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It is an established fact that by mechanization or industrialization any and every productive activity invariably benefits in all respects of quality, efficiency of time and energy and elegance of human effort. The application of technology to any process helps achieve accurate control on all the required parameters. Reinforced Concrete Construction which is the backbone to any infrastructural project depends for its performance on its prime elements namely Concrete and Reinforcement. Just as mechanization of concrete production namely Mix design, Auto batching plants , Ready Mix technology and automated casting techniques have raised the standards and strengths of concrete to remarkable levels, the same is essential for reinforcement. It is high time we stopped doing the handicraft work of tying up individual bars. Usage of Welded Wire Fabric (WWF) is the easy and correct solution for achieving the requirements of quality, reliability, speed and efficiency. Welded Wire Fabric (WWF) is a prefabricated reinforcement consisting of a series of parallel longitudinal wires with accurate spacing welded to cross wires at the required spacing. The welding of the wires is achieved by electric resistance welding with solid-state electronic control and all the spacing are controlled by an automatic mechanism of high reliability. There is no foreign metal added at the joint and the intersecting wires are actually fused into a homogeneous section thereby ensuring permanency of spacing and alignment in either direction.
The wires used in the fabric are cold drawn from controlled quality mild steel wire rods with carbon content generally less than 0.15%. The cold drawing through a series of tungsten carbide dies results in a high tensile strength and increased yield strength material of accurate dimensions. Further, each section of the wire gets inherently tested by the process itself for its characteristic physical properties
thereby offering a systematic reliability of material. The cold drawing operation unlike the cold twisting used in HYSD bars also doesn’t sacrifice the ductility of the material in any major way. The wires conform to IS: 432-Pt II/1982 which specifies an ultimate tensile strength of 570 N/mm2 and a characteristic strength of 480 N/mm2. Wires used for manufacture of fabric are generally manufactured in the range of 2 mm to 12mm diameter. WWF is manufactured conforming to IS: 1566-1982 with long and cross wire spacing varying from 25 mm to 400 mm. Each of the rigidly welded intersection is capable of withstanding shear stresses up to 210 N/mm2 (IS: 4948/1974) on the reference area of the longitudinal wire. The fabric can be manufactured in widths up to 3000mm with lengths limited by transportation considerations. When supplied in ready to lay flat sheet form the standard length is 5500mm, otherwise the fabric can be supplied in roll form in standard lengths of 15m, 30m or 45m.
· ADVANTAGES OF WELDED WIRE FABRIC HIGHER CHARACTERISTIC DESIGN STRENGTH:
Though the structural behaviour of the fabric as reinforcement is similar to that for HYSD bars or Plain Mild steel bars, significant savings result due to the higher characteristic strength of WWF wires. The area of steel necessary for a required design moment is as per IS: 456-2000: As = Mdes x (Load Safety Factor i.e.: 1.5 ) ((Material Safety Factor i.e.: 0.87) x (Characteristic Strength i.e:480) X Lever Arm (i.e.: 0.808 x Deff for Fe480) Simply from better characteristic strength point of view, usage of WWF with Fe480 grade results in savings in steel area or steel weight required to the tune of 13.55 % vis-a-vis HYSD bars of Fe 415 grade and to the tune of 47.92 % vis-a-vis Plain Mild Steel bars of Fe 250 grade.
BETTER BONDING BEHAVIOR:
A lap splice or a development length consisting of 1 cross-wire spacing comprising 2 welded intersections plus additional 100mm subject to a minimum of 150 mm total length is sufficient to develop a full strength lap.C section as a whole.C. Further in cases where a designer is constrained to provide more than minimum reinforcement from the maximum bar spacing criteria. This serves most effectively in countering the non-load phenomena or strain induced stresses due to Shrinkage and Temperature changes. The close spacing of thinner wires and the two-way behaviour of WWF minimizes the crack widths and preserves structural integrity of the slab. • BETTER AND ECONOMIC CRACK RESISTANCE WITH THINNER WIRES AND CLOSER SPACINGS: The behaviour of strong mechanical anchorage of the welds at each the intersections are further responsible in imparting an immense deal of homogeneity to the R. the rigid mechanical interconnections by means of welds to cross wires are primarily responsible for stress transfer from concrete to steel and vice-versa in the case of WWF. The two dimensional uniform stress distribution of the fabric with the concrete achieves better plate behaviour in the slab. Further. Each of the rigid welds capable of resisting up to 210 N/mm2 ensure quick and complete stress transfer within 2 welded joints from the critical section. This behaviour of positive mechanical anchorage is acknowledged in specification of much lower lap splice lengths for WWF.The bonding behaviour of WWF is significantly enhanced and different from that of HYSD or Plain Mild steel bars. . This aspect can result in savings of steel vis-a-vis HYSD bars by making easy the option to use a combination of fabrics/ steel areas provided to achieve curtailment of reinforcement with easy and short splices. WWF affords enormous savings by providing reliable fabric with thinner wires at closer spacing. WWF usage affords the possibility of using thinner wires at closer spacing. This is particularly true for large span and large area structural and ground slabs. As against the peripheral surface area which is responsible for bonding to concrete in the case of individual bars.
The above aspect can be exploited to achieve savings in various cases of even designed steel area zones by providing minimum steel of suitable thinner WWF over all the zones and then adding extra layers of thicker designed steel WWF in the stressed zones of a slab. There is no cutting of bars. In repair jobs of critical nature where the structure is in service. • SAVINGS OF LABOUR.For instance consider very common cases in residential slabs where load stresses are low but where minimum thicknesses of 75 to 125mm are used *from serviceability or other reliability criteria. The enormous savings in man-days and the associated cost vary from project to project depending upon the scale of the job and the repeatability of design. The fabric is available ready to lay on the shuttering. and above all no laborious tying of binding wires. It is complete freedom from all the mundane fitter’s jobs. It is also ready for casting as the need for supervisors/ engineers to check the bar sizes & spacing is eliminated. There is saving of skilled fitters manpower and saving of helpers to cut and tie. TIME AND BINDING WIRE: The most obvious and clinching advantage in the use of WWF is the immediate and positive savings in labour and time. no marking and spacing them out. the boon of time .
the presence of at least some reinforcement makes a world of difference. The amount of reinforcement to be provided in ground slabs is generally designed by the Subgrade-Drag Procedure where . there is direct savings in the consumption of binding wire. Usage of WWF serves to control cracking and crack width in both directions. In such a scenario. It ensures that even if a crack develops the cracked faces are held together and the aggregate interlock is maintained. cost of a WWF reinforced slab is also more or less similar to that of a slightly thicker unreinforced slab. The tendency to use extra high strength concrete or extra thickness of concrete to minimize cracking does not solve any problems since the strains induced by drying shrinkage or temperature contraction do not appreciably change with thickness.saving with WWF cannot be understated. the added benefit is avoidance of those dangling ends of binding wire which are the starting fuses for the virus of corrosion into the reinforcement. In return to all savings. the builder is always doubly benefited because he is assured of the job being done much more reliably and with much better quality. • THE ONLY FEASIBLE AND ESSENTIAL ALTERNATIVE FOR GROUND SLABS : Concrete Slabs on ground including roads and pavements are often ignored and neglected from the provision of reinforcement. A plain concrete slab under conditions of sub-soil erosion or movements or due to temperature changes coupled with heavy traffic loading will develop cracks which collapse the integrity of the surface. This consumption saved works out to about 2 to 5% of the reinforcement used in terms of cost of steel saved. WWF usage provides the only practical and easy solution for reinforcing slabs on ground. Apart from savings in labour and time. This however is most unfortunate since ground slabs are more often than not subject to many times greater loads than they were supposed to bear and further the base and sub-soil conditions are mostly quite unreliable. Besides. The designer too has lesser nightmares since he is assured that no bars have been missed or altered.
shelves.e. Coupled with the availability in long lengths in roll form.23 kg/m2 would be sufficient for this slab. and ferrocement or ferrocrete products such as ferrocrete water tanks etc. The same aspect makes WWF indispensable in thin elements such as precast partitions.A typical 150mm thick ground slab with joints spaced 6m apart by the above design would need As = 2 x 6 x 0. WWF is the only solution for the thin and though spine of thin and efficient structural elements as folded plate roofs. folded plate precast roof girders or hyper shells. Temperature Procedure.1 x3. • FLEXIBILITY OF HANDLING AND PLACING: The usage of thinner wires lends the fabric as extremely flexible in handling.: 94 mm/2 or 0. WWF provide the ideal and convenient solution for all kinds of repair work by Re-plastering or Guniting. Equivalent Strength Procedure and Crack Restraint Procedure covering the unconventional topic of ground slab reinforcement design from all angles have been exhaustively covered in the paper ‘Innovative Ways to Reinforce Slabs on Ground’ by Robert B Anderson. i. Other design procedures such as the Confirmed Capacity Procedure.1mm of 1.063% steel. fins. · WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT: NOMENCLATURE: .375 x 9600 / (2 x 230 ). WWF of 100 x 100 x 3.
Quantity requirements for each change usually vary between producers. Side and end overhangs 5. Longitudinal wire spacing 2. Width 4.Welded wire is produced from a series of longitudinal and transverse high strength steel wires. starting with the most time consuming: 1. Length The more difficult machine changes require greater quantities per item. The wires are produced from controlled-quality hot-rolled rods which are cold-drawn through a series of dies reducing the rod to the specified wire diameter. . consideration should be given to the complexity of the change. resistance welded at all intersections. Longitudinal wire size 3. in order to offset the additional production time required. The manufacturing variables are listed in the general order of time involved. The manufacturing process can be varied to accommodate various style changes and dimensions. Transverse wire size 6. Generally. This wire is then fed into a rigid grid of reinforcement. However. Transverse wire spacing 7. it is more economical to order a few basic sheet sizes and styles than to specify many variations in the sheet.
The complete designation also includes the dimensions of the fabric sheet such as: 90″. on one side and 3 in. where the longitudinal wire spacing is 6 in. is assumed unless otherwise specified.. The standard end overhang. with wire size W16 and the transverse wire spacing is 12 in.. equal to one half the transverse wire spacing.16 sq. in above example) and that the tip-to- . and the length is equal to 20 ft. The letter “W” identifies a plain wire and the letter “D” a deformed wire.075 sq. in. in.5 indicates a deformed wire with a cross-sectional area of 0. with wire size W8. (+1″ +3″) x 20—0″ where the width (given in inches) is equal to 90 in.The cross-sectional steel area is the basic element used in specifying the required wire size. with side overhangs of 1 in. The welded wire reinforcement style identifies the spacing and size of the transverse and longitudinal wires and takes the format: 6 x 12— W16 x W8..—O in. The number which follows is the cross-sectional area of the wire given in hundredths of a square inch. For example: W16 denotes a plain wire with cross-sectional area of 0. The nomenclature used to indicate wire size is a letter followed by a number.—0 in. It is important to note that the length is the tip-to-tip dimension of the longitudinal wire (20 ft. on the other for an overall width of 94 in. D7.
both plain and deformed. Section 2. ACI 318. fy shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.5. and A497. A-496.000 psi yield strength and refer to local building codes for stress/strain tests when structural welded wire reinforcement is specified.3.000 psi. fy exceeds 60. Bends with inside diameters of less than eight wire diameters shall not be less than four wire diameters from nearest welded intersection.5. Current ASTM Standards for welded wire allow up to 80. in above example). A-185. If 60.4. ACI 318. both plain and deformed.35%.000 psi.5. the ASTM Standards state that fy shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0. LATERAL REINFORCEMENT . These references provide the necessary criteria for designing with the unique structural grid of reinforcement provided by welded wire. Sections 3.3.3) Inside diameter of bends in welded wire used for stirrups and ties shall not be less than four wire diameters for deformed wire larger than D6 and two wire diameters for all other wires.3. The following is a summary of ACI code specifications which pertain to the use of bent welded wire: Welded wire reinforcement. · WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT: DESIGN CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS: The use of welded wire as a structural concrete reinforcing material is governed by codes such as the ACI 318 Building Code and by specifications such as ASTM A-82.tip dimension of the transverse wires is called the overall width.50%. is defined as deformed reinforcement (Ref. equal to the width plus both sides overhangs (94 in.6) BENDS AND HOOKS: (Ref. (Ref. fy or lower is specified.5 and 3. 3. ACI 318. Section 7.1).2. The ACI building code states that when yield strength.
11.5.000 psi. The second wire shall be permitted to be located on the stirrup leg beyond a bend.Equivalent areas of welded wire may be used to furnish the lateral reinforcement requirements specified in ACI 318. Section 11.b) (2) One longitudinal wire located not more than d/4 from the compression face and a second wire closer to the compression face and spaced not less than 2 in.2). (Ref.3.000 psi.7.3). (Ref.2.4) Design yield strength of shear-friction reinforcement shall not exceed 60. Section 11. . (Ref. ACI 318. ACI 318. from the first wire. ACI 318.1. or on a bend with an inside diameter of bend not less than8 wire diameters. Section 12. ACI 318. Section 7. (1) Welded wire may be used as shear reinforcement when the wires are located perpendicular to the axis of the member.6. ACI 318.000 psi. Section 11.6) Anchorage of web reinforcement for each leg of a simple U-shaped stirrup formed from welded wire must meet one of the following: (Ref. (Ref.5. Section 11.13.1. Design yield strength of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 60. except that the design yield strength of welded deformed wire shall not exceed 80.000 psi. Design yield strength of non-prestressed torsion reinforcement shall not exceed 60.
The bending machine provides the flexibility of adjusting to various wire spacing. angles of bend and bending radii. a wire mesh bending machine like HBM – 360 and a wire mesh cutting machine like HKM360. a wire mesh welding line like HK-2400 & HK-300. This equipment is .· WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT: PRODUCTION: The fabrication of welded wire reinforcement into various structural shapes is readily accomplished with 3 basic pieces of equipment.
757 in. Capacities range from the small wire sizes used primarily in precast operations to heavy W45 structural wires. The sheets of welded wire are bent on the machine by an arm which rotates through an angle of 0° to 180°. .manufactured in sizes ranging in length from 8 to 40 feet. diameter. This arm can be preset to stop at any angle and the mandrels can be varied to meet the design requirement for bend radius and wire spacing. 0. shaping the wires around the mandrels.
lending themselves very readily to on-site construction. Both machines. operating on electric power. · WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT: TYPICAL BENDING SEQUENCE: . can be conveniently moved from one project to another. This powered equipment allows the use of more economically manufactured sheets of wire reinforcement.The cutting equipment can be a simple hand tool capable of cutting one wire at a time or larger powered equipment which cuts the full width of a sheet in one operation. The bending and cutting equipment are comparatively low cost investments which require no special skills for efficient operation. precast operations and use in fabricating shops.
It provides the structural engineer with new options in design. The welded wire can be bent to the desired shape .· ADVANTAGES OF BENDING WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT: - Bending welded wire fabric literally adds a third dimension to concrete reinforcement.
Equally important. The straight “U – shaped stirrup can be designed from plain welded wire when at least two separate longitudinal wires are located in the anchorage zone. to meet anchorage requirements. are quickly set . Effective designs using welded deformed wire for stirrups have been developed using both the development length of the deformed wire in addition to the weld shear strength. Sections of bent welded wire reinforcement. The use of the “U” shaped stirrups eliminates several bends allowing stirrup cages to be formed in less time. the contractor can be reasonably sure that it will remain intact as placed. OPTIMUM USE OF LABOR/SIMPLIFIED SUPERVISION Equipment is basic and easily operated by construction crews who require no special training.and placed where it is needed. with the steel spacing already fixed. Here are some of its many advantages: EXCELLENT BONDING AND DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS The welded cross wires of welded wire reinforcement provide unique anchorage for the reinforcement. ACI 318 code provides for the use of either hooked or straight “U” stirrups when designed from wire reinforcement.
were the individual bars found more economical. WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT Fabric : Applications: CAST-IN-PLACE CONSTRUCTION . 2 to 4in. apart. therefore reducing special fabrication problems. Research’ has shown that closely spaced wires. BETTER CRACK CONTROL The high efficiency of small wire sizes and closely spaced reinforcement serves to distribute and equalize the stresses that may result in cracking. depending on the stirrup spacing. colddrawn steel it has greater weld ability. therefore reducing supervision and simplifying inspection of the reinforcement. in welded wire represent the most favourable type of reinforcement for shear and torsion. MINIMIZES WELDING PROBLEMS Because welded wire reinforcement is made from low carbon.2 Only when stirrup spaces were greater than 30 in.into place. BENDING AND PLACEMENT TIME REDUCED Fabrication and placement of individual rebar as stirrups takes up to five times longer than bent units of welded wire.
” Contractors on similar high-rise construction projects have reported reduction in bending and placement of stirrups from 16 man-hours per ton for rebar stirrups to 8 man-hours per ton to place welded wire reinforcement stirrups. production shot up. OTHER CAST-IN-PLACE APPLICATIONS . . for a time/labour savings of 75%. “once the stirrups were used. . steel placement costs dropped and the slab construction cycle was reduced from 9-10 days to 6 days .Recent high-rise construction projects have shown significant savings when using welded wire stirrup reinforcement: Midway through construction of a 32story of office building the stirrup reinforcement was converted from bars to welded wire.
box culverts and other underground precast products achieved a significant savings in reinforcing case assembly time by using welded wire reinforcement. With welded wire this same cage takes 40 minutes. .PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION The preshaping and assembly of welded wire reinforcement is a natural time saver in the production of precast/ prestressed products: The precaster of utility vaults. The assembly of the reinforcement for a typical manhole structure 6′x12′x6′ once required three hours to assemble from bars.
tiered risers for a large stadium. helped the precaster of these prestressed components to achieve assembly line efficiency by reducing handling and placement time for the reinforcement. .The use of shaped welded wire reinforcement results in similar savings of time and money in the production of prestressed box beams and single and double-tee beams. The wire reinforcing rigidity assured correct position in the riser forms and correct concrete cover. Welded wire reinforcement. shaped to the contours of 3.
· WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT FABRIC : DESIGN TABLES: Sectional Areas of Welded Wire Reinforcement .
Wire size Comparison Table .
Some Examples of Standard Welded Wire Mesh Fabric Sizes Table .
RangaRajan .Compiled by T.