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Acrotech Services..................................................... 2 Custom Molding & Machining.................................. 3 Technical Information....................................... 4 10 What is KPrene?............................................................ Stocked Inventory Dimension/Tolerances Chart............ Characteristics of KPrene............................................. Physical Properties of KPrene..................................... Compression & Deflection Charts of KPrene........... Shape Factor & Modulus of Elasticity........................... Properties...................................................... 11 12 Environmental Properties of KPrene......................... Oil, Chemical and Solvent Resistance of KPrene..... Machining/Applications of KPrene.............. 13 14 Application Chart of KPrene........................................ Metal Forming....................................................... 15 Roll Bending.................................................. 16 21 Benefits............................................................................... Models................................................................................ Art of Bending................................................................... Accessories......................................................................... KPrene Products........................................ 22 29 Rods, Square & Rectangular Bars.................................. Precision Cast Sheets....................................................... Metric Sized Products...................................................... Tubes/Springs & Caps..................................................... Washers Seals & Gaskets................................................ Bumpers............................................................................. Versa Roll .................................................. 30 31 Custom Products................................................... 32 Metal Backed Sheets........................................................ Solid KPrene Urethane Balls....................................... FDA Dry Food Approved Urethane................................ KPrene Press Brake Dies.................................... 33 Acroform Inserts............................................ 34 35 Acro-Hyde for Press Brake Forming.......................... Punch Strippers..................................................... 36 SurStrip Punch Strippers.............................................. Wiedeman, Piranha & Di-Acro Punch Strippers.......... Urethane Parts for Piranha Ironworkers....................... Custom Products................................................... 39 Tool Holsters ..................................................................... Adhesive & Tape............................................................... Performance Products........................................... 40 Spring Rubbers.................................................................. Wood Industry Products................................ 41 43 Drive Wheels...................................................................... Powerfeed Replacement Tires....................................... Press Fit Tires.................................................................... Recovery of OEM Hubs & Shafts................................... OEM Replacement Parts................................................. Roller Manufacturing & Recovering............................... Terms, Conditions & Ordering Information.............. 44

What is KPrene?
KPrene is the trade name for the various grades of urethane elastomers formulated specifically by Acrotech. The KPrene formulations were designed to fill the gaps between rubbers with characteristic resilience and structural plastics with characteristic hardness. The result is a functional toughness matched by no other available material in either natural or man-made form. KPrene urethane elastomers have higher oil and solvent resistance and better thermal stability than most general purpose rubbers and plastics. They have greater abrasion and tear resistance in combination with increased load bearing capacity than do the neoprene or natural rubbers. Their extensibility and impact strength are greater than those of most plastics materials.

Stocked Inventory Dimension Tolerances


These tolerances cover all stocked products, except where noted. Please advise factory if closer tolerance is required.

Sheets Length: +1/4 - 0 Width: +1/4 - 0 Thickness:  +/-2% or +/-.010 (whichever is greater) Round, Square & Rectangular Bars Length: +1/4 - 0 O.D.   +/-2% or +/-.010 (whichever is greater)

We provide standard polyurethane materials from 10 Shore A to 85 Shore D Durometer. Our standard grades are polyether thermosets. We also produce polyesters and FDA materials.

KPrene, the Unequaled Urethane!

Our KPrene sample chains can be very helpful. Be sure to request one!

Ordering information: www.acrotechinc.com

800-345-0583
Custom formulations are available!
Prices subject to change without notice.

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Acrotech catalog Copyright 2013 by Acrotech Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

technical info

Physical Properties of KPrene Urethane


ASTM STD.
Hardness, Shore A Shore D Tensile Strength, (PSI) Elongation, % 100% Modulus, (PSI) 300% Modulus, (PSI) Tear Strength, Split, lb./in. Tear Strength, Die C, lb./in. Abrasion Resistance, NBS Index Impact Resistance (Izod) ft. lb./in. Compression Set, Method B, % Compression Set, Method A, % Bashore Resilience, % Bell Brittle Point, F. Coefficient of Friction Compression Modulus, 5%, (PSI) Compression Modulus, 10%, (PSI) Compression Modulus, 15%, (PSI) Compression Modulus, 20%, (PSI) Compression Modulus, 25%, (PSI) Specific Gravity D-2240 D-2240 D-412 D-412 D-412 D-412 D-470 D-624

K-400A
40 500 510 90 200 20 80

K-600A
60 3500 530 280 390 25 180 45 6

K-800A
80 3000 800 400 625 70 400 110 45 60 <-130 0.55 150 274 378 492 641 1.08

K-900A
90 43 5500 430 1100 2200 90 600 175 30 42 <-80 0.45 272 530 735 940 1240 1.11

K-950A
95 50 6500 380 1800 4300 130 700 300 36 40 <-80 0.30 515 982 1372 1811 2358 1.13

K-750D
75 9700 250 4900 115 770 475 5 15 44 <-83 0.11 1796 4509 5996 7266 8433 1.21

D-1630 D-256 D-395 38

D-395 D-2632 8 32 D-2137 -70 D-1894 D-575 D-575 D-575 D-575 D-575 D-792 13.3 28.2 43.8 82.7 40 80 130 180 240 1.16

UrethaneCompared with Natural & Synthetic Rubbers


PROPERTIES NATURAL RUBBER
butadiene styrene

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SBR or BUNA S BUTYL isobutylene isoprene NEOPRENE URETHANE chloroprene butadiene acrylonitrille NITRILE (BUNA N)

Tensile Strength, (PSI) Pure Gum Over 3000 Below 1000 Over 1500 Below 1000 Over 3000 1000 10,000 Tensile Strength, (PSI) Over 3000 Below 1000 Over 1500 Below 1000 Over 3000 Black Loaded Stocks Hardness Range (Durometer A) 30-90 40-90 40-75 40-95 40-95 33-95 + (75 shore D) Specific Gravity (base material) 0.93 0.94 0.92 1.00 1.23 1.10 Vulcanizing Properties Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Adhesion to Metals Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Adhesion to Fabrics Excellent Good Good Good Excellent Excellent Tear Resistance Good Fair Good Fair Good Outstanding Abrasion Resistance Excellent Good to Excellent Good Good Excellent Outstanding Compression Set Good Good Fair Good Fair to Good Good Compression Set Cold Excellent Good Bad Good Very Good Fair Rebound Hot Excellent Good Very Good Good Very Good Good Electric Strength Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Excellent Electrical Insulation Good to Excellent Good to Excellent Good to Excellent Poor Fair to Good Fair to Good Permeablity to Gases Fair Fair Very Low Fair Low Fair to Good Acid Resistance: Dilute Fair to Good Fair Excellent Good Excellent Fair to Good Concentrated Fair to Good Fair to Good Excellent Good Good Poor Solvent Resistance: Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Poor Poor Poor Excellent Good Excellent Aromatic Hydrocarbons Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Fair to Good Oxygenated (ketones, etc.) Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Lacquer Solvents Poor Poor Poor Fair Poor Poor Swelling in Lubricating Oil Poor Poor Poor Very Good Good Excellent Oil and Gasoline Poor Poor Poor Excellent Good Excellent Animal and vegetable Oils Poor to Good Poor to Good Excellent Excellent Good Water Absorption Very Good Good to Excellent Very Good Fair to Good Good Good @ room temp. Poor @ 212 F. Resistance to: Ozone Fair Fair Excellent Fair Excellent Outstanding Sunlight Aging Poor Poor Very Good Poor Very Good Good Heat Aging Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Flame Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Heat Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Cold Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Excellent Oxidation Good Good Excellent Good Excellent Excellent

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Tension and Compression Comparisons: Most rubber materials have high elongation but low tensile strength. To obtain greater tensile strength in rubbers, fillers are added with a resultant loss in its ability to elongate. KPrene has both high tensile stress properties and high elongations, even in the harder grades. KPrene has far greater load bearing capacity than do conventional elastomers of comparable hardness which is an important advantage in many areas such as metalworking dies, shock mounts and springs.
8,000

Stress/Strain in Tension
K-750D
Natural Rubber* 50 phr black

1,500

Stress/Strain in Compression
K-950A K-900A

Tensile Stress (PSI)

6,000

K-950A

K-900A

4,000

Natural Gum* Neoprene*

Compressive Stress (PSI)

1,000

K-800A
500

2,000

Natural Rubber* 50 phr black Neoprene Natural Gum

100

200

Elongation (%)

300

400

500

600

700

Deflection (%)

10

15

20

25

Neoprene at 65 Shore A

Natural Gum at 50 Shore A

Natural Rubber at 76 Shore A

technical info
Compressive Stress (PSI)
KPrene has a far greater load-bearing capacity than do conventional elastomers of comparable hardness, which permits the design of smaller parts with savings in weight and material cost. The graph (to the right) compares the compressive stresses required to deflect samples of the four standard grades of KPrene by up to 50%. When selecting KPrene urethane for certain applications such as metal forming, major consideration should be given to two factors: Shape Factor and the Modulus of Elasticity.

Compression Deflection

8,000

Stress/Strain in Compression
K-750D

6,000

4,000

K-950A K-900A

The Shape Factor

The Shape Factor accounts for urethane blocks or cylinders bulging at their sides when under a compressive load. Increasing the area that is free to bulge decreases vertical displacement, or for the same displacement requires greater force. The concept of Shape Factor is numerically defined as the area of one loaded surface divided by the total area of the unloaded surfaces that are free to bulge. Dimensionally, this may be written as:

2,000

K-800A

10

20

30

40

50

Deflection (%) for solid discs and cylinders

(ASTM D575)

S.F. = l w 2t (l + w)

for rectangular shaped blocks

OR,

S.F. = d 4h

Where: l = length, w = width, t = thickness, d = diameter, h = height.


These equations are limited to: 1) Pieces which have parallel loading faces. 2) Pieces whose thickness is not more than twice the smallest lateral dimension.

Modulus of Elasticity
E= F/A H/HT

The Modulus of Elasticity, E, is defined as the force per unit area (stress) divided by the percentage of the change in height (strain); or:

Where: F = force, A = area, H = change in height, HT = total height.

For many of the common engineering materials, such as steels, E is a specific value that remains consistent within the elastic range of the material. With urethane, however, the E value changes with each specific compound. (See curve on page 9). The test data for those curves was determined over a two year period. Testing was conducted under controlled conditions, and the data reflects the variation of E vs. Shape Factor for three KPrene grades with dry and lubricated surfaces. The curves represented a statistical average of the test results, and are offered as a guide to help the engineer predict his forces, size and grade of urethane required, or percent deflection.

Other Engineering Considerations

Heat build -up, due to internal friction (hysteresis effect), is the most common cause of premature failure of urethane. The amount of heat generated is a direct function of degree of deflection. Thus, in selecting KPrene materials minimize the percentage of deflection for longer life. KPrene urethane can withstand temperatures up to 250 F., although it may soften before that point and lose some load-bearing capacity. However, upon cooling, it will return to its original physical characteristics. The urethane will also withstand temperatures down to -80 F. Lubricated or dry condition of load-bearing area is another factor that affects the stress-strain relationship. For urethane compressed between parallel plates, there is a tendency for the surface to spread laterally. While a clean, dry loaded surface offers some resistance to this lateral movement, a lubricated surface will offer essentially none. If extremely high pressures are required, lateral movement can be prevented by bonding the urethane to metal with double-faced tape or K-20 adhesive. Cut resistance of KPrene urethane is very high. However, placing it near a sharp metal edge or permitting it to bulge over a sharp edge should be avoided. With forces involved, the urethane may fail due to cutting or fracturing.

In solving problems, the engineer should first determine the Shape Factor using the formula previously introduced, and assume a particular size of urethane pressure pad. Having once determined the Shape Factor, the engineer can then select the appropriate grade of KPrene urethane, and come horizontally across on the chart to find E. With the Modulus of Elasticity known, one can then apply the basic formula of E to solve for either force or percentage of deflection. That is:

How to use the Curves

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F= H HT

AE or (% Deflection) AE*

% Deflection = H HT

OR,

F AE*

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*For deflections more than 20%, E must be modified by the multiplier derived from the small curve. For deflections equal to or smaller than 20%, this multiplier is one. Note: Solutions for force or percentage of deflection using these equations should be accurate to within 10% of actual values. Be sure to allow for this margin of error in problem solving.

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Variation of Modulus with Shape Factor


(Inset Curve for Greater Than 20% Deflection)

40,000

1.20

K-750D K-900A

25,000 20,000

Multiplier

30,000

1.15

1.10

K-800A

1.05

Modulus of Elasticity, (EPSI)

15,000
1.00 20 22 24 26 28 30

% Deflection
10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000

K-750D Lubricated

K-900A Lubricated
4,000

3,000

2,000

K-800A Lubricated

1,000

.1

.15.

2.

25

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7 .8

.9 11

.5

22

.5

34

Shape Factor
9

technical info
Electrical Properties
KPrene has been used successfully for potting and encapsulation at frequencies up to 100 kilocycles and at temperatures up to 212 F. (Typical electrical properties are shown below).

Typical Electrical Properties of KPrene


8,000

Stress/Strain in Tension
K-750D

Temp.
Power factor (ASTM D150 - 59T) Dielectric constant (SIC) (ASTM D150 - 59T) DC Vol. resistivity, ohm-cm (ASTM D150 - 59T) 75 F. 158 F. 212 F. 75 F. 158 F. 212 F. 75 F. 158 F. 212 F.

0.1 kc
4.7 4.7 12.6 9.4 11.0 11.5 4.8 x 1011 3.8 x 1010 2.3 x 1010 450 - 500

100 kc
5.9 3.9 7.8 9.9

6,000

Tensile Stress (PSI)

K-950A K-900A
4,000

K-800A

DC Vol. Resistivity, ohm-cm (ASTM D149) Arc resistance, seconds (ASTM D495)

2,000

73 - No carbon tracking

100

Elongation (%) - (ASTM D412-61T)

200

300

400

500

600

700

Abrasion Resistance

KPrene has outstanding abrasion resistance and can outlast conventional rubbers and plastics which leads to many important applications where severe wear is a problem. The selection of KPrene for these end uses is normally based on service tests, since laboratory abrasion tests can be misleading. In actual use KPrene has demonstrated more than eight times the abrasion resistance of ordinary rubbers and plastics.

Coefficient of Friction Tension Properties

KPrene has a low, unlubricated coefficient of friction which decreases sharply with the harder grades such as K-750D. This property, in combinations with superior load bearing ability and abrasion resistance, makes KPrene desirable for use in bearings and bushings.

Measurements of tensile strength for KPrene are not used as frequently by the design engineer as compression measurements. This is because the elastomer is used less frequently in tension. On the other hand, tension tests are commonly used by the rubber compounder and are almost universally used to establish the general performance characteristics of the elastomer. (Tensile stress-strain curves for various grades of KPrene are shown above). Note that they possess high strength even at low elongations, and that hard grades as well exhibit good elongation.

Adhesion

During fabrication of composite parts, KPrene can be readily adhered to many metals, elastomers and plastics to form a bond that is often stronger than the elastomer itself. Also, because of its hardness and rigidity, KPrene components can be mechanically fastened to metal, wood, or concrete structures with practical results.

Flex Properties

KPrene will resist cracking under repeated flexure and accordingly finds successful use in many dynamic applications such as flexible hoses and couplings. In all elastomers the rate of cut growth can be reduced by decreasing the thickness of the part, normally with a corresponding loss in strength. With KPrene, however, thin sections can be used effectively because of this elastomers exceptional strength and toughness.

Impact Resistance
10

KPrene has significantly better impact resistance than structural plastics. All grades of KPrene including the hardest grade K-750D show good impact resistance at low temperatures and low brittle points.

Environmental Properties of KPrene


This section covers the effects upon KPrene of normally encountered environmental influences.

properties
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The superior mechanical properties of KPrene urethane are not greatly affected by many environmental influences. In comparison with other elastomers, KPrene shows outstanding performance over a wide temperature range. KPrene exhibits excellent resistance to most common lubricants and aliphatic solvents, and has outstanding water resistance.

Cold Resistance

KPrene remains flexible at very low temperatures and possesses outstanding resistance to thermal shock. Standard grades remain flexible at temperatures below -80F., although stiffening does occur as the temperature is reduced below 0F. Special compositions can be formulated which retain a degree of flexibility at temperatures as low as -125F.

Heat Resistance

KPrene can be used for service applications at temperatures up to 200-250F., with only a minor decrease in physical properties as tested at ambient temperatures (75F.). Use of KPrene above 250F., even if only intermittent, is not recommended and each contemplated use at 200F., or above should be evaluated individually beforehand.

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Resistance to Aging

Properly compounded products of KPrene are not affected by the passage of time under static ambient temperature conditions. This statement can be substantiated by data on specimens stored for periods of six years or more. Prolonged use in normal service is not a problem, nor is there any indication of shelf aging. However, the introduction of certain other environmental influences combined with the passage of time can accelerate deterioration. For instance, chemical agents or dynamic forces acting upon a KPrene product over a period of time can intensify the aging process. Normally in multiple attacks such as these the effects strictly due to aging may be so masked as to become unrecognizable.

Water Resistance

KPrene is resistant to the swelling and deteriorating effects of immersion in water and has excellent long term stability in water at temperatures as high as 120F. Tests show that even after immersion in water for as long as one year at 120F., a typical grade retained 75% of its original tensile strength. The chemical structure of KPrene gives us an excellent hydrolytic stability such that a mixture of water and oil will have no greater effect on the elastomer than water by itself.

Weatherability and Color Stability Outgassing

Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light will gradually degrade physical properties of KPrene. For applications in which long term UV exposure is required, special formulations are available.

Products made from KPrene are very stable under high vacuum conditions. They show extremely low weight losses in standard outgassing tests. This property, combined with excellent low temperature performance, suggests logical applications in the aerospace field.

Flame Resistance

All KPrene grades are either extremely slow burning or self-extinguishing as tested in accordance with ASTM 0635. It is possible to obtain special compounds containing flame retardants which are completely non burning under test conditions.

Mold, Mildew, Fungus Resistance Oxygen and Ozone Resistance

Standard compounds of KPrene do not support fungus and are generally resistant to fungus attack and mildew growth. Samples buried for one year in moist inoculated soil showed no evidence whatever of attack, and the vulcanizate properties were essentially unchanged.

KPrene resists oxidation and is immune to the powerfully destructive attack of ozone. Oxygen and ozone in atmospheric concentrations have no observable effect on KPrene. In one test specific, KPrene grades were exposed to three parts per million ozone under 20% static strain conditions for 500 hours with no signs of surface cracking or crazing. It is this property in combination with insulating electrical properties that makes KPrene ideal for use around electrical equipment where ozone concentrations are highest. Likewise, stress-strain properties of KPrene are little changed after oxygen exposure for four weeks at 158F., under 300 PSI oxygen pressure.

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properties
Radiation Resistance
KPrene urethane has excellent resistance to the damaging effects of gamma ray radiation in comparison with other elastomers and plastics. Products of KPrene appear capable of giving satisfactory service even when exposed to high gamma ray concentration of up to 100 megaroentgens. They are more resistant than are other elastomers to stress cracking and retain a great amount of their original flexibility and physical toughness while exposed to gamma radiation. As a result, KPrene can be used to provide radiation protection in atomic reactor installations, x-ray laboratories, and aerospace facilities.

Oil, Chemical and Solvent Resistance of KPrene

A general guide for the exposure of KPrene elastomers to a wide range of chemicals is provided below. This table should be used as a guide only. Other requirements for satisfactory performance

must be considered, such as operational temperature ranges, aeration, length of time exposed, and other pertinent factors. CHEMICAL RATING Acetic acid, 20% B Acetone C Aluminum chloride solutions T Ammonia, anhydrous T Ammonium hydroxide solutions A ASTM hydrocarbon test fluid T ASTM oil No. 1 (158F.) A ASTM oil No. 3 (158F.) B ASTM reference fuel A A ASTM reference fuel B (122F.) B ASTM reference fuel C C Barium hydroxide solutions A Benzene C Borax solutions A Boric acid solutions A Butane A Calcium bisulfite solutions A Calcium chloride solutions T Calcium hydroxide solutions A Calcium hypochlorite, 5% T Carbon dioxide A Carbon monoxide A Carbon tetrachloride C Castor oil A Chlorine gas, dry X Chlorine gas, wet X Chromic acid, 10-50% X Copper chloride solutions A Copper sulfate solutions A Cottonseed oils A Cyclohexane A DOWTHERM A B Ethyl acetate C Ethyl alcohol C Ethylene glycol B Formaldehyde, 37% X Formic acid X FREON-11* B FREON-12* (130F.) A FREON-22* C FREON-113* A FREON-14* T Fuel oil B Gasoline B Glue A Glycerin A n-Hexane (122F.) B Hydraulic oils B Hydrolic acid, 20% B Hydrochloric acid, 37% X CHEMICAL RATING Hydrogen A Hydrogen peroxide, 90% T Isooctane (158F.) B Isopropyl ether B JP-4 C JP-5 C JP-6 X Kerosene C Lacquer solvents X Linseed oil B Lubricating oils B Magnesium chloride solutions A Magnesium hydroxide solutions A Mercury A Methyl alcohol C Mineral oil A Naphtha B Naphthalene B Nitric acid, 10% C Oleic acid B Palmitic acid A Perchloroethylene C Phenol C Phosphoric acid, 20% T Potassium hydroxide solutions A SEA No. 10 oil (158F.) A SKYDROL 500 C Soap solutions A Sodium hydroxide, 20% T Sodium hydroxide, 46.5% A Sodium hypochlorite, 5% T Sodium hypochlorite, 20% X Soybean oil B Stearic acid A Sulfur dioxide, liquid T Sulfur dioxide, gas T Sulfur trioxide T Sulfuric acid, up to 50% T Sulfuric acid, 50-80% C Sulfurous acid T Tannic acid, 10% A Tartaric acid A Toluene C Trichloroethylene C Tricresyl phosphate B Trisodium phosphate solutions A Tung oil B Turpentine C Water (122F) A

Oil and Solvent Resistance

Oil resistance is the ability of a part to retain utility in contact with oil. There are two effects which commonly occur. The first is a change in dimensions or swelling, and the second is deterioration of the materials original properties. KPrene has excellent oil resistance which makes its products particularly suitable for service in the presence of lubricating oils and greases. KPrene will resist animal fats and oils, waxes, greases, and most aliphatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons and polar or chlorinated solvents have a moderate to severe effect on KPrene. It is recommended that tests be made beforehand if the application under consideration will involve direct contact with oils as sometimes oil additives attack the material.

Chemical Resistance

The best way to determine whether or not the product will be entirely satisfactory for a given application is to test it in actual service. Where this is not practical, simulated tests should be devised to duplicate actual service conditions as closely as possible. Acrotech should be provided with complete details on the conditions involved or the intended application to insure that the parts are correctly compounded and processed to provide successful resistance against chemical attack.

The A, B and C ratings (in the table below) are based upon data from laboratory tests and records of actual service performance. Where specific information is not available, T and X ratings are indicated. These are educated guesses based upon experience and a familiarity with the chemistry involved. T means, Test before using but most likely to be satisfactory. X means, Most likely to be unsatisfactory. Unless otherwise noted, all ratings are at room temperature and the concentrations of all aqueous solutions may be considered saturated. In the case where parenthetical temperatures are listed, they refer to temperatures actually used in tests or service applications, but do no necessarily represent temperature limits.

Rating Chart Key

(see chart to the right)

Little or no effect................................................................................... A Minor to moderate effect....................................................................B Severe effect to complete destruction.............................................. C Test before using. No data but most likely to be satisfactory......... T No data but most likely to be unsatisfactory................................... X

*FREON is a registered trademark of E.I. du pont de Nemours & Co. (inc.)

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