19 views

Uploaded by Gayathri Srinivasa

ofdm

save

You are on page 1of 92

_______________

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of San Diego State University

_______________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

_______________

by Ramprasad Rao Vasudeva Rao Summer 2010

iii

Copyright © 2010 by Ramprasad Rao Vasudeva Rao All Rights Reserved

iv DEDICATION To my father Vasudeva Rao For all the unconditional love and support And in loving memory of my mother Shashikala For the person I am today .

symbol timing synchronization.v ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OFDM Receiver Synchronization for a DVB-H System by Ramprasad Rao Vasudeva Rao Master of Science in Electrical Engineering San Diego State University. It is a multicarrier system where the data is transmitted in parallel sub channels by using several subcarriers. correcting the coarse frequency offset and channel estimation for the DVB-H system. DVB-H system uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique to deliver multimedia services in any of the three bandwidth modes i. where its superior performance in multi-path environments is desirable. . lower signal strengths and fast movements. Multipath Rician and Rayleigh channel conditions are considered. 6. All the data carriers in one OFDM frame can be modulated using either QPSK. 7 and 8 MHz. 2010 DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld) technology is based on ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standard designed to bring the broadcast services to battery-powered handheld receivers such as mobile phones and PDA’s. DVB-H (Physical layer) system is simulated using 4096 FFT mode and the signal transmitted is in accordance with the specification of ETSI TR 102 377. Various stages of the signal recovery process are also discussed.e. In this thesis. 16-QAM or 64-QAM. OFDM has been successful in numerous wireless applications. concentrating mainly on the Squelch detection. The main emphasis is on the receiver. The system is defined based on the existing DVB-T (Terrestrial) system allowing for lower power consumption.

..........................1 OFDM is Bandwidth Efficient ....................4 2....................................................................................................16 2..............................................................................5 Guard Interval and Cyclic Prefix ............................................................................................................4 2.......17 2...................................................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES .......................17 Channel Estimation .............................................................................................. xiii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................17 2.................................................2 2 A LITERATURE REVIEW ON ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING ...........................................................12 2............................................19 2....10 Rayleigh Fading .............................................................................................................................9 Coherence Time (TC) ..12 Synchronization .....................................v LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................................................................................4 OFDM System Model ..............................................17 2....................................7 Doppler Shift ...................................8 2.............................................................23 ......................................................................................2 Advantages and Disadvantages of OFDM ........................................6 2....................................................19 2.......................14 2......................8 Doppler Spread (BD) .............................13 Synchronization Issues with OFDM ........11 Ricean Fading Distribution ....................................7 2.................3 Importance of Orthogonality in an OFDM System ..18 2...................................16 2.....22 2.........................15 Effect of Frequency Offset......16 Synchronization Using the Cyclic Prefix......................1 1..x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............2 1...........................................................2 Mobile TV Using Terrestrial Broadcasting Networks ...............vi TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................................6 Multipath Fading Channel .....14 Effect of Symbol Timing Offset .....................................................................................................................21 2.....................................1 Mobile TV: A New Reality...................................

.............................................................................................................2 Basic Aspects of DVB-H Networks ......42 3............................................................................................................................................................................................18 Symbol Interleaver .........33 3...............................................................................................................................................12 Transmitter Input Signal ................................................29 Number of RS-Packet per OFDM Super-Frame ................8 How Time Slicing and MPE-FEC Provides a Solution .....51 3.......52 3...........................................................vii 3 DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING.....................................................................................................................................................................................................49 3.....27 3..................................................................3 Principle of MFN (Multi Frequency Networks) .....................................................47 3..........................................................54 3.........32 3.......................................................................................21 OFDM Frame Structure .........6 MPE-FEC...24 3............................13 Channel Coding ..40 3.......10 Burst Size and Off-Time ..........17 Bit-Wise Interleaving .14 Outer Coding and Outer Interleaving ....34 3..............26 Transmission Parameter Signalling (TPS) .23 Definition of Reference Sequence ...................22 Reference Signals......................................52 3........................................................36 3.............................9 Delta-T Method..............................................................42 3................15 Inner Coding .........................................1 Scope of DVB-H Standard.....31 3........................................24 Location of Scattered Pilots .............................................................................30 Useful Bitrate ................HANDHELD DESCRIPTION .............46 3.......46 3......................28 3.....................................5 Time Slicing ............49 3.............................19 Modulation ........20 4K Mode in DVB-H.......................................................................................7 Main Issues in DVB-H........32 3...................30 3...........................4 Principle of SFN (Single Frequency Network)..................................................................................................................25 Location of Continual Pilot Carriers .......50 3.............................................................27 Scope of the TPS....................................................26 3..........................39 3.................................................................11 Physical Layer Specifications for DVB-H .54 ...........................37 3..........................45 3............42 3.....16 Inner Interleaving ...........................28 3.........................................................................................................28 TPS Transmission Format......................51 3....

...........76 REFERENCES ...............................................viii 4 5 IMPLEMENTATION AND SIMULATION OF THE PHYSICAL LAYER FOR A DVB-H SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................78 ..........................56 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ..................................................................................

............................8.......................48 Table 3................. 7MHz and 6 MHz Channels.........................53 Table 3.............. Number of Reed-Solomon 204 Bytes Packets per OFDM Super-Frame for all Combinations of Code Rates and Modulation Forms ....................................................12.............51 Table 3...........7...... DVB-H Service Indication.........................................................................................53 Table 3.......... Frequency Domain Parameters for 4K Mode in 8 MHz.2..........53 Table 3.................3...........................53 Table 3................... Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 8 MHz Channels.................48 Table 3....ix LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 3.........11....5............1............... Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 7 MHz Channels.......... Signalling Format for Transmission Mode ....37 Table 3......................54 Table 3........................4........................ Carrier Indices for Continual Pilot Carriers.................. Carrier Indices for TPS Carriers in 4K Mode ..................................55 Table 3........ 7MHz and 6MHz Channels..........9.10....................................... Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 6 MHz Channels..............................55 ....................... Signalling Format for Hierarchy Information ..........51 Table 3.... Guard Interval Lengths for all Modes.55 Table 3......... Time Domain Parameters for 4K Mode in 8MHz............................. Signalling Format for In-Depth Inner Interleaver.................6.........13.........................

. Effect of channel over OFDM symbol....3.. Each MPE section header contains delta-t indicating time to the beginning of the next burst......................... OFDM subcarriers in frequency domain............... Area under the Sine wave for one period is zero.................................15 Figure 2...26 Figure 3...................11.............. ...............4............................. Functional block diagram of the DVB-H transmission system ........................................13........................................ Showing the early and a late symbol timing instants.........9............................. ..........................21 Figure 2.........................16.....5 Figure 2........... Cyclic prefix inserted in guard interval to suppress adjacent channel interference.............. .35 Figure 3.....2.................. A conceptual description of using a DVB-H transmitter and receiver (Sharing a MUX with MPEG-2 Services).......................................... Symbol smearing due to channel.....................18 Figure 2..6................... Block diagram of basic OFDM transmitter..................... A typical Rayleigh fading envelope at 900 MHz.................................................... Single frequency network......................... Regions of timing synchronization...............12.............................14 Figure 2.................20 Figure 2............. ..................... ...................... Guard bands in conventional non-overlapping FDM.13 Figure2...3..... Difference between bandwidth requirements in FDM and OFDM....27 Figure 3................... Multipath signals........7...5...... ..................7 Figure 2............ ..............................................5..................... Structure of MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS)..11 Figure 2................................6 Figure 2...................... Baseband OFDM system..................................15....................................10 Figure 2.............22 Figure 3...... .............................. Synchronization using cyclic prefix............................................................................. Visualization of time slicing... Structure of MPE-FEC frame...............................30 Figure 3...........................31 Figure 3..... ....... ................. ...............................7..........6..............................................10..........38 ..................... Conceptual structure of a DVB-H receiver ........................8..... ...x LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 2..............2..................13 Figure 2........29 Figure 3......................1.................................8.. .................... ..................... subcarriers are orthogonal........................9...1................................. ..13 Figure 2.....................34 Figure 3.......................14.......................... OFDM demodulation with FFT........8 Figure 2.................................. ............. . Burst parameters ..................10 Figure 2......4..........................36 Figure 3... . Showing guard interval with OFDM symbol....................

............................. ...................2...... ....................... ... Mapping of input bits onto output modulation symbols.....xi Figure 3...................68 Figure 4......8) error protected packets..................41 Figure 3............... Reed Solomon RS (204...................16.45 Figure 3...43 Figure 3...... .39 Figure 3...40 Figure 3.........................................3................62 Figure 4....12......... ...........1............. Frame structure........................15.......................... Averaged cross correlation.......... Plot of averaged and differentiated cross correlation........... Scattered pilots generated by PRBS sequence generator.......... In-depth inner interleaver for 2K and 4K modes......................................................66 Figure 4.......50 Figure 3...58 Figure 4......................... ...... ................................42 Figure 3. Plot of normalized cross correlation and auto correlation........... Generation of PRBS sequence................17...............................8..................................................64 Figure 4.10.......7..............................................13.............. .....14..16............6 Real and imaginary values for the duration of OFDM packet..........188....67 Figure 4.........39 Figure 3............... Inner coding and interleaving................................19....20....... ....18................................ Symbol detection system..........41 Figure 3........ Constellation diagram of the data after spinning and passing it through the multipath channel with AWGN..59 Figure 4.................... Zoomed-in plot of averaged cross correlation. .......14................................................................................................................................................. The mother convolutional code of rate ½ ...... Impulse and frequency response of the multipath channel.........................12....60 Figure 4.11.................. .61 Figure 4......69 Figure 4......................17.59 Figure 4.............. ........ Differentiated cross correlation....... Data structure after outer interleaving with interleaving depth as 12 bytes.........50 Figure 4.4.......................40 Figure 3....... .................................................... Block diagram of the DVB-H system simulated..... Randomized transport packets: sync and randomized data bytes.............................. Peak detection system. Conceptual diagram of the outer interleaver and deinterleaver......... for nonhierarchical transmission modes..... .....................58 Figure 4............... Angle of coarse frequency offset............................... ............................................65 Figure 4.. ................. One DVB-H symbol with Cyclic prefix in time domain............... . 16-QAM constellation diagram with pilots.........................43 Figure 3..................................69 . .. MPEG-2 transport MUX packet...11...... ............57 Figure 4..........13........................................9....................................15.. .........................60 Figure 4....... ..... ........ Scrambler/descrambler...................68 Figure 4........................................10...... One DVB-H symbol with data and reference signal....................................21.................5......... ............................................................................................... 16-QAM complex data with the scattered pilots..........................

.............74 Figure 4......................72 Figure 4.........73 Figure 4.....23...................................... .......19.....20......................................................................................................22................... ..... Constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset...........................................21..................................................75 Figure 4..... ........... Spectrum of the estimated channel and multipath rician channel with 1% frequency offset... ........................74 Figure 4...... ......... 16 QAM constellation diagrams at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization........73 Figure 4.......25.................................75 ............ QPSK constellation diagram at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization with frequency offset of 1%............................ constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset fot he Rayleigh fading channel.............................18................72 Figure 4... 16 QAM constellation diagram at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization for the Rayleigh fading channel.......................24........................................... ................................... QPSK constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset................................................xii Figure 4.............. Spectrum of the extimated channel and Rayleigh channel with 1% frequency offset...........

. Prof Mahasweta Sarkar and Prof Joseph Katz for agreeing to serve in my thesis committee. Sincere thanks to committee members.xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am heartily thankful to my thesis committee chair. Prof fred j harris for his most valuable advice and guidance through out the work of my research. I would like to thank my family and best friends for their support in many aspects during the completion of my research.

Advanced studies in Digital Television over the years have led to the development of important standards that are adopted by different parts of the world. but with advanced compression and broadcasting technologies. With Ipod. New technologies. is indeed such a product [1]. albeit in our own homes. The broadcast technologies that have allowed us to watch TV. The mobile world is also quite different – carrying smaller screens and requiring lower data rates to process the information. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB)-JAPAN. Digital Video Broadcasting to Handhelds (DVB-H) or digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) is an evolution of such products. Fortunately the technologies for delivery of multimedia not only have been perfected for such an environment but also are being launched commercially. you can store unlimited number of songs and pictures. products and Services are constantly being evolved. which has evolved as a realization of all these needs.1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION We live in an era surrounded by technology and gadgets. have now been modified to enable the same programs to be broadcast to the mobiles [1]. The multimedia mobile phone. and Terrestrial Digital Multimedia . Broadcasting to Handhelds is likely to be perceived as “TV on a Mobile” [2]. The new world of multimedia is an extension of digital multimedia delivered today via cable and satellite. DTH and DSL platforms. but in a much more challenging environment of moving devices and varying signal strengths. Digital Cameras found acceptance because they set free our creativity. The future of TV viewing will target net books. We are entering a new era of terrestrial broadcasting where the variety of ways in which TV is experienced is escalating dramatically. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)-Europe. Four important Digital Television Broadcasting standards and the countries that have adopted are Advanced Television Service Committee (ATSC)-USA. portable hand-held devices such as high tech mobile phones and a new breed of low cost portable TV’s. The Skype was successful as it did away with the feeling of having limited talk time.

there is one key factor that has contributed to the success of Digital Broadcasting. widescreen format and multichannel sound due to Digital broadcasting. Each of the mentioned standards is the result of years of research. It is the transmission of TV programs or video for a range of wireless devices ranging from mobile TV capable phones to PDA’s and wireless multimedia devices [1].2 Broadcasting (T-DMB)-South Korea. Interactive mobile multimedia is one of the key ideas to the next step of multimedia era. It provides the users with high channel capacity and interactivity ‘on the road’ [2]. This kind of operation is called as Single frequency network (SFN) and it significantly contributes to the use of radio spectrum [1].2 MOBILE TV USING TERRESTRIAL BROADCASTING NETWORKS The terrestrial broadcasting networks work in the VHF (30 MHz to 300 MHz) and UHF bands (300 MHz to 3 GHz). Apart from the benefit of high definition videos. Japan and other countries are migrating to Digital TV broadcast stations. which helps in reducing bandwidth by packing seven to eight standard definition TV programs into the same frequency slot that was occupied by only one analog carrier. Here the radio reception is from the FM channels and does not use the capacity of the 2G or 3G networks on . The concept of using the mobile TV using terrestrial broadcasting networks is somewhat related to the FM radio receivers built into the mobile handsets. These networks in the USA. and broadcast components provided with DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld) is a useful addition to the conventional cellular radio networks serving the users with point to point connections. co operation between governments and industries. 1. it has been proven. good sound quality. This key factor is the ability of all the transmitters on some area to transmit on the same frequency. Europe. whether it is about leisure time with entertaining TV program clips or complicated business solutions. It brings new aspects on the personal information handling. The growth of mobile TV brings challenges for everyone. Though it’s relatively a new technology. 1.1 MOBILE TV: A NEW REALITY Mobile TV is now a reality.

This is made suitable for carrying television signals to a handheld and the new modified standard is renamed DVB-Handheld. In the further chapters. which is highly priced and scarce. I would be covering the details of physical and link layer elements of the DVB-H system. We can say that the spectrum used does not need to be allocated from the 3G pool. the FM radio continues to work. a literature on the OFDM and the OFDM receiver synchronization for the DVB-H system. For the purpose of carrying mobile TV.3 which the handset may be working. Mobile TV using terrestrial broadcast technologies follow the same concept and uses the VHF or UHF spectrum for carriage [1]. . Even if there is no 2G or 3G mobile coverage. the TV broadcasting community has modified and enhanced the well established DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial) which is used for digital TV broadcasting in Europe. The implemented system and simulation results are also shown.

The concept of OFDM has been around as early as 1960’s. is OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). One of the preliminary reasons to use OFDM in most of latest high speed wireless technologies is its robustness against frequency selective fading or narrow band interference. 100 Mbps). independent message signals are translated into different frequency bands. Video Broadcasting etc which requires large data rates with robustness to radio channel impairments. In the 1980’s OFDM was studied for highspeed modems.4 CHAPTER 2 A LITERATURE REVIEW ON ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING The demand for high speed wireless applications and limited RF Channel Bandwidth has spurred the development of power and bandwidth efficient air interface schemes. 2. 6 Mbps). All the modulated signals are . Using modulation. giving each user a exclusive possession of the frequency band. Cellular telephone systems have gone through such a growth process. digital mobile techniques for multiplexed QAM using DFT [3].6 Mbps) asymmetric digital subscriber lines(ADSL. independent frequency channels. Because if we look into the Single carrier system. very high speed digital subscriber lines ( VDSL. high bit rate digital subscriber lines (HDSL. 1. The OFDM technique was used in several high frequency military systems. The basic approach is to divide the available bandwidth of a single physical medium into number of smaller. Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB). Terrestrial Broadcasting only during 1990’s [4]. a single fade or a interferer can cause the entire link to break. The most spectrally efficient modulation scheme that has been adopted for the high speed wireless applications like WLAN.1 OFDM IS BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT Frequency Division Multiplexing is one of the popular techniques used in Radio and TV transmission. However OFDM did reach its maturity for employment in wideband data communications over mobile radio FM channels. The frequency spectrum is divided into several logical channels.

OFDM saves almost 50% of the bandwidth [4]. But to avoid the crosstalk between subcarriers. Figure 2. Guard bands are used here to avoid interference between successive channels. Carriers that are used to modulate the message signals are called subcarriers. Figure 2. Figure 2. To cope up with this inefficiency. Available: http://nptel.ac. Other advantage of OFDM system over FDM apart from bandwidth efficiency is in case of frequency selective fading. It can be seen that. Source: IIT Kharagpur NPTEL.in/courses/Webcoursecontents/IIT%20Kharagpur/ Computer%20networks/pdf/M2L7. Guard bands in conventional non-overlapping FDM. [Online]. However it leads to inefficient use of the spectrum and hence occupies lots of bandwidth. Module 2. OFDM has a distinct advantage over single carrier . Lesson 7. iitm.2 shows the spectral efficiency of an OFDM system Vs conventional FDM system. Figure 2.pdf From the Figure we can also see that the channels are separated by unused bandwidth to avoid interchannel interference.1.5 combined in a linear summing circuit to form a composite signal for transmission. From the Figure we can see that the subcarriers can be overlapped.2 [5] shows the comparison between FDM and OFDM channel placements for 9 Subcarriers. (2010). Orthogonality has to be maintained between different modulated carriers.1[5] shows the use of guard bands in FDM systems. parallel data systems with overlapping multicarrier modulation technique also known as OFDM can be used.

rather it gets slightly distorted. Its makes the Single Frequency Network (SFN) possible. because such interference affects only small percentage of subcarriers.pdf systems. which is especially attractive for broadcasting applications. 2. For a slow time varying channels.ac.iitm. Module 2. Difference between bandwidth requirements in FDM and OFDM.2. Error correction coding can then be used to correct for the few erroneous subcarriers [6]. Lesson 7.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF OFDM Some of the key advantages and disadvantages of an OFDM transmission scheme according to [6] are: • It is an efficient way to deal with multipath. for a given delay spread. the capacity of the data rate per subcarrier can be enhanced according to the signal-to-noise ratio of that particular subcarrier.in/courses/Webcoursecontents/IIT%20Kharagpur/ Computer%20netw-orks/pdf/M2L7. such that it spreads out the fade over many symbols. (2010). [Online].6 Figure 2. • • • . Hence it randomizes the burst errors caused by fading or impulse interference so that instead of several symbols being completely destroyed. Source: IIT Kharagpur NPTEL. OFDM is robust against narrowband interference. Complexity for implementing the OFDM system is much lower than that of a single carrier system with an equalizer. Available: http://nptel.

where both m and n are integers. As explained in [7].3 IMPORTANCE OF ORTHOGONALITY IN AN OFDM SYSTEM The word orthogonal indicates that there is a precise mathematical relationship between the frequencies of the carriers in the system.1) By the simple trigonometric relationship. =1/2 cos (m-n) wt – 1/2 cos (m+n) wt (2. which tends to reduce the power efficiency of the RF amplifier. 2. this is equal to a sum of two sinusoids of frequencies (n-m) and (n+m). This is shown in Figure 2.3. The integral or area under this product is given by [7]: f(t) = sin mwt x sin nwt (2. so the integral is equal to zero over one. let us consider a sine wave m and multiply it by a sinusoid (sine or cosine) of frequency n.3. we know that the area under one period of sine/cosine wave is zero. Area under the Sine wave for one period is zero. Since carriers are all sine/cosine wave.2) These two components are each a sinusoid. . Figure 2. It has relatively large peak to average power ratio.7 Drawbacks of OFDM systems according to [6] are: • • Susceptibility to phase noise and frequency offset.

In this technique. The DFT process takes the discrete signal sequence obtained by periodic sampling . Thus understanding the Orthogonality principle is very important in an OFDM. yet the signal spectra corresponding to different subcarriers overlap in frequency. cos nx are all orthogonal to each other. The subcarriers have the minimum frequency separation required to maintain Orthogonality of their corresponding time domain waveforms.8 (2. Baseband OFDM system. Figure 2.4 OFDM SYSTEM MODEL OFDM is a special case of multicarrier transmission where a single data stream is transmitted over a number of lower rate subcarriers. In general for all integers m and n. when we multiply a sinusoid of frequency n by a sinusoid of frequency m/n the area under the product is zero. The core of an OFDM system is in the IDFT in the transmitter and DFT in the receiver. 2. sin mx. It is the Orthogonality that allows the simultaneous transmission of a lot of sub-carriers in a tight frequency space without interference from each other [7].3) Hence we can say that. The spectral overlap results in a waveform that uses available bandwidth with very high bandwidth efficiency. the data symbols modulate a parallel collection of regularly spaced subcarriers.4. cos mx. Figure 2. OFDM can be seen either as a modulation technique or a multiplexing technique [4].4 shows the model of a baseband OFDM system model [8]. sin nx.

DN-1] to OFDM symbols [d0. I will move on to the description of the OFDM system. IDFT process is utilized.5 shows the basic OFDM transmitter.. Mathematically IDFT is given by: (2.3.6) Yielding a time domain sequence {dk.9 of a continuous signal in the time domain and projects them on a set of orthogonal frequencies to do the spectral analysis of the signals.DN-1} represent a block of N complex data symbols chosen from an appropriate signal constellation such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase shift keying (PSK).. In the next section.5) The order of IDFT and DFT is not really important.d1. Th is the length of (Continuous) channel.. D1. as both the processes are linear. D2. such that the length of the CP is at least equal to the channel length Nh in samples. and Ts is the duration of a OFDM block or symbol. In OFDM. where µ = (Th/Ts)N. Let {D0. detailed explanation about the cyclic prefix can be seen.2.. subcarriers overlap and this can be seen in Figure 2.…….…….d2. Mathematically DFT is given by: (2. Figure 2.4) To recover the sequence x(n) from the frequency samples.6 [9] and also the Orthogonality of overlapping subcarriers can be seen. D2.N-1}.1. To mitigate the effects of intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by channel delay spread. k=0.….…. With the knowledge of the DFT and IDFT equations. The IDFT as a linear transformation maps the complex data symbols [D0.. .dN-1] such that: (2.. each block of N IFFT coefficients is typically preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP) or a guard interval consisting of Ng samples. Digital Signal Processing techniques rather than frequency synthesizers can be deployed to generate orthogonal subcarriers. D1.

com/2008/03/ofd m-subcarriers. Source: Arvind Padmanabhan . J.An overview of OFDM [Online]. San Diego State University. Figure 2. OFDM subcarriers in frequency domain. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering.wordpress. Source: F.jpg] . San Diego. OFDM. Available: http://mobilewireless.5.10 Figure 2.files. (2008).”.6. Block diagram of basic OFDM transmitter. Harris. Mobile and Wireless . CA. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. 2008. subcarriers are orthogonal.

7) Cyclic prefix is simply a repetition of the last Ng IFFT coefficients. Harris. Sometimes fractional sampling is used. J. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. Figure 2. This helps in removal of ISI almost completely. CA. where M is an integer greater than one.8) The received signal is sampled at t=k/fs for k={-k1. The received signal for a time varying random channel according to [8] is: (2. assume here that M=1. With no inter-block interference. the linear convolution of the transmitted sequence of IFFT coefficients with the discrete time channel is converted into a circular convolution. Figure 2. San Diego. OFDM.N+k2-1}. where the sample period is (1/M) ΔT. Alternatively. ΔT = Ts /N.…. and assuming that the windowing function satisfies w(n-1)=δnl the output of .7. a cyclic suffix can be appended to the end of a block of N IFFT coefficients that is a repetition of the first Ng IFFT coefficients [3]. usually with a sampling interval. Source: F. For simplicity.”. the received complex baseband signal is sampled with an Analog-toDigital converter (ADC). OFDM demodulation with FFT..11 A basic representation of the equivalent complex baseband transmitted signal is [8]: (2. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.7 shows the basic OFDM receiver structure. Under the condition that Ng >= Nh. At the receiver. San Diego State University. 2008.

9) Where (2. Ease of equalization is often touted as the main advantage of OFDM. The Multipath and several other effects in these wireless channels would rapidly modify the characteristics of the transmitted signal over a small travel distance or time interval.11) In Equation 2.10. Even the speed of motion impacts how rapidly the signal level fades as a mobile terminal moves in space.8 [10] shows how the channel distorts the transmitted OFDM symbol. after the removal of guard interval for each block of N received samples is: (2.5 GUARD INTERVAL AND CYCLIC PREFIX The mobile radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems. The transmission path between the transmitter and the receiver can vary from simple line-of-sight to one that is severely obstructed by buildings and mountains. 2.9 that there is a cross talk between adjacent OFDM symbols. Figure 2.12 the FFT block at the receiver. The N frequency domain samples are each processed with a simple one tap Frequency Domain Equalizer (FDE) and applied to a decision device to recover the data symbols or to a metric computer if error correction coding is used. n(k) is white Gaussian noise. Hence.9 shows the effect of the channel on OFDM symbols.10) A complex number Hn is the frequency response of the time invariant channel h(t-τ) at frequency n/T. To combat the effect of channel distortion on OFDM symbols. (2. . Figure 2. It can be seen in Figure 2. The OFDM symbols are transmitted to the receiver through these mobile radio channels. guard interval precedes every OFDM symbol.

“Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.10 shows an OFDM symbol with guard interval. Harris. Figure2. Symbol smearing due to channel. ICI is crosstalk between the subcarriers.”. Harris. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. which means they are no longer orthogonal. Source: F.10.”. The guard time is chosen larger than the expected delay spread. San Diego State University. . Source: F. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. San Diego State University. This eliminates intersymbol interference almost completely. Showing guard interval with OFDM symbol. CA. OFDM. San Diego. Figure 2.”. In that case. J. CA. J. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. Source: F. Effect of channel over OFDM symbol. San Diego. Harris. Guard interval is also useful for implementing time and frequency synchronization functions in the receiver since the guard interval contains repeated symbols at known sample spacing. OFDM.13 Figure 2. 2008. such that multipath components from one symbol cannot interfere with the next symbol. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. J. OFDM. The guard time could consist of no signal at all. 2008. Figure 2.8. San Diego State University.9. San Diego. CA. 2008. the problem of intercarrier interference (ICI) would arise.

.14 Due to ICI. Hence multipath signals with delays smaller than the guard time cannot cause ICI. Harris. as long as the delay is smaller than the guard time. Cyclic prefix inserted in guard interval to suppress adjacent channel interference. because within the FFT interval.11.”. Below shows the effect of multipath at various signal reception conditions: • • • Fast moving user: Fast fluctuation of signal amplitude and phase. San Diego.12 [11] shows the conceptual diagram of the multipath signals and it can seen in this figure that the transmitted signals reach the receiver after many reflections. Depending on the amplitudes and phase of the signal. Figure 2.6 MULTIPATH FADING CHANNEL Multipath fading is caused by the transmission of the signal along different paths and resulting in simultaneous reception. Figure 2. presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. CA. To eliminate ICI. the result of this could be that the signals cancel each other completely or significant attenuation in the resultant signal. San Diego State University. ionosphere reflection. This ensures that delayed replicas of the OFDM symbol always have an integer number of cycles within the FFT interval. The transmitted signal goes through the various environmental parameters such as refraction. there is no integer number of cycle’s difference between subsequent subcarriers. Source: F. when the OFDM receiver tries to demodulate the first subcarrier. 2. Satellite Positioning System: miscalculation of distance between transmitter and receiver resulting in a wrong estimate of the position. J. it will encounter some interference from the second subcarrier.11 [10] we can see the Cyclic prefix inserted in the guard interval time prior to each of the OFDM symbol before transmitting. the OFDM symbol is cyclically extended in the guard time. and reflection from various terrestrial objects like buildings and mountains before it hits the receivers. 2008. In Figure 2. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Analog Television Signal: Ghost images. OFDM.

12. the received signal would be distorted however the received signal strength will not fade much over a local area. it is required to know the factors that influence small scale fading like: • Speed of the Mobile. Available: http://www.skydsp. Since DVB-H system is for handheld terminals.If the transmitted signal bandwidth is much larger than the bandwidth of the multipath channel.com/publications/4thyrthesis/chapter1. .If objects in the radio channel are in motion they induce a time varying Doppler shift on multipath components. • • Multipath delay nature of the channel is described by delay spread and coherence bandwidth. with CDMA comparisons [Online]. If the surrounding objects move at a greater rate than the mobile. it highly important to consider the effect of Doppler shift in the receiver structure. Multipath signals.htm • Wideband (digital) Signal: Intersymbol interference and dispersion. Source: Eric Lawrey. Transmission bandwidth of the signal. Due to the relative motion of the transmitter and receiver in the mobile communications.15 Figure 2. then this effect dominates the small-scale fading [6].relative motion between the base station and the mobile receiver results in random frequency modulation due to different Doppler shifts on each of the multipath components [6]. Time varying nature of the channel caused by movement is quantified by Doppler spread and coherence time. (1997). The suitability of OFDM as a Modulation technique for wireless telecommunications. Speed of surrounding objects.

where Δt is the time required for the mobile to travel from X to Y.16 2. if the mobile is moving toward the direction of arrival of the wave. the received signal spectrum. (2. while it receives signals from a remote source S. Hence Doppler shift cannot be ignored in a mobile radio environment. or Doppler shift. is given by fd [6]. The difference in path lengths traveled by the wave from source S to the mobile at points X and Y is Δl = dcosθ = vΔtcosθ. and if the mobile is moving away from the direction of arrival of the wave. where fd = (1/2π) * (ΔФ/Δt) = (v/λ) * cosθ (2.e..14) .13) Equation 2.13 we can infer that. The phase change in the received signal due to the difference in path lengths is represented by [6]: (2.12) And hence the apparent change in frequency. the Doppler shift is negative (i. and θ is assumed to be the same at points X and Y since the source is assumed to be far away. along a path segment having length d between points X and Y.7 DOPPLER SHIFT Consider a mobile moving at a constant velocity v. the apparent received frequency is decreased) as said in [6]. If a pure sinusoidal tone of frequency fc is transmitted. Also from the Equation 2.13 relates the Doppler shift to the mobile velocity and the spatial angle between the direction of motion of the mobile and the direction of the arrival of the wave.8 DOPPLER SPREAD (BD) It is a measure of the spectral broadening caused by the time rate of change of the mobile Radio channel and is defined as the range of frequencies over which the received Doppler spectrum is essentially non-zero. called the Doppler spectrum. The amount of spectral broadening depends on fd which is a function of the relative velocity of the mobile [6]. will have components in the range fc – fd to fc + fd where fd is the Doppler shift. 2. the Doppler shift is positive. Thereby Bd is fm = v/λ Where fm is the maximum Doppler shift.

Figure 2. the small scale fading envelope is described by a Ricean fading probability density function (pdf). The Doppler spread and coherence time are inversely proportional to one another. such as a line of sight propagation path. The coherence bandwidth is approximately inverse of the maximum delay spread. Tc ~ 1/fm A channel can also be described by the coherence bandwidth whether it is a frequency selective fading or flat fading in frequency domain.11 RICEAN FADING DISTRIBUTION When there is a dominant non fading signal component signal component present. 2. The above equation is according to [6].9 COHERENCE TIME (TC) It is the time domain dual of Doppler spread and is used to characterize the time varying nature of the frequency dispersiveness of the channel in the time domain [6]. This causes frequency dispersion (also called time selective fading) due to Doppler spreading.13 shows the Rayleigh fading envelope for the carrier with the receiver speed = 120 km/hr. The Ricean distribution according to [6] is given by: (2. If the symbol duration is longer than the coherence time then the channel is fast fading. the envelope of the received signal is statistically described by a Rayleigh probability density function [12] (pdf) given by: (2.17 2.16) (2. Rayleigh fading can also be termed as small scale fading.15) 2.18) .17) σ is the rms value of the received voltage signal before envelope detection and σ2 is the time average power of the received signal before envelope detection. A channel is said to slow fading if the symbol duration is within the coherence time. fo ~ 1/ Tmax (2.10 RAYLEIGH FADING If the multiple reflective paths are large in number and there is no line of sight signal component.

“Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digital communication systems. A typical Rayleigh fading envelope at 900 MHz. This is due to OFDM’s longer symbol duration and its cyclic prefix. On the other hand. 90-100 July. the requirements and resources for synchronization of multicarrier system are different than a single carrier system. in OFDM.12 SYNCHRONIZATION OFDM. frequency synchronization in . In this thesis. requires synchronization. Bernard.13. Vol. In the Equation 2. Source: S. 35.” IEEE Communications magazine. part I: Characterization. parameter A denotes the peak amplitude of the dominant signal and Io (.18 Figure 2. one can tolerate larger errors in estimating the start of a symbol than in a single-carrier system. the channel model that has been considered is: the transmitted signal is convolved with the impulse response of the channel and adding a Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). pp. For example. 1997.19) 2. Representation in the equation form can be seen as: (2. like any other digital communication system.) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind and zero-order.8. However.

Usually this requires faster acquisition. Before an OFDM receiver can demodulate the subcarriers.14.e. the carrier frequency synchronization (i. synchronization of an OFDM signal to find an estimate of where the symbol starts is done using the preamble that is transmitted with the OFDM signal.. due to the narrowness of the OFDM subcarriers [3].13 SYNCHRONIZATION ISSUES WITH OFDM 1. i. It has to find out where the symbol boundaries are and what the optimal timing instants are to minimize the effects of intercarrier interference (ICI) and Intersymbol Interference (ISI). 3. which happens to be the . it has to perform at least two synchronization tasks. Most OFDM systems have a cyclic prefix that can be used for synchronization. in broadcast systems. before the FFT demodulation at the receiver end. 2. However.14 EFFECT OF SYMBOL TIMING OFFSET OFDM systems are relatively robust with respect to the timing offsets. Acquisition time is not very important.e the FFT window position. 2. utilized to eliminate the carrier frequency offset caused by the mismatch of the local oscillators between the transmitter and the receiver. carrier frequency recovery technique).19 OFDM must be tighter than that in single carrier systems. There are two cases of symbol timing offset. Symbol timing instants may vary over an interval equal to the guard time without causing ISI or ICI as seen in the Figure 2. In packet based transmission systems. Therefore the coarse symbol timing synchronization should be much more accurate in the burst mode systems. 2. determinant of correct symbol start position. the start of symbol detection is done using the cyclic prefix. because it contains cyclic prefix. The symbol timing synchronization. first one estimates the boundary location before the ideal location and the second one is after. Sampling clock synchronization between the transmitter and receiver. The sampling clock difference would degrade the performance of the systems. nonlinear characteristic of the wireless channel as well as the Doppler shift. The first one doesn’t cause serious problems. There is usually some tolerance for Symbol timing errors when cyclic prefix is used to extend the symbol. The cyclic prefix acts as a pilot data.

this introduces ISI.14.12. If symbol timing offset is ε. where the FFT interval extends over a symbol boundary. Also the large ε would introduce ISI from the previous OFDM symbol. more error the system can tolerate. means that the phase rotation is proportional to sub-carrier .21) Therefore.20) Where k is the subcarrier index. which completely destroys the orthogonal property. Intercarrier interference and Intersymbol interference occurs. since the FFT window contains samples from the following OFDM symbol. last part of the OFDM symbol. However if the ε becomes large. then we have (2. the phase rotation becomes serious and would increase the difficulty in channel estimation. However in the latter case. Showing the early and a late symbol timing instants. Best region for starting the DFT is illustrated in the Figure 2. Phase rotation caused by the first case can be compensated by frequency domain equalizer.20 Figure 2.22) In the Equation 2. index k. This means that larger the cyclic prefix. In the second case. (2. n is the sample index in time domain.15. The ideal demodulation is: (2.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Wireless Communications. Stüber. 2. 2006.23) Hk is the frequency response of the channel at the k-th subchannel. Eds. Li. k0 is an integer and represents the coarse frequency offset. then the number of cycles in the FFT interval is not an integer anymore. its effect can be corrected. with the result that Intercarrier interference occurs after the FFT. Source: Y. and G. The effect of frequency offset can be described as follows: The received signal due to frequency offset can be expressed as [3]: (2. G. N is the number of subchannels in an OFDM symbol. L.. with an interference power that is inversely proportional to the frequency spacing [4].15. The FFT output for each subcarrier will contain interfering terms from all other subcarriers. New York: Springer. |ε| <1/2 represents the fine frequency offset and ..21 Figure 2. Once the frequency offset is know.15 EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OFFSET If there is a frequency offset. Regions of timing synchronization.. The signal distortion caused by frequency offset is deterministic.

MA: Artech House Publishers. then we should be seeing 8 peaks for the eight different symbols. This attribute can be exploited for both timing and frequency synchronization by using the synchronization scheme as seen in the Figure 2. therefore the correlation output is always a random variable. Van Nee. and R. 2. The standard deviation of the random correlation magnitude is related to the number of independent samples over which the correlation is performed.24) In the next section. but the peak amplitudes show a significant variation. This method of synchronization using cyclic prefix is effective when a large number of subcarriers are used. Synchronization using cyclic prefix.25) Different OFDM symbols would contain independent data values. preferably 100 subcarriers or more. OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Norwood. The correlator output can be written as [4]: (2. If we try to correlate 8 different OFDM symbols. 2000.16. The reason for that is although the average power for .22 (2. Prasad. This scheme correlates a TG seconds (Cyclic prefix length) long part of the signal with a part that is T-seconds delayed. Source: R. I would be describing about the synchronization achieved using cyclic prefix according to Richard Van Nee and Ramjee Prasad “OFDM for wireless Multimedia Communications” [4].16 Figure 2. which may reach a value that is larger than the desired correlation peak.16 SYNCHRONIZATION USING THE CYCLIC PREFIX The cyclic prefix length of each OFDM symbol is always identical to the last part.

2.26) Where Yp (k) and Xp (k) are output and input at the kth pilot sub-carrier respectively. So the channel estimation block has to learn the reference phases and amplitudes for all subcarriers. The estimate of the channel at pilot sub-carriers based on LS (Least Square) is given by: (2. modulated bits are distributed during the transmission through the channel since the channel introduces amplitude and phase shifts due to frequency selective and time-varying nature of the radio channel [8]. A fading channel would require constant tracking. Non-coherent detection on the other hand. so pilot information has to be transmitted more or less continuously. The receiver can synchronize with this bits and estimate the channel only at located wherever these reference signals are located. Coherent detection uses reference values that are transmitted along with data bits.17 CHANNEL ESTIMATION In an OFDM link. local oscillator drift and timing offset [4]. such that the QAM symbols can be converted to binary soft decision [4]. So in the receiver. . does not use any reference values but uses differential modulation where the information is transmitted in difference of the two successive symbols [8]. amplitude variations. the power in the guard time can substantially vary from this average power level [4].23 a T-seconds interval of each OFDM symbol is constant. the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to demodulate the N subcarriers of the OFDM signal. The receiver can apply either the coherent or non-coherent detection to recover the original bits. Channel estimators need some kind of pilot information as a point of reference. But the FFT output that contains N QAM values will have phase shifts.

Towards the end of that year. broadcasters and consumer equipment manufacturers discussed how to form a concerted pan-European platform to develop digital terrestrial TV.. Published as a formal standard (EN 203 204) by ETSI in November 2004. private sector initiative with an annual membership fee. originally of European origin but now worldwide. It can be used as a bearer in conjunction with the DVB-IPDC systems layer specifications or alternatively with the OMA . also entailed modifications of some other DVB standards dealing with data broadcasting.HANDHELD DESCRIPTION The DVB Project is an Alliance of about 250-300 companies. Its objective is to agree specifications for digital media delivery systems. accompanying the introduction of commercial terrestrial digital TV services in Europe [13]. Until late 1990. During 1991. governed by a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) [13]. including broadcasting.e.24 CHAPTER 3 DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING. The creation of DVB-H. the EU-sponsored Motivate (Mobile Television and Innovative Receivers) project concluded that mobile reception of DVB-T is possible but it implies dedicated broadcast networks. It is an open. DVB-H is relatively new technology for the transmission of digital TV to handheld receivers such as mobile telephones and PDA’s. The Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) Project started research work related to mobile reception of DVB—Terrestrial (DVB-T) signals as early as 1998. etc. which is closely related to DVB-T. broadcasters. it is a physical layer specification designed to enable the efficient delivery of IP-encapsulated data over terrestrial networks. constellation and coding rate) than broadcast networks planned for fixed DVB-T reception [13]. consumer electronics manufacturers and regulatory bodies came together to discuss the formation of a group that would oversee the development of digital television in Europe [13]. In 2000. Service Information. as such mobile services are more demanding in robustness (i. digital television broadcasting to the home was thought to be impractical and costly to implement.

the transmission system shall offer the means to mitigate their effects on the receiving capabilities. 16. DVB-H has broad support across the industry and services are now on air in more than ten countries [14]. As DVB-H services are expected to be delivered in an environment suffering high levels of man-made noise. 17]. 3. allowing single antenna reception in medium SFN’s at very high speed. 4K mode for trading off mobility and SFN cell size. as well as service information. 2. It should be noted that. receivers can easily move from one transmission cell to another while maintaining the DVB-H service. like: 1.1. DVB-H system is completely backward compatible to DVB-T. handheld terminals (defined as light weight. • . A cell identifier is also carried in the TPS-bits to support quicker signal scan and frequency handover on mobile receivers.1 and ETSI EN 300 744 v1.25 BCAST specifications. portable and mobile terminals.2. battery powered apparatus) require specific features from the transmission system serving them. ETSI TR 101 190 v1.3. Time slicing is mandatory for DVB-H Forward error correction for multiprotocol encapsulated data (MPE-FEC) for an improvement in C/N performance and Doppler performance in mobile channels. A non-proprietary open standard. adding flexibility for the network design.6.1 [15. as they are implemented in the link layer. This chapter is according to the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standards ETSI TR 102 377 v1. neither the time slicing nor MPE-FEC affect the physical layer in anyway. Although the DVB-T transmission system has proven its ability to serve fixed. DVB-H makes use of the following technological elements for the link and physical layers [17]: Link Layer: • Time Slicing in order to reduce the average power consumption of the receiving terminal and enable smooth and seamless frequency handover. • Physical Layer: • DVB-H signaling in the TPS bits to enhance and speed up service discovery. 4K mode is not mandatory for DVB-H. It is beneficial that the transmission system offers the possibility to repeatedly turn the power off to some parts of the reception chain. A full DVB-H system is a combination of physical and link layer. This will reduce the average power consumption of the receiver. Transmission system should make sure that. DVB-H signaling is not mandatory for DVB-H.

DVB-H Implementation guidelines.1. An example of using DVB-H for transmission of IP services is shown in the Figure 3. ETSI TR 102 377 v1.2. 8K. 3. The DVB-H demodulator includes a DVB-T demodulator (with optional 4K mode). a time slicing module and an optional MPE-FEC module. Conceptual structure of a DVB-H receiver Source: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB).3. 17] RF signal. 4K and 2K with the corresponding Transmitter Parameter Signalling (TPS).1 SCOPE OF DVB-H STANDARD The conceptual structure of a DVB-H receiver is shown in Figure 3. Time slicing and MPE-FEC is dealt with greater detail in the next section. provided by DVB-H offers in addition to the physical layer transmission.1 [17]. The DVB-T demodulator recovers the MPEG-2 transport streams packets from the received DVB-T [15. . April 2009. The demodulator offers 3 transmission modes. Figure 3. a complementary forward error correction function that allows the receiver to cope with particularly difficult reception situations. MPE-FEC module. The time slicing module provided by DVB-H.1. aims to reduce the power consumption while also enabling a smooth and seamless frequency handover. It includes a DVB-H demodulator and a DVB-H terminal.26 • In-depth symbol interleaver for the 2K and 4K modes to further improve the robustness in mobile environments and impulse noise conditions.

The transport stream distribution and needed network infrastructure deviate between SFN and MFN deployments [2]. 2. The principle and frequency resources for SFN and MFN are explained below. the COFDM carrier will be used exclusively by the mobile TV and audio channels as an IP datacast with the MPEG-2 envelope.27 Figure 3. In a dedicated network. DVB-H can be operated in three network configurations according to [1]: 1. DVB-H dedicated network: the DVB-T carrier is used exclusively for DVB-H transmission. A conceptual description of using a DVB-H transmitter and receiver (Sharing a MUX with MPEG-2 Services). 3.2. which for a part of the same modulator output. 3. DVB-H shared network (sharing the MPEG-2 multiplex): In a DVB-H shared network the mobile TV channels after IPE (IP encapsulation) share the same DVB-T multiplex along with other terrestrial TV programs.2 BASIC ASPECTS OF DVB-H NETWORKS The DVB-H network topology can be either single frequency network (SFN) or multifrequency network (MFN). . DVB-H hierarchical network (sharing DVB-T network by hierarchy): here the modulation is hierarchical with the two streams. while the mobile TV programs are in MPEG-4 coding and IPE. The terrestrial TV programs would be coded in MPEG-2. which is then transmitted after modulation. DVB-T and DVB-H. The multiplex combines these into a single transmit stream.

Conventionally planned DVB-H networks consist of transmitters with independent programme signal and with individual radio frequencies. an entire country of several hundred kilometers). Whether a number of transmitters is considered to belong to a specific network is an administrative matter rather than a technical one. The number of channels depends on the robustness of the transmission. i. The number of radio-frequency channels needed for conventionally planned DVB-H networks tends to be in the same order as with analogue TV systems.4 PRINCIPLE OF SFN (SINGLE FREQUENCY NETWORK) In an SFN. The installation of local or regional services is easy with the MFN concept compared to the SFN concept. In order to cover large areas with one DVB-T/H signal a certain number of radio-frequency channels are needed. Frequency resources needed for MFN: Robustness of the broadcasting system is generally expressed in terms of protection ratios.g. In such a case.3 PRINCIPLE OF MFN (MULTI FREQUENCY NETWORKS) When the area of required coverage is large (e. the type of modulation associated with the applied channel code rate and on the objective of planning [16]. Therefore they are referred to as Multi Frequency Networks (MFN). .28 3. one might expect that the number of channels needed for DVB-T/H is significantly lower than for analogue broadcasting as the protection ratios are generally lower in the digital case. 3. transmitters beyond a certain range use different frequencies. The transmitters in a MFN have not to obey rules of synchronous emissions.e. The frequency resource expressed as the number of channels needed to provide one signal at any location is far higher with MFN than with Single Frequency Networks (SFN). Hence coordination between transmitter operators is absolutely not necessary. all transmitters are synchronously modulated with the same signal and radiate on the same frequency. Due to the multipath capability of the multi-carrier transmission system (COFDM) signals from several transmitters arriving at receiving antenna may contribute constructively to the total wanted signal. sourcing a signal from a single IPE is not practical due to time delays in delivering signals to all transmitters.

Single frequency network. If signals from distant transmitters are delayed more than allowed by the guard interval they behave as noise-like interfering signals rather than as wanted signals. As an empirical rule. Source: DigiTAG.pdf The core features of the DVB-H are Time slicing and Multiprotocol Encapsulation Forward Error Correction (MPE-FEC).org/DTTResources/DVBHandbook. Available: http://www. while the MPE-FEC improves the robustness of the data transmission.broadcasting with DVB-H [Online].digitag. The time slicing decreases the power consumption. Therefore the frequency efficiency of SFNs appears to be very high compared to MFNs. to successfully reduce self interference to an acceptable value the guard interval time should allow a radio signal to propagate over the distance between two transmitters of the network. large areas can be served with a common multiplex at a common radio centre frequency. Time Slicing and MPE-FEC are described below. since only one IPE (IP encapsulator) is needed to provide transport streams for the entire network. . However.3 [18] shows an example of the Single Frequency Network. Figure 3. (2007). Figure 3. In the next section.29 One of the limiting effects of SFN is the so-called self interference of the network. SFN is also requires minimal network infrastructure. taking into account the presence of similar networks offering the other programme multiplexes in adjacent areas. Television on a handheld receiver . Frequency Efficiency of SFN: With the SFN technique.3. further radio frequency channels are required.

Visualization of time slicing. So once the receiver knows that Figure 3. Reimers. and U. In the time the receiver is in power-Save mode it can as well scan for other channels in neighboring cells that provide the same service and guarantee a smooth change. there is enough information transmitted to provide a video picture for the time when the receiver is in stand-by. a service can occupy the channel. the services are all located in the same small band and are transmitted on a rotary base (see Figure 3. . Kornfeld.pdf every x seconds his service is transmitted it can go in stand-by in the time other services are transmitted.30 3.ch/en/technical/ trev/trev_301-dvb-h.4. because you don’t want to lose the signal when you move around with your mobile phone. Available: http://www.4 [19] for an illustration). a single DVB-H multiplex can carry six to eight channels. DVB-H: The emerging standard for mobile data communication [Online]. we can use time-division multiplex (time slicing). which were earlier occupying one frequency slot each.ebu. Time slicing requires that in the relatively short time.5 TIME SLICING Because we have many services in one multiplex. (2005). You can see in the above Figure that.This means that instead of laying one service on top of another and transmit them simultaneously. This becomes important in DVB-H. Source: M.

and J. even if it is transmitted by the network. as generic section protocol for different DVB systems. Figure 3. Structure of MPE-FEC frame. Chichester.5 shows the overall structure of the MPE-FEC frame. Source: J.4. P.. MPE-FEC frame is a combination of application data and related parity information of the used FEC code. the receiver may ignore MPE-FEC and still be able to receive the application data carried within the MPE sections. This MPE-FEC scheme should allow high speed single antenna DVB-T reception using 8K/16-QAM or even 8K/64-QAM signals. while still providing far better performance than DVB-T (Without MPE-FEC) for the same throughput. The objective of the MPE-FEC (Multiprotocol Encapsulation Forward Error Correction) is to improve the C/N and Doppler performance in mobile channels where there is high packet loss ratio (PLR) and to improve the tolerance to impulse interference. The MPE-FEC frame is a matrix composed of 255 columns and from 256 upto 1024 rows as shown in the Figure 3. Jolma. The Functioning and Planning of Mobile TV.6 MPE-FEC The multiprotocol encapsulation was originally defined for the purpose of DVB data broadcasting in [20]. The DVB-H Handbook. The MPE-FEC overhead can be fully compensated by choosing a slightly weaker transmission code rate. MPE-FEC is an enhancement which is not mandatory to be used by the receiver. High packet loss ratio typically occurs on mobile channels when the receiver is in a high speed and/or the C/N is too low. UK: Wiley. Vare. Figure 3. Hence. E. The maximum size of the MPE-FEC frame is .31 3. Aaltonen.5. T. Penttinen. 2009. J. In addition MPEFEC provides good immunity to impulse noise interference [17].

4 that left part of the MPE-FEC frame consists of 191 rows and is called application data table. 3. Some other types of services. The IP datagrams and padding are always allocated in the left side of the frame while the RS data is allocated to the right. Handover: For a mobile reception in a DVB-T Multi Frequency Network. though. such as file downloading may require significantly higher bitrates. . the average power consumption of any additional receiver in a mobile handheld terminal should be less than 100 mW. i. In the future.32 approximately 2 Mbits. the DVB project estimated the future power consumption of DVB-T implementations. one practical limit being 384 Kb/s coming from the 3G standard. Power Consumption: According to [17]. Hence there is a requirement to allow for seamless handover and seamless scanning of alternative frequencies without having to include an additional RF part.7 MAIN ISSUES IN DVB-H 1. padding. The estimated maximum bitrate for streaming video using advanced compression technology like MPEG-4 is in the order of few hundred kilobits per second (Kb/s). the required reduction in power consumption may become as high as 90%. Right part consists of 64 rows and is called RS data table [2]. This is required due to the limited battery capacity and to the extremely challenging heat dissipation in a very small environment. Since DVB-T does not include seamless handover facilities. when merging the DVB-H receiver into a mobile handheld terminal. 3. The extra RF part would increase the cost of Receivers [17]. there is normally the need to handover to another frequency when the reception quality of the present frequency becomes too low. RS (Reed Solomon) data. Each time a frequency is scanned there will be an interruption.8 HOW TIME SLICING AND MPE-FEC PROVIDES A SOLUTION Services used in mobile handheld terminals require relatively low bitrates. unless the receiver is equipped with an extra RF part dedicated for this purpose. changing frequency normally results in a service interruption. However.e. 2. In addition to this the receiver will have to scan possible alternative frequencies to find out which of these provides the best or atleast sufficient reception quality. We can see in the Figure 3. and parity information of the FEC code. The estimation for a mobile handheld terminal was that the power consumption of the RF and baseband processing may come down to 600 mW by the year of 2007. It has been split into two parts dedicated to IP datagrams.

33 A DVB transmission system usually provides a bitrate of 10 Mb/s or more. This provides a possibility to significantly reduce the average power consumption of a DVB receiver by introducing a scheme based on Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). This technique is called time slicing. The idea of time slicing is to send the data in bursts at a higher bitrate compared to the bitrate required if the data was transmitted continuously. Within a burst, the time to the beginning of the next burst (delta-t) is indicated. Between the duration of bursts, elementary stream data is not transmitted, this allows other elementary streams to use the bitrate otherwise allocated. This enables the receiver to stay active for only a fraction of time, while receiving bursts of a requested service. Hence to get a reasonable power saving effect, the Burst Bitrates should be atleast 10 times the constant bitrate of the delivered service [17]. Time Slicing supports the possibility of using the Receiver to monitor neighboring cells during the Off-times. By accomplishing the switching between transport streams during an off period, the reception of a service is seemingly uninterrupted and thus handover is supported. The MPE-FEC also provides good immunity to impulsive interference. With MPEFEC, reception is fully immune to repetitive impulsive noise causing a destruction of OFDM symbols if the distance between the destroyed symbols is in the range 6ms to 24ms. This depends on the chosen DVB-T mode. MPE-FEC is introduced in such a way that MPE-FEC ignorant DVB-T receivers will be able to receive IP stream in a fully backwards-compatible way. This backwards compatibility holds when the MPE-FEC is used with and without time slicing.

3.9 DELTA-T METHOD

The basic goal of Delta-t method in DVB-H is to signal the time from the start of the MPE (or MPE-FEC) section, currently being received, to the start of the next burst within the elementary stream. The DVB-H standard also defines that delta-t equal to zero means “End of service” [17]. That is, no bursts related to the service are sent any more. Figure 3.6 shows the time delta-t contained in each MPE section header.

34

Figure 3.6. Each MPE section header contains delta-t indicating time to the beginning of the next burst Source: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB-H Implementation guidelines, ETSI TR 102 377 v1.3.1, April 2009. Delivering delta-t in MPE (or MPE-FEC) sections removes the need to synchronize clocks between transmitter and receiver. The resolution of delta-t is 10 ms. the delta-t actually signals the earliest possible time when the next burst may start. In bad reception conditions, parts of a burst may be lost. If the delta-t information is lost, the Receiver would not know the time to the next burst and therefore is forced to stay on waiting for the next burst. To avoid this situation, delta-t is delivered in the header of each MPE-section and MPE-FEC section within a burst. Accuracy of delta-t has an effect on the achieved power saving.

**3.10 BURST SIZE AND OFF-TIME
**

The size of a burst has to be less than the memory available in a Receiver. When a burst is received, a Receiver has to buffer the data within its memory, to be consumed during the time between bursts. Streaming services may require bigger buffering, even if time slicing is not used. Figure 3.7 shows the burst parameters used for DVB-H systems. Burst Size refers to the number of network layer bits within a burst. Network layer consist of section payload bits. Each MPE and MPE-FEC section contains 16 bytes overhead caused by the header and CRC-32. Burst Bitrate is the bitrate used by a Time-sliced elementary stream while transmitting a burst. Constant Bitrate is the average bitrate required

35

Figure 3.7. Burst parameters Source: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB-H Implementation guidelines, ETSI TR 102 377 v1.3.1, April 2009. by the elementary stream when not Time-sliced. Both constant and Burst Bitrates include transmission of transport_packets (188 bytes). For e.g. Burst size of 1Mb and a Burst Bitrates of 1 Mb/s, the Burst Duration is 1.04 seconds (due to 4% overhead) [17]. Off time is the time between bursts. During Off-time, no transport_packets are delivered on the relevant elementary stream. Formulas to calculate the length of a burst, off-time and the achieved saving on power consumption according to [17] is: Bd = Bs / (Bb x 0.96) Ot= Bs / (Cb x 0.96) - Bd Ps = (1- ((Bd + St +(3/4 x Dj )) x Cb x 0.96)/ Bs ) x 100% Where: Bd = Burst Duration (seconds) Bs = Burst Size (bits) Bb = Burst Bitrate (bits per second) Cb = Constant Bitrate (bits per second) Ot = Off-time (seconds) St = Synchronization Time (seconds) Ps = Power Saving (per cent) Dj = Delta-t jitter (seconds) (3.1) (3.2) (3.3)

The proposed 4K mode is also architecturally compatible with existing DVB-T infrastructure. In the DVB-T system. Figure 3.8.36 3. This mode brings in an additional flexibility in network design by trading off mobile reception performance and size of SFN networks. Hence 2K mode is more suitable for small size SFNs making difficult for network designers to build spectrally efficient networks. Functional block diagram of the DVB-H transmission system Source: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB).8 shows the blocks in DVB-T system. Framing Structure.11 PHYSICAL LAYER SPECIFICATIONS FOR DVB-H DVB-H includes a new transmission mode in the DVB-T physical layer using a 4096 FFT size: 4K mode.1 shows the guard interval lengths for all modes and it can be seen that 4K OFDM symbol has longer guard interval duration than a 2K OFDM symbol. ETSI EN 300 744 v1. . Table 3. allowing building medium size SFN networks. 2008-2009. which are affected by the addition of the 4K mode. Figure 3. the 2K transmission mode is know to provide significantly better mobile reception performance than the 8K mode.1.6. requiring only minor changes in the modulator and demodulator [17]. due to the larger inter-carrier spacing it implements. DVB-H is principally a transmission system allowing reception of broadcast information of single antenna hand-held mobile devices. the duration of the 2K mode OFDM symbols and consequently the guard interval duration are relatively short. However. channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television.

e. Guard Interval Lengths for all Modes 3. the terrestrial TV programs would be coded in MPEG-2. for example coded video or coded audio. A programme comprises one or more Packetized Elementary Streams (PES). As it can be seen in the Figure 3. which may contain several TV programmes and also possible some sound/data only programmes. in MPEG terms. . A programme. DVB-H with Multi-protocol encapsulation without the use of an intermediate MPEG-2 Transport stream. Figure 3. while the mobile TV programs are in MPEG-4 coding and IPE or any other high efficiency video coding standards. H. each 188 ocets long. Also. As mentioned in the previous section.1.12 TRANSMITTER INPUT SIGNAL We know that DVB-H system is defined based on the existing DVB-T standard for fixed and in-car reception of digital TV. It comprises a succession of packets. not an individual TV programme as broadcasters normally use the word. I would be explaining about the MPEG-2 Transport streams and then the advanced video coding standard. it will also contain time stamps to ensure that specified elementary streams are replayed in synchronism at a decoder.9 [21] shows the structure of a MPEG-2 Transport Stream. is a single broadcast service such as BBC2 or RAI Uno. called Transport Packets. The bit rate of the TS is determined by the application. each containing a single digitally coded component of the programme.9. The transmitter input signal is specified as an MPEG-2 TS (Transport Stream) multiplex.264 which is basically used for delivering DVB services directly over IP protocols i.37 Table 3. First. The TS (Transport Stream) was devised for multi-programme application in errorprone channels such as broadcasting. the TS allows the multiplexing of many PES. the Transport Stream takes variable length Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) and chops it up into a fixed length.

• Transport error indicator: indicates the packet is errored (block error testing) PID: is the channel identifier.agilent. A set of three flag bits are used to indicate how the payload should be processed. Source: C. no payload 11.pdf The header contains the following fields: • • • • The header of the MPEG-2 TS starts with a Synchronization Byte (8 bits). Two Scrambling control bits are used by conditional access procedures to process the encrypted payloads of some TS packets.38 Figure 3. It is used to determine the stream to which the packet belongs to.No adaptation field.com/upload/cmc_upload/All/6C06MPEGTUTORIAL1. M. The adaptation field indicates what kind of data the payload contains. identify and reconstruct programmes. Structure of MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS). • • • 01. (n. The two adaptation control bits can take four values. home.d) MPEG-2: The basics of how it works [Online]. payload only 10.9.Adaptation field only. PCR. Lynarczyk. the programme clock reference: provides 27 MHz clock recovery information. Available: http://www. It has the bit pattern 0x47. it contains all the navigation information required to find.Adaptation field followed by the payload • • • .

13 CHANNEL CODING The system input stream shall be organized in fixed length packets. the data of the input MPEG-2 multiplex shall be randomized in accordance with the configurations depicted in the Figure 3. This process is referred to as “Transport Multiplex Adaptation”. 3.10. This includes 1 sync-word byte (i. Randomized transport packets: sync and randomized data bytes. To provide an initialization signal for the descrambler. as shown in the Figure 3. the MPEG-2 sync byte of the first transport packet in a group of eight packets is bit-wise inverted from 47HEX (SYNC) to B8HEX .11.Reserved for future use There is a 4 bit continuity counter. It is shown in the Figure 3. The polynomial for the Pseudo Random Binary Squence (PRBS) generator shall be: 1+ X14 + X15 Loading of the sequence “100101010000000” into the PRBS registers. In order to ensure adequate binary transitions.e “0”) of the sync-word byte (i.10. The processing order at the transmitting side shall always start from the MSB (i. The total packet length of the MPEG-2 transport multiplex (MUX) packet is 188 bytes. shall be initiated at the start of every eight transport packets.10. following the MPEG-2 transport multiplexer. Scrambler/descrambler. .11. Figure 3. Figure 3.e 01 000 111).39 • • 00.e 47HEX ).

Figure 3. Reed-Solomon coding shall also be applied to the packet sync byte. RS codes are block based error correcting codes with a wide range of applications in digital communications and storage. leaving these bytes unrandomized.12 to generate an error protected packet. the PRBS generation shall continue. B8HEX ). an outer coding and an inner coding.188. also called as RS code. derived from the original systematic RS (255. during the MPEG-2 sync bytes of the subsequent 7 transport packets. The outer coding and interleaving shall be performed on the input packet structure as seen in Figure 3. enabling a decoding method considerably different from that of RS code [13].e.14 OUTER CODING AND OUTER INTERLEAVING DVB uses two levels of channel coding. MPEG-2 transport MUX packet.e. shall be applied to each randomized transport packet (1888 byte) of Figure 3. the period of the PRBS sequence shall be 1503 bytes. Instead a continuous sequence of information bits is mapped into a continuous sequence of encoder output bits.13.t=8) code.12.e. Figure 3. 47 HEX ) or inverted (i.e.t=8) shortened code. but its output shall be disabled. The outer coding is done using Reed Solomon Code. This mapping is highly structured.239.188. 3. Reed Solomon RS (204. These codes are fundamentally different from RS codes in that information sequences are not grouped into distinct blocks and encoded. To aid other synchronization functions.8) error protected packets. Reed-Solomon RS (204. . MSB) of the first byte following the inverted MPEG-2 sync byte (i.40 The first bit at the output of the PRBS generator shall be applied to the first bit (i. seen in Figure 3. The inner coding is done using convolutional coding.12. The Reed-Solomon code has length 204 byted. either non-inverted (i. B8HEX ). Thus. dimension 188 bytes and allows a correct up to 8 random erroneous bytes in a received word of 204 bytes.13.

and the input and output switches shall be synchronized. After the RS coding procedure. Following the conceptual scheme of Figure 3. N=204. This results in the interleaved data structure as seen in the Figure 3.41 Code generator polynomial: g(x) = (x+λ0) (x+λ1) (x+λ2)…. cyclically connected to the input byte-stream by the input switch.14.t=8) encoder.15. Figure 3. (x+λ15). leading to a RS code word of N =204 bytes. where λ=02HEX Field generator polynomial: p(x) = x8 +x4 +x3+x2+1 The shortened Reed-Solomon code may be implemented by adding 51 bytes. convolutional byte-wise interleaving with depth I=12 shall be applied to the error pprotected packets. Data structure after outer interleaving with interleaving depth as 12 bytes. Conceptual diagram of the outer interleaver and deinterleaver.14. with depth j x M Cells where M=17=N/I. these null bytes shall be discarder.. before the information bytes at the input of an RS (255. . The cells of the FIFO shall contain 1 byte. The interleaver may be composed of I=12 branches.15.239. Figure 3. Each branch j shall be a First-In. all set to zero. First-Out (FIFO) shift register.

v=4 for 16-QAM and v=6 for 64-QAM. it shall be signaled within the Transmission Parameter Signalling bits which would be discussed in the upcoming section. 5/6 and 7/8 3. Figure 3. is demultiplexed into v substreams. Both the bit-wise interleaving and the symbol interleaving processes are blockbased.42 3. 3/4. This can be seen in the Figure 3. This will allow selection of the most appropriate level of error correction for a given service or data rate in either non-hierarchical or hierarchical transmission mode. which consists of up to two bit streams. where v=2 for QPSK. The mother convolutional code of rate ½ If two level hierarchical transmissions are used. based on a mother convolutinal code of rate ½ with 64 states. Figure 3. 3.15 INNER CODING The system shall allow for a range of punctured convolutional codes. When the in-depth interleaver is used.16. The In-depth inner interleaver for 2K and 4K modes is shown in the Figure 3. In non-hierarchical .16. each of the two parallel channel encoders can have its own code rate. The generator polynomials of the mother code are G1=171OCT for X output and G2 =133OCT for Y output.18. In addition to the mother code of rate 1/2 the system shall allow punctured rates of 2/3.17 BIT-WISE INTERLEAVING The input.16 INNER INTERLEAVING The inner interleaving consists of bit-wise interleaving followed by symbol interleaving.17 gives a block view of the inner coding and interleaving.

xdi onto the output bits be.di(div)v In hierarchical mode: .43 Figure 3. In-depth inner interleaver for 2K and 4K modes. Inner coding and interleaving. mode. This applies in both uniform and non-uniform QAM modes. In hierarchical mode the high priority stream is demultiplexed into two sub-streams and the low priority stream is demultiplexed into v-2 sub-streams. the single input stream is demultiplexed into v sub-stream.18.17. The demultiplexing is defined as a mapping of the input bits. Figure 3.do In non-hierarchical mode: xdi = b[di(mod)v](div)(v/2)+2[di(mod)(v/2)].

div is the integer division operator.di(div)2 x"di = b[di(mod)(v-2)](div)((v-2)/2)+2[di(mod)((v-2)/2)]+2.0 x1 maps to b1. x'di is the high priority input to the demultiplexer.di(div)(v-2) Where: xdi is the input to the demultiplexer in non-hierarchical mode.0 x"0 maps to b2.0 x"3 maps to b5.0 x4 maps to b3.0 x5 maps to b5.0 x"1 maps to b3.0 x2 maps to b1. but the interleaving sequence is different in each case. in hierarchical mode.0 x3 maps to b3.0 x1 maps to b2. do is the bit number of a given stream at the output of the demultiplexer. di is the input bit number.0 x"0 maps to b2. x"di is the low priority input.0 16-QAM hierarchical transmission: x'0 maps to b0.0 64-QAM non-hierarchical transmission: x0 maps to b0.0 64-QAM hierarchical transmission: x'0 maps to b0. Bit interleaving is performed only on the useful data.0 x1 maps to b2.0 x'1 maps to b1.do is the output from the demultiplexer. The bit interleaving .0 x'1 maps to b1.0 Figure 3. e is the demultiplexed bit stream number (0 ≤ e < v).0 x3 maps to b1. mod is the integer modulo operator.0 x"1 maps to b4. The demultiplexing results in the following mapping: QPSK: x0 maps to b0. The block size is the same for each interleaver.0 x"2 maps to b3.0 16-QAM non-hierarchical transmission: x0 maps to b0.0 x2 maps to b4.19 shows the mapping of input bits for the non –hierarchical transmission modes. be.44 x'di = bdi(mod)2.

the block interleaving process is repeated forty-eight times. When the native 4K mode interleaver is implemented. for nonhierarchical transmission modes. block size is 126 bits. When the in-depth interleaving is applied in the 2K or 4K modes. The block interleaving process is repeated twenty-four times per OFDM symbol in the 4K mode. the . thus providing the symbol interleaver with the blocks of useful data needed to produce four consecutive “2K OFDM symbols” and two consecutive “4K OFDM symbols”. 3.18 SYMBOL INTERLEAVER The purpose of the symbol interleaver is to map v bit words on to the 3024 active carriers per OFDM symbol.19. either hierarchical or non-hierarchical.45 Figure 3. Mapping of input bits onto output modulation symbols.

. 3. With symbol duration shorter than in the 8K mode. Mobility is increased by a factor of two when compared to 8K on the other hand. It aims to offer an additional trade-off between single frequency network (SFN) cell size and mobile reception performance. Nmax = 3024 in the 4K mode. adding flexibility for the network design. in case of native interleaver. the 8K FFT mode supports slow moving terminals and large SFNs.46 symbol interleaver acts on blocks of 3024 data symbols. The interleaved vector Y= (y0.. 64-QAM being very sensitive for the interferences [2].19 MODULATION Modulation schemes that can be used in DVB-H are QPSK. providing an additional degree of network planning. is nevertheless adequate for the use of DVB-H scenarios. The objective of the 4K mode is to improve the network planning flexibility by trading off mobility and SFN size. and is meant to be a compromise between 2K and 8K FFT mode.…. The FFT size determines the subcarrier spacing in the OFDM signal. although not as high as with the 2K transmission mode. ...…. 16-QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) has 4 bits/symbol and 64-QAM has 6 bits/symbol.y'3 023). 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Thus in the 4K mode. . 24 groups of 126 data words from the bit interleaver are read sequentially into a vector Y' = (y'0. QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) has 2 bits/symbol.y2.y1. y'1. y'2.yNmax-1) is defined by: yH(q) = y'q for even symbols for q=0. • • • It allows single antenna reception in medium SFN’s at very high speed. 16QAM and QPSK are the most functional modes in DVB-H environment.. which requires moderate C/N and provides sufficient transmission capacity for DVB-H services [17]. For mobile and portable reception the most usable modulation scheme is 16QAM with the code rate of 1/ 2 or 2/3. thereby providing a mobile reception performance which.….Nmax-1 Where.. channel estimation can be done more frequently in the demodulator.Nmax-1 yq = y'H(q) for odd symbols for q=0. In general.. 3.20 4K MODE IN DVB-H The 4K (4096 point FFT) is a new addition to DVB-H.

The pilots can be used for frame synchronization. allows for mobile reception with reasonably low complexity channel estimators. In addition to the transmitted data an OFDM frame contains: Scattered pilot cells. continual pilot cells and TPS (Transmission Parameter Signalling) carriers. each symbol can in turn be considered to be divided into cells. For the 4K mode. It is composed of two parts: a useful part with duration Tu and a guard interval with a duration Δ. channel estimation. and consists of 68 OFDM symbols. medium and large SFNs. frequency synchronization. Since the OFDM signal comprises many separately modulated carriers.3 (p. • Terms of trade off according to [19] can be expressed as follows: • The DVB-T 8K mode can be used both for single transmitter operation and for small.21 OFDM FRAME STRUCTURE The transmitted signal is organized in frames. All symbols contain data and reference information. and is inserted before it. It provides a Doppler tolerance allowing very high speed reception. Four values of guard intervals may be used according to Table 3. time synchronization.47 • Doubling the subcarrier spacing with respect to the 8K mode. It provides a Doppler tolerance allowing high speed reception. Four frames constitute one super-frame. allowing building medium size SFN networks. The DVB-T 2K mode is suitable for single transmitter operation and for small SFNs with limited transmitter distances. Each symbol is constituted by a set of K= 3409 carriers and transmitted with a duration Ts. transmission mode identification and can alos be used to follow the phase noise. The DVB-T 4K mode can be used both for single transmitter operation and for small and medium SFNs. thus minimizing both power consumption and cost of the DVB-H receiver. . the carriers are indexed by k Є [Kmin. Tu. 4K mode OFDM symbol has a longer duration and consequently a longer guard interval than a 2K mode OFDM symbol. each corresponding to the modulation carried on one carrier during one symbol. Kmax] and determined by Kmin = 0 and Kmax =3408. The symbols in an OFDM frame are numbered from 0 to67. It provides a Doppler tolerance allowing extremely high speed reception. 48). Each frame has duration of TF. with respect to spectral efficiency. • • 3. The guard interval consists in a cyclic continuation of the useful part.

the numerical values for the OFDM parameters in 8MHz. 7 MHz and 6 MHz channels are given in Table 3. 7/48 µs for 6 MHz channels and 7/40 µs for 5 MHz channels.2. Table 3. Time Domain Parameters for 4K Mode in 8MHz. 1/8 µs for 7 MHz channels.2 and 3. 7MHz and 6MHz Channels The emitted signal is described by the following expressions: where: . 7MHz and 6 MHz Channels Table 3. The elementary period T is 7/64 µs for 8MHz channels. Frequency Domain Parameters for 4K Mode in 8 MHz.3.3. For the 4K mode.48 The values of time related parameters are given in multiples of the elementary period T and in microseconds.

number of useful data carriers is constant from symbol to symbol: 3024 useful carriers in 4K mode. wk. Each continual pilot coincides with a scattered pilot every fourth symbol. This sequence also governs the starting phase of the TPS information.Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) which is a series of values. 1 in frame number m.23 DEFINITION OF REFERENCE SEQUENCE The continual and scattered pilots are modulated according to a PRBS sequence. complex symbol for carrier k of the Data symbol no. 3.67. complex symbol for carrier k of the Data symbol no. is the carrier index relative to the centre frequency.k cm. The PRBS sequence is generated according to the Figure 3. is the inverse of the carrier spacing.(Kmax+ Kmin) / 2. is the central frequency of the RF signal. The information transmitted in these cells are scattered or continual pilot cells. is the duration of the guard interval. 68 in frame number m. is the number of transmitted carriers. one for each of the transmitted carriers. complex symbol for carrier k of the Data symbol no. denotes the OFDM symbol number.22 REFERENCE SIGNALS Various cells within the OFDM frme are modulated with reference information whose transmitted value is known to the receiver.49 k l m K TS TU ∆ fc k' cm. The PRBS is initialized so that the first output bit from the PRBS coincides with the first active carrier. 3.k denotes the carrier number. 2 in frame number m.k cm. k' = k . is the symbol duration. The polynomial for the Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) generator shall be: X11 + X2+1 .0. The value of the scattered and continual pilot information is derived from a Pseudo.20. A new value is generated by the PRBS on every used carrier (whether or not it is a pilot). denotes the transmission frame number. Cells containing reference information are transmitted at boosted power level. corresponding to their respective carrier index k.1.

For the symbol of index l (ranging from 0 to 67). k is the frequency index of the carriers and l is the time index of the symbols.24 LOCATION OF SCATTERED PILOTS Reference information.21. Pilot insertion pattern is shown in the Figure 3. Figure 3.20.k} = 4 / 3 × 2 (1/2 .21.k} = 0 Where m is the frame index. provided that the resulting value for k does not exceed the valid range [Kmin. Frame structure.wk) Im {cm. is transmitted in scattered pilot cells in every symbol.l. taken from the reference sequence.l. carriers for which index k belongs to the subset {k=Kmin + 3 x (1 mod 4) + 12p | p integer. . 3. p ≥ 0. Kmax]. Kmax] } are scattered pilots. k ∈ [Kmin. Scattered pilot cells are always transmitted at the "boosted" power level. Thus the corresponding modulation is given by: Re {cm.50 Figure 3. Generation of PRBS sequence. Where p is an integer that takes all possible values greater than or equal to zero.

4.4. Inner code rates.26 TRANSMISSION PARAMETER SIGNALLING (TPS) The TPS carriers are used for the purpose of signalling parameters related to the transmission scheme.e. Every TPS carrier in the same symbol conveys the same differentially encoded information bit. Thus the corresponding modulation is given by: Re {cm. Guard interval (not for initial acquisition but for supporting initial response of the receiver in case of reconfiguration).l. 4.25 LOCATION OF CONTINUAL PILOT CARRIERS For the 4K mode.l. Transmission mode .k} = 0 3. The TPS shall be transmitted in parallel on 34 TPS carriers and shall be carried on the carrier having the indices presented in the Table 3. 5.51 3. i. The continual pilots are transmitted at “boosted” power level. 89 continual pilots ( where “continual” means that they occur on all symbols) shall be inserted according to the Table 3. Carrier Indices for TPS Carriers in 4K Mode The TPS carriers convey information on: 1.wk) Im {cm. Table 3. Modulation including the α value of the QAM constellation pattern. Table 3. 3. Carrier Indices for Continual Pilot Carriers. Hierarchy information.5. to channel coding and modulation.k} = 4 / 3 × 2 (1/2 . 2.5.

S28 and S29 shall be used to signal if the in-depth interleaver is in use and if the transmission is hierarchical. referred to as one OFDM frame. 7. super –frame indicator and guard interval onto the bit combinations is performed. covering QPSK. 3. The use of the indepth interleaver for 2K or 4K transmission mode shall be signaled using bit S27 as indicated in the Table 3. The remaining 4 bits shall be set to zero. Each OFDM symbol conveys one TPS bit. valid cell identification information shall be transmitted and the value of the TPS length indicator shall be set to “100001” (33 TPS bits in use) Hierarchy and Interleaving information: Bits S27.28 TPS TRANSMISSION FORMAT The transmission parameter information shall be transmitted. α value. 16-QAM and 64-QAM. . 37 information bits. code rate(s). When an 8K signal is transmitted only the native interleaver shall be used. Each TPS block (corresponding to one OFDM frame) contains 68 bits. 3.6. 14 redundancy bits for error protection. TPS length indicator: When DVB-H signalling is in use. 33 are used. Cell identification. Four consecutive frames correspond to one OFDM super-frame. defined as follows: • • • • 1 initialization bit. It allows specification of uniform and non-uniform modulation schemes.52 6. The mapping of each of the transmission parameters: constellation characteristics. When DVB-H signalling is performed. 16 synchronization bits.27 SCOPE OF THE TPS The TPS is defined over 68 consecutive OFDM symbols. The α value defines the modulation based on the cloud spacing of a generalized QAM constellation. of the 37 information bits. The left most bit is sent first. Frame number in a super-frame. The reference sequence corresponding to the TPS carriers of the first symbol of each OFDM frame are used to initialize the TPS modulation on each TPS carrier.

using the bits S28 and S29 in accordance with the Table 3. Table 3.9. Signalling Format for Hierarchy Information Transmission mode: The transmission mode shall be signaled according to the Table 3.9.8. DVBH signalling shall be interpreted as in relation with the High Priority stream (HP) and in compliance with Table 3.9.8. Signalling Format for In-Depth Inner Interleaver If hierarchical transmission is used. DVB-H Service Indication .7. • Table 3.7. In case of Hierarchical transmission. DVBH signalling shall be interpreted in relation with the Low Priority stream (LP) in compliance with Table 3. as follows: • When received during OFDM frame number 1 and 3 of each super frame. the significance of bits S48 and S49 varies with the parity of the OFDM frame transmitted.53 Table 3.6.9. the value of the α factor shall be signalled. When received during OFDM frame number 2 and 4 of each super frame. Signalling Format for Transmission Mode DVB-H signalling: Bits S48 and S49 shall be used to indicate to the receivers the transmission of DVB-H services in compliance with Table 3. Table 3.

LP stream. which shall be interpreted in compliance with Table 3. whatever the constellation. the guard interval length. . we can see for all combination of code rates and modulation forms. 64-QAM: figures from 16-QAM columns. Table 3.13 gives the useful bitrates information for the 7 and 6 MHz channels. Number of Reed-Solomon 204 Bytes Packets per OFDM Super-Frame for all Combinations of Code Rates and Modulation Forms 3.30 USEFUL BITRATE Useful bitrates are given for the 4K mode in the following tables and cover the 8 MHz.29 NUMBER OF RS-PACKET PER OFDM SUPERFRAME The OFDM frame structure allows for an integer number of Reed-Solomon 204 byte packets to be transmitted in an OFDM super-frame. the values in italics are approximate values for the given channel bandwidth. Table 3. 7 MHz and 6 MHz channels.12 and table 3. For the hierarchical transmission schemes the useful bit rates can be obtained as follows: • • • HP stream: values from QPSK columns.11 shows the useful bitrates for non-hierarchical systems operating in 8 MHz channels.10 shows the number of RS byte packets per OFDM super frame. Table 3.10.9. Also in this table.54 In case of non-Hierarchical transmission. LP stream. 16-QAM: figures from QPSK columns. every frame in the super-frame carriers the same information. Table 3. the coding rate or the channel bandwidth may be. In the following tables. and therefore avoids the need for any stuffing. 3.

Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 6 MHz Channels .13.55 Table 3.11. Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 8 MHz Channels Table 3.12. Useful Bitrate (Mbit/s) for Non-Hierarchical Systems in 7 MHz Channels Table 3.

The TPS (Transmission Parameter Signalling) information is transmitted for the benefit of the receiver and is used for the signalling parameters related to the transmission scheme. single transmission mode (4K). each OFDM symbol is of duration 560 µs. I have simulated the system with 10 OFDM symbols with each symbol having 3409 modulated carriers. inner code rates. DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld). The thesis also describes a method to synchronize the receiver for the broadcasting system. then the duration of the useful symbol part Tu is 448 µs with a guard interval of duration 112 µs. where the size of the IFFT/FFT block is 4096. and guard interval length and transmission mode. Scattered pilots are always transmitted at a boosted power level.e. modulation scheme is fixed.56 CHAPTER 4 IMPLEMENTATION AND SIMULATION OF THE PHYSICAL LAYER FOR A DVB-H SYSTEM The main purpose of the thesis is to implement and simulate the physical layer for the DVB-H system. Hence. Since the implementation of the physical layer for DVB-H system constitutes non-hierarchical transmission mode (No hierarchy being used). If we are looking into the time domain parameters. fixed guard interval length. The amplitude of the scattered pilots is higher than the 16-QAM modulated complex data. Guard interval considered is 1/4 the size of IFFT/FFT block i. The scattered pilots are generated by the PRBS (Pseudo Random Binary Sequence) sequence generator according to the DVB-H standard and are placed at their respective sub carrier indices. . This chapter describes the simulations run and the results. hierarchy information. modulation scheme. The system implemented operates in 4K mode. with the elementary period T is 7/64µs for 8 MHz channel. 1024. Random data packets of length 3409 are generated and are 16QAM modulated. These Parameters are: frame number in a superframe. channel coded (outer and inner) and interleaved (outer and inner). the transmission of TPS bits have been ignored. The input data is assumed to be MPEG encoded.

the two points on the real axis are the scattered pilots. the other 16 points represent the 16-QAM modulated data values. The modulated carriers are loaded on the negative side and positive side of the frequency bins before it is passed through the IDFT/IFFT block.6.5 shows the occupied frequency bins for one DVB-H symbol which consists of modulated data and scattered pilots. In this Figure. The plot in Figure 4. . The scattered pilots are generated according to the polynomial for the Pseudo Random Binary Sequence generator X11+X2+1.57 Figure 4. Real and imaginary values for 10 OFDM symbols duration considered in this system is shown in the Figure 4. Figure 4. Matlab output plots for each of the blocks in Figure 4.1 shows the blocks diagram of a DVB-H system simulated using MATLAB consisting of both transmitter and the receiver.1.4 shows the 16-QAM constellation diagram of the input data with the pilots. Figure 4. It can be seen from the Figure 4.3 shows the 16-QAM complex data along with the scattered pilots for one OFDM symbol.5.1 is shown and explained. In the next section.2 that amplitude of the reference signal is increased by a factor of 1.2. Block diagram of the DVB-H system simulated. Plot of the scattered pilots is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.

58

Figure 4.2. Scattered pilots generated by PRBS sequence generator.

Figure 4.3. 16-QAM complex data with the scattered pilots. Once the data is IDFT transformed, a cyclic prefix of length 1024 samples is appended to the beginning of every OFDM symbol. This helps in eliminating the ISI and ICI almost completely. It also ensures that the delayed replicas of the OFDM symbol will have integer number of cycles in the FFT interval as long the length of the delay is lesser than the length of the cyclic prefix. This process is repeated to generate 10 OFDM symbols. Figure 4.7 shows one DVB-H symbol with cyclic prefix for the duration of 560 µs after the IFFT block. This data is passed through a multipath fading channel. Before the data being passed through the channel, white complex Gaussian noise is added to the OFDM symbols. The FIR filter models a multipath fading channel. We assume that the maximum delay spread of the

59

Figure 4.4. 16-QAM constellation diagram with pilots.

Figure 4.5. One DVB-H symbol with data and reference signal.

60

Figure 4.6 Real and imaginary values for the duration of OFDM packet.

Figure 4.7. One DVB-H symbol with cyclic prefix in time domain.

40) 0. Figure 4.40) 0. The carrier frequency offset rotates the constellation. One of the other impairments that have to be induced in the system is the frequency offset that exists between the transmitter and the receiver. The carrier frequency offset causes the sub-carriers index shift with the value of integer Carrier Frequency Offset.40) 0.8.01 zeros(1.40) 0.1) The equation shown in Figure 4. The angle that corresponds to the frequency offset is: . The channel considered here in the system is: channel=[1 zeros(1. Impulse and frequency response of the channel is shown in the Figure 4. It is always necessary to compensate the carrier frequency offset as early as possible.01] (4. Impulse and frequency response of the multipath channel. So this is taken care at the receiver end.1 is a multipath Rician channel with 4 path and 3 echoes.8. This would make the index position of scattered pilots in the wrong position.01 zeros(1.2*j zeros(1. We spin the samples of the OFDM symbols by an angle that corresponds to 1% of the bandwidth of the carriers but we can also go up to 10% of the bandwidth.61 channel is approximately 1/6 of the length of the guard interval.

spinning the data samples in the OFDM symbols by an angle specified in the Equation 4.4) Where Δf refers to bandwidth of the carriers.4 and then passing it through the fading channel with Added noise. Now we have reached a stage where the data has been transmitted through the channel and the necessary impairments has been introduced such as phase offset.9 shows the constellation diagram of input data after spinning it according to the Equation 4.4 in the time domain would create a frequency offset in the frequency domain.2) (4. Figure 4.4 would introduce 1% of frequency offset.3) (4. Equation 4. Constellation diagram of the data after spinning and passing it through the multipath channel with AWGN. Figure 4. It is like. . white complex Gaussian noise and echoes in the channel.62 (4.9.

However Digital Video Broadcasting system receivers would initially spend a long time to acquire the signal and then switch to the tracking mode. Here we correlate the received samples with the delayed version of itself. cross correlation outputs and also the auto correlation outputs are added separately in the sliding average filter.e. For each sampling interval. Preliminary stage of the receiver is to do the symbol timing synchronization. we multiply the delayed register samples with the conjugate of itself and this process is called Auto Correlation. To facilitate synchronization in current WLAN standards. The OFDM receiver that I have designed here for the broadcast system would take very few OFDM symbols to acquire the signal and then demodulate. which may reach a value that is larger than the . the correlation output is a random variable. The maximum cross correlation peak occurs at the beginning of the next OFDM symbol.e.10 is the received samples. At the receiver side. Averaging the cross correlation output over the length of the cyclic prefix results in maximum cross correlation value over the OFDM symbol duration. like WLANs. The incoming samples into the sliding average filter are added and then passed onto the symbol averager. The length to the delay register is chosen to be size of the transform length i. These two systems require somewhat different approach to the synchronization problem [22]. Multiplying the delayed samples with the conjugate of current received samples is known as the Cross correlation. 1024. At the same time.63 OFDM is used for both broadcast type systems like DVB and packet switched networks. The input to the symbol detection system shown in the Figure 4. Length of this filter is chosen to be the length of cyclic prefix i. which we can call the system to be in acquisition mode. Frame synchronization presented here exploits the cyclic extension property that precedes every OFDM symbol. a preamble is included in the start of the packet. Next the cross correlation and auto correlation outputs are passed through the sliding average filter. This makes the synchronization fast and relatively easier than the broadcast systems. 4096. Since the different OFDM symbols contain independent sample values. we will follow the approach presented by Schimdl and Cox [23] for the Symbol Timing Synchronization.

e.11 that the cross correlation peaks to be very noisy in spite of averaging over the duration of time. However we can see in the Figure 4. Ratio of Cross correlation over auto correlation is called the Normalized cross correlation. but also the noise and echoes from the channel. Symbol detection system. thus making the start of the symbol more detectable.64 Figure 4. To better the correlation outputs. we can see how noisy the peaks are and hence . Since this calculated energy is almost equal to the energy of the cross correlation. This is because the received samples not only contains data. Next. desired correlation peak. 5120. the summed up values coming out of the sliding average filter is passed through the symbol averaging filter. ratio of the cross correlation over auto correlation would give a gain approximately equal to one. The auto correlation also calculates the energy in the cyclic prefix. we can think of weighted auto correlation sum to be acting as an automatic gain controller.11. blue colored peaks show the normalized cross correlation peaks and the red colored line shows the auto correlation also. This symbol averaging filter suppresses the noise as much as possible since the symbol keeps repeating. Length of this symbol averaging filter is chosen to be length of the OFDM symbol with cyclic prefix i.10. In the Figure 4.

5.11. (4. This resultant angle would also contain the total angles of the 1024 samples. The cyclic extension correlation output can be used to estimate the frequency offset. the peak detection becomes very difficult. Figure 4. Thus the demodulation results would give the incorrect outputs. Hence the frequency offset can simply be found as the correlation phase divided by 2πT [4]. Figure 4.7. the angle at the output of the 1024 long sliding average filter is divided by 4096. 4.12 shows the coarse frequency offset.5) . Plot of normalized cross correlation and auto correlation. To find the approximate phase drift from sample to sample.65 Figure 4. Equations for the cross correlation.6 and 4.10 also calculates the frequency offset of the received OFDM symbol spectrum. The phase of the correlation output is equal to the phase drift between samples that are T seconds apart. auto correlation and the ratio according to [23] are shown below in Equations 4.

66 Figure 4. The input to the peak detection system is the absolute values of the normalized cross correlation samples. Angle of coarse frequency offset.11. Normalized cross correlation peaks are very noisy and it can be seen in the Figure 4.7 so that we do not want the ratio to go to infinity.7) A small value δ is added in the Equation 4. The aim is to smooth the normalized cross correlation peaks without sacrificing the sharpness of it. (4. So the peak detection system shown in Figure 4. It cannot be used for peak detection and hence demodulation process.13 will help us in finding the peaks of the cross correlation and thus finding the start of the OFDM symbol [24].6) (4. The comb part of the CIC filter finds the . The CIC filter removes the noise in the normalized cross correlation samples by averaging over many samples.12.

Figure 4. I have delayed the system to wait for 2 OFDM symbols. difference between two samples that are 200 taps apart. Peak detection system. The outputs of the averaged cross correlation.67 Figure 4. The integrator averages the current sample with the previously calculated value. and should not be exceeding the length of the cyclic prefix. derivative of the cross correlation can be seen in the Figures 4.14. it is scaled by a factor of P.13. because the energy contained in it is very noisy. From the Figure 4. wherever the peaks are located in the averaged cross correlation output. Where R is the length of the comb filter. Where P = 1/ R. it looks for a negative slope for .17 shows the plot of both the averaged and differentiated cross correlation outputs. The squelch detector is used for monitoring the positive slope.15 and 4. The squelch detector in the Figure 4.13 turns on when a valid OFDM symbol is received. This helps us in slope detection process to find the peak.15 gives us the closer look of the averaged cross correlation peaks and we can see that the peaks are very smooth. We would think this to be a derivative filter. Once it finds the positive slope. It is easily identified as the recursive accumulator [25].16. We are using the averaged cross correlation outputs to find a peak and then the derivative of cross correlation to precisely locate the start of the OFDM symbol. The comb filter is selected in such a way that it is long enough to average over many samples and provide smooth curve. we can see the dip in the differentiated cross correlation. 4.17 we can infer that. In the simulation. The detector uses a 5 tap register to monitor a positive slope with a value greater than the set threshold. Figure 4. To normalize the output of CIC filter.

Figure 4. . Zoomed-in plot of averaged cross correlation.15.14.68 Figure 4. Averaged cross correlation.

Figure 4.16. Plot of averaged and differentiated cross correlation.69 Figure 4. Differentiated cross correlation.17. .

So once the negative slope occurs. To estimate the channel. let’s say the first pilot encountered by the receiver is at the position ‘K1’. we make use of the received pilots. 4096. To calculate the value of received pilots. the system would turn on. by first looking into the positive slope and it waits for the negative slope to occur.8. Also. we know that the peak value is stored in that 11-tap register. we also look for the corresponding minimum value in the 11-tap register used for differentiated cross correlation samples. So once we find the peak value in the register used for the averaged cross correlation. Wherever the minimum value is located. If the detector finds a negative slope within this period. it would stay up for the period of one OFDM symbol. the cyclic prefix is discarded and the rest of 4096 samples in each OFDM symbol are DFT transformed. The equalizer would take care of the residual frequency offset.4. Let the second received pilot be at the position ‘K2’. The system searches for peak value in that register. however before the data is passed onto the FFT block. To explain this. In order for the receiver to acquire the original bits. we use another 11-tap register for the differentiated cross correlation samples. it needs to take into account these unknown changes.70 the duration of one OFDM symbol. Hence we do the channel estimation. Since the receiver knows the transmitted values of these pilots. it performs the coarse frequency offset by de-spinning the samples according to the calculated angle shown in Equation 4. we are using 11-tap register that contains the averaged cross correlation samples to search for the peak value. Once the samples are in the frequency domain.e. Next step is to do the FFT. The modulated bits are disturbed during the transmission through the channel since the channel introduces amplitude and phase shifts due to frequency selective and timevarying nature of the radio channel [8]. it tells us the start of the OFDM symbol. Next. The received pilots are divided by the pilot values known to the receiver. A linear interpolation technique is applied to estimate the channel effects for all the data samples lying in between the pilots. Once the system turns on. we use the Equation 4. the system does the channel estimation. Once the peak detection system locates the start of the OFDM symbol. The transform length for FFT algorithm is chosen to be same as the IFFT block i. channel effects can be found at these pilot locations. .

007 zeros(1.71 (4. So the channel effect is equalized by multiplying the received samples with the reciprocal of the channel estimate. rn = received sample pn = known pilot value n = pilot locations Calculation of the channel effects for the data samples in between the estimated pilots is given by the Equation 4. Figure 4.19) 0.20 shows the 16 QAM constellation after the coarse frequency offset. Figure 4.29) 0.9. This process is given by Equation 4.41)] (4. we do the equalization to undo the effects of the channel.25 shows the 16-QAM constellation diagrams for the Rayleigh Fading Channel. Hpn = Channel estimate at pilot locations Hk = Channel estimate for the data samples Next.19 and 4.24 and 4.9) 0.12) Figure 4. (4.8) Where.7 zeros(1.22 shows the output plots for the QPSK constellation for the multipath Rician channel with 1% frequency offset.11. The channel considered for Figure 4. . This shows equalization is a simple process in OFDM systems. Figure 4.21 and 4. constellation diagram at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization for a Rician channel with 1% frequency offset.11) The equalizer uses the channel estimate of the current symbol to equalize the channel effects of the next incoming symbol. (4.07*j zeros(1. Figure 4.23 shows the estimated channel and Rayleigh fading channel.9) Where.18 shows the spectrum of the estimated channel and the actual Rician fading channel.23 is: channel=[0 zeros(1.

72 Figure 4.19. Constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset. Figure 4. Spectrum of the estimated channel and multipath rician channel with 1% frequency offset. .18.

73 Figure 4. .20.21. Figure 4. 16 QAM constellation diagrams at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization. QPSK constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset.

22.23. Spectrum of the extimated channel and Rayleigh channel with 1% frequency offset. QPSK constellation diagram at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization with frequency offset of 1%. . Figure 4.74 Figure 4.

16 QAM constellation diagram at the transmitter and at the receiver after equalization for the Rayleigh fading channel. constellation diagram of the received data after coarse frequency offset fot he Rayleigh fading channel.75 Figure 4.25. Figure 4. .24.

since the peaks of the normalized cross correlation looked very noisy.3. The implemented simulator is very flexible.1 standard. . At the receiver. can very well serve as a baseline for the simulation of DVB-SH (Satellite Services to Handheld devices) system. with some minor necessary modifications. The random data generated at the transmitter is assumed to be coded (outer and inner) and interleaved. one can change the size of the FFT mode like 2K mode or 8K mode with corresponding guard interval length and look into the performance and results of the system for different carrier modulation schemes. The samples in the OFDM symbols were spun by an angle that corresponds to 1% of the bandwidth of the carriers. and then transmitted through the multipath channel. However. we computed the normalized cross correlation and the angle that corresponds to the frequency offset. First is the Rician fading channel and the other is Rayleigh fading channel. The system was simulated considering two different channel conditions. The transmitted data was successfully received. The length of the cyclic prefix considered is 1/4 the duration of the OFDM symbol. the process of detecting the peak to locate the start of the OFDM symbol becomes very hard. The system uses the averaged cross correlation samples to find the peak and differentiated cross correlation samples to locate the start of the OFDM symbol.76 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The implemented DVB-H system is simulated in 4K FFT mode with 16-QAM and QPSK carrier modulation schemes. The system also shows the channel estimation process using the scattered pilots. Spectrum of the actual multipath channel and the estimated channel is also shown. This is shown in the Constellation diagrams for the transmitted OFDM symbols and the received OFDM symbols after equalization. We implemented a peak detection system using CIC filters to average the normalized cross correlation samples and also calculate the differentiated cross correlation values. The system is simulated according to the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standard Institute) TR 102 377 v1. The system designed in this thesis.

It is an enhanced version of DVB-H. It is expected that by 2015. and then finally recover and demodulate the signals. The future of DVB-H is called the DVB-NGH (Digital Video Broadcasting – Next Generation Handheld). The publications of the related ETSI standard(s) are expected in 2011. a more optimized coding scheme is necessary. more robust channel estimation techniques. it can be synchronized with any given mobile TV standards. The first commercial NGH devices might then become available in 2013 [26]. To facilitate this. interleaving and also transmit the real MPEG coded TV signals. the demand for rich multimedia content consumption would increase drastically. . Further scope of improvement would be to investigate the synchronization of fine frequency offset.77 The simulation can further be extended by adding the coding. The receiver can further be designed in such a way that. Standardization process for DVB-NGH would begin in the first quarter of 2010.

UK: Wiley. 2nd ed. Burlington. and R. 35.An overview of OFDM [Online]. [Online].org/technology. Li. 2000. Prasad. Upper Saddle River. Arvind Padmanabhan. Harris. pp. part I: Characterization. (1997). ETSI EN 300 744 v1. channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television. DVB H Fact Sheet.” presented at Department of Electrical Engineering. CA. (2010). New York: Springer.pdf A. 2008.jpg F. R. Norwood. OFDM. Charan Langton. The Functioning and Planning of Mobile TV. 2006.6. Bahai. with CDMA comparisons [Online]. Available: http://www. Eds. San Diego. San Diego State University. R. 2004-2007. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] . vol.com/chapters/ofdm2. Available: www. Bernard. Van Nee.htm Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Framing Structure.” IEEE Communications magazine. Saltzberg. MA: Focal Press. “Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digital communication systems. Transmission aspects. 2009. Available: http://nptel. and G. Y. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services. 2008-2009. July..htm S. L.com/publications/4thyrthesis/chapter1. DVB-H. 3G Systems and Rich Media Applications. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM). 90-100.in/courses/Webcoursecontents/IIT%20Kharagpur/ Computer%20netw-orks/ pdf/M2L7.ac. Ergen.1. 2007. T. [Online].2. DMB. B.files. The DVB-H Handbook. New Jersey: Prentice Hall India.com/2008/03/ofdm-subcarriers. Available: http://mobilewireless. 2002. Wireless Communications. S. and M.org/about_dvb DVB-H. IIT Kharagpur NPTEL. Multi-Carrier Digital Communications: Theory and Applications of OFDM. iitm. 1997. (2009).wordpress. (2008). Stüber. The suitability of OFDM as a Modulation technique for wireless telecommunications. MA: Artech House Publishers.complextoreal.dvb.pdf T. J.78 REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] A. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Wireless Communications. Kumar. Chichester.skydsp. Penttinen et al. Available: www. G. Principles and Practice. 2004. Rappaport. Module 2.dvb-h. (2003). ETSI TR 101 190 v1. “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Mobile TV DVB-H.1. OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications.. Available: http://www. (2010). Tutorial 22 [Online]. S. J. J. New York: Springer. Eric Lawrey. About DVB [Online]. Mobile and Wireless . Broadcasting to Handhelds. R. Lesson 7.

Available: http://www. Heiskala.. “Simulation of a DVB-T system.) MPEG-2: The basics of how it works [Online]. T. C. Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in DVB services delivered directly over IP protocols. San Diego. 2007 Harris. (2007). Farah. NJ: Prentice Hall. 1997. DVB. April 2009. and D. Available: www. (n.pdf M. vol. Cox. F.1.dvb.digitag. OFDM Wireless LANs: A Theoretical and Practical Guide. (2007). 45. IN: Sams Publishing. 2004. C. Transcoding Transport Stream MPEG2 [Online] Available: http://edt. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Lynarczyk.com/upload/cmc_upload/All/6C06MPEGTUTORIAL1. pp 1613 – 1621.1.pdf J. CA. J.pdf Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). 2007. 2002. “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM. Indianapolis.3.. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.ch/en/technical/trev/trev_301-dvb-h. Dept.home. ETSI TS 102 005 v 1. (2003). A. Upper Saddle River. DVB-H: The emerging standard for mobile data communication [Online].broadcasting with DVB-H [Online].org/DTTResources/DVBHandbook. M. Next Generation Handheld [Online]. 2010. and J. (2003).. thesis.ebu. S. Available: http://www. Schmidl.79 [17] [18] [19] Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): DVB-H Implementation guidelines. Home Page [Online].1. Shilarnav. Fred J. San Diego State Univ. San Diego State Univ. Comm. CA. “Symbol time synchronization and coarse carrier frequency offset synchronization for the ISDB Standard. D. Reimers. M.3.pdf Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): IP Datacast over DVB-H: Architecture. (2005).1. Available: http://www.” M. ETSI TR 102 377 v1.” IEEE Trans. and U.org S. DigiTAG.dvb. Mohammad. CA [5] .org/ technology/dvb-ngh/ [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] WORKS CONSULTED [1] [2] [3] [4] DVB. ETSI TR 102 469 v1. Television on a handheld receiver . 2006-2005.d. Electrical Engineering Department. Harris. San Diego State University.S Thesis.S. Kornfeld. Dept. Terry.agilent. Available: http://www. Thesis consultation. San Diego. San Diego. Dec. Multirate Signal Processing for Communication Systems.” M. R.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Thesis/ShilarnavS-070207-T7646/research.

- PID178349Uploaded bymonstrounette
- PAPR LectureUploaded byskh_1987
- Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in NC-OFDM based Cognitive Radio.Uploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- Sample Code OfdmUploaded byanithaedison1
- LTE CourseUploaded byfgfdfdsd9104
- VLSIUploaded bys_ice_iu
- Final Rep RtUploaded byVivek Sai
- 93107v00 Wireless App Note MW 5G Library-1Uploaded bykd kd
- 10.1.1.436.6485.pdfUploaded bymsachemo1
- An Improved PSK Scheme for Fading ChannelsUploaded bybirju668
- LTE Fundamentals (June 2010)Uploaded byAndré Ribeiro
- Constellation RotationUploaded byAmber Sultan
- 10.1.1.11Uploaded byLina Puyeng
- chapter1_2Uploaded byJagritiKumari
- LTE OverviewUploaded bySergey Isaev
- ATSC 3.0 PHYUploaded bysvasanth1
- Tutorial Sheet Moblie CommunicationUploaded byAdi Prasanth
- WiMax Measurement User ManualUploaded bySanthosh Rajadayalan
- Spread Spectrum, Dsss, Fhss, Thss, Css, OfdmUploaded byShashi Tj
- Modem DspUploaded bysaleemnasir2k7154

- s4_1020_Zhang_AOMSUC2013.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 20080013364.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04480865.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 07325147.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04648442Uploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04787002_TO STUDENTS.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 06408253 to StudentsUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- Soil_moisture.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- RHCP to LHCP.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 06351891 to StudentsUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 07326191.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 07542511.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04480865.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04648442Uploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 8 COMMUNICATION & NAVIGATION.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- Train Addition Wfun 1Uploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 10.1.1.128.4955.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 06927838.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 04.20199.smdeshpande.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- ADF7012Uploaded byFilip Zalio
- 85239.pdfUploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- 20131226b8a6182fa73a4ab3a5f107f762283712.pdfUploaded byRoshdy AbdelRassoul
- 05469177Uploaded byGayathri Srinivasa
- VLSI Digital Signal Processing SystemsUploaded byVy Amulya

- [Mémoire/Thesis] Gamification & Quantified-Self : Dans quelles mesures, la gamification améliore-t-elle l’expérience utilisateur des services de sport connecté ?Uploaded bymenai_samy
- 2008 Wagner Mitgutsch Endbericht DsdgblUploaded byGregor Berthold
- Fisiologia Cardiovascular (1)Uploaded byDenisse Fimbres
- Agostini, Roberto - Studiare la popular music (Dal blues al liscio, ed. Stefani, 1992)Uploaded byRoberto Agostini
- El chamuyoUploaded byMatias Gandolfo
- Realización de una Pizarra Digital con un WiiMote versión web.pdfUploaded bymarcelkita
- La Vida de David GaleUploaded byDany Caro Bustos
- Planos de juguete de madera, autobús escolarUploaded bykevineli
- MANUAL PACIFIC manual.pdfUploaded bybrunoentringer-1
- Levantate Señor - 1ª & 2ª Trompeta en SibUploaded byYHWH MV
- IAHSP Hosts the 2018 Home Staging Conference & EXPO Oct 18-20 Featuring the Scott Brothers - Jonathan & Drew - HGTV's "Property Brothers," as Keynote SpeakersUploaded byPR.com
- 6 VálvulasUploaded byAlan Cuba
- Casinos Are GoldminesUploaded byMario Bra
- adap. jovenesUploaded byAbnerYac
- O Romance UrbanoUploaded byIsabele Petry
- TRADUCIDO ZenZuuUploaded bypepe2000
- WorkShop Para FuncionáriosUploaded byGabrielFerreira
- Prueba Un Secreto en Mi Colegio, Parte 1Uploaded byAnita Maria Escobar Velásquez
- Manual CD 5022BTUploaded byAlan Santana
- Exposicion Sobre Colombia-2Uploaded byjohanapatriciapachec
- MAPA CONCEPTUAL.-EJE N°1.-HISTORIA II.-SAINETE ESPAÑOLUploaded byJuan Carlos Castañeda
- Sports Betting Tips Results for 25/04/2011Uploaded byarchalys4u
- Road Surface Profiler Mark III_A4_webUploaded byErwin Kohler
- Akai Amd 315 Man EsUploaded byanda45
- Radio EnlaceUploaded byDaniel Perez Mattey
- Taller Frecuencia y Periodo de Un MASUploaded byRobinson Mosquera
- Colgar PDF en Mi WebUploaded byJohn
- 85A+2011+SyllabusUploaded bythunderwolf333
- Relógio de Ponto PC - ManualUploaded byIan Nakano
- INVENTORY OF THE DUVEEN BROTHERS RECORDS 1876 1981 BULK 1909 1964Uploaded byverityv