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LOW FLOW / HIGH HEAD Centrifugal Pump Options

Calgary Pump Symposium November 18,2005 Presented by Frank Korkowski & Larry Glassburn

A LONG TIME AGO IN A REFINERY FAR FAR AWAY. . . A GALACTIC WAR RAGES BETWEEN PUMP MANUFACTURERS AND THE EVIL EMPIRE OF PROCESS ENGINEERS. FROM THIS PRESENTATION YOU WILL LEARN THE SECRETS OF THE DARK SIDE OF LOW FLOW / HIGH HEAD PUMPS AND LEARN HOW TO USE THE FORCE TO . . . . CHOOSE WISELY

8000 RPM 3600 RPM

25,000 RPM

Presentation
Why do we need low flow,high head LF / HH pumps? Centrifugal Pump Fundamentals Types of low flow / high head pumps Considerations and factors that impact your pump selection choices Summary

1. Why & How we got to LF/HH Pumps


In the beginning, processes were pretty basic, low pressureno LF/HH demand, 1 and 2-stage OH pumps were sufficient 1930s More efficient and improved chemical reactions required higher process pressures and temperaturesLF/HH demand is born, multistage pumps and PD pumps were employed 1960s Partial Emission (Barske) pumps with a Gearbox for higher impeller speeds to 25,000 rpm and Pitot Tube pumps were introduced. 1980s Various types of Barske wheels and increased number of stages were introduced 2000s (so far) VFDs to increase impeller rotational speed..

Classification of Pumps
H yd rau lic In stitu te A P I-610
O H1; O H2 OH3 OH4 OH5 OH6 BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4 BB5 O v e rh u n g Im p e lle r R o to d y n a m ic
(C en trifu g al)

1 - a n d 2 - s ta g e

B e tw e e n B e a rin g s

1 - a n d 2 - s ta g e M u ltis ta g e

V e rtic a lly Supended K in e tic R e g e n e ra tiv e T u rb in e O v e rh u n g B e tw e e n B e a rin g s P e rip h e ra l S id e C h a n n e l

S p e c ia l E ffe c t

R o ta tin g C a s in g (p ito t)
D irect A ctin g
S im p lex, D u p lex, etc

Pum ps
R e c ip ro c a tin g P o s itiv e D is p la c m e n t
P o w er F ram e

A P I-6 7 4 A P I-6 7 5

C o n tro lle d V o lu m e D iap h rag m


G ear

R o ta ry

S crew V an e Lobe

A P I-6 7 6

Reciprocating Pumps

2. Centrifugal Pump Fundamentals


Head vs. Tip Speed, Torque vs. HP Affinity Laws Specific Speedns Suction Specific SpeedS NPSH

Head vs. Tip Speed Torque vs. Hp


Theoretical head is defined by the formula: HT = U2 g Where: HT = Theoretical Head (Ft.) U = Impeller Tip Speed (ft./sec.) g = Acceleration = 32.3 ft./sec2.

Tip speed (U) is found by the formula: U = DN 229 Where: D = Impeller Diameter (in.) N = Speed (RPM)

Constant Speed

Q2/Q1 = D2/D1
D=Impeller Diameter

H2/H1 = (D2/D1)2 BHP2/BHP1 = (D2/D1)3

Constant Impeller Diameter

Q2/Q1 = N2/N1 H2/H1 = (N2/N1)2

Q = capacity N = speed H = head BHP=brake horse power

BHP2/BHP1 = (N2/N1)3

Specific Speed ns

ns =

Nx Q H
3/4

Where: Q = Flow (gpm) @ BEP N = Speed (RPM) H = Head (per stage)

Impeller Design vs. Specific Speed

D2/D1 > 2 (D2 = Vane O.D.

D2/D1 = 1.5-2.

D2/D1 < 1.5

D2/D1 = 1.

D1 = Vane I.D.)

Pump Specific Speed

ns

Dimensionless number based on the affinity laws used to select the impeller geometry for maximum efficiency. ns between 200 and 1000 = Barske ns between 1000 and 5000 = Francis vane ns between 5000 and 15000 = axial flow pump (inducer)

ns vs. Impeller Design, Curve Shape

Curve Characteristics vs. ns

600 ns Typical Partial Emission Open/Semi Open Impellers

1000 to 1500 ns Typical Multistage Closed Impellers

Curve Characteristics vs. ns

4000 ns Typical Mixed Flow

10,000 ns Typical Axial Flow Machine

Efficiency vs. ns by Pump Types

Suction Specific Speed S

S =

(NPSH R )

3/4

Where: Q = Flow (gpm) @ BEP per eye N = Speed (RPM) NPSHR = Net Positive Suction Head required by the pump

NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head is the amount of energy available in the fluid at the pump suction flange. Successful pump operation results when the suction fluid has sufficient energy to push liquid into the pump faster than the pump can pump it away.

What Does NPSH Have To Do With Pump Maintenance?


Inducer, impeller, cover , diffuser and pump case can suffer metal loss via cavitation Prevent Cavitation by: Increase NPSHA
(of the system) Decrease NPSHR (of the pump)

NPSHA
NPSHA = ABSOLUTE PRESSURE HEAD (Barometric Pressure +/- Fluid Vapor Pressure converted to head) - VAPOR PRESSURE HEAD (Temp. at Suction Flange) - LINE LOSSES (Frictional Loss) +/- STATIC HEAD (Difference in Elevation from the Liquid Level to Pump Centerline) + VELOCITY HEAD (Small, Often Negligible) Consistent Units of Feet or Meters Pump suction gage improves accuracy

How To Increase NPSHA


Increase Suction Vessel Pressure Decrease Vapor Pressure (Decrease Suction Temperature) Decrease Line Losses Increase Static Head

How To Decrease NPSHR


Add Inducers
Typical S = 18,000 to 23,000

Operate unit near BEP Select lower speed unit

What Does NPSH Have To Do With Pump Maintenance?


Inducer, impeller, cover , diffuser and pump case can suffer metal loss via cavitation

Resulting high speed rotor unbalance can lead to higher vibration and possible bearing failure. Seal problems

3. Types of Low Flow/ High Head Pumps


Hydraulic Envelope Sectional Views Methods for Handling Axial Thrust Ways to Handle Radial Loads

Hydraulic Envelope Low Flow/High Head


Product options are available Over-lap of product performance envelopes does occuryou do have choices Understand your system requirements Gather details and discuss with the pump supplier

Single Stage 3600 RPM

Two stage 3600 RPM Pitot

Single Stage Medium Speed Gearbox

Single Stage Medium Speed VFD

Pitot 3600-5000 RPM

Multi-stage Between Bearings 3600 RPM

Single Stage Integral High Speed Gearbox

Multi-stage Barske 3600 RPM

Two Stage Barske Integral High Speed Gearbox

Three Stage Barske Integral High Speed Gearbox

Low Flow, High Head Pumps


A B Barske single stage @ 3600 rpm Pitot @ 3600 5000 RPM or Barske two stage @ 3600 RPM Barske Single stage or two stage Gearbox @ 6000 17000 RPM VFD @ 8000 RPM Pitot @ 3600 5000 RPM

D E F

Multi-stage barrel @ 3600 RPM Barske single stage Gearbox @ 9000 25,000 RPM Barske multi-stage (barrel) @ 3600 RPM Barske two stage Gearbox @ 9000 25,000 RPM Barske Three-Stage Gearbox @ 9000 25,000 RPM

G H

Single-stage Barske

Two-stage Barske

Multi-stage Horizontal and Vertical Options

Gearbox Driven Multi-stage Pump with Barske Impellers

Pitot Pump Sectional

Pitot Principles of Operation


Centrifugal Rotor Cover Generates 50% of Head Pick-Up Tube Generates 50% of Head Discharge Rotor Assembly

Mechanical Seal on Suction Side

Suction

Methods for Handling Axial Thrust


Pump-out vanes Balance holes Wear rings Balance Drum Back-to-back Impellers Special Bearing Arrangements

Multi-radial-blade Impellers

Blades

Shroud

Hydraulic Balance Holes

Closed Impeller

LABYRINTH STEPS (wear ring)

Methods for Handling Radial Loads


Volute Designs (circular vs. constant velocity) Diffusers

Radial Load Trends

Principles of Developing Head in Diffuser Pumps


IMPELLER PUMP CASING CONICAL DIFFUSER

C DIFFUSER THROAT

PRESSURE

VELOCITY

KMC Bearings Flexure Pivot Radial and Thrust

4. Considerations & Factors for Your Pump Selection Choices


Footprint NPSH Pump / System Interaction Life Cycle Cost
Efficiency Operational Flexibility MTBPM Maintenance Practices Equipment Desirability Service Support Personal Preference Price & Delivery ISO 13709 (API 610) Compliance

Equipment Field Experience

ISO 13709 (API 610) Compliance


Classifications OH3, OH4, OH5, OH6 Pressure Containment Temperature Limits Mechanical Seal Designs Hydrocarbon Applications Handling Solids Pump Bearing Housing

5. Summary
Do your homework to understand the process system requirements Select a pump type to fit your system for normal and any upset conditions Evaluate the true benefit of any pumps special features Evaluate Life Cycle Cost

Bottom Line Choose Wisely

Questions and Answers