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## Beam Deections: 4th Order Method & Adl Topics

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Lecture 11: BEAM DEFLECTIONS: 4TH ORDER METHOD & ADL TOPICS

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11.1. Fourth Order Method For Beam Deections 11.1.1. Example 1: Cantilever under Triangular Distributed Load . . . 11.2. Superposition 11.2.1. Example 2: Cantilever Under Two Load Cases . . . . . . 11.2.2. Example 3: A Statically Indeterminate Beam . . . . . . . 11.3. Continuity Conditions 11.3.1. Example 4: Simply Supported Beam Under Midspan Point Load

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11.1

## FOURTH ORDER METHOD FOR BEAM DEFLECTIONS

11.1. Fourth Order Method For Beam Deections The fourth-order method to nd beam deections gets its name from the order of the ODE to be integrated: E Izz v I V (x ) = p (x ) is a fourth order ODE. The procedure can be broken down into the following steps. 1. 4. Express the applied load p (x ) as function of x , using positive-upward convention. Pause. Determine integration constants from static BCs, and replace in Mz (x ). (If the constants are too complicated in terms of the data, they might be kept in symbolic form until later.) 23. Integrate p (x ) twice to get Vy (x ) and Mz (x )

58. From here on, same as the second order method. An example of this technique follows. 11.1.1. Example 1: Cantilever under Triangular Distributed Load This example has been worked out in the previous lecture using the second order method. It is dened in Figure 11.1, which is reproduced for convenience.
Constant EIzz w(x) = wB x /L wB

x
L

## From inspection the applied load is p(x ) = Integrating p (x ) twice yields Vy ( x ) = Mz ( x ) =

wB x L

(11.1)

wB x 2 + C1 , 2L wB x 3 Vy ( x ) d x = C1 x + C2 . 6L p(x ) d x =

(11.2)

Apply now the static BCs at the free end A: Vy A = Vy (0) = C1 = 0 and Mz A = Mz (0) = C2 = 0. Hence wB x 3 1 w( x ) x ( x ) = (11.3) Mz ( x ) = 1 2 3 6L From here on the steps are the same as in the second order method worked out in Lecture 10. The deection curve is wB v(x ) = (11.4) (x 5 5 L 4 x + 4 L 5 ) 120 E Izz L 113

Lecture 11: BEAM DEFLECTIONS: 4TH ORDER METHOD & ADL TOPICS

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Constant EIzz

w(x) = wB x /L wB

A
P y

x
L (a) Original problem

y x
L

w(x) = wB x /L wB

A
P

x
L

## (b) Decomposition into two load cases and superposition

Figure 11.2. Beam problem for Example 2.

The maximum deection occurs at the tip A, and is given by v A = v(0) = wB L 4 30 E Izz (11.5)

The negative sign indicates that the beam deects downward if w B > 0. 11.2. Superposition All equations of the beam theory we are using are linear. This makes possible to treat complicated load cases by superposition of the solutions of simpler ones. Simple beam congurations and load cases may be compiled in textbooks and handbooks; for example Appendix D of Beer-JohnstonDeWolf. The following example illustrates the procedure. 11.2.1. Example 2: Cantilever Under Two Load Cases Consider the problem shown in Figure 11.2(a). The cantilever beam is subject to a tip point force as well as a triangular distributed load. This combination can be decomposed into the two load cases shown in Figure 11.2(b). Both of these have been separately solved previously as Examples 1 and 2 of Lecture 10 (the latter also as the example in the previous section). The deection curves for these cases will be distinguished as v P (x ) and v w (x ), respectively. We had obtained v P (x ) = P ( L x )2 (2 L + x ), 6 E Izz v w (x ) = wB (x 5 5 L 4 x + 4 L 5 ) 120 E Izz L (11.6)

The deection under the combined loading is obtained by adding the foregoing solutions: v(x ) = v P (x ) + v w (x ) = P wB ( L x )2 (2 L + x ) (x 5 5 L 4 x + 4 L 5 ). 6 E Izz 120 E Izz L (11.7) 114

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Constant EIzz w(x) = wB x /L wB

11.2

SUPERPOSITION

A RA
(b) Support reactions w(x) = wB x /L

B RB

MB

y x
L

wB

= A
RA

x
L

## (c) Decomposition into two load cases and superposition

Figure 11.3. Beam problem for Example 3.

## The tip deection is P L3 wB L 4 L3 v A = v(0) = = (10 P + w B L ) 3 E Izz 30 E Izz 30 E Izz (11.8)

Superposition can be also used for any other quantity of interest, for example transverse shear forces, bending moments and deection curve slopes. An application to statically indeterminate beam analysis is given next. 11.2.2. Example 3: A Statically Indeterminate Beam The problem is dened in Figure 11.3(a). The beam is simply supported at A and clamped at B. If the supports are removed 3 reactions are activated: R A , R B and M B , as pictured in Figure 11.3(b). But there are only two nontrivial static equilibrium equations: Fy = 0 and Many point = 0 because Fx = 0 is trivially satised. Consequently the beam is statically indeterminate because the reactions cannot be determined by statics alone. One additional kinematic equation is required to complete the analysis. We select reaction R A as redundant force to be carried along as a ctitious applied load. Removing the support at A and including R A makes the beam statically determinate. See Figure 11.3(b). This beam may be viewed as being loaded by a combination of two load cases: (1) the actual triangular load w(x ), and (2) a point load R A at A. But this is exactly the problem solved in Example 2, if we replace P by R A . The deection curve of this beam is wB RA (x 5 5 L 4 x + 4 L 5 ). ( L x )2 (2 L + x ) (11.9) v(x ) = 6 E Izz 120 E Izz L Now the tip deection must be zero because there is a simple support at A. Setting v A = v(0) = 0 provides the value of R A : v A = v(0) = RA L3 wB L 4 =0 3 E Izz 30 E Izz 115 RA = wB L 10 (11.10)

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This reaction value can be substituted to complete the solution. For example, the bending moment is wB x 3 wB L x wB x 3 wB x Mz ( x ) = R A x (11.11) = = (3 L 2 5 x 2 ) 6L 10 6L 30 L The moment is zero at A (x = 0), becomes positive for 0 < x < L 3/5 .7746 L , crosses zero at x = 0.7746 L and reaches Mz B = w B L 2 /15 at the xed end. The deection is v(x ) = wB L wB ( L x )2 (2 L + x ) (x 5 5 L 4 x + 4 L 5 ), 60 E Izz 120 E Izz L (11.12)

## which may be simplied to v(x ) = wB x x ( L 2 x 2 )2 120 E Izz L (11.13)

11.3. Continuity Conditions If the applied load is discontinuous, i.e., not a smooth function of x , it is necessary to divide the beam into segments separated by the discontinuity points. The ODEs are integrated over each segment. These solutions are patched by continuity conditions expressing that the slope v (x ) and the deection v(x ) are continuous between segments. This matching results in extra relations between integration constants, which permits elimination of all integration constants except those that can be determined by the standard BCs. The procedure is illustrated with the next example. 11.3.1. Example 4: Simply Supported Beam Under Midspan Point Load The problem is dened in Figure 11.4(a). The calculation of the deection curve will be done by the L, second order method. Divide the beam into two segments: AC, which extends over 0 x 1 2 1 and CB, which extends over 2 L x L . For brevity, these are identied as segments 1 and 2, respectively, in the equations below. The expression of the bending moment over each segment is easily obtained from statics. From P as shown in Figure 11.4(b). By symmetry, the support reactions are obviously R A = R B = 1 2 inspection one obtains that the bending moment Mz (x ), diagrammed in Figure 11.4(c), is Mz 1 ( x ) = P x over segment 1 (AC), 2 Mz ( x ) = (11.14) M (x ) = P ( L x ) over segment 2 (CB). z2 2 Integrate Mz / E Izz over each segment: 2 E Izz v (x ) = P x + C1 1 4 E Izz v (x ) = E I v (x ) = P x (2 L x ) + C 1 zz 2 4

## over segment 1 (AC), over segment 2 (CB).

(11.15)

1 to avoid proliferation of integration constants. To It is convenient to stop here and get rid of C do that, note that the midspan slope vC must be the same from both expressions: vC = v1 ( 1 L) = 2 116

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y

11.3
P
x

CONTINUITY CONDITIONS

Constant EIzz

P A
segment 1

C
L/2

C segment 2

L/2

RA = P 2

RB = P 2

P A RA = P 2
segment 1

C segment 2

B RB = P 2

Mz1 (x)= Px 2

## (c) Bending moment diagram

Figure 11.4. Beam problem for Example 4.

v2 ( 1 L ). Else the beam would have a kink at C. This is called a continuity condition. Equating 2 2 1 yields C 1 = C1 P L 2 /8, which is replaced in the second P L /16 + C1 = (3/16) P L 2 + C expression above: 2 E Izz v (x ) = P x + C1 over segment 1 (AC), 1 4 E Izz v (x ) = (11.16) 2 P x ( 2 L x ) P L E Izz v2 (x ) = 8 + C1 over segment 2 (CB). 4 1 is gone. Integrate again both segments: Now C 3 E Izz v1 (x ) = P x + C1 x + C2 12 E Izz v(x ) = 2 P 3L x ) P L 2 x + C x + C 2 E Izz v2 (x ) = x (12 1 8

## over segment 1 (AC), over segment 2 (CB). (11.17)

2 we say that the midspan deection vC must be the same from both expressions: To get rid of C 1 2 = C2 + P L 3 /48, which replaced L ). This continuity condition gives C vC = v1 ( 2 L ) = v2 ( 1 2 yields 3 E Izz v1 (x ) = P x + C1 x + C2 over segment 1 (AC), 12 E Izz v(x ) = 2 3 L x ) P L 2 x + P L 3 + C x + C over segment 2 (CB). E Izz v2 (x ) = P x ( 1 2 12 8 48 (11.18) We have now only two integration constants. To determine C1 and C2 use the kinematic BCs at A and B. v A = v1 (0) = C2 = 0 and v B = v2 ( L ) = 0 C1 = P L 2 /16. Substitution gives, after 117

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some simplications, E Izz v1 (x ) = P x (4x 2 3 L 2 ) 48 E Izz v(x ) = E Izz v2 (x ) = P (4x 3 12 L x 2 + 9 L 2 x L 3 ) 48 The midspan deection, obtainable from either segment, is vC = v1 ( 1 L ) = v2 ( 1 L) = 2 2 P L3 48 E Izz (11.20) over segment 1 (AC), over segment 2 (CB). (11.19)

As can be seen the procedure is elaborate and error prone, even for this very simple problem. It can be streamlined by using Discontinuity Functions (DFs), which are covered in Lecture 12.

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