoJ,!III U~..." __ 1J1tI.tL ~. ~ ... ~~ .r'I!!..l., r ~.~- _ _ ~ ,_ ~ ~ . } .. ~ Jj,'h.-liiII, !i!I'~ ~ __ ~ lUI ~

"'tOii""iiimrml~,tieat~ su'bj' '~t~e ve:rb.aJl,f.~ ,lhuii/~ :a'~l, witbh."'''iil {See lU; a, '" However:. tb.c fact.

[=--_.,-..aI.~. . .. '. ., . . ~:va.I~ _ __ ::II _ 0",----"1. • ,~.AJ~. -. \.i,. __ -J - ~

of'lb,eir' ~rlea].· subjto:.ts bc,illg id-ontica1 aUows the use of'1b~ corqillJDCtive J)wd,pJ.e, .. Fmtl'im-, ~l'i. this, :i!fiSUL1100" it was: pmsiblt! to usc' a oonjuodive ,!partie ':piLel ,oruy beeaase the first Q.fth~ ·tJNo, stru.crumny d!rfteJ'.!tU ,ooM;tiime:n~ts w,ss ,ill, direct ~tlo:riJ.. :Had it bl!al, tbe other wa;y aroundmdljrec·t ,o.cnlStnlc.'bo'n ,+ d~jt oo~et~on--....1he use of ill. ,eiMljWlC't]Vte p:aniciple wUl!IM not.lla!vc1

'i. & ~il:..1 & N' . b ~'Ii. .. \.~. _;I l' _ .. .1.,: 1... 1.. ...... '11. .•. ,~, ~_..iJ:

~f;.1Ji pa5.5tJliiI~ ... ·_Ole·~ owevet:~ Yite· Rl!.int eocam;p':~e,~ III wmcn WllJIi. c.o.mllWeI!liL s.e.t:I!lmc~S, are iI!i.ud·ec1·

96

BarJ:yUpfu ,ghar"'\see :rtikal baahH Jaa baiThii.

~ooem Urdu. paNee m1I<aL-lbtt Dimbar jaac-haJiTWi

She came QIl't Cffhe hoU5e a.nd. sal down,

98. 'Ibe· i'm:perfe:m .imd p~t partiCiplesi me different frQ:rn. tli!' conjunctive in th3~ ~hey 3.ct

Hke adjcc;tirvcs In mo~ olthe Oonstl'11ctiOlis in which ~hey eeeur .. .Also], Hkie. marked adj'ecthl'es, dmir variau. If¢ muk:ed b, gender and !Ill1l[IIIDGr', .and Ihey ap'e!CJ wjth ftU9f grammadcaJ mbjects. The Con..jmlC1i'VC part[cip'~eli [mi the ethel" :hmd~ is e:Ktl!.ll$i'~]y ad!verbjal'lo fundwr:tJ! and aJsc has 00 v.a:ri;;mts ... ,

The imps.:~t :pmicipl~ is oJlcn ]\cFc>rred 'to i~ [other' gramntars as the a,{iuvej Of the PfoeJeDJt~ ~m]c:~~~.lLkewi$!-; the p~.t parti.dple :is ''!£mQlI;[cSly ea1led 'the: 'pa:i.ve :part~c4p]e!. Or the past puticipJe. For the ~DS ']S~i!d, in the next. section, \\'¢ ·prdtr. the '~nn5: :impertecl and, ·perf;eet.

The al.dings :i'm the, imperfect :P-rtic:ip.le. am I~t~ -tee, -tii, ~lUNI ru'i.d 1':01. the peJi~t, j--u,. -ee, -ii, ··iiN/, 'With :~~t 'participllcs, ,ar...fter any wt1bal, S1:em, t'bat ends m. a v'ow[el, .Ii Ivl is re.gn]ar~y add~ ~ '1:bc'm;ascU:Iim:, stagular. end.iin& l..u/" aad :i.r.reg.d~ly be[nm the oWe:r mdin:gs~ (In 'ma Fla.d~.g:rtm below, 1h.c pamcip'I~: forma .ar~ listed iD :the oo·lI.()'wiing o:l'd~ mascu.i~iDe sin,gul3l', 'm:ascWline p1uol:o .feminine, sI~'lar~ and :f.~ne pJura'I.)

j~~ khQO'-

Perfet;t .Pmticiple5 a.ay~ asee .. aaiit aaiiN j alaa, jlailee, j~lnp jaliiN ·thooya, khooee. 'khooi"i; [dtooUN

.Yl:oo, bn1aa. d.c:naa Imnu ja3DOOl.

to. ,do. to .give. m'take to go

9!t Before w~img lliie :im,~~l: ,an,d "0'001 ~wtieiipl" .. ua~]y~ we :mm~, 11')1' ,~t1 ma1ce

~pj]dt aJ fC\v l~jDp dlan.ct.tii:ifSitte [0 'liicm.

Ibe: :P;Q' ;mig,mg, dQ, :mt :i~n1h: 'anlailll am" Ji!fl[§np~JWct" We l''Gk 11), me J·,tW Corms ss 'tl't~ im~I~~ 'pWe-ip'lesl becagl!c~ 'tb.cy utdli,CI'.~ l~at ~e actl~o:n, of toe v~" wi,1b ~K~ to lli~-'~Uim\t!' ,iinji(l~iOd by sny aoccmpamyang ,nxiUary 'O~ verba] fQm~ is 'oot; \V,iS :n.«i~ ~ :nm ~~~~ ~rul wO'llild not 'be C!!):lt'tpJi;'l~ Qt broolht 1:0 tm ,~~d-4he~ o:pposire being: 'the case \Mitlt tbJ!!: pmeot _j~,]C5. m ,mbm-~, '~~ Hp~~t :padi.lc rctCi'S ,~, a iProaSSji ,o,T to a f.epoo'tOOi '~D.i' 'whi~c 'lie· ~r~ ;nmtir",rtili~ ~M ,to: an aiJUeved :staie" er ~o ,a, ~~'''''1e ,oompl_$, ~., rus,

- ~lr"~ "~l!!!

disti~QH is ~ ,Illb,~, w'itftl, dIe; 'tWO ate:~,~, ~mcdU:im,'!! ~ in 'wmtl,b.,~~ Ilh~ bnper.foo1:

patti,Cjple basi :g, ,le'I:inik: ~.~1M~ ' __ ~ 'nile: 1k ~~: :pmic~~c~ b~ ,m 'OlIrullllJ dd~i1E ~~~,~~' ~lthaatw~ .,. tltc earWISj,;lO Iikl~~;. ~i ihhc '~A~m,.~~ in ooui!i:e.1UI~1 ($IimJ:.~~~, on '!.he other.'~ '!lI~' are ,dlt&!llDpi~~ :OODl ~,~, 'oth~'~, ~e 'bgj,$, o'f'ti:te degree ot,cmaifit~t eac.h :i! ~ to, contain. ~: dli,¥me d~stin~tions can lPe.Thaps: b~ k.tl.« mm,Gated, as f'(!illQ'~:

1.

,q; ,.~

,3.

,4.

,lmHded :P,mit~;p~¢

. - ," - ,· ... 'I~\i:Ii, ....... -ii·-

M mt(nn~"" ~~OOl

a '.atal, ,idi,Q.~

.. '~'"';OO ....... ,.; .... J·~i"il QJ rllJ·~-.w- .. ~, lU\i! I~!II ~~-~

iltiiiv:c' m :mean&1lg (~,r,t'5 to 'lb$ suJ)jecl o:hll.e ,action)

less d.e.inil;e~ mo~ 'p~IlQlPtiv~

M191, P,arI;ic.;iple; a ,oalinpl.etaj, :act

;J, SWg]~:looe~Qe aflI ,aoiW~'cdJ ,tate'

'~t\l'~: m m'~B8 (:~ W in. o'bje~( {'vi th'C~ acdoll)

D~s 'pmiii~hre~ more: deim~e

'Will R~:uacC ~Q 'Inlc ,~, astim~i.i~ im, '1mI~ N bpt W, ~iind, tiha1~ :to, ,any gh~ ,~j:~ ~Jd, ''''--Re: 'Qf~ is t.~4t~1Jy m1~1~dly '~. ip,,"01J!(I, 'b~' ,@11Ga5t tw'~ if 'gl ~ AI~ note !that Ike a~$ nst ¢OD.1ai;U$ m,OI Rfe~e: ~Q 'M1~' 'ttm~, 'ev~-R ~~, il:a ~p'l:et~ ao],' \iIOllldJ ~' ,~ifOOn :im~~y a past te,me~ ~ f!erf.e',c,t '~cJp]tl: m 'UtI~ (laD ails:o, rt'B:r 10 a m~ at1 :in a ,oo·rKlitio:n-a:l H:ru«tca H,emc~ our prdCrencc fot ~ n~ WG: hav,e c'ho:sc:n., These dicllo1mnizciJ, dis;l~tiotls, 'w]]l be: :fWther' ~iabo~a.1id as we discgs.s 'IDe v~,[:kr~ u~ of ~ tINO :panic~l;d§.,

H)~l ~~ It '~'B~'k:f.N(: ~ :~ to ;aet~M o~lva mlb ,a1JI, (M

:ftlimiS w1lbc '!'em'" ~~i iUto, bei. ~:o' ~'E.J3~~ siaee JI:too~ is, ,c.x~~'I¥'~ ~ 3,Iil, amdJlj~ ~b in'Mo:U oJ the OW1~~tiOM di$~- bc'low'. H'Ole: t'h~ ~~~ln.~;bJ, the ~'bjwtCI:ive ,and :m~c .fGm1s" (For 'the: 'wntt~ m~ ~;c' 'Urit ,6 ia the: S'c.ripf, ~ti.Qlt,),

!bali

'tllaa '~c 'tbli t1llii~'N'

hot>N (""gee; .. gii}

[hugH (,noo';uuN]1 I~'.~, -,!iii) ~i~(~,Ia)

:~ lliuoLW 'htJotiw lLooLiiiN

iD1tJ3.SICUlii: ...... ,. ''''I·IIIi~'~'"'1I'

. j~I~~ ~~~~,

~UaiM:, pJwr.al :r-~~, ,~ntgd1wj' ,'emim.t~ :r;dil:liJd

~U:1$8, bu.~ bui~ lmi~

miSClldirlte; sllnJ8Uilat ml5Cuiline;: plutaID r.tmi~;, sim,p~i!:J' f~l11Ilm.;, pw9Dl,

The ~·[jit and put '~:Ct'U5~ ,!altlXil'ia:ry fo:rms, ,ha~ a~' 'b~ di~ssed in section ,:;. ,~ the:

G~uatio:liia[ :paradiigms, orlbGOnaal~m~y cmph~~oo :mO're lh~ m~anfum,~ ii '00, 'be. !!, na,~: othol' tb~s,:~ I~t~ :P:~J'tot ~b~ meam:in,g, j~'!m :bctame,'" ~ oot -.oessarll,Y. EN~~e!ii!

- ~

'woo ae:diu,:bii 'wroo aoC:bu, 'lb., woo accbu, bUD

"U'.o"I.A,.;..-; ... ;b.._- i.·"' ..... 01!i.~ , .~.~ ~~_I~l ~o--

He i'5 good~

'If.G ~f85, ~. He: becam~ ~ill~.,

He' mMt ~ g.ood" 'Hoe 'Wi]] ~Q:~ \'I.re-11lI,.

1f:11Le,:h;ad b~n '~"'.'" If be :ha{l,

1L.. ...... ""'HO'II ... , ...... ;nl U~!!r' -~l!ifIUi.~'ilii

\\~~ :kc CaDle b~~: after ,~~~.

'1lij'l~ :~$)1: P;mic:ip~es;; Imperf~l ,arlieip'lell. ~nl UII. loo'tM m ,14jecti,'!3,aru" ad~i.8!'" and v~al ,'~~ wru'I~'~ ~j~Mttd ,'~~ ilMillfm~y:aliso he ~.~ ~ il,:mmID:.al :~ Its ,alR:ad:y ,marIluOO~ !~C i1fJ1perfeet partic,~ im llidu, ~m :10, aJll :ioc .. le(e, ;~liOD O.l'~, q,~i1:¢ 08_ 'tal ra series, 'of dm~ ;itli~m':s ~RC~. 11 ~h..ti; ~nu, ii, pl'OC~ rrnh~' 'tItan, an ,~evcd $la~. It ~s iactilf-C~ m mmm& .,~, '~~fO ~w,~,s,:has :EP"ammMilea'l, 9emlm:u~[lfll\ith Ite: iSfl;.lbJ~!~, of:'tk ~tjoa Lastbr, it :ttIJiy Oift:em :i.mLi~~:g, de.~~';Qfpresum¢.i~,css on ti],e,part, o'f'lIle ~ea)Q=' tegutd]q, 't:h,e, pes&ibJe ~te ot~: ootlo.D Q,fth.e 'V!Cfb~

100. &n, mjCfJ1Jivaf! :pb:rases am ~t :~Ie, m.ii1Y ~t~n, 'Giilhar ;!tS ;1, nomiJn~, or ,as a mlM1fiu to ~dii~' ru:mJilD. :Im, ballh, ~ im, would ~ 'm:ih~r by iisc1f Oli m~ltGW\cd by the :~m pa.ttici,k: (ODin, of'~" thelIum- bcmg, mGft'l: ,~jMl~iMiOll~Y ~h.~: ease, mn occ.llIl'iilg as 3, llIIemina:l!, ~U i~pGried paniclpruc is iI!liO~~ :U!k~ a 'm~ m~U1l~~ 'n~_lI~~~; iI, liS; f~:dillowed, 'by the' per&et 'jdiie:ip'le: :mrm ofAoom1w~ in w:litie:h C~ w:c llg' is, lHLn:ec'~d .Lik~: a marbd '~uilme ~(fWl~ 'WhUa tile:: i~,f«t p;afitictP~~ is; iDleCled 'Like a m~k:-ed ~D:ecltl'V¢. When, ~1Thg ~. Q, ~ifi~J;, tbs im~rl~ participl¢: lIS, always btfl~~ hike, a m:uk,~, ,adjiEc:Li¥e.

G,

.

H.

woo aataa hwm. ~OOI deekhtaa. thaa.

woo aatee h-11~ UI'l-:k.oo d,~g~b~

woo aatii h,u;ii Wl-koo, deekbLil hi

woo ,Mttc bueeUD~koo' deelrntii, '!iii

She used, eo see bimlher 'wrule comiiillg"

·ditito---

1. W(!~d o~r P,]ays an :import:mt. role in. :r¢druc~mg a.mld,guit.y ..

2. Wb,ep 'the impafcct p~1e: ref~ tOo ti'i.c s<ubjicd o€tiu~ :main 'vcrn, it. 'OOOUl'S :10. its ~,dirtc'['

ad··-..:L.· .. 11 ~ ]- ·f,o,'I:..,~ 1.,;; 'I ' ~'L,~, ,~:- '.',ii, ~'I'li ,......l ·M.!'

:'II'~lQim :,.u.L~][ Oil .y r .~: w..,.;J1ect iii 'so ,QCcurs Jill. ·u~ UI!!.;~t C~, va, It: liS, no~ 'l!.ll;.l'tiOrW~ ~,l ;my

pl~tpomtio& The ~ob,)iqiUe" adv'e:rbial phr~, :hQwev;u, may' 0(lCW' in 'both, cases"

.3" ·'Wltm. the imperfect. pammp'[e :refers to. tb,e o.bject oldw m.m. 'V'crib", it ,may occurr ill either .form •

.4 .. Wi,eD. 'IWO imperb'l puti.c.:J.p'le aitvUbial 'p~e;s. are \1$00. in ~he same sentmte .• ()]iJiJ :referring to 'dle subject amid, the ofl~ to 'fu!; o.bject, or both m~g t'O eith,el' one. of 1bemt~ ·the ]:~tte:r.in-S!q[u.£f1C~ 'r1f the. t'Wo. 'pmiciples may occur by Us,elf,". ~hus. a:vcading a repetition ,oi.ihoo(Qaai. Of the f.oUowiin,s st-t'!!tcn~; the second. and. ~pji W011dd be.' o~~(lJ ~lore i.dlloma-tie. Note: tmtin. E3 belew, 1he::nm8cUH~ :fbml~ Ip~aa!~ i.s 3.][0.w:00, even w:r:;a fcmi.mn~ Jei£~~ beeaase th~ pr.QnCIm it :~ t,o.---Ill.Sl-i$. fOUowed by a '~~tion. C(un~pare &1, 'wl'tb. E.4 ,and E,s,.

El".

El"

C~

~'.

E4

'.

ES.

,aa,t'ee b~ 'i:lImN-Dee us-keo

11"1~ '5'11.;. \1...., ...... d ... ..l.'i.. ..... r'4.&JU1e.e nuee '~.1l1iHi1.

o!Io .. tee buee '"" .. ,.N ........ o!!i r~,.;~·iI..'"~ ...... W'W ~ III~ •.•• ~'.~ 11o.Ij~ A~

paRlltee. deckb.

u.e huee l!;1!.iN-'nee, lil~ :paRrnaa dec'khaa

uts :hue¢ maiN-ne 'Bek

] .. u1i!. ........................ h ...... Al_ ... '~1...,~~· ,~r~~ _IlII.UIUJ [U-~,l\tUI,

W!C b'U.cc :maiN .. n,e eellaRkii.

• ' •• ..I,~ '1':\":,'

Jaatil[ ~e.IiJl.U:1

As, I W'a!i, ooming I S~' hU:nl.ht:r :readi1i,g.

-ditte-

As 1 was c(Jrnmg I mw a boy' sleepillg.

AI: Lwas co<mmg I .saw a gid going,

Iram moz wahuN jaat,ee ,aW' lurrec We WiQaild .go, diem tV~ day m.d.

pbal x.midiree buy :Ii"esb hit

:]f1he first c'la1aSe!:bad been a ~esemt.ence by illiclf!. ""W:e used til go ·thJ2'e d!a:ily.~' tb.e. ~mpe:rtect. participle would. be fDnow:ed 'by th~ past: tense .auxnia:ry; tham. irOOZ wabaN jaatee fueet. (See 114) It was omy 'b~\l!Se mo.re ·than. one aetien was to be :mmui.omed milt:·the oa:m::iliary was ·uop,oo. and. the lnwmoot .parlici.ple o Qmm'ie.d. 'b:y' i'IKJ:f.

jab bhU maiN jamaa. woo babot. ·XllI.§ bootee

'WOo. das bajes k.a;pR.ee badaild]~ ·kJI:a:m. kbaati.i,. prur. :isJrmtl calii-

J.--m

H' .. ' A! _l •. """"'\i'p t,.~ ~··Ih .. ~.· , ~ g .~:n6h.r &II UC! .~ !F..II.)' .~,I!-"~Y

when~~'] would go.

Al ~en-o-e'look SM woldd, cb.ange cl,Olbesr. have. ber meal, thm. giJl off 'to· stOOol]

110.. The 'imperfect'participle ]is, 'I1Jsed 'by.' i._lfim. Uw kind oJoon.diticmail ~entenoes wliljc~b mJ3J

t,. ·It .. ~ ~ t~ ~ ~~~=~~: .. ,. ·1...· Ji.'L~ '~"':;"'I f ... ,.oiI". '1' 1:",':_'I!..

!IllO C8i..w conl'aify.~t.o.~~iI:C1: w.Wi,1l<Ol!UIlI9;, t.e, yli,G: .lI'U!nU. 0,' OOiiiu111on.a . sentellces W~llu[ are

mcto.rlcall. smt:emmlts, and, in :tact. imply a. nq;ati,on of lhem:se'l"tes; .~. I would. h~iVe! belped Imim if b.e had ·CQm~., [l)'ltt in. facr Derlher he carne :nor did I help, him]." (SeQ! 221.)

ag.v. tum ealtee too k:aam. ban.-· jutaa.

ag~'tum na cailtee too kaam banjaailla.

a-Jl:il' aap aatee teo baRii. XJlls.ii~kii. baathootii

Th~ wofk 'would be done if'you. wer-e a>mif.lJ,g,. 'Or: -:FILe 'N'Ock. would h~ been done :i:fyma. bad. oome: a.l,o.Q~~

The w.:od;; would! be done ifytftl W~ 11.01:: coming. Or.:: The work: w,ould have been done. ify.ou bad llot !Come alon.g:

[t ww[(] 'be a matt~1' of joy. if you 'w:ouI.d IOOme.

Norte ·that bmh elarui~th~ oollditiiruii:1l and. the mam=-oon'ta'im ua. pp~t particlp1e'by itse1f., 1hcse cOOl.did,om.d Senliemloes can b~ tram.s.1amed ·wili. ti.thoC'X· ,a pas-ll:e.I!iSie reference Of .8. :fu~ CO.l1ltGx.t 'Wc;,1.ddl d,etcm:wle. the eheiee, \\fbm is ittqXJrtant 'to :note.; is me sense 'Ocf md&finita~s ,or ~artaiDt:Y :iD'lplied by tire im.per.ftct ,art.i.ciple: in 1b~ pasl conditionals it: :mf-e:£s t.O acts wbicl1. hap.ptmy o:ppositc; of tire way they are: e.~p:r~; in. the fulU1re conditiQnal~ it exp.ms~. a kind of WlC~~ '00" w:i:ShiliLmess,. on. ·t~· part. of the.; ~w::er~ as if (he :future w.ould. li.b.;]y be the; oppMi.t!l ,o:f-what. l'S said .•. ete the ioon.tr.my-to-·fac1"" asp!Ct in the. folllowing $$Jll~ces.

fo'''''''' '1'1"'" ;rI;o:d ....... , 'ii'li'U'lo '~~~ Da b.am~ l"J~H ~ ~ ,_~ LI\.~....:...Jl..JI, ,1 w" .,

'[ 1 U. Another CM.text 'wh;M't; tliJ.e :i~erfett :pricipille :i~ u~ed b~use 'o;n~s ~ j',in.dcliniI!CD~' is as i!OJ t11i£ fallla1iN,lng 3e:~eAces;:,

'1.., mat ~~, b:u.tIN' 'k] 'tum bhil I wisih.'you,;;dJ also, 00l'D!C m.aRrg. ,C,'(aJt1ee:

:1" woo c8al:uaa, dma. kj, mariN hhli He wm~ tl1Jat ]: sli om ld, iIJ'lso

~kee ~aa!th call1aa, 3CCQ,mpuy,him.

:U:e:re 'lhe :impor£~t pmic]p]cs 'indical:C that, the (le:,si:[C on '[he p8irt of ' the 5!'IlDJCCt of'lhs mam. clause ool1tmnm 8, &igru: ,~rwish.filhl~. In, t;o~, Gases the particiPle may be :rep]~d, by an, equiya].e;nJ :.wbjW'i,ct~v-t f'O.f:l]1~ with linDe m.m~ in 'meuing, 'exc~pt I!;~t in. the flI$tt e)';aIDJ).k the ~1,(I'bj~tiv'e' ~jt b~g tbc; s:ame, as 'the :imlper3l1ive=--wouLd m.k.ite' a stronger us.ertw.m om tie part cfthe S1IIbject 4)1; I,"

]. a.

maiN ,caa11taa bm1N' k:li 'rum bilE caIDoo

'woo caahw 'tHa. ki ma:iN b:H.U us-kee iSaatD. caihwN'

2.81.

He wmt,ed trud :[ sh'OlJJld]. ,a'iso ,iCCOm,PDY bmm.

1 '],2. ~es;eJUJt, :bperfoct: OOmlnLCtio:n: The im pew feci: panu,cipLe ofthe 'vern :m'alY be ,rDUowed. b~'

!the p res en!. tense alb'{iJiaiy ih:rms. of J1hoornaa{:

aataa 'Jl.. ... ~'t;.ll' ... ~.'I. ... 1-.. '.'~ ~ .. ~ .!IHIL~'! S~-.II,4.V

'~~ kahaaN jaatee~ boo

'i'.

Woo aksM. yahaaN' utaa hai ~ ,siilJ,ait bajee ww' m"re:c:: p&aS :aa.taa:bm

up fOOl:, kaliuM jU'lii hw"N m3.]N jab bhii waha.a.1\l judi hU1aN ns-koo X!ll~~ 'pMtffi.i, li!;'illlN' ThBiri,yu~ hsm 1m;]], ,aap·:ke ~JJb, c:ailm~~ h~jN

],'np, c!:)ItlJ~]'ig~ sir,

'Whe~e are~ ~1J, :g.oi~~? ''Wkere do 1011,(1,8,01

H:e CO:mi.~S bt.Ri ~hn,

H:e com~ to ms ~ery day at swen.

Viherre do y01m, ~p every day? ViIJl'enevct'. ~: ;9,0 th.e:le 1: alw,ay~ :fll1d rum :happty"

'W:aH~ 'we ~oo' wH] ,oom~' w:iltn, )'Qll.U. fisht :maw_

,As may 'be ,e\i'id.e~t. hm lhe above ex mrp]es), thl;s oo~u!l'ruc'~ioll bask:a]ly' iTllrllicM:es 'tlI,iio seU ,of :meamUlJg$,

.A~ 'The action :p'o:blbb' 'oo~, more man once liD the 'P~i 'bas not been. dJ;soo:ntir:n.red~ aru::1J:may be e:x.pecite(l.·to oc.em: in ite· ill'!lue too., (Ex~ples 2""') TheN is, nQ' ~~g e:m,iI'Dasis (In, 'the: imlmedi!ate ~p:resent,~ moment despite the usc of"1he:pr.esent: tense a1JXfliary; what is lllUl~~Qf~ 'is tLe :fi"eq,ue:ntadVle ~ect ,of the action"

a. ]n 21, b~ moOre :partiClllar1.y 111, 1 and, 1'~. ttis eom~trudjOJl, 1I1d£c.at,es ,a;, fdn,g1e act. m the immediate mtHe'. In this lase :Lt ~s .mere cft'en :fbood wi'th. a .first, pelSOll. pron,ominal rei'efe.nee mam.

"''i .. therwise 'w .. , .,,"""" 11k .. :,~ Jk..;...;"",,,,,, ~~,.,i;. - !'r ..... ~! .... iI\ ... ~_.""'_ ....... J"" bee .... ~"'·-c ,-' "" """"0i~'11- 'tj",-ih'O i'........,..... .. ~'o!"-.~ llIp.....i

' ..... ILLQ,LW,I_..",... .. '!or • ........,.. ,u .... PiLlII~ 1IL'.il!! :I.IWJ~.ltll!!U' j,llJIIliW,,", ,,~.II.<IlIUcZli! ~_l !Ill, "''''.;r~,~IJI.IO, ,I.I.nw, ]JuJu.n ~ ..... ~,... 2!~,

.m~e;ad oif'lhe 'p:ftSetiit :itnjedoot. O~1ltuc1J)OD~ tbe ,$enrne-noe wou~d .i~'~y mat ~'h~ ,action. 'wouldJ ,cm13.iIi[y occur, '(bough ~at necessarily immed1ate:ly. Compue ""]' above w~1lb ~ f'QUowims.

1 'm 3, With present ilmp8F.:&eI Oil>IiJilNlelions) IllDjjiNJ is. osed. fOr ne,g.a'~t(tn! rather '~m, fmf. fnahHNI MEl bot iP,]aooo. befOre Ute ve:r'ba!l. J;:I~e~ which len, t~, 'WQuldl ,dro,p the J!~~1: te!'l$e a'W;i~' 'wleM the ne,gaJtw.n, is m.~, to 'be em:phatic-

'Woo jaate hall

WOO ne.ihbN Ja.atm woo na:WiN' Jetaa hai

laRki,ynN' :taaHJ ja.l!m baiN i.aRkjy.~~ kaaliJ nahliN jaSitiiN najnlaa saahibe paRhtii ,haiN Il:ajimaa saahribaa na:hiiN 'p3iRhtiiN'

The gi'rtls go to ,aCiI]~~e"

The ~'im do:uCt gQ to co'Ue,ge. Najma, ,Sabjiba, Muies. N~jma, Sa!llihm docm;t study.,

1 '[,4. Past. hnpmf~CI Oons~~ The :iwpet.mt:r :p~.cip~e Qfllie lI'~b :may be ,tbllowtd, by the p;as1: l:tiilS~ au:dL'i3['y :fQJPl QfJhoonw,.

woo: al('Sa[ wahaaNjla:ataa, ,t]],a,a, woo Galrlii k:anaa, 'tbaa, apr WlihsaaN ja.3Jtu 'lilaa,

up pich[ee :saa], :~' :raht~ 1.b=~

'W'OO w,ahaaN' :lliB:hiiN :rah1~ lthiiN maliN un-see ,aksar '[La nrll""u~a.a, tba:.a

He used 'to go, there {dlteR.

.He was mMill\g a mistake ifbe tuiOO to go, UteM.

WhMe dlid. you 'um to, Jivt\ ]as~ ¥ear?

..;; ~ ~ -

She dl&~~ l!IS~ to' liv~ there"

f. was often Dable W meet her.

1'b..e ~bQv~: ~J~.,ces, desmbe actiau that ha:b~ruiallJy or fRq~y used. t,o OOC'M' in th~,:pm QV~r a period ,~·ftime·, but tbu :also ~ in 'IM pu1-. Th.@.f8 is no :imp1~oo JCfet'leIlCe tn tlte:PIlesenl or fume, Note ;a'1so the U:iu ,of tbe 'lWO, :panicl~, .for' ne>gation, in t..e last two ~:mlp·1es-h.ere: 'too, tW!s ootlstr.u'ctLC!lI1l, differs, :frrun, .~ p'UvlO'US.,

'] '[ S. &lIibjrunctive; Imper~; ColJSllnrotwn: The mrper&cl pm1i.cl,p~e o£'1b;!!i verb :may occur' \Vim

some: iSiWi;jll!fiC-tive .foun, ~f Jb~.

oi3I<iY"',,oi y""""",", ... .at - - 'li. ... ~ ~ ... ~, ri.'~ aataa .Lt~

m1lifil1tio, hai woo t'hljlk;, bb;taa, hoo 'miul1t1ikIn., hm woo :l"OIl~ wiIDaaN jimtii~ hooN

jab woo soo~ee hooN eeo un~~ee parE!S :mat.juoo

:Pcrh.aps ~"rS on hii:s way.

It':s ~bls ltG~ 'ttJl:hng the tru1~h. Qu~.t~ :possi,bly :sbe ~ 1~ e-.very day.,

Do:m't: P near MID 'wben be might

be ssleen ~ ~ ~[I'

106

As fhe'~ Igml,p1¢9. iindi."1~, 1bc:mr;amiq'IOfOdsJ ~~'iom, eoma·;hm '.'0

c· -mk:tU:- - ,;~-:'ip.'-, W:mcb,~caIa; 'ldlIam~~~"lbIna:slate0l'a:sin,gJ:C'QO:JDllm ~"md, 'thc,Si.i' :-umd~ Wfidt indlea1a; a 'l'@l~'liivc1y wuk ~fiM,~q the ""ible.C!OC~ ,or'M~t~c Cit'dlo Ki1mn.

~ 16 Fut\l.ft 1'~-....-*t Const-ruetions.' The iJH-~iff!Gt'i'[!limcil"ilCJ OIftnc've[b 'Ina\} be folIDwed~'

• II! __ . '1~~1! ,_." ,_- .• - , .... '--... ':!'~~'.-' L~~- r' ' .. r •• '----r/ ' .. 1_... -. 'JL;!l;?

ame "'tum foImJ of RlOOlDai:.

'rum, khcclh~ bootee: too 'bImJ j~h j ••

WOOjlUWiTM ~]~: :hoo~ tto, Iillil. patIb..1 ju~

'LI'... 'flMU ... 1kI- ~ ~ 'L,,,,,,,,,,", i............., ,- - - ,...rt".. 'II., _ ..ill I:I-"'" n~WU. !Ii, JN~'~'~' QlI.~~ ,QiIg,

he not lied

very 'comm~ ,gil, ,O'ften tbe :rdev~t: ~o~e is QbbrimedJ by usmg ;!!OO'thet ronsttuotioo discussed later, (See~ 1:81.)

118., "rwo, m.m~veIbaill!lses ,of im:Pet,fed :f!ad'id~~~ "With ,\1 ftlllo'l.lYin.g perfec~ :partic.iip]€: of tbi.xmaal~ :lurv@;3]readybeen, discu.ssed. (See l04~lrn.) Ev~ die fulJowillg verba] uses may be wd.m.1Dod. in ter.ms, o:f'~OOse oojooti,va[ and 3Q;vGrD,ia], uses,

woo' seetaa bua;a

woo' is'OO'tu, hIilu., 'to u:~e 'mat jagatmBia

agar woo' p8Rh~:H bruii, 1n us-see 'fi.'.a mil .. paaoo~oo

De; 6[;S~ exiDl'i.ple is :i:IDm, ~:[y U~art; Iilit\ is DO lan,gm- OmmnooD. Tbe otllar. nvo ,DC con(1ition.a.1l sentences o.fthe kind, 'tllat ~ sull oommcnly 'l1lsM.

1- ]~ iI"'I, 'im!~J ...... ~, p,"'ii'iI'~"'~nll .... , 'L};i~& .. ib~, ,ii¥l~;""';j. i'ii!lri!(l "1'i;'1~, ';,'b.e 1!'ie"f~ 'II"I"""~"'~I"j.I,e 'in UI'" rdu n'hl:'i1 OCG1lr.

,::;1'", C~,IL!r!",!r ,1I.ul .... il.l'"IL''Ii'., ir .... :oe; ~ ,LIUII.~,~~~ 1"""""""'_ ,...-JII;;;~, !J!.cL ,I!" "~~"" .F'~''I-o~,.I?'''~' , iI

'D" C'4'·:,C"I'"v,~;I~ .... ...:iv,~..:il.:ic:l .. ---~ ~~Aari;.iL~,~_ 'i"I' ,~~ .. ! ... ,"' .... ~ "", eomnleeed a""'''"",:", .-;;'" a, "' .... zle comn,je1:e:

] :iluJiEC ;,I, ~ :ill .~ '"' ~ ~ uiJ!:iIi " .1UU '¥,'Ii'l'I,!' .i, p.~JI.I,~~, ,h UNi".;,g,l~'''''''' "" ......- ... "iI:",L!;l~1;;;I!.I! _""~"'I;.II!,~~ YcIO ~- "';I/lO~l:I' ~ ,F

imOOJ;.e! ,C!!f an ,a~li<:iD, AJso.~ by :~tse'lt it ';ndioC~te~ an ~i§'VGd iSJv,tt; tather '~m a prooess 00:' adlOD S]'Jr'ecW, over a! ,stre~ch ,of time. As ~pp~ to the imperfe~t: paniel,ple, it i:::, ~passivt!~ -in mlZ3Din,&. ,artiCl!ln~'JJy:in 'lite casC:'Qi'mm-smVle verbs, 'wh«e~ ill ,alw,a,~ ii~:nat 10 'the 5l1Jbjoot but 'to, the; direC't ,obj,oot. oftbe verb~, :qJ'ieemg 'with lbe ]a~:ter in ge:MeJ" 8Jild nl!lm'L~r. «,See: 99.) Sincs it ~p;resses, an ~eved S"bl:e), t1u~, :per.feot :partici,Le is ~tdered more 4'ddinUe~' than 'Ii~ iw:EJcr.itct ,.mic~ple==-iln ·ooruli'tiDnal :se:mace,s, it ,jo,dic-ates, a sttQng;er assertion O'Jil '~]]e:Pm o:f,tl1J~, ~ iiCgacding, th~ pos.s~b[c OCCw.TalC~ of the actien,

120" ]'0. adjeatl,Y,i3l1 phrases 1Jhe Fr:f~t paniei,ple; may imdiofi:a5 ,s, nommal as wcJl',~ a

wooiiter'. b. either ease it ooeu.rs ,eifher O'}' itself or :fb1lowm, by the per£!Ci participle :form ef ~, The iatt'e:r IIJse~, oowever:i, ~s more: 'OOrnmQ~'I' jU$ ,iiIIS i,t, :~s, m.UlOO :mru-c: oot'OolOO for' a, portec~, pa:rtici,ple 1D 'OOCU.1' as a modifier th~, as, a, :[lorol[!Ja!l

phal:aa [bwaa]] jlul!alta;a ubgJii, [buU] tarkami ubHt [!lM.'ii] tarkaarii

~Ji-p.a![' brdTh~, 'hu~ ~ soo,),\ee hMON~koo E1at jagaaoo woo' kahii buii 'baal:ers:N' dob:ra:3!taa mhaa

'urihQQ:N'~e 'bM'IMe hlle~ ,~jyooN·~J).Q unaa,d~y~, lw]}oo-N"JlOe baiThee huooN·,]roo 'u.Thaa, ,d;]y,g

me tom ~l}e' boUed v~,~itable

-dittn-

the :mm seru!(i, on 'tne~ cbair Don~t. wru, the s1e:e:p~rll! ones. He bpl rep~q: 'Whart had. 'boon said.

Ue mad~ 'tnt; people who v.rGTC: sea~m g~t up.

,·dint.

Note ~ihM: 1ih~ 'twQ ~ect ~dpL~ Q~ iqfle~d, lib ~d a.d)j~tJjvu w:ln.tn 'Iil.ey oc:oor H mooiit1m; their femimne p]tl!O[ forms, ue~ not llSOO m 'lids, ru.sag.~- (Also se~ '],5~,.)

12l" Oft§. tbe pcrf~t particj.ples oCt\VQ, sem.aJ'iJtiC8il1y tusllaUy" also :fomtally) :rc:ma.ted, 'verbs occW" to~tlmt D iDOOifiors" [n, suclJJ eases they are 'n()t :€nUowM by tlte 'periect padic,i:p.le of ihoonaal.

/sWD:'iaal:: ~. tOI helt! !sunaanaa{:: ,Ii 10 :~ 0'1" tell"

fsmili.-suaai.i baa'II:; ,. a nmun:;'~ lit. ~~ ,:3. h.e:nd and told. :matte."t~

lraklmila/: ,u!W pllace: or 'purr'? Irak..h~.;mJ:: "to c81L!S€ to be putn'

lm:-a:KIlii-:mkhaaii ,w..1J!1.at!:; ..,1 all, the w\!311:1Dl which had 'been sa~i

iib~aaI:: "to be sa:v,!:If~ Ib:a.caanu/: "to save"

Ib~j·ba.t:a.alj ~tl: ,!~ \Vb_vcr' honor 'had iSlII'V;m.1te"

IkaTnaal: "te be cuf~ tphatr:nwf: ~ to be tmdi

Ikalee--'~ITee! xaJth "tom md m1lJti]ar1:ed,le1t,efS,~'

'Wbhoo, -nee baiThee huooN-koo, He made the sem:ed ,ones, smnd 'Up.

l1'I'haa,~diyaa,

'UldlooN.· ... - 'i,.,,;.;:-lii'L~,:"" 'L."IA:,"''Ii!..'I\'.:k~O ~ ~ ~~ ~ .~~ ,~:~~ ~ ~-

to.o lI.Thaa-diyaa ls:kiinjoo 1eeIee. 1hee. nn';koo nBn!e diyaa,

'1tJ ~ 'm"",;i"", ;:L.._, _t-~ ' ...... "'1'!I""'d.' 'P"P'I n .... ,a'!.J&i y~ ,i-.......:;y, Oll'!<ia 03. IIWI. 'Wo ~

'bU1: left alene 'those who, WC:l'C' lying

..I~.nn't UU· ... ,13I1i.

fu ~'-conte:d5" Cfl-e. :is more 11l:e.ly to. :6w:l:

He m.a,dle tile.· s.ea'iEd '~file smd

r"-'-,Ij'"

~.

muffib. btfii bu.a;i.-Ree ~ btb mahliN kbRyaa.

WIiat gaiD is 1heJe In ,hwtfngme, who. am, almady :robbed?

I, th~ mb'limdl, ,tlll'iC;, :bave Calm. JI.Q'mhin,g today.

N0!1e 1he UK of/m14ffiblt 'the obUq"lle Dum ,ofimaiN'~ iu" the second ex,ample.lfl, fur exa.mpLe, we

~'L, _...!II· • 'm .....:'h.. II.~"T":'· '1:.., 'j! .ocl.,_, ~.·":;I'II • ..: ,;r-~

:remOve'I!;IIJ;'t:i ,/WIJKit:t'l,l'BlL y;.:..:'3Se.=!"I)UI,,1I. U. ,LiJIlI ,~g~ lpron01!.m #"ru revert'to :its wJ.ieOt. cas:e. :wan. as

required by- the!m]~ ror '~J'jffj. TIu: am,c di5tinctiQ'J1-the 'use of lunl instead (If ilmhooNt-h;, observed ito, ihc following [e;(~le too.

un seb 'Imillt£e ibJ\llooN~,nc:e huth 'uThaa,-dliya

AU 'lb~' seated. O:iiL.c4 :raiscd 'I:h.c:ir' hands.

124., BefOre! '\Vie ,go Q:n 'tQ, :the 01her UJses, of the perfect '~;:nrtici:plle: we: mUStt cWrifY 'oortam, ter.m'S

and distin'C'tiO!l8 that 'we sbail] 'be cuuploying"

Th¢ lim of these is, a distincb,M b!.n-lcm "tran.sitiv,e' and '~il1~ti,v'e" vem~. Tb,e notion ofttamitivity in 'UWI!l is not very diffm;ent, from, thaJt: in Bnglish: ~tive y,em,g, Ie:quir,e the use of a d:i~l objcc.t k!l ,ful.t)' exp:re5s the aeti!l);ll, mey CO'mmmll~:' Q:nc; simple w,ay' to' idl~nti:ry ,8- mansitive verb is to I',]aoe "wmt?U .a8w ,it ia D,}! dedanti¥e "ntt:cIw~ The VOIh '~'Ou!dJ be mumove ifth.e resulltant intenv.ga~ift semtMi,CC dees not, appar 'm~ and can t:ssj]y' be. anlWt~ m ,a, :n~ manner. F,OI' ex;ampls: ""':Hc:· eats,,:F~ :> ,"'" He, eats what'l~' >, ~~ He call's, :a.pples." COi'ic1l1lsioo: ,j"WI e.a1,'~ is I, trmiiuv;c: verb.

W· =t'" tr' .. "PAIi"i ...... t ..... u .. ..1 ~ -..:L. ~~.. .... ... - .. ~.- ra •• ,;" .. tli.· ... ""Cl"IMI, ,_ ... ,~oiit 'l'""\IO" t id --,flu' o";I~ '!L!' t ....... ."e

:: ]llL.Ii l~" .... ,~ . 'r;.i . : ~",,'UI. ve.l.uS; /tWwr;;;'!,fllYf,., ri ... : !Wh,,", .i.1&i I~. ~"'110 11.1. <IY~n ~... ,'0 l , !<lllJ.h.1 '. U 'j' '1.lLiw.iiO!'

......:L.. · ... ..::,.,:L ....... if U • 'U '" - ,'L.~........ b ~ . ~ LOilh:

Vt;~~lno W.lm,~:are not 'UJlLJlY 1n.msm:ve m lIteanm,g]II tiKi: ,ihNWi SC1lie Jr, a~SO::J!i~UlI{e;';:: 'Ill:i-e~

p~Ji'Wl~HlW aM "cif '"laWAil .W':real" s,ub.j~tsJll, the rConsinictiol'llS; w:hM:JheiLltcrfept 'puticip[e :t~s o~ ~ fin:ite: ve;m~ (We 'may .a]SOI sometim§ R,fer to them siimply as Ule aa t: :nIeeI \l\etbs","")

Abll(lS't, all'!. 'tb~ ~GmantlicaUy 'l.I'ansi,tiv.'e! 'V~s, o:f'[]:rdJUJ :aR also ~tica[ly' t:ra-.IliQjti~ i.e, require 1he use Q'! I-~, hl1~ lhcte are a :fe.w e;x'ce.ptimlS, too" (]'w.o, vC.ry common sueb, vc:oW.s ,arc: llaanaa/ "te bJifD.g,,'" and, Imilnaal! "te meet:") In,,our gl~lUie$ mms:i,1ivc: .lIcdu are '~DdfcCated 'Witi:b, 'the Sp:1IDO] ."~! Lmt the. appropri.:ut: c.olumn,

~1l11bere are a fcw' Urdn 'wd;s: wbicb may be oollsider~ SiIlimmtiicailly. oomplCl'f! wi1lh or

, ' -. - • '",\.. I. ' . ~'Iili, __ ~~ j

, \ritb,OUlt 3. direct Object, and wbich may' occur \V,it'b. or WJ 4!l,Ioul i'-Reet. For ,~ampk; 1I~J.Ur: to

fi ...,'h·t' " • . &0-

~ 1"' ........ ,mrihn.3af, "'~ t''''': ,.~ .... .A-A'i<'l!f ........ ·.:Ii '-I-

VoI'1i" "'-1U':!I~" • ,IUl !llUJ1.tlI; ..... iJ!UIU;.W.

, -- b ....... k:;iN ' ... ~ tum, :m~ml, .aa'£: nam ; . s~Ju~

tum-nee ~i but 'tuihiiN s.uojmi

H,e fo'llIgtt w1ith m~.

He f01!.lgh~ a battle wi1i'i me. -ditto~

You. didn't: oo~d whait J said. ,·dido-

'] 2:5-,,, 'VIhs.:t: is, ;I, 1!~t~r' Ql' '!~" s!l;il*~',et? W~lhouit iru!ul,sing in, phUosophica.] Ip.o:1o,gia, w~ 'rnay'

sly that:what¢v~'i, 1he ,su.bjee(:i' ofa verb wh.e;n it ocew!ii in a ~ub~lm:Crive or mrt'Um ~4il\~t:" oonMnIeti~ is aU~, ~ ~'~" subj~ O't'tllc pctf~l: ~artjd!pie mnn Q',hhat va, Bu,\, :i~l1h~ ~~t ,oo.m1U!t~ lIhe ~f;¢alj tru'bjcct, 'beiog io1he 'OOU!qlic ease :md :'~low,~, by 1i1lte: :~itl,Q<n, I-lim, wm

iiilll"ili' dct~e,'~iio... 'D~"".r ",_.:I ift .. _'II..~r,i'iit',·~~·~~t iI!I-I·;o;~~~I~.: 'm'ifoll"";Oi fi\;,~ ~~' ~tliI'·iC:~~JJ-:'~~:]1 ,~ . " .. ~~ ... ~"" oD-~""= ~I\!, ~11~~ '!o!\~ WR",t."'"'clJcII,""",~ IFW~ M~r~. .~"1I~", IliJl:; IY""I;,L" ". 'r-,.1Il,. !.p.e WI

bYe ill diiKcrm1: ~gi:anunalic.a1~ ,subj:-t'Ct~ts, '4~1 obj~t. Minh w:mcilll: ~'il~~ ,~ in S,~I" amd ~bcr~ 'D~~$: ~t, '000 .is, roU~,tdJ by some JiO.$i1i:o;tJ" in w1Uth case: 'the ped~L iJuln~ti'p~e, W,Ol.111d a1ways 'k' m, WlS :m~u]ine: ~!i.Jgbx' fmm. iiAnside:u-'llhc fOllOwing rsen~e!'Ki~ :11,1, whii,e:bU:~,~~' is it maJc' ~'!,

1. 1. 3. ,4.

$. 6. 7. 8:.

maiN' ,aataa'~

-~~N'iili~~'lIi Y!~ .'~~'

":IiJ..'1 1!\.J'

mll:i"il ,.U.!JE~:pa

miiN'~ maiN·Jci~,~gNgP. :m:i'iNr":nte~ kiitaab p~~ :maiN--nee xat pam.et

hamool'is¢ us...;ltii. ~...):J)O, (I~aa

I 11_ W ICOmlC'. I Ca:DU~.

1: wiiU CQDl~. IwU~:~.

~~I] ,~, tM oo.o:k. ~ readl·th,~ book.

I. ~ 'lh~ l~'~~.

W' 1.,.'

'~"~ ,~jS SJste.r.

'['2'- m ~ P~!Qg, ~1i~,'~ ~, rh~: ,t~: ~diIe.d,~ '~J1m'UC'UQ_. W1Jal db we: m.am. by:i1~ and how' ·do, d~;1'ftt ¢OUM1~tiln~ dUf:tt :fr.em ~Inie im;di~t? So ,far' (lW' ~1,!IS;Silio]l: OifUM:1il OOliIst~m, ~; been mostly' Ion ~e:tl~$, ,of ' wiT fmma:! OODStih!C1Ltj, and, 'Dow the l~tttr fclatc:: to ~ other" wil.hout Ii.VjDg ,any ,d«fDq::po::wet'to theJif &1gli:m"glo.ss~s. But there: art :SOJbe: oonstru'Oti~ 'wbOi5Cl kq :r~ mithl best be '~D~, ~:o iing1i;ih, s~[lJg :$Nd'~1Lts-the :primary ~ of.JUs, bM'k--m '~tl'm5, 'of1lbei.:' ~iil Ea,~i~, 1e.q,lA>iv,ale:in1-s... nat i~ tile ,Wi;, 'w~fu,

.... 'I!.~'l W'e ,~1;.,~I'I~, . If. . '1\ ti ,! ... .i! • . . . .... _""",.,i, ~~,-

""'~. '·c ~~]I ,[C:~cr t,'O :as: ,LlIiH.Ul1!a'1l. a)~~...,~~~(!!DS.

1, ~ ......... t ~~ oIi"nF':1 "i_ ............ ~ ' .... ':'·' .... ·~~h ~1Il.. ... !~_.i]" ,p··"i~~, ,~iii ~'L.~ vab· i4mtical

• I~~~ ~~~ '\:~,h ~1I§!i ~.J.lIiIIl ·Wln.~ ll4Lt¥. f!!!'~ !iJI'"-'iI!~~ ¥.I. g11;i _ .. - .. ~'" ..

'wi~ th:c suibj~t C)'f'dte vm, m 1be ED,gIiSh gloss~, ~ eithc:r m :its, di~, case reDl~, ~idmut ,an)" Jmstposi1i()m~, Ot ~R the obll'q'U~~ ~ f'O.llOwd, by' 'Iihe postpo;$~licm l .. nI«I'.

2. ,looj!J:C:LW§tnxctions" ([,Cl" au: t1ID$'~ in w:hien, 1'h,$ ,~~l; $ljibject 'ofth~ ",em,. ~ntican. wJiUt Ute sg,bjec~ of tht verb in the En~i$b. glQ~i!i~ fi~vet ~, ~~ lil~ ,dit~-t 'C~i :!ns~e~ it ,~ilw,ays ~"pms in me Oli:fliqllr" :fo1b\v,ed, by ~~ po~ti0D etbu' thm I~~i' moo.1: freq'uettll1' !,.Jk,OO!.

1:1:1

mailJ4l~lUi~ bg (DC:) maii",,~ x)ll likhaa (E)C) ~jlt~ ~31: :lil1maa, haj (Ie) mr~ffilwlllklm~,~,~ (Ie) ~koo, w,aq.t: Ita thaa {Ie} aap..:kee ¢Oo"i' l~,~ii ,b~ (Ie)

_' • L-

] 2.'7', In ad,v«bial :pM~", the, 'perf'cc't participle OCCIlIrS by ~lt: :fo]lo~d 'by 1be ~,f!ct palIticlple o;f ihoona.al;. ,01 foJbwod, by im~Lf.(L¢., :fG,~tcd~l" The eboiee 'Win rO\fl~ d~im,d en the :rullm'e 'oJ 'the ~.

Rete ~ m!~:lla.PiJfi 'polmlt e'U~,'~ :Ih~ i~,paifKt "adi~iP:h~ Ii):{" il!J ~~ib !in Urd~ wiH reW'la :Ill. IODg(JiIDg, ~~ lQf: ,action aad tI\u,~ y;r51ll k ,:mi;i.~ :in 1fIi!ftD'IDg ::m.d. '~~"LwaJ8 ha,~ 1&~, :subj~, 'of :Ih l!!'Gm ,;as, illS :f.¢_ •• CD tiJe: uiJ;e;r'~ 'dte ~~i pgliclp~ :im ~. C~ ef'~dvc 've~sl' wijl] :ei'ef'tO' th,¢ dJi~ct ~iect and *~ w~'111 b~' p~ii~e: in ~, 0[" iiIIIJ 'the case t!!'f']rII~itJIve ve~; ~t wiU il~li!Je 'tb=: stl~ as Us' :re:re~;CDit~ btlll wiU e'm,p~i~ its achieved, o.r '()mpht~, slate.

1T( ... ,.t:.....iI,.,'L. _"'" • 'i.;:,_.~A ""1]' , .. i 'ij., "lI. 1/.:...-.- ,..ii...g '1:.,. 'J '~m ~,~~~~e ,e.~.Y'"'!!S.lS en Mli lacuJ,ii~'~, ~taM WI ,ii2iI~1l) mar,,,: '1iI!!@' ~\II~"'o~ 10 'l1.li.11::' QI!I~~ 'OiJJ~t •

CGl:1aiml, ~~I'$" 'I.h~fo:re", 'wiU .i':ltlow mCl ~ i()fi@.o'ly. 'O:n,~ 0'1" ~'h:c ~t11N 'of tbe; tw,o.. SbmiLaTly'j

!l!U'!I!am, '~8 wiU rm~ .. ,A- '1,,-: ,iE'O'\imd: I~"'" ;~e~ ~-, t:"'~ !illi--a .n.>ilI'i'-.', ''iIj"",'I., .. 'i!.,~, ",-..:..:L.~ ... _ ...... l. ';';"i"",,,

. ~ ~ ~ ~¥~~ ~~ ~ __ ~.~ ~ ~ VM~L ~g~ _~~~ ~,~"e Y·!i4ll~~"1i Il l~.~~ g~ . :~~alU !~t~~~ tv

ay. I'" W'hiJle' ''We tan SIY~

We CamJot say:~ Iu~ei!i rooee bue kdl~t "Will, DC: cOll~&d_di ~e;.m~D,l~$$.. ]3,.~!t; ~1 rwo lP·mtciples mH'c f:or' 'lV{O, sep,al'a1e bUlt CQ,1l.IaJ.'ly :nl~l1J!~~ SGIli~ :iil ,the :foUIow,~S ~amp.l~ 'Nme 1lDe :sibiin, :hm, Ifi 3chilie~ sta~~ '~Q am, I~ ,~,

1iIS---~ ~ I!til~: ee:k: _~:ta.a, ihoo-" iii laili

"" g".,

~$;"~ :J;~~e,'h'Ulee ~: ~T~

iloo-',say,aa

'W, . = 11-'" :i'n,;,;j; .. , 'L.,~:

!lliQ 'yo,g,!ll iUi,a,a ,IJ!:o!g

'w'OO baM~ b.a1i

'~Siom~ bMncc huee k~

'~S~l!Ii~ bai1htM '1!r118 kallas, ~,~~ bai~' huGe e:,$k ,Pa.;nT:Bal, 'boo..gayu

1\li$"~QO ~Tlu:ee knee m ,~Taa :~.@Q"pyaa

n b~ ~ ~,Mu1$mce~ 1~1. onw.

lI'i h be ' '10 .. ,,, •. 'I;, "'..al Jj ,: ,~~ ,~::.g am ~w'W" :5i1~: ae ~!lI!!

gymg..

R~,Silii.

lie ~'S Sitlimrg. He, is seated.

D,· ·::.:11 ~.j;,'·~l . i~ De: saw W,I.:L'hC !SGa1oW.

He: said: as ~i ~~; ~tlLmg d~. rrt has ~~ ~ oou~ since hG ;sa;: down,

mt b~ ~M an l'ahi.i.t siaee he :S:~M ft'yirng'~ rsi~: do<\Vtn.

'~Q 1!ee1','y..leeTu 'boolaa

woo jhukiJ·"jbrukii 'm@~re~ptil5 uH ~aJU:ii."fi~ ]!~T~@>.]ooTee 'k@aa

~1 .. DII,;:i.,\",- ... '!i!;.'1 I"''''':'~]''''''''::'li''~ 1Il. .. ~It::~'iIi;.'~' ~JJl~IIMWI'1J l~~JLIIM-~ ~:ll,'Ii€¥' ~Uj11J;'~tJ

He~ spo:ke: -wIi'lUc stiU lyin)g i1l''Ml;;, Bent d~. she carne near :me. T:n,e; ili~it1 'whi1t ,!:ti]lly~' ',inJilr ,dof;'W1 .

,~".~ ~ ~. ~ ~~. '. - "~ • 'IIi

:S3i1d ...

• e ,gili~~ :s~e 'w1JHe $!tiU ~,Ymg, d:o~,

,~dJitto-,

:l2St ,~rthe original ¥~]"b 15: ~i,ri'VG), 1M IPmcc-<t, pi1l1[c.ip!e wili :n<U (lIcC;lU" :~~tM;, :ini!,t,eitd~ i,t '\Vlo.uld eeeur ~rIJ tn~ IT,lapUo!: obliqjD'¢' fQ~1' eDths.f ~Jingi.y Qf :fo]I.Q~d. by.a ,s~1wli~~' i~n~t,¢d petf~t pmici.p1c; f01'tll of' /hoooaa/"

Yn ,m.od"cemc *~ w~rlng ~ iSiillR ~e~~,

She ,:spoke 'Willd'l, d0;W'D-'ru.med, '~ycs. She' stoij)d l1u~n 'Wi1lh hu moutb open"

H~ :Ii=qt ~kin,8 at me wid~cycd.

t~O, If .e; orligi-.rruaJ 'verb, is mtnm~itift) and the: 5U!bJec~ of tIlc mum verb is mot fol~wOO by my :PO.sftiOO~, 'the p«l«:t participle, WQUld,,~ 'Mth, the ~subj~!: ljJ:,c, !ill mamed, adJ~live. Again; ~l mray 'OOQ!I![ re:itbC'r :siQs'Jy ow- ,rtdmaw-td b:¥ d:i;: pm1~ :piillici,plc: o:f JiIloo.ruu1!1 ~ ~cOO WOi.lld, a:gree 'Mth :tffite w'bjcet ~i~,; raJ mll1kM djectilllt:.

vn.alt aft: "8, dniDs 'dilere hldlim,S in ~hmi}~'?

..(Ii~~

F~t' a io:nS; ~ljme :illLe sa~, m~ c~g.,

becomes clear. when, we treat me two S'e[ji~:eI1Ces: ss 'tle p:!I~ble ~nJ;es: to '!two Se]JaratG quesiot15.

Q-l

.

A"

kabh:~ - .. Sill.aaN"' - iN?

aap, U lV, - "," " ,gayae~u '",'

J'i1..,j 1.. .... 1I\.'.T ''-''''''N-'- "" ... '11... ... , ... '''-1' O!li'ilJ\",<iI I u, ,I!Iii:LiU''1,~ U.l'I1IO ' W.2lUa:aM,'\I! ~;r""""

Dilii!IN

a.ap ,aaj wahaaN g~ee '!:Dee?'

jU haaN" :D'ia'llN wa,ba;aN' gay,a,a, thaa

Q'~'

:-.,.{i.0II

A,

Kava :you, 'ever bml thn.e? y es, ,I Pla,v@; hem. 'there.

D.iOJ y'OUJ ,go' 'tn~£c tooay? y~ m did go 1h.ere.

Q l\::"II3a ,~!all'1l_'!u",. vee '\r~ri .... -'L. , ..... ,iD'hJ:I

,I" t:~.~~ ~ .. ].~ ,;J ~ I'r-~~ ,~'W.~.

hat?

Al jii MaNp mmN--a:tee yee kitMb pa:Rhii naL 'baho1 ,accbii bd

,Al, jii, maiN-n,ec yeo ikitaab paRhTI thii, 1,~ bahe,! din lm~

'U ~ ~ , 'IJ'iIii'" _ ....... 'i.': .. t.. ...... 11 •• ) ,[]l,a'II e. ) . ....:~wj ,I. 'I.r.-iliY, L.lJJ.I ~I bru!iJA 'r.

y~~ I hav1s r,&aiIl this boot'. It'",i; 'very ,good.

Y~i I dJid mad, t'hli'!i, booJ:~ but '!ha~:

W!!!i some time, ago.

Mete llow in the second mswer ijlifi:s lW:Jed, as B p6HOO;:rE~nSr!; but 'th3:s 'time:'w.itholJt IbaaN/to avoid scl:r:~~adi'c1ion"

140. Th! s'¢:q)l1Ctlcia[ :m,]atiionshtp between the si~le p~t (Sr)! 'pms~u :pc~f'«t (PAP) and. 'past pen:ec1: (psPJ co.rn.slnctiof.is~, :partiC'!llJJarly b~, ~een SP Md, P,sf', is, ][k:e,wmse V!>ry :ttmpc.nml in die tonJiexl of a serim 0:£ Hlltmi.Oe:.S fmilJli1Dg a iSe])araIl:e pW'agtl'pb Qt' ~ch act, Oonsi,&;r tM

4-':- 'II . .-.....·~, ~'eoc~ -], ~'" ,IiGn.QW!!-1'1g, .', .~p. es"

.A, 0) ImaiN ,kal ua-see :rori'lne.e gayaa, [SP] (2). u;ruiO~lN'~noe k~, [Sf] (3} kj WlQO ,eel(, din pahlee 'baiamid~ mi'lne-e ,~(hee [,P5P']!o (4) leek in, us-see na mil paaee [SF]!'.

u. (1 ]11 we:nt '~O see :him yesterd.ay." (2) He ~id that (.3) M bad goo.t:: 1.0 see Hamid -tl.e day 'bcfn:re" (4) bu,t G-O'uldn"l see 'hrim,,~'

IE 1lhe aOOvci d~sootilHe~ tite, first vorboam pb.rue is SF, bliJt it. cO'u]d lul,~ b~ :P.sP ,far cmp:h.a:si&; in.

~ -I"'llo.-. - - - - :L."" ... ..".. - ~'L_"",c:.p f~ "11 'Ji..:t· ii'i'O!iil', 'Tii., .. , 'D...D"~' .. b ~ Ii ~ .................... 'ii.. .. iI\ .... ,...

eJ!Uj!L~r C3S!!~ !l.wWII:!~etI:~ UI!!:' ., .- '0 ~ \.V,as '1UIu:lI~.Ory. ... ee C!l!'L UU ,:;, e'.ttpfeSS.elS 'W' i1!i; OUl.;iIll.n~ Ut;;.I!I.n,;e

bomb '1 3lldl2.. 'BUI~ It cm.tld 'have besn, an SP~ ~C!IIJ!S'~ as i!I), 'part of,a qlJDted, iSpi!eChJi it is In.ndC-M of ' the ~lati,o.niSbi,p ~billi;slhod by the v'erb~l p'~e.s (]utsidle ,of:it. U will~, hewever,

'l...." t • -""-- _,1..." " .. to. • 'i._ t ... , "j,','j.':~, .. '1.. - ~ ~_~'Ii. {"',~ ..... 'ru .0'11 ... .;..: :ii.. it; ~ 1 -":I

,ilLi1Ve Its own '1;~atCi!'JW~[P ''W]Uli. O'UlI.->M' C~llIg!S WhllJiuJ wat: !S,p~" '1; ... (;!I_If~equ.eI:IIL,.,;r!Jo "'Ii'!!. WiUC-",(J, JQi OW'S j;

in. time: :s:eqll\el1.ce~ m,l!I8!t: be an SP.

T,hJl:, P$P if!, 1 :maittl !iii, ddim~e :¥tat,ement 2 e~p1.esses what happened be:IUle 1. and, 'lbmfOoo iDllS't: 'i\!~~ a 'hP - J. mdl(i~es ,~ ~t which hg ~lm.d'y 'been exp:re&se(l, emphaticd~l aDd ,th~~~ need not be cmpbasiz«l ,again.=-beno:e an :SP'. DQ1, it wi¢ad'or filS ti,,~, ;"tlretef~,~! [om: ~ad :Said Ijiii, :~~~ 'iO:lbT 0itiJ![,'~ ~~',i" ~.~.~ mirsht :oo¥t ~,'tM: ~,basis aei [Ui~, a p,5P,. ,4, is lim sr amt ~'o:mi. ;;dlt~f 1 i. ~t ~ 'Q'lfi~~, ,S, b a 'P~ 'Of;l $Gp~1E: oa:rrakd ~h. It :iH.i.caltes 'liat 'Ma!' '~'~41 ,~ti ..... AI ~ ... A-, to . : ~'ii. ,:lei:' il'4!."iJ , ....... .:1 8mt ~ .... I;. ~ ,~'k-":s CFiinfml· he ""H sliJlli

_. ' .. ~ '.' .... ~- ;g,I!1'!Ii~!I;l!I,II! '!,!lII;;Il'U![~ ... ~ ",1"""'""'""'1iJ. _.111· '\ .Jf.t ~JJ!.!; I_._! 1m! 'W~ ""Y"" ..... ..." . .1" .. l' .~ "

,mwd. 6, m.Mtat~, ,iD, act w,mch ~ hapJlm~ 'bdbJ~ ~~ Ib~t )~~~1~, dl!:al, ~,EIi tlUs; case fie: pmon 'was, 00 10J1g~' around. ne latter imnp'ti,c!tmf:ll is [®Nertl!y exp:reucdJ b!f 't, wwCb hg w[ be: m, ,sp' akllbe :PSP oft).

C. [(1), lma:rN~~ ]..i~' :~~klitiiN i[S.P]~ (l} 311M" ,par.til ~I.ard[cail~.~, [SP]I. (;3) '-'biu~e.' ·I~ i .... "';r..;i; ... l\toonee-]aGiii, 1[·:SIP,l. [(4''li1 maN ,ed ~'!&·'kee i9~C kIiIdaa, heO---lIrg,'!lI,.

:ti - - - m... --,~, - - - .. ~ . -:::rL. .(II. J ~ ~.. . ~ ~ ~ ,f,"",,,,..r ~ . ~ .. . ~

{SP.l. (;S) *hi~, !Ho' ,mia.aT ,~ Ih~~ IF'S',], (6) ,Iki, ~ moo;Tat, paas, ul"~ar nLtii [$1'].

~I en I &ol1glu, 'thc~ 'Mob (1) ad set QtIt'l'(rIWa;r&, hom,.e. '(j!) J~$1: them, ,it b.~ tol rah'i., 1[:4]1 I stappd uH.~f .a U'Ge., (,5) Ocly ttwo' :r:nmtcs bad, pass~ (6)- 'wheD! ,!3I, 'C'aT ¢~¢ ~ ~~:p.ped, n~ar' me,"

'l'he it.WO SP OlIDSlTUc::f ~-~ i,- 'tine 'rnt,··~i'II~llm:-':· !i!'c~Jl:C, il'W'O a'C!ts.'Wmc:h. (ilcC'~ 'n'~or tn '~i!,

,,' ,. i-e .' '.' •. ~~~'. '. ~lQ.Iil.!SUl, j .. ~r~.~~~, ~j~~,~"\1"~,~ "'.~' ., , . ,F"""" ~~.o

:s,p!Mh aet, :8'W: ~~ ~~r .,~tl1 fMi:;,:~ ~,OOd 'M' [~Qi~ 'tim :(;'iiCt: that me 'tw'o acts, tt.ad '-Uy ~,'H~ :Si!midhimg: [el~ ~ be ~1d1 O'dtrmviR IhB;~ ROl [Oo,llill), ~ P.1I" l~~lj~ ~~t ,~50 ,a, lililOJie: !l3oom~'I~li'V~" :tenn [()'r'~ :fi~t vero~, ~ Wl'lJ11, as ~.~ ,ad.'d~~1D1liI1 dmce: 'W[ lmk, ·the: :fim f'!NO ael:s 1'0.' befmiC: 'CXp:i!e!& .. ~, 'the i'hiim" wbh;:h, ~,wii~ lw.w ~:o[ 'bE'

, .-, ,~, F"'" ,. .. i"""f,...,.· .. :,Jli.1' • ,. . ~·~~~~,_~'1if, ,~ :~'dl It'" ·;IF~f·N:" " f "a.k· ,:.)'~:", t .. .i1"ca1g '~ID[ ,,;ot, ,,,'Ilo:a,a ki an,;)r. ;€If ~a;mp~i'J ~,~~'IIooillI!¢ &1.l~1!o"!! l':m.1 ,~~.Ili lJiuJ . am b'~!J.r ~py~ ,~,I: ,_.~ ',p:~_ ~L. ' !"!.~,

i'~~m~ b~q: ,~on~e-bgiil~, [~~ I ~.dl bOUght 'tll,e books ~.d; rstan:ed 1wmeward when 1'[ ~u:ddUily b~~ to :min",~'i' In ~itbtf ~~'! 4 ~: b~ ,0, SiP. Tb,c: DHt elaase, :5~ has, :II PsP 'm Qrider to [ce;]l,ve;y !fbe lki6.d, !Qif'~:h.uis, '"'e,ffi~l '1$C~ ,~c. Md, a~ ,aier ~ p,;!!p [@of 5" me, Sf of 6, '~ ,00b'1~a.t.QlJ'.

11Ii", I~~ smtcmu, foowscd ,om Oite ~,a~liMl'j ~f'~~ ~ ~cd~, ~~r' i1be: f-o:now9in,1 eM_pIes:::

:20, :lllaJlSI'~- :k.:itDb, ~~

rr;~ii, ha~ ~

1(hi$ l$i ,3; ;Sm.tem,W- Jrom 'the !I:1I'IIcalOc:r"s lI'I(ii~]l. ofv:i~-~'~ ,~f'lWo f'M:tcS'

-- ~- - ~ - - - - ~ ~, - ~ , _- ,t",,,,,t '" _ _ ,ew~ 0: , "_- _ •

A. ,'~ I" was Ul,~ on,iS 'Who put _ '00ti~ L.,~" ~~ I" is m 'au~ :Sllat~: Qr one w~o ,ut :i c.maim, liJ.ool 'OD :~, e-elita'm ~a'ble:. In simpllm--'~ ~ ,a'bo~: ~~~~k~ '(he; :fbst :scl[t~uld 'be

.- -. ~. . .. ~, .. ,.!II,. - ...-.:.- .lI\;~~ ~ - ,II.:!;;,", .. 'L. 'I"::·~· -. ~I~~:'·~ ,'j',i1iImi. ... , . -, il'i\;.,- i.,~~,".,,, 1!i1. ~_'i.:I,~,i1jii.,

,illi anslwel' I~j) WI}!:: ,qu~~~5 ,~m~~ g~ ,l!Usxnee I~j[~:~, WlmllPm"i, IUZlC ~ am .~Cm.g.I§,~

B. ~ :$ __ -o.nd: fad: is '~ as tar ,a; IU ~,« is, I~cml«l th~ 'bonk u: st.iU om the t3'b:l~ i.e., 'tb,¢ 0001=; is iQ, ~~! Slate of,~: ,~, 'Was pJac:edJ :51~r],CR' ,and: thm, e:1: mm~ed, 1i~~ tn,ere'.

Haviq d~dJ, 'lite: abarve:. 'WC caD ,aim, i!~-e :~w ~ ~~ ~!i!jte:n'oe: 'CD Oe~!ar' w~urt 'its ~~] .subj~t'!, ,flIlaiNi-rleef" :and haft 3, d~f&f~tw~ '~hasi~ er ~&

142:, ~It 'w,as, ;sa1d, abO'l!!l'C: Ib'n~t ~b~ "lmp:Le: with ra Pfe-s,mt ~~Sf:i I~u-it~l~iuy w'QlIilld ;aJsoG bt'tme trw ithe ,fmfoiMn,g Clt.m1,p1c W,lltil,3, :p~, t~ ~jlia.ry.

Of ~t 'C'aB ocCW" by i~ruf as o.os :p~$i'b~~ ~,~~se to the 'QlU.estiWl~ IIdltaab kal1gN' bali/, jj. ~c ,IS ~hc 'boofkr m, '~~ :Iatm ~, :Iw'~«i ~t \iIOuldJ ,also ,HpJ,)' ~m.c:d1in,g ad.dlinooal: ,~, l ~ad 'pTht (b~ book OD, '~ 'tal)~e:. C-And, it ~bcDl!Ibii :SlUI, be 'ilh.ere,., !hJl'1i1: jfj~ '~ oot~ ,I ,.;h:;fJi"t blow ~hi~ about :ttl'

maiN'-Ret; un-kee gaan~"'kijj r&Hiif I p:mis.od:his song. ~;li

2..

3.

l~d"'lWiaal: K :: to ]~.e mu:jhee mi-ba, par1H pU!!Ild ... gyaa.

4,. 1i5t'ibemaaJ 'kamas!::NM:: 'to'use X J=kaaf

·1J,J$.--:n.eG kfus:ii. da.w.aar.-kaa ist~litaal ndUiN kiy.aa

s.

I a])plO:ved ofhis son.g, Or, I chose :hls s.ong.

He di~t make use of any :me&eie.

1.59, Urou veJas can also 'be deriVed by aMW! tIle suffix!, l-[y]aanaaI '10' adjectives and 'IlOr1!mSo "Jbi$t :oowever:,. "'s :oot ex1efi,u¥sly·dmte .. MQst ru.cb ,tmvea vms. wnulJd be tnnsi.tive; they. wi1l1 also be Q'nly ~,do'Ublc active~~ ~~1C1UYJl ~ Jii.Q ~caUM.livnf~ 'woU!'ld be made from them." Exmn:pl~5~

.• , tD :beit oom;tthing"~

•• to .~ SOrntoll!e with ooet,$ s.Ji'~f$' 0'[ ;shoe.cS,~!

HiO. urdlu verns. can. abo cmnbill.e 'wj,.tl1. O1lhelJ' 'v«Os.· to' :fu.nn [t;ew vefb-s. lh~se! oombinatio:m wQ.ILdd 'M oftw.',o tim~s:: (J) c.g:mpqyruJ. ·v.s" and (1) yerba,~, oompoWlds". In both. cases 1h.c 'p:rim.ary ~ woldd 'be ex:P~ '11Y 1he fu'slY'emal mIm---'lJce primary ver&-&ut it wcruld

b "ii.:.E!:...... .'I~..,'I • '~ .• ,L._ d·......:Ii.. • 4': .'10.."" .J' ,--01.,

~ p..OWDW 0:1' expmQW In. some :mSiWlCl' vr 1~ SptCOJ] . V~ U~II. ,lLimm~ 3,'lJ):.J ~~ ·VCl(J."

~k:afI.y~ the. linear order of die OIlfllS'liliwM1:s :in ·both. eaes may be bJtO.k.s.D ,and) :particJ@s such as ;amiN/. Inial! .lDhii!~, It<ooJ j aad adveribs, ins.e.ned. b~. the twQ elements,

There. ~ allso difrercn,ce.s 'boelw'Mn 'Ihe .two,. 0) A o.~mpowUl. \IIe:rb :may be r;ephu;:e..t1 by iu prim~ vern! Of by anomer' oompomm verb made {tQ(ID. the ]a««1 with. only a. minirnwm loss er cb.oge in ils, m-eaniog .. A ·vemail.oomrpoum;tm1.tb.eQ.tb~:hundl.cEm-01bG·uplaud.inleither '~'wlitnn1il't ,efie.clinM: a drastic ISm'iwic chuge. (2), \VhUe compound verbs may OOC'1lf as,

". ,..' c.:i.. ! ._A... <111.... .,. - 'Il! .~.~.~ V' b-I ~ .. -..I. l..

p,nmary' ver~~, iriI V£'1.u3 'OO'mpo'~! [uN reyerse IS· 001: a .~Oirw~,,: er·'@I!,compoJimw.S, I!Ito'We¥1H.

real" ~ur u a part of Mhu vey'bal ~ds. CO .A coonp.Cl!U!Dd 'verlJ, 'is :i.[[[v.ariably a

.. '" bi ... ,,:;, , .i."'.'L... ·t ·"·f :.. . ~, ... ,~ .- .4:, ... ",:,. .., ... """ ,,·L,:I· . 11 - iE:.., ~n'l

cO.m miAYQ:Jl. 0] lLIJl..e roo, '0, . is.ome pIHna:ry '!,!'!;;;:m .iUlQ .Ill. anXl.!IJlIY Vila''';,. w.IJUe Qn.~y a Jl,~W V'II:OIP!M.

cO'n"lf:iWfl.ds .n;1'O'i, """'d·;e ,from 1lh-t IQOt &'",,~, .... ·f~e mi"im~.rn·~.L (4) hi COI"!;'U·lnr~~·AI ve ..... lI'. it is. al\\{;oj"U'!i.

. -'T" ,~~H~~·.~· .. ".' I,W'llitlluv: ~.lL Ft--' ..... ·....-a.; ".\.I:IUr.. - ' .~T-~LIIJU' __ J.IJ...;I. _., .-.IQj!'tr

161, O!}~d. V~r.lbs~ Cmn;pound '~erbs :bI. Urd~ mae lit possible to ~.~ ooooisely it 'wid)~ 'mnp of OOnootatiQIU' aud :llJwm:ces wbiCb are best ,eJ(p:~SM in Eng: ish .~ witb relaTIve y maeb ]OO!~ plwases .am! ~ctlo:ns. 'Broadly s:l).t4kin~ the: funt,ticn 0,' an awcili.ar;y. vm:b :in th.e...se ~1lIJds is ,(1.) to ,add a s:mse· 'fiiJ~' ,M 'compldiven~' 1:0 tlie m~iililg of the pWn~ vcro., 'Ol"{l) tD 4;modil~l i'l: in vmo,~s, wa!ji'S ·and add t,o it a. v~ ofwtlat. cOllJ.d be best dese.riba1 ras advcdtia] .nmmc~ . 'We shall d.il.seU55 'the ';m,OOi:I].caJ]OMj IdOl" with indivi.dJaaID au:d'li~ ",ems. He:m we sbm:ild. make some. mmgks c.oi'itCllliilll the: fi!1i~: :fmictiC(l., i ~e. tbe. .add1.t40;]'i. of a l'Ulmce o'{ 'e01l1pl~tivCilCSS" Ul dte primary ·meanjll,g."

III fiiis. :funcii~. tre: oo:mpoUIrui. verb, j'wJg.e:d by ~b; .E'Ilr,8Um .glQiSS~ 'wmlJd '0ifim1. appear to be no dJiHerem from its'lP.rimary ve.l.lb. S'ti][J in the 'P~~_M ()onIex~. the ~QJupt;JWld 'verb win be :~d; by e.am.n.[ s:pme:r.-s .. my? IfwL'J ,cxamjne a .senJenc.e fn wlrlcll. a CQIDV,O'UBd. vmb ,occurs 'W·e :s:'hall :tiPd that: 1t e;ither'makes ilIJ. stsleIRetIJt w:tiic.b asserts some fact or. action, 'or it e~fi$'$ tlii.e 'itlmal eet 'in a series Qf.raedcm.s,. In both~. tll.e speaker!. irk OOD'~jiRtlJ;~ v,tould n~t. ':ass-m' samethlnj 1l'1:W ~ 'Of' ~ «Dotter senH .. Quite Qftre~ tbe Smlt·en.ee would ,also have other devices fbr ,emp·b.a&s of 0:11~ type or ,mother •.

:[n gm~! most .smtm~ ~rJitaLning :a p·article far nel,atiofll.~ i.e. JnahiiNI or lnail• would, .flot have. a oomp:rumd. ·v·~i1: womld be oontfadictmy to lle-Iate an aetion 'While adding ·to· ~t a. ~cmnp].e1ive' empJm8iis. But it if! .• :posslib'le whwe them dnml~Bl'y in certai:n. c.onhi:~~ e.1~ the t'1rirdJ. s:enrellCC be·mow.

cr

'1\.. •

'Woo· aa. g,ayaa .1l'ilI.

woo· DahiiN aaym Jm].

agar woo' ikal-tak 'owiN aa-gayaa. bJO 'Illmi...kOO:53Ua mileeg;Ei

c';L., '._.:1

ne uSiS m:n:"'~.

He llasmt't come,

You 'WiU be !llWlisbed iflm isn't her-e. by. tom.o.tT.'Ow.

162... IjS13l:laai~: WUh inuansiti.V!e p'~mSlUY verbs, fj aanul ,ge.lleiraUy lo~· it!!l. 'p,rima:ry

:meanm.g. ,~~ tQ go~'~' iand serves ,mAy to ~·tM mea:ning of the- prl.owy Yew .•. adding ·to it the akW! mentloocd lIfllBnCG of'fu]mess" [or 'eooqlldion~. CODiequ.e.ntl.Y'!.1he oom,OllIJ:d. ~bs c'O:Dtaini'r!lg jj~ will :not.1be 'lJ!S.!(} m. 'veibaJ OOD.StrUC1i.'ODS with lralmaa/!, ipaaDaa./; and Isa.maaI. (See. i 72~114). 'Witb a :~ w.lnmSitive 'verbs .and, with aU '~sdrHvc:: wftb5!.lww·e.~'~, ij~ !O,ftel] adds an equal rn~ of·its oc;vn original ~ng t·n 'lhe me;mj:ng of the :primary ve.rb-ilie; two DOW 'iP.peari~ to be in 8, kind, of seque.ntial·rclat.I.ooohlp. For ex~,]~ "",bile 11.a.d.~j ~~ 'W'OI:dd ibejust :i. more "Qampletivc" fonn of l1adnaa/i a simple aenve p.ri'IIIMy v·~b (iruransill:vel. expre:ssimg a mare! fuUy r.ea1i~m ACt~-/k,.u. saamaan lad-gayaaf, "Has .t:h,e. 'i;B&gal'C 'been :~oaded;;-IIaadi"jaamaal, fi'om·it'he doub'he active (,mmsiti,ve) llaadnaal WQ'Uld more 'o:ften bs

11:3:2

:iit~meeN 'Woo ,aa~gayu.

tab-tali:: too, :60, ,~hoo jaaee.gii

llTlDlitt 'dlJ.¢:1l he arri;ved,

'[]o ......... ,. io1l..~ • '1'11'1..

,Dy Wiilt nme 'YIP;; :mOVle WI.!JI ltiave

Sitarl:ed"

He goes out 'of ' the house e\~e!Y ,day at ten,

She caDle: ,and madll'.i nm:yOOi!: ha.ppy [&en. went ,aw,a, ~"

1i.1.._ ,....I '1.., ,~ 'k""' j •

.i!"U.IDliOY, nac COme R mt CHiller to,

ebeek and, see if:you. w~ :itODC"

163., l3JiIDul: It ]$ mostly used, to ,S'lIgg,eS"l a ~nti:aJ Teilati,al'illWpl betw,een, the t\l,N.)

action& but 'witho.ut 'w'IidmoorlIlg the ~time" ~j. er more: exactly witOOul empiiasizill.S the ~timi!lr. of'/Uli1ai:,. the wxi1i.ary vem .. (C'ompm the fin.t two Klltem,ces below.) Anyad,;::te.c anplluis, wm have Kti!IonO~ on1y'1'O 1be. prLrr.nary vem'" .(N01'C the tmroJ senle.nce..)

,jab ham Wl~:tOIl) dcekb . -aaee.,

jab ham ~mA(oo dleekb-k'at ~.-.,

'~11 we had been'tQ see blm., .. 4:! \Vll~, we returned, after ~

him .. ",.'··

Sa:mldlfy, as o.~ 1:Q ljiaarmaal:1 lmrwJJ w-ould 5~t 'that tbe ac.ror retum.ed 'to ml, originBJi place 0.£ Location, (or some Location close.r to' the speak«), aft,el" :pe.rftUPiuing the act ~Pl9i.ed, by the primary 'verb" {/j~a.al~ ,oJ ~ 'Would s~, Wt 'lbe mcn'-emeD!t was away from. 'lite' sp~ 'Of. finm, tID:: ,~.tiall coll~idered as "bere' in U1£' di:s.co,mc.)

Oth··· ''''''",_'1,'' ctre~ures;

I 'Wmt amJl saW' .Abnla-dl [thm :re'twllcd b, ie]:,

AhtEl31.d ewe to 51eC me [thw, 'Wiimt ~~hon'i=].

-- L!!l - _. r

On huri:n.g that be :imm.cdialely came: out, 'of the :room.

'Why did !fO'l! go and teU him, tha.t he :should go and see 'me doetor .. Najirm!i used to go daily end do my 'Work [and then retum. here],

woo~., ,]~ee too K(~j, ~ ho~i

a1t;1 too '~ hanOI ~liyee

HUJ. ~aaI;~ I~'priillllal)' m~ng is impcssibJe to d~cr:mm~ '1hi!)1)I,:gh,:mQ:~1 dIDotio:rn:a,ri¢'5 wo,md rgJ1mss, ,~t, ,as! ,u~,Q 1M I, dmm;, ~o lKrall.,'"' 'The S'DdelM: 'wQlIIldJ do w=l~ 'i:Q, k~ a ;$~fif;8L:e lite Iii)J hs v;:ari.Ous, ~ps. (S~ 226.,)

,~, an ~~lialY ~'~ c~~ vab~ lpaRmBJll' iss, ~ wilth im1Jf,Wl$.~c vabs. It 1\Ufi,51 cO'nmtOnib" ~ a ~ng otf"$1!I~ I~~ ~nSi!'~ to ith@i p:ti'mSY' 'vom~ as iftfiL~ ac~ eoc,~cs~ ~¥ 'the, Jm:u' 'toQk :p:l~ or kgaD 'too. abruptly. ~, :s;ee: '~~ n~~ ~Jtio.ll,J

;S'QOl~ajy b: fel'l lQ, the grmmd. It wlJU fa[[ down 'wi. 'one :(fll ••

U;,;, , ... t.~ .. 'I",",,"'~i wi,.i.. ,1''''"''';'''', ,~ ... "'_IIIlU!lO<r;,:~ ,5iUlI! ,II!~-

Just ~u."!iii'O, il;"" .... ,,1':;.~,~"":;o; '1,.-0,;0;11"", 'M 6 ""' .... ii:

., .lI.IIIll ~I~IIJ.! ~ ~~riP.4l~ ~- __ ~~

wim I~ Q'tbcr..

'US,j. /ulll1tl .. aaJ; It~ ,~\W ~ 'lI;n~iDg is "to g~ ~' er n~~:·i It tool is ~~Jusiv~I,)" m;ed

' .... "" " - ,., .. 'i...iIl "' ., " ..:L. ;!, .• Ti.,_~.~ .. 1 IL-. 1"'" . ~-.~

Wlyl. :Inb';~ttfvt "!oIC~,US. N $I aw;:'di~~uy ftlYe, l!llL ,-"u,,- ~Ias: :mor~ cr . 'm 'Ijl~i!;l! ,S:li!n1!~ ~Iq ~,

mnai,cll as fpaRmuJ~ Le. it uds; :l !QU~ ()f,~udd~: to tb~ ~. But 'in ;ro:m~ OOiU~~, liul'tmaal wotild k '1DCd, ~o g.d.et=~ ~ ~tifi:D.aID :;JD'~~:ri.ty M~erl,f.ini lCite :aet,; wlil~ 1p~.aaJ wolid, be, pref~ whctC the :wdk1~~ oif'i~, its. fOO~i '(m., Comsffid~r k wJkr,wiruS. two' :smtGDi!~ WmiC'~ additin:nailJ mattiN' 'm ml d~· tb~: ,cih,oiee!:

~ - - ~ - - - ~ - -

." .. ,_t...,.,... 'I· ..... ~, ~ .. iil.I:I·':,t,' oIi .. ~:. 1.~: ,~ ,'., ....

' ........ .,."vV- !U~(U UJ:I!I. ' ~J: 'IilJili~.til! ,!,!,''!;II¥ "'II.i"i;.~

rulha,

W'1.lO ,~ak ciirx.~aItii,

woo 'too hu"apt~m gba~~ uThtshai

. bi _ ...... 'ii\.'r 'L.~,,,.'I """":t,

:ts!, .:n.o-=:u~'11 woo ~,·Uil. ~l

,agar' tuln-~ kooii itnee RW,oo] p1ItI~ to 'tum lbtm 'roo-dih1ct

He: ~, irn w.c:h ~ 'wat: be ~rcted out

Sillii $ud.dmilly WOO 'O'UI.

[Nev:er: m111d min,,]: fI~· ,g~, wom~ a't~ni8.

tn. t'b.~ m,Gi!Dli~: ~he ~e 'up. ¥Q.iIl 1.'0 w"Quld'viS DW'lt:mto ~~ if

;" "DO"~ i,.. .. ..;1 "';0''1,,,,,'" ~-;', "' ... :_:srnv wm _', ,~l!,"'" I'!i!I'"" - .. ~ iJ' .... !OII ~ ~~~""""I.I'

,qu.es!iQ:~;'

'ilg~ IbaiDmw., '~p, iits plimary'm~ is ",tQ ~I d~\oj" JlmjITh.maal~ ,3!S. m ,~Jii31J' Vtii.l!J, '~I with b"ml~iliv,e 'H~_jjbsi!' impi]i~ 1Ut. ill, 'ile 'opi;m~g ~'Uii;J ~u 'of the ,5eIUcmc~ the ~bjet:t. of'ltfu~ ~ 'bild~;.¥M 11ID .a :m~ewhat: questian.able: <rI' ,a;bmp:t m~;, and! '!!hat d1'~ ,aC'lioJ1lj, ,again from, tie s,p~~s ~Q'im: of vi~w, 'WWS: m.a,rmd, ~y "pu!tsi,'V~~ .. 5illbo~i 'Of: evam

,~'D!iD"I:'P.J!r- ,..,. 'W,""'~ t!i.mn.'lv "'~~!''Irflnt!imIiUi~·. ~~J:.,~ • 'V~!L.:Il ~ .. ~ ~r......,!JJ.! ~ •. ~-" ... ".~~-~.~ ..

'Os

m.aJN bb'.:1Juilee-see lmg:koo kltlab ~e·baiTh.u

;mUlibee Dar:hai Woo xu,dt-'kuili k~~ bwiTheegaa,

, , , . , ~,'L~~J;;.l' '~ '. 1!.''1f'i.., 'L~~:

WOO roes W~~:"II J iiial-u3!1 ,Jj"utaa.LkYi

''Vbat a [big mistake 'you've :m.aJlaH,ed W 'QomlIL'ilit!

I - r""'II'ihao"'I3!tel!'~ .' ~,go,.:iI ':, ,;;ILe; . unW~,"IUIU_"". y ".,. ..... ,i5o~ !IILN ;gave IY!I."

'Ik ......... k ....... 'L':~.

~ ,!WI ~<lU:Ur

I~ ,e.....,~..:11 'iI..,_ "1).;." ",,-,-ijt m 8.lllilu, IIH< mlgn!L, <C;;n,U .... IlI;,

sWcid~.

He goes and ~5.it' !here. e,veryd!ay[:ad c~'t seem 'to get tired of ~t].

1Ij9. kUbnf: ,An inlRJtsltjve: vem'3. fcumw is. often gw~ as ~_t to oom.e, to.· au end," nt

it is never' 'used. :Iii ~:Dl, ~.m:plc. {ann. ,10 fact. ~t is 'rot used, evm, as a primary VerlD m eo.mpou.nd fo'rmalliQlrSJ e~ept. 'with. Jj:a:maa: Jcuk-j:aanaal t. "to be all used, I!Jp qd pli. j~ It: is, hoWeveft c;xtGns:i,v.cly' used ~ an awriliary velb 'w.iJt'h. both mms~tivc ad, intransiti.ve primuy V'eIb.s~ amJ the l',eslll1tant cCl'l1'pOlmd ve:rb-s do not RqWre: the use '(Kf I ... neel'.

As an, amd1liary'vetb./~ add~ ~ o~ ~'~ which mjgh1: be co,mmunieatOO in 'abe EmgUsh glnss by add:i~ s.omeWQRi 0(' phrase i:mplyiDg ~ aC1ion,'s 4'fU]ba,eS~, or oomp1mon'l ,as 'Well as its ~b~ill,g fil'iisbai"OI done widl~ '(;!oJ" ~being ,alrcad,. aceomp]bhed"~",

jab woo' kaam katr'-cukaa too :m,~pw:gy~

'maiN yMtaaN u-cUil buRN

aap tOQ wa:b.uN' eel:; bill[' j .. ~~ 'haiNn.?

taib-:ti!k too film ~JUlllJl"':h.oo-, cW!.ieegil

'\Vho, wi]l you, be IdoJL~ with sl'eepin(i

After be had. furisbed, !he. 'W'0Jt~ bt c~eto,me"

I've beeo, Iteu. 'ba&\l',e.

Y'OILl bw.v:e been ~ onee, haven~t you?

By "tnCIl 'Ihe :m.ovie wowd ha.vEe boon g,ijlioS cn, fOir &OJne time.

Note ~t ~n 'Ilh~ Jast lexampE1e.. the, ~ of.tcWmaai' SU,ggest5 a paleJ]" "':fitllncss!--;a, lo:mgm ]a:p-&c of time-- Qf1be act 'lban wouJd be su~t;:d, 'by 'ahe 'use of Ij~~. Comp:aze it with 'lite' :fullowiDg:

't1b-lak roo· :fib, 1WU1I,~Q·jaa=sii The m~e wQ'u]!i ocn.airdy' hav'e

oogwl by 1b9"

l1G. n,e, abmil'e.: doGS net I~t 1it!.e Jls1: Qrf'lbs. venn;. wh:i!cll may he !lisa] as auxi]i;8JY vemS 1lG

:f00lll, OOJllllWlmd, y.~b~ ill Urd~ nor does it in~lude all tbe ~emant~e mUaJ1CH 1hat'they :rm,gltt convey. Many a compom.dl 'vonb can have aD'lID.predictaible 'j.ciOInaJtJic :m.e:anin&, whiUe ~e:r similar oompound, \!'!eib might be ]WI mare than i\ 5imp10 seq'lilmrial ~tatemen1: of two, acti~ l\lG; :ba.v,e :i.l1eluded the more idiomatic comP01JJOO v'eros as indi,VtdWlll entries, in our sJio-ssarics, and also. lIltSwUy djscu.~ed them, in a note 'm 'the "unit wbelie they first eeeue

1'71. V erbal Ccm,po'Lmds~ In th~ next seveW s-ootion'S, 'we ~al[ shnilarly' di~AltSS mOle ef the 'mom c.omm,O]l'verb'a! CQmrpO'1rIIlds in Umlil. Note tbait: e~, win bave iris !il'WD s:pecific ,grammatical rules, :particlduly"with JtgMd, to i~ gratrmlaticai subject.

'1 n.. I,sabi.w: I~ is an ·[jfh1lsi.tiv..c verb, 'eoCl.U'S in all. tenses, ami may be

Wlders100d a roughly' an ,tquiva!lmrl (lJrf'~~cm';.~ '··OO'uld,5i' .and "be ,able to'~ .. :Bnglish, n, iIlrIWu cecurs 'b:y i~t;., Rot even m the: G~ of ,an, dlip~i:s; It only tUmcllio:ns as an. auxiliary ·verb,;. added ito

4,!l". __ ......t. .... f·, .............. e 'nrrTi'I!H!lrRJ·· ... 'tI>ffr~b "f'I.._ ... _~.'~M ... II'· ".~;;,·II '"'i!"IiiiTirir.,,'<'iloiiiilo.;i d· ..... ·iI" 'iF'IA·t ''''''''i1iI~H ,,;.'1... ... ·u_ '"'f" .1

liBii .l1LlU'.,1.. v,.. '1i""W"ilul;JI: ,tr-ilj,III.ItI.:.II~lJl· ~r ..... .J! p "1Jj~ ~1~~~1;. y.~!U.:iiII,~ 'fir:i.o! .•• t ..... rU!U;LL.I!tUIl .. ~J IL.""'" d.l'~-,~;£I 'WI ' .. !..I~ ~ ~l "'J~' II

(See: 'the U'Xl s.t!Ctmom,.. mull also 184-186>.)

aapi' wahaaN j :m-sakitii turiN'! ]~ki.n maiN Dabi.iNjiaa-sakiaa

W100 'y;ee. ~ '~miidnaa ~t$ tb~ 1celdD. :owiN xmidl~,~~ mMN' :kaJ. nabiiN u~aJruuNI:aa tlm agar p.aRb.--s.i!koo, tiro zaru1!1rJ:' paRhoo

I, yee kaam 'WD.-ee D.iN·:hoosaktta

2. woo' yu tum :MhiiN ka:r.-s.akit~~ maiN

.Ut; wan,ted. to buy 'Ithls ho\use but:

CQI;lldn'1.

I won't bit .abl~ 'En rome: tomorrow. You s'oold.dl.readl. if you arc able In.

"fri.::: 'I\.. I '".~ . .;I 'b. .....

,IL.I!UIS WOI',., eUi 1. 1;,1'1;; iI"ul),l1.e .: y mm,

Th ... 1. • "'I· . .&.- . d-"'"" - 'il"i.. .10':' • t.."'Li

01iJ~~, :&UM3l' 1D meamng., ~m:;, 'twQ c i.~.u:;!l" ]I] fillD,CG!:. ,Jl,Lli~ :lIJInit semenee e;X'J1~ MiL :Ilia~l' ~

:inh.mm in. the "'a.gene~, 'While in the second tlm hlabili'ty could ev>eD be dfue ~o stDm£tninrg or go,Done ,e:xlema:l. til/) 'dLe j q;enf .

1\vo additionail 'thlnp mliy'be noted abouf the fir.&t senttnce: (1) it. CMtams ~ iOlt'an.s,liliv,c :pnm.a:ry vem, and 1(2) this '~mb, 'ba.j:des its gramm~tical $1IJIbjed' Jkaami,~ also bas an. ' a!eJlt' ~ 1VJf)/;, marked, 'witt flu:; postposition I-s~. OtlIiu sooiJar &eD'tence$ may have ,;m, '"jt\s1r!ilmmt instead ,of ,Ml, agent. FQl: examp~e: lyee:1marn ma@liililr:S:~ illWjN 'hOO"saJdaaJ~ "This work Ciili"t be doote'WUh a:. mac.m:ne.!r~ SC'.I11~oo~ with 'b0'tl1, an ·',a,gmt and! w ;;iflliS'~t~ t :however 'W'O'uild. be ,~~::u~cd in

u'·· ... ·· 'b ] '. La _..:I - •. - . .-.4.. II.!WLI. ,. emp O)'Big; SQ.'me ret_ tw tfliJlSi,tLVC.' V~lU.

mqiih-sC'e :yee k:aam, b,~ ba.i yC'e. 'kamI H!l~jjn-s~ imoo-sfik1aa :ha1,

:maiN yee ikamn, 'r;rnqiinase@ kaT-, ~,h:u1iN'

Th.i ltk boob.

s wo:, . can ,e' ~ ::!lei 1'1 m's.

This work can be: d\one; wi,1h ,8. machin,e.

I ean do 'Ibis wCKk with.il ma.clrine.

'Not,e,1 :boweva'" that 'fdic: bus ,o:fthe smtenee is tnlly. the ~~mtj,. it wo~1d be: pre.fened, in Unll. ,!Ilm; 10, uS!' this CODSb'UOtiQn. In5tcad~ the :regu.lar :p~iV'e: oonswction, wou.ldl be used fOL: that pmp4se. (See 1.84.) lDl oth~r ~J 'though the second ,~te:mce Bbo¥ti is yammati,caU~ ~I:ah[,~ rdio:matieaUy it 'would, 'be; m'0~ c~ 1:0 :replacCi it w,ith :the fol1o,~

yet :kaam ~in-,s~ Jci1yaajaa-, ~attu:haJi

la~ lb.

- - ." -. - -N' .......... ,...., il~g ~'I~:~

a.gat miilll, )'"5 ,.....:IiIIiII1Ji .fiJIII,~

""G:::iJT m' '''''~'N'' ~ 'i.. ...... """', t.- .. _:T'ii""';"" ••

ilI~, 1Ji.I. ." ,~lj , .... , ~.~.

Ic.

,2a 21h. :lc,. 2dl.

'~~' ;'. ·1000 aa~& mIW11IN

.. ,~ .... "-

maiN p.am~'koo 1iI!a-jl_taa ~uN 'maiN' pam~,koo i\a-sak1!luNgp, ,maiN' ,~~too ~a.\!Ii':L1aN!u

ag;al[ maiN jaa'"'P~aa ,agar maiN jamee-paayaa

'I!,..,,'s. rum 'UFOO 'kaam,,"''''''H''-~81r':kar-

A,~ _.r - .~.-. -~ ~-lr"' -- ~-~

paaoo,gee1

h.am kaiun,-see nMjiN miliPaaee

d.ce:khi)'''Oe ham J~e--paatee b~iN ki m":a:hi~

']"~"l' ~ . 1\1 •• 11· -'. d· t\.' '. .~.-i..

J. , , m ,al!,;lJie in .. 0nlS, W·CiUi .. u ••••

]fl find it. :~ibl~ .~ dQ ·t]Us,

,.~.~,..iI~

"nW~".'I"

]: an come i~ ·the evening.

E ani!. .aJbL-e '1;0 eeme levutin~s.

r I] '~e ;ablG 1:0 iI::·OJI1i~ m the eV\~ ~diUit,o~

:lfI find. it po s:sibJe: t'OI go.

:],fit beeomes possible' for me to .8;0. Or, If Fro. a1Lo'WUI to p.

·W.1n you lJe able to 001 this 'WQik alt home?

·We. llWft; 'ifiGt abl@ W meet :her'

yestsday."

.~ see :iflNG' ~ .~'1't '~ g~ or

mt

N'(];ts mar~ in ~he la.:st 19amtP]~1 wjJth its Obviows :reihremce to ~ QUttsid~ dec:i~i.ve fac,trn-!, i~ .wght ~.~ poissil·Et'Z '10 rqlace ~ts ~l ~l'i'ltmK;,und :p~ ijaamee=paatee: haliN/~ w.ith Ijaa-p:ur~ ha:iN/, ~;ut: it wom,d lo~mDy k: iTilDOil,gn:ums to, .rcp13"oe :11 'with .1aa~ haLl\V. (AJs@ ~ 171)

l1i!'t l~: Anotl'ler· ''Iim)'' C01ll.m.01l 'verba'i compOund. pma~te is· made by :a.dldmg the

'pmect :padid--p1e :ifonn of h'waa!, ID~ect:d li~.e a marked adj~tivc~ to the 'root of some primary" V' b,. the. eomblnrutiioo. im. rum being: :fuUQwed. by smn.e (elm ,of iElOOI1W.

This vemal c:ompOWld. ex)lfe-&~!;s· the idea of an ad being still ia progress· a'.t. 'tile mo:m.eot ,8ft.vm m the diSOOlU'Se:~ ~.e'. indica-red 'by W.e form of liloo:naW Q~'som,e itl,vetb ofllins .... Also, .ro_m.es~, while c:lt~ng an act whlch is expect,eeI, to, bap.pen m th~ mear fu~thoU8h :oot 'Ilhe very n«~ gm.ent-----tbis 'V~mal c.o:mpo·mnd WQu.1d be US&1 with the present tease auxlLlat.y tom o:fllmon_aal, :iE.s.taad of the future fmD'it to express wete d.cfinilteness.

cr.

• tfi;.1' 'Il.-...'] .. , ... :L.. 'I...~.''Jo..1I'

'ma'h", l!#. !J,8?1.i:auila J,WUtf'IIi

mkiyee~ marl!.N [~rahaa hu:v.N maiN pmooN MtiuNgaa

maiN aglee 'mJhllli\i!iC to0, gaIaillaa :hlUuN

n..J. _ ,..,..:;rrmtn'I .. ., •. VW!~ ~~~.r!JSiia:t,

WOO Itbaaou '~mirli bEci woo un-see baat kiU'-if,ahaa '~. maiN tal is w:aqt IOO-rah.aa, bnruiNgaa.

agaJ' woo khaanaa, :k11u,..;rahee booN too 'Lm-see'tuclt ea ka.b;naa

), am comln,g to:m.onow .

~~ 'II" •• e

.J;W,PJ, :.. m, comlllg In !i!!. gon!te.·.

ru eeme day aft~f. tDmOJroW. After alJl ,. itm, ,ooming next m!?I1Itb.

She is Prqlaring die food. He was tall'kiAg with him ..

'II' •• i.;i ii.._ ~1l' L'"

,i. WOWc'U, l~ i:!Mee.p~"ng if.l 'fillS Ittm.e

tomOlrow.

~11;'1 ~y ~,ylthmg to 'bim if: he~s ea;~"'ng.,

1' ... ·1ElI·'h.··".Mlo!!O'hl 'II.-...~"L" .,..,'1[

JI<1I!fU:1.).~"" ~oor ~ln1;i}~ agu.li~

]~eot !OO1 'kamnee-]~geG'

w<J!O ham!.~,e. n'iiflnee-Iagtia hari a~ najma.a bach Ik~ewag~ 100 '~Th~k~ c-al,~aw'l!aa

Inc sids, ibc,gm 'to' make nOOse~

Tlb.~ 1\.;. ... - 'b.~" . t " ,--'I-... " .~, ~

U~ lDVy,s ~g'iim :0 Ulm'i.~ OO.tsc.

He. ,allw,ay.s be,gin'5 to. cry. IfNa.lwJ!i sms &i!i:;rlng somerhiD& j1Jil get. u,p and lca\f1c.

176. IdlOim~/': Idleellaa!~ 8, 1m.n$itive verb, OCCUlR '\Ij'i'lh the obUque COnn, of'the infndvn o,:f

,~1l.~ Mmi!lli"!i1' ... ..,.1.. T_ ~L,:_ ,"": .......... it..;, .... ..-i-I· ....... n ,~ .. _ ... i ... ,...l 'm. "'-''''''''''''. ui ...... ,...u .......... ~.;

til .. .r-~--.-:I~ "~JI,U!o .&.Ill. llllL2I ~IJJUu.lLG-\.!!l¥uj! r.1.1U~1J.IGiII , ", ~~.w!! W ilJ!LUW.1

uohooN: .. nee ~koo j~OOg d1~,aa

,agar "'100, mujbce lwch 'kalmced.~¢e

yee ~f. 1:81ll.UiU na.hi]l·~r hoeneedl=pa

ham, aap-k'Oo U'j nakiiN junee-,

dee--:saklee

lfhe had allowed me to say som.ething.

1his 'oo:l5e won'~l; let,'tbe. ~OOW go (l1l.

We cmI.~t. ~~[ )100, ,go 'ladas.

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