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[this is the 2013 syllabus; the 2014 syllabus will be the same except for dates]
Political Science 159 International Environmental Governance (1 July-9 August 2013)
Robert V. Bartlett Department of Political Science University of Vermont Email: email@example.com The crisis of our times grows out of our perverse reluctance to accept the judgment of history on the modern world, and to take up the difficult task of making the changes in attitudes, behaviors, and institutions required for the transition to an enduring and endurable future. Lynton K. Caldwell, Between Two Worlds COURSE SUMMARY In recent decades there have been many fascinating and immensely important developments in environmental politics that extend beyond the borders of any one country. The first overtly environmental agreements between countries were adopted in the late nineteenth century, but since the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden, there has been an explosion of activity. Dozens of international governmental organizations have been created, hundreds of international nongovernmental organizations have emerged, and numerous transnational networks and informal governance regimes have developed concurrently with the globalization of economic and financial systems, communications, and culture. Although a global government is a dubious and unforeseeable prospect, the global system is nevertheless governed. In this course we will attempt a broad overview of global environmental governance processes and institutions among, across, and beyond nation states. PREREQUISITES POLS 051, Introduction to International Relations, is officially a prerequisite for this course. If you are taking the course without this prerequisite, it is your responsibility beforehand to master the material in any good Intro to IR textbook under the topics of international law, international organizations, and political economy, all are necessary to doing well in this course. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Regular access to a computer and a connection to the Internet. Firefox Browser on the Mac or Windows platforms (other browsers may work, but behave inconsistently). You can download Firefox browser at: http://www.uvm.edu/software; enter your "netid" and password for UVM email to proceed. You need a Skype account (you can call anyone else with a Skype account for free). REQUIRED READINGS All books been ordered through the UVM Bookstore. If you buy them elsewhere, be certain you have the right edition and translation! Axelrod, Regina S., Stacy D. VanDeveer, and David Leonard Downie, eds. The Global Environment: Institutions, Law, and Policy, Third Edition. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-87289-966-7
Bodansky, Daniel. The Art and Craft of International Environmental Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-674-06179-8 Mitchell, Ronald B. International Politics and the Environment. Los Angeles: Sage, 2010. ISBN 978-14129-1975-3 Young, Oran R. On Environmental Governance: Sustainability, Efficiency, and Equity. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-1-61205-133--8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of the term, the student should be able to: •demonstrate mastery of basic concepts and theories of international relations and international law and to demonstrate the application of these to understanding environmental policy questions. •demonstrate mastery of the concept of governance and to be able to explain current key nongovernmental institutions and processes of earth system governance. •describe and analyze basic characteristics of the state, to analyze and evaluate the role of the state in global environmental governance, and to critically assess the prospects for environmental governance of the development of quasi-state institutions and processes. •describe and analyze ways that intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and transnational corporations affect global environmental politics. •describe basic features of environmental policy development in the international arena and to explain how this development differs from that which occurs within nation states. •use a set of arguments from one reading and apply them to analyze critically a different issue or set of arguments. •analyze and evaluate an international environmental policy or policy proposal, basing an assessment of merit, worth, or value on sound arguments and evidence. •advance a normative position on critical matters of international environmental politics, backing this judgment with sound arguments and evidence. •demonstrate the above skills in written essays, in brief analytical remarks, and in extemporaneous online discussions. WORK EXPECTATIONS The University as a whole has adopted a policy that states the work expectation for all UVM classes is, at a minimum, two hours of work outside of the classroom for each hour of class meeting time, or at least 120 hours total (40 in class, 80 outside of the classroom) for a three-credit course. The work expectation for a totally online course then is also at least 120 hours. That means for this course, offered in a six-week term, you should expect to spend at least 20 hours a week in online and offline activities. BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS I view this as a fascinating, exciting, terribly important subject. I will do my best to make learning about it interesting, fun, and rewarding by using a variety of learning exercises. All of these involve you in some mode of active learning, of learning by doing. This is not a class in which you can sit back and watch and memorize, and expect to do well. Learning should be fun, but it isn't just fun--it requires work and
discipline. In our postindustrial world, the three skills most important for college graduates are the ability to think critically, to write well, and to speak articulately. People who have these skills succeed and become leaders (and in crass material terms, usually get paid more over their lives). These may also be the three most important citizenship skills you will need in order to contribute positively to the creation of a better future environment. An overarching goal of this course, therefore, is to help you improve your writing, speaking, and critical thinking skills. To that end, rather than mere comprehension of facts and memorization of details, we will emphasize higher-level cognitive skills such as application, analysis, evaluation, and synthesis. PROTOCOL Achieving all of the above requires active discussion, questioning, and dialogue. I welcome the presentation of a range of perspectives, positions, and experiences. I encourage you to present relevant arguments, experiences, and stories for the consideration of all of us, subject to time availability. I insist, however, on the following protocol in all class meetings: Students are expected to complete all assignments and participate in all required activities by the deadlines specified. Students are expected to treat faculty and fellow students with respect. This requires an active effort on the part of all students with regard to: • ACTIVE READING AND LISTENING—reading and hearing is not the same as understanding and listening. Conscious attention to a writer's or speaker’s words and potential meanings is essential. • ACTIVE RESPECT—showing consideration for alternative viewpoints in a manner that continues the dialogue without denigrating the dignity of other participants. • ACTIVE REFLEXIVITY—a willingness to employ self-critique and to consider collegial constructive criticism. This is a participation intensive class, a class in which you can develop and refine some really valuable and important skills. Routine daily participation, including involvement in online discussions, is also required and a part of your grade. I expect students at this level to demonstrate their professionalism routinely by preparing to participate on time. I expect you to do all the readings before the due date and to be ready to discuss them. Your grade for participation will be based on a roughly equal weighing of the quantity and quality of your contributions, so you must participate and your contributions as a whole ought to be the kind that advance, in a positive way, your own education and the learning of others. Some of you may find involving yourself in discussion difficult, but it is no less important for being difficult. One of the best ways to prepare to participate is to pose questions to the whole class that you would like to have answered or discussed. Students must review all content in the Blackboard course posted in the lessons during each week. Participation in discussion forum topics must be timely (within each week’s assignments) with multiple postings per week anticipated. Students should expect to log into the course at least four times per week.
Class Communication I will use the Announcements box on the course home page to communicate reminders, updates, and special interest topics. During the first week, I will check email especially often (except on the Fourth of July!). You may email me for a quick response, or you may arrange to speak with me via Skype. All students need to sign up for a time to speak with me in person via Skype during the first week and then two
more times before the last week. Response Turnaround Time Please use UVM email for communication with the instructor. During the first week (1-8 July), expect a 12-24 hour turnaround on email. For 8 July 9 August, expect a 24-48 hour turnaround on email and discussion forums. Normally other assignments will be graded within 72 hours of being due.
For a complete description of all graded assignments, please see ―Assignment Descriptions‖ located in the Online Lessons section (see Course Menu to the left). The following weights will be given to each of these components: Blackboard readings journal blog 20% Current event paper 20% Current event blog 10% Discussion board participation 20% Wiki paper 10% Final essay 20% Students are expected to complete all assignments and participate in all required activities by the deadlines specified. Grades will be numerical, ranging from 0-99. These may be translated into letter grades according to the following scale. 97 - 99 = A+ 93 - 96 = A 90 - 92 = A87 - 89 = B+ 83 - 86 = B 80 - 82 = B77 - 79 = C+ 73 - 76 = C 70 - 72 = C67 - 69 = D+ 63 - 66 = D 60 - 62 = D0 - 59 = F
LATE POLICY Because it is crucial that you not fall behind in a class that moves ahead so rapidly, work submitted late cannot be accepted except for the Current Event Paper. The Current Event Paper will be accepted if late, but penalized 10 points for each day that it is late. DISHONESTY POLICY Please read UVM’s Code of Academic Integrity (http://www.uvm.edu/~uvmppg/ppg/student/acadintegrity.pdf). Copying material from another source or using another's ideas without acknowledgment (citation) is
plagiarism. Using notes during exams is cheating. These and all other forms of academic dishonesty will result in an automatic grade of F and will be reported to the University for further action. ATTENDANCE AND ILLNESS POLICY Online participation in Blackboard is expected each week to complete assignments and post discussion messages. Students are expected to visit the course at least four times per week. I have assumed that some of us might be briefly ill or have unexpected emergencies and so I have tried to build in as much flexibility as possible to accommodate. But there is no hiding the fact a summer online course moves ahead quickly and if you fall very far behind your learning and grades will suffer and you may never catch up. It is up to you to prepare for the contingency of unexpected illness by keeping up with all work while healthy, so that you can take advantage of maximum flexibility in the event of an emergency or possible onset of severe illness. RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS POLICY Students have the right to practice the religion of their choice. Students should submit to me in writing their documented religious holiday schedule for the term no later than the end of the second full week of classes. Those students who do so and who miss written assignments because of religious observance may make up this work. STUDENT LEARNING ACCOMMODATION STATEMENT Accommodations will be provided to eligible students with disabilities. Please obtain an accommodation letter from the ACCESS office and see one of the instructors early in the course to discuss what accommodations will be necessary. If you are unfamiliar with ACCESS, visit their website at http://www.uvm.edu/access to learn more about the services they provide. ACESS: A-170 Living Learning Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. PH: 802-656-7753, TTY: call 711 (relay), Fax: 802-656-0739, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Instant Messenger: UVMaccess. General office hours: 8:30am – 4:30pm Monday through Friday. Call to make an appointment.
Date Readings Journal Postings Discussion Board Other Written Work/Reminders
Module 1: Environmental Governance Through International Law 1 July Bodansky, preface, Journal Posting on Post Introduction to Readings chs. 1, 2 the Discussion Board 2 July Bodansky, chs. 3, 4 Journal Posting on Readings 3 July Bodansky, chs. 5, 6 Journal Posting on Last day to sign up for Readings Skype meeting 4 July NONE Submit original Post to Discussion Board (DB) 5 July Bodansky, chs. 7, 8 Journal Posting on Respond to peer's Readings post on DB Sign up for Current Event Paper 8 July Bodansky, chs. 9, 10, Answer/address any 11 comments to your original post on DB
9 July Bodansky, ch. 12, Journal Posting on conclusion; Peel (ch. Readings 3 in Axelrod, VanDeveer, and Downie) Module 2: Complex Environmental Governance 10 July Young, introduction; Journal Posting on Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings and Vig (ch. 1 in Axelrod, VanDeveer, and Downie) 11 July Young, chs. 1, 2, 3 Journal Posting on Readings 12 July Young, ch. 4 Journal Posting on Readings 15 July Young, ch. 5 Journal Posting on Readings 16 July Young, chs. 6, 7 Journal Posting on Readings 17 July Young, conclusion; Journal Posting on Mitchell, ch. 1 Readings
Approval Deadline for Current Event Paper
First Contribution to Wiki Essay Exam (min. 100 words) Submit original post to DB Respond to peer's post on DB Answer/address any comments to your original post on DB
Pose questions to Current Event Blog Second contribution to the Wiki Essay Exam (min. 100 words) Module 3: Reducing the Ambiguity of Evidence about International Environmental Governance 18 July Mitchell, ch.2 Journal Posting on Submit original post Readings to DB 19 July Mitchell, ch.3 Journal Posting on Respond to peer's Readings post on DB 22 July Mitchell, ch.4 Journal Posting on Answer/address any Readings comments to your original post on DB 23 July Mitchell, ch.5 24 July Mitchell, ch.6 Journal Posting on Readings Journal Posting on Readings Pose questions to Current Event Blog Wiki Essay Exam completion
25 July Faure and Lefevere (ch. 9 in Axelrod, VanDeveer, and Downie) 26 July Mitchell, ch. 7
Journal Posting on Submit original post Readings to DB Journal Posting on Respond to peer's Readings post on DB
Module 4: Institutions and Policy in International Environmental Governance 29 July Soroos (ch. 2 in Journal Posting on Answer/address any Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings comments to your and Downie) original post to DB
30 July Downie (ch. 4 in Journal Posting on Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings and Downie) 31 July McCormick (ch. 5 in Journal Posting on Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings and Downie) 1 Journal Posting on August Esty (ch. 8 in Readigns Axelrod, VanDeveer, and Downie) 2 Journal Posting on August VanDeveer (ch. 15 in Readigns Axelrod, VanDeveer, and Downie)
Pose questions to Current Event Blog Submit original post to DB Respond to peer's post on DB
5 Betsill (ch. 6 in Answer/address any Answer/address any August Axelrod, VanDeveer, comments to our comments to your and Downie) original post on DB original post on DB 6 Selin (ch. 7 in Journal Posting on August Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings and Downie) 7 Najam (ch. 12 in Journal Posting on Pose questions to August Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings Current Event Blog and Downie) Final Exam Essay question available 8 DeSombre (ch. 10 in Journal Posting on August Axelrod, VanDeveer, Readings and Downie) 9 none August Final Essay Exam
Readings Journal Description
This is your personal journal--your reflections on the course readings and written evidence that you are building knowledge. Beginning Monday 1 July and continuing each weekday except Independence Day (4 July) through Thursday 8 August, by midnight (EST) write and complete the following in 50 to 100 words (2 -4 sentences) on your Blackboard Reading Journal (blog): “The most important thing I learned from today’s reading is . . . .” Identify the most important thing you learned about international environmental governance and politics AND indicate why it is important. You do not get credit for identifying some nonpolitical fact as important, or for calling some obviously minor point important. Next write and complete the following in 25-50 words (1-2 sentences): "This new learning build on something I previously learned in [name the reading], . . ." This should be your reflection on how this new thing you have learned builds upon (BUILDS UPON!, which is more than how it is "related to" or "connects with" or "compares with" what you earlier learned from POLS 130 readings or activities ). Your total comment should be 75-150 words (3-5 sentences). Grading Criteria Your postings should clearly be comments that could only be made by someone who has carefully read and thought about the assigned reading and other readings. If by midnight you submit a post that follows the instructions and demonstrates that you have read the material and given it some thought, you earn up to three points. Everyone starts with 15 points, so the highest possible grade is 99. This activity is worth 20
percent of your course grade. How to Submit Entries to the Reading Journal Click on the 'Readings Journal" link on the course menu (left). Click on "Create blog entry" green box towards the top of the screen. For the title of the entry, use the date due of the reading assignment on which you are commenting.
Reading Journal Rubric
Satisfactory: 3 points Submitted on time Date due as title of entry 50-100 words on most important thing learned 25-50 words on how this learning builds on previous learning in this course Comments clearly based on reading and reflection Unsatisfactory: 0 points
Too short or wrong reading or submitted late or only partially responsive to the requirements
Discussion Board Description
You will be assigned to a group of 4 to 9 students. Each group will have its own discussion board. On Tuesday of each of the first five weeks of the course, I will open a discussion forum by posting a discussion question for your group on the Discussion Board. By Thursday (midnight EST) each student must start a new thread by posting a quality response to my question in no fewer than 200 words. By Friday (you can have until Saturday midnight EST if you want), each student in a group must have responded in a quality way at least once to each thread in the group. By Monday (midnight EST) each student must have posted a quality rejoinder to the responses that were posted to their own thread. Each discussion forum will be closed on Tuesday morning. Quality threads, responses, and rejoinders must offer arguments, evidence, or reasons and must refer to the assigned course readings. "I agree" and "I disagree," by themselves, are not quality responses, and neither is an opinion without supporting evidence, reasons, or citations. Expect me to read all postings within 72 hours, usually within 24 hours. I will react to some (but not all!) of your postings in the Discussion Board, often by asking further questions.
Discussion Board Grading Rubric
Expectations Excellent 20 Good 15 Poor 10 Unsatisfactory 0 No response, thread, or rejoinder by the time the discussion forum is closed
New thread posted; One new thread, at response to all other least one response, and threads; rejoiner to all at least one rejoinder other responses New thread by Thursday, at least one response by Friday, at least one rejoinder by Monday
One new thread, One new thread, at least one response, or response or rejoinder rejoinder All postings are Most postings timely but one are late
All postings are timely
Responsive to questions and postings; evidence, arguments, and reasons offered; reference to (cited) course readings
All postings are responsive, offer evidence, arguments, and reasons, and cite course readings
Most postings are responsive, offer evidence, arguments, and reasons, and cite course readings Few misspellings or grammatical errors. Postings maintain respectful language, tone, and content.
Some postings are responsive, offer evidence, arguments, and reasons, and cite course readings Frequent misspellings or grammatical errors. Postings maintain respectful language, tone, and content.
No postings are responsive, offer evidence, arguments, or reasons, or cite course readings Many misspellings or grammatical errors. Some disrespectful language, tone, or content.
No misspellings or grammatical errors. Respectful language, tone, and content.
Writing is free of misspellings and grammatical errors. Postings maintain respectful language, tone, and content.
Development in Governance Assignment Description
Choosing Your Development in Governance Topic By midnight EST on 9 July, you need (1) to have a topic for your current event paper approved by me by email, and (2) to have signed up a date when the paper will be due. Note that 9 July is the deadline for approval of your topic--you need to propose a topic to me before then, the sooner the better. Sign up for your due date in the "Current Event Due Date" wiki on the Blackboard menu (do not try deleting the name of another student who signed up first for a date you want--Blackboard reveals all such changes to the instructor). Requirements for the Paper Your current event paper should be 1500-2000 words (6-8 double-spaced typewritten pages).
The paper must be based on an international environmental politics, law, or policy EVENT or series of events that has occurred (at least in part) in the last year and was written up in a newspaper or periodical (a periodical is a magazine or a journal published at regular intervals) in the six months before the paper is submitted. (Developments that are about technology or some aspect of environmental science per se are NOT acceptable topics, nor nature stories, nor political developments that are contained within one country). A
current event paper submitted on time may be resubmitted within two weekdays of being graded by the instructor, with the two grades being averaged together. Late papers may not be resubmitted. Moreover, papers submitted late will be penalized ten points for each day (or fraction thereof) late. This is not a research paper! You only need one source in addition to the course readings (although extra sources are acceptable). The purpose of this paper is to apply ideas, concepts, and arguments from the course readings using a recent development in governance. The more you are able to tie in the course readings, the better. If you need help finding a topic in recent newspapers or periodicals, you can get help online, by phone, or by email from librarians--click on "Ask a Librarian" under "Help" on the main webpage of the UVM library. Instructions for the Current Event Paper Assume that your audience consists of fellow college students of diverse majors and interests. The paper must be organized in the following four sections:
1. Introduction. This section should be one paragraph long, less than one-half page, about 100-125 words. A subheading is optional. In this introduction you should have a thesis statement. A thesis statement is the central idea of your paper—an overarching claim, proposition, or argument that captures what your paper is about. It should be worded as a claim or proposition--―My paper is about this‖ is NOT a thesis statement. Everything else in your paper should in some way support your thesis statement, particularly the analysis section. Therefore, your thesis statement should directly draw upon ideas, concepts, and arguments from the course readings. 2. The Development in Governance. Begin this section with a subheading naming your development. In this section you will provide basic information necessary to understand your current event. Assume that your audience knows nothing about the development you are analyzing. Briefly summarize the event or development. But keep this summary to 250-300 words (about one page). Using APSA format (see Scott and Garrison, available on Blackboard in "Course Materials"), cite all sources of information about your current event (only one is required). 3. Your Analysis and Evaluation of the Development in Governance. Begin this section with a subheading, ―Analysis and Evaluation.‖ The purpose of the paper is to offer the reader your thoughtful, well-argued, deeper understanding of the current event and its significance using concepts and ideas from the readings. The main two questions this section should answer are: How does this current event help better us better understand particular concepts or arguments introduced in earlier readings? How can concepts or ideas from earlier readings be used to provide a deeper understanding of this current event? The more concepts, ideas, and readings you thoughtfully and insightfully tie in, the better. Frequently cite the particular readings that present the concepts and ideas you use in your analysis. Identify the three or four (or five) main arguments that you are going to make to support your thesis statement. Each of these should be presented and developed in a separate paragraph. These arguments should be arranged in a logical order and there should be transitions or links between the paragraphs. Among the other things you may want to address are: Why is this event or development important? What is it an example of? Be sure your analysis supports the thesis statement you presented in the introduction. Using APSA format (see the APSA citation and reference format guide in "Course Materials"), cite all sources of ideas or quotes in your analysis of your developments in governance. Frequently refer to and cite course readings in your analysis, primarily course readings assigned in the weeks immediately prior to your due date. The more you are able to tie in the course readings, the better. To repeat: this analysis is the main point of your paper, not the summary of the developments in governance. This part of your paper should be 1100-1500 words long. 4. Conclusion. This should begin with a subheading, ―Conclusion.‖ It should be one paragraph long, about 100-125 words. Restate, in new words, your main findings and arguments. Restate, in new words, your thesis statement. 5. Do a word count of each section. Present the results at the end of your paper.
Use complete sentences. Avoid basic spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors. Avoid substantial quotations. If your paper does all of the above, it will earn at least a B-. A paper that is also thoughtful, lively, and insightful, revealing mastery of several of the course objectives, will earn an A. Papers will be penalized 10 points for each day, or fraction thereof, that they are submitted late. Where to Submit the Paper Attach the Current Event Paper as an MS Word document file (.doc, .docx) or a rich text format file (.rtf) on the "Current Event Paper" Blog on Blackboard. You will need to "create" a post and then attach the file the post.
Peer Comments on Current Event Blog Read the Current Event Papers of all other students as they are posted. By no later than Wednesday of each week (beginning Wednesday 17 July), you are responsible for posing a question, to every other student who has posted a paper in the previous seven days, about the current events analyzed in her or his paper. Post these questions as a "comment" on each student's Current Event Paper Blog. Each student who has written a Current Event Paper is then responsible for answering the questions posed within a week after they are posted (additional research to answer the questions is not expected). Your grade will be based half on the quality of questions you pose to others and half on your responses to questions posed to you.
Wiki Collaborative Take-Home Essay Exam Description
The Wiki Essay is a collective writing assignment, to which you will contribute as part of the same group you work with in the Discussion Board. You might think of this as a group take-home essay exam. I will post an essay question for your group and each student will contribute to writing an essay that answers that question. When completed, the essay must be 1500-2000 words. Due Dates Each student is responsible for a contribution to the essay of at least 100 words by Wednesday 10 July. Another contribution of at least 100 words is due by Wednesday 17 July. An additional four contributions of any kind or length are due by 24 July to complete the essay. Grading Criteria Blackboard allows me to see which words and sentences you contributed as an individual and it provides summary statistics about how many words and sentences are yours. Approximately 1/4 of the grade each student earns will be based on whether a student has met these minimal requirements, 1/2 will be based on the quality of individual contributions, and 1/4 will be based on the quality of the completed essay. Quality will be assessed by: (1) demonstrated comprehension of relevant theories, concepts, and ideas, (2) effective application of those theories, concepts, and ideas, (3) the incisiveness of the analysis offered, (4) the extent to which evaluative judgments are well-supported by sound reasons and persuasive evidence, and (5) how well the essay explicitly draws from the assigned readings for the course and how often those readings are cited. Review your Readings Journal postings before making your contributions--the Wiki Paper activity is asking for the same kind of reflective analysis. You may already have written something that you can revise and use for your contributions to the Wiki Paper.
Final Essay Exam Description
The final essay is a take-home essay exam. The possible questions to be answered in this essay are posted in Blackboard under "Course Materials." I will choose one of these questions at random and post it as a Blackboard assignment on Wednesday 7 August. This essay exam is due no later than midnight EST on Friday 9 August. The essay should be at least 1200 words but not more than 2000 words. Quality will be assessed by: (1) demonstrated comprehension of relevant theories, concepts, and ideas, (2) effective application of those theories, concepts, and ideas, (3) the incisiveness of the analysis offered, (4) the extent to which evaluative judgments are well-supported by sound reasons and persuasive evidence,
and (5) how well the essay explicitly draws from the assigned readings for the course and how often those readings are cited. Review your Readings Journal postings and the Wiki Collaborative Essay Exam before writing your essay-this activity is asking for the same kind of reflective analysis. You may already have written something that will be helpful in thinking about drafting your Final Essay Take Home Exam. Where and How to Submit Attach the Final Essay Take Home Exam as an MS Word document file (.doc, .docx) or a rich text format file (.rtf). Find the questions in Module 5 under Online Lessons. Upload your essay there.