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FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION ONLY!

© 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage
Reserved.
For Flight Simulation Use Only. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS / CREDITS
Credits............................................................................................................................................. 2
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 3
Important Information....................................................................................................................... 4
Aircraft Data..................................................................................................................................... 5
Symbols and Abbreviations................................................................................................................ 6
Selecting Your Aircraft....................................................................................................................... 7
Main Panel..................................................................................................................................... 8-9
Pop-Up Panels.............................................................................................................................10-12
Click Spots..................................................................................................................................13-16
Gauges and Instruments..............................................................................................................17-18
Limitations.......................................................................................................................................19
Normal Procedures......................................................................................................................20-25
Performance Charts.....................................................................................................................26-43

Jerry Beckwith (AOPA #05557957) . ............................................................................. Flight Dynamics
Terry Gaff............................................................................................................Aircraft Model and VC
Henning van Rensburg (AOPA #5345938) . ............................................................ Gauge Programming
Matt Kaprocki . ..................................................................................................... Gauge Programming
Todd Nicholson ............................................................................................................ Documentation
Jim Rhoads (AOPA #01270723) ...................................Panel and Gauge Graphics / Project Management

Page 

INTRODUCTION
AOPA "Catch-A-Cardinal" Cessna 177 Cardinal

Being a member of the AOPA has countless benefits, but in many cases it offers rewards as well...
For several years now, AOPA has been offering its sweepstakes aircraft to one of its lucky members. This
year one lucky person will receive a completely refurbished 1977 177B Cessna Cardinal aircraft.
But even if you don't win it, Flight1 Software and AOPA have arranged the opportunity for you to fly
N778RD in Microsoft's Flight Simulator X series.
Cardinals are considered desirable aircraft to own because of their large doors, easy entry, and the aircraft's
reasonable performance and attractive looks. The 177 offers much better upwards visibility than a 172 and
the absence of an obstructing wing strut makes the aircraft an excellent platform for aerial photography.
On behalf of AOPA and Flight1 Software, I invite you to experience the AOPA Cardinal for Microsoft's Flight
Simulator X, and we look forward for the opportunity to serve you in the future.

Jim Rhoads

Flight1 Software
www.flight1.com

© 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage
Reserved.
For Flight Simulation Use Only. 

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
About This Pilot's Guide
Please take some time to read through this Pilot's Guide to become familiar with the AOPA Cessna 177
Cardinal for Flight Simulator X. The AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal includes many avionics and features that
you will want to familiarize yourself with. This will allow you to get the most enjoyment out of your new
AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal.
IMPORTANT
Even though this Pilot's Guide is designed in color with black text to make it easily readable on your
computer screen, if you wish to print this Pilot's Guide and save ink at the same time, please choose to
print in Grayscale, via your computer’s print dialog screen.
Please note that separate Pilot's Guides have been installed with your software for various gauges, such
as the Garmin GNS430 GPS, the Meggit S-TEC 55X autopilot and the Garmin MX200 Color Multi-Function
Display. Make sure that you reference these Pilot's Guides to familiarize yourself with these gauges.
This Pilot's Guide is not intended to be a guide for basic flight instruction or a training manual and should
not be used as one. It is not a substitute for adequate and competent flight instruction, knowledge of
current air-worthiness directives, applicable federal air regulations or advisory circulars.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the express written
consent of Flight1 Software.
© 2007 Flight1 Software. All rights reserved.
Visit our Web Site at: www.flight1.com
DISCLAIMER
This software is designed for entertainment purposes only. Although we have designed the AOPA
Cessna 177 Cardinal to resemble and function as closely as possible to the real aircraft, it is not designed
as a training device. Not all avionics systems have been simulated, and some of those that have been
simulated may not be entirely functional or simulated to 100%.

Page 

All RightsPage Reserved. Carbureted Four-Cylinder Engine Model Number: O-360-A1F6D Horsepower Rating and Engine Speed Maximum Power: 180 BHP Maximum Engine Speed: 2700 RPM Propeller Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Number of Blades: Two Fuel Approved Fuels: 100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue) / 100 Grade Aviation Fuel (Green) Total Capacity: 50 Gallons Usable Fuel: 49 Gallons Oil Oil Capacity: 9 Quarts Maximum Weights Maximum Ramp Weight: 2500 Pounds Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2500 Pounds (Normal Category) Maximum Landing Weight: 2500 Pounds (Normal Category) Maximum Cargo Weight Total Area: 120 Pounds Typical Aircraft Weights Empty Weight: 1533 Pounds Useful Load: 967 Pounds (Normal Category) © 2007 Flight1 Software. For Flight Simulation Use Only. Air-Cooled.  .AIRCRAFT DATA Engine Engine Manufacturer and Type: Avco Lycoming Normally-Aspirated.

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS V-Speed Symbols VSO Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the aircraft is controllable in the landing configuration at maximum gross weight. Knots calibrated airspeed is equal to KTAS in standard atmosphere at sea level. KIAS Indicated Airspeed in Knots. VX Best Angle of Climb Speed provides the best altitude gain per unit of horizontal distance. KTAS True Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air which is the CAS corrected for altitude. VS Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable. adjusted for instrument error and compressibility effects. VA Maneuvering Speed is the maximum speed at which you may use abrupt control travel. VNE Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be exceeded at any time. VG Best Rate of Glide Speed provides the best glide distance in an engine-out scenario. Meteorological Terminology OAT Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature obtained either from in-flight temperature indications or ground meteorological sources. and then only with caution. VNO Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that should not be exceeded except in smooth air. Page  . Airspeed Terminology KCAS Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for position and instrument error and expressed in knots. VY Best Rate of Climb Speed provides the best altitude gain in the shortest amount of time. PA Pressure Altitude is altitude measured from the standard sealevel pressure of 29.92 in Hg by a pressure of barometric altimeter. VFE Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended position. and is usually used for clearing obstacles during takeoff. temperature and compressibility. ISA Standard Temperature is 15°C at sea level pressure altitude and decreases by 2°C for each 1000 feet of altitude.

For Flight Simulation Use Only. such as location. other than the Default flight. move the aircraft to the active runway. time. then save the flight as the new default flight. It is not located under Cessna.  .SELECTING YOUR AIRCRAFT The AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal is located under AOPA in the Flight Simulator Aircraft Manufacturer drop-down box. Load the default flight. etc. first load the default Flight Simulator flight. This will ensure that previously saved settings will not carry over and interfere with the AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal. We strongly advise against loading the AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal over a previously saved flight. © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved. then SWITCH to the AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal (using the Aircraft drop-down selection in the Flight Simulator Menu Bar) and set up your flight parameters. weather. IMPORTANT If there is a problem loading the AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal into Flight Simulator.

Toggles the Radio Stack Pop-Up on and off.Toggles the Auto Pilot Pop-Up on and off. GPS 1 Pop-Up . Scroll forward to turn knobs to the right and scroll backward to turn knobs to the left. Page  Continued on Next Page . Landing View Panel . Radio Stack Pop-Up .MAIN PANEL Main Panel Layout All click-spots are activated using left mouse clicks.Toggles the Landing View Panel.Toggles the GPS 1 Pop-Up on and off. Autopilot Pop-Up Panel Manager Pop-Up GPS 1 Pop-Up Landing View Panel Radio Stack Pop-Up Panel Manager Pop-Up . Auto Pilot Pop-Up .Toggles the Panel Manager Pop-Up on and off. Some click-spots (such as some rotary knobs) can be activated using your mouse's scroll wheel.

MAIN PANEL Main Panel Layout.  . Continued J S A K G P M B T C L H Q N U E D F I A) Vacuum Gauge B) Digital Clock C) Gyro Slaving Unit (Not Modeled) D) Fuel Pressure Gauge E) JPI EDM-800 Digital EGT Gauge F) Carburetor Temperature Gauge G) Airspeed Indicator Gauge H) Turn Coordinator Gauge I) Engine Gauges J) Annunciators K) Attitude Indicator Gauge I O R V L) Horizontal Situation Indicator Gauge M) Altimeter Gauge N) Vertical Speed Indicator Gauge O) Manifold Pressure Gauge P) Nav 1 Indicator Gauge Q) Standby Attitude Indicator Gauge R) Propeller RPM Gauge S) Garmin Audio Panel T) Garmin MX200 Color MFD U) Garmin GNS430 GPS 1 V) Garmin GNS430 GPS 2 © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved. For Flight Simulation Use Only.

Clicking on the panel box a second time will close the specified pop-up panel. l Auto Pilot and Transponder l Radio Stack .Includes Audio Panel. Clicking on each separate panel box will toggle the specified panel to pop up. Page 10 Continued on Next Page .POP-UP PANELS Panel Manager Use the Panel Manager to toggle the pop-up panels on and off using your mouse. MFD.Includes Ignition.Includes Flap Lever and Position Indicator l Fuel Selector Multiple pop-up panels can be selected at any given time. Lighting. GPS 1 and GPS 2 l Lower Panel . Trim and Engine Controls l Flaps .

For Flight Simulation Use Only. (Shift+2) Landing View Panel l (Shift+3) Radio Stack l (Shift+4) Auto Pilot and Transponder l (Shift+5) Panel Manager . All RightsPage Reserved.POP-UP PANELS Keyboard Shortcuts. Pop-Up Panels and Landing View Panel Pop-up panels can be toggled on and off using keyboard shortcuts. 11 Continued on Next Page .Not Shown l (Shift+6) Lower Panel (Shift+7) Flaps l (Shift+8) Fuel Selector l (Shift+9) GPS 1 l l Radio Stack Auto Pilot and Transponder Lower Panel Flaps © 2007 Flight1 Software.

Continued Fuel Selector GPS 1 Landing View Panel Page 12 .POP-UP PANELS Keyboard Shortcuts. Pop-Up Panels and Landing View Panel.

All RightsPage Reserved.CLICK-SPOTS Main Panel 18 8 24 9 5 6 10 16 17 19 20 7 4 13 14 11 12 2 3 24 21 22 23 15 24 1 1) Toggle Panel Manager Pop-Up 2) EGT Step Button 3) EGT Lean Find Button 4) EGT RPM/Power Percent Swap Button 5) Clock Start/Stop Button 6) Clock Step Button 7) Clock Reset Button 8) Toggle Landing View Panel 9) ADI Adjust Left (Scroll Backward) 10) ADI Adjust Right (Scroll Forward) 11) Course Adjust Left (Scroll Backward) 12) Course Adjust Right (Scroll Forward) 13) Heading Adjust Left (Scroll Backward) 14) Heading Adjust Right (Scroll Forward) 15) Toggle Auto Pilot and Transponder Pop-Up 16) Altimeter Calibration Decrease (Scroll Backward) 17) Altimeter Calibration Increase (Scroll Forward) 18) Toggle GPS 1 Pop-Up 19) OBS Knob Left (Scroll Backward) 20) OBS Knob Right (Scroll Forward) 21) Attitude Bars Decrease (Scroll Backward) 22) Attitude Bars Increase (Scroll Forward) 23) Quick Erect Knob 24) Toggle Radio Stack Pop-Up © 2007 Flight1 Software. 13 For Flight Simulation Use Only. Continued on Next Page .

CLICK-SPOTS Transponder and Auto Pilot Panel 4 1 5 3 2 12 12 7 6 12 12 12 12 12 12 8 10 9 11 12 12 13 14 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 15 16 17 18 19 23 20 21 22 Ident Button VFR Button Standby Button On Button Altitude Mode Button (A & C) Off Button Toggle Transponder/Auto Pilot Pop-Up 8) Function Button 9) Start/Stop Button 10) Cursor Button 11) Clear Button 12) Numerical Buttons 1 .9 13) Toggle Transponder/Auto Pilot Pop-Up 14) Heading Button 15) NAV Button 16) Approach Button 17) Reverse Approach Button 18) Altitude Hold Button 19) Altitude Capture Button 20) Vertical Speed Button 21) Vertical Speed Decrease (Scroll Backward) 22) Vertical Speed Increase (Scroll Forward) 23) Auto Pilot Toggle On/Off Fuel Selector Panel 5 2 3 1 4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Toggle Left Tank Toggle Both Tanks Toggle Right Tank Fuel Cutoff Close Fuel Selector Pop-Up Page 14 Continued on Next Page .

Hold and Drag) 26) Propeller Pitch Control (Click. Hold and Drag) 27) Mixture Control (Click.CLICK-SPOTS Lower Panel 28 22 1 3 2 4 8 5 6 10 12 7 9 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 24 26 11 1) Alternator On 2) Alternator Off 3) Battery On 4) Battery Off 5) Fuel Pump Toggle On/Off 6) Key Turn Left (Scroll Backward) 7) Key Turn Right (Scroll Forward) 8) Panel Flood Lights Toggle On/Off 9) Panel Flood Lights Toggle On/Off 10) Auto Pilot On/Off 11) Trim On/Off (Not Modeled) 12) Avionics Master On/Off 13) ESS Bus On/Off (Not Modeled) 14) HSI On/Off 23 27 25 15) Pitot Heat On/Off 16) Navigation Lights On/Off 17) Beacon Light On/Off 18) Strobe Lights On/Off 19) Taxi Lights On/Off 20) Landing Lights On/Off 21) Pulse Lights On/Off (Not Modeled) 22) Elevator Trim Down (Scroll Forward) 23) Elevator Trim Up (Scroll Backward) 24) Carb Heat On/Off 25) Throttle Control (Click. 15 For Flight Simulation Use Only. Hold and Drag) 28) Close Lower Panel Pop-Up Flaps Panel 1 2 3 1) Flaps Up 2) Flaps Down 3) Close Flaps Panel Pop-Up © 2007 Flight1 Software. Continued on Next Page . All RightsPage Reserved.

177 Cardinal THIS AREA INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Page 16 .All Programs . These Pilot's Guides can be found in your Start Menu. From the desktop .CLICK-SPOTS Audio Panel 2 1 4 6 8 5 7 12 3 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Power On/Off Marker Mute Button Marker Sensitivity Button Comm 1 Selection Button Comm 1 MIC Button Comm 2 Selection Button Comm 2 MIC Button NAV 1 Audio Button NAV 2 Audio Button 10 9 11 13 15 14 16 17 18 10) DME Audio Button 11) ADF Audio Button 12) Comm 1/2 Selection Button 13) Speaker Audio Button 14) PA Audio Button 15) Pilot Audio Button 16) Crew Audio Button 17) Test Button 18) Power On/Off MX200 Color MFD and GNS430 GPS IMPORTANT Click-spots for the Garmin MX200 Color MFD and the Garmin GNS430 GPS can be found in specific Pilot's Guides installed separately with your software.Start .AOPA .

Upon initializing LeanFind. EGT in degrees Fahrenheit of the hottest cylinder and fuel flow in gallons per hour is displayed for LeanFind monitoring. This section describes gauges and instruments we feel may need more explanation. JPI EDM-800 Digital EGT Gauge 1 6 2 3 4 4 5 7 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Toggle Between Percent of HP and RPM Cylinder Number Display Cylinder Graphical Display Data Display Step Button (Press to Advance Data Types) Toggle Between Fahrenheit and Celcius Data Display LeanFind Button Step Button Used to cycle through individual cylinder CHT/EGT displays as well as additional data including: Turbine Inlet Temperature Oil Temperature l Battery Voltage l Outside/Free Air Temperature l RPM (Prop) and Manifold Pressure l Total Remaining Fuel (Gallons) l Fuel Flow (Gallons Per Hour) l l An illuminated dot appears above the graphic display columns to indicate the currently active data. "LEAN R" (designating rich of peak method) is displayed in the lower digital readout for two seconds. (This will always be cylinder 4 due to FS limitations. All temperature readings in the graphic display are in degrees Fahrenheit regardless of temperature mode selected. A flashing dot also appears above the cylinder with the hottest EGT. Continued on Next Page . so most users should already be familiar with their different functions and uses. LeanFind can be deactivated by clicking the LeanFind button. LeanFind Button Starts the LeanFind Mode. © 2007 Flight1 Software. Clicking LeanFind or STEP at any point when LeanFind Mode is active will deactivate it. 17 For Flight Simulation Use Only.GAUGES AND INSTRUMENTS Most gauges and instruments featured are standard. After two seconds.) After leaning the mixture to the desired EGT. Recommendations for leaning: lean to approximately peak EGT for best economy and approximately 100ºF rich of peak for best power (at the cost of reduced fuel economy). All RightsPage Reserved.

From the desktop .AOPA . These Pilot's Guides can be found in your Start Menu. Press Reset to clear the timer and reset it to zero. In CLOCK mode. we have provided a separate Pilot's Guide for each of these three instruments. Garmin MX200 Color MFD. pressing the Reset button changes the clock display value. Garmin GNS430 GPS and Meggit S-TEC 55X AutopiIMPORTANT Due to the complexity of these instruments. Press Start/Stop once to begin the timer and press Start/Stop again to stop the timer.177 Cardinal Page 18 .Start .GAUGES AND INSTRUMENTS Multifunction Clock Display 1 2 3 4 5 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Digital Display Active Display Type (Illuminated Green) Start/Stop Button Step Button (Press to Advance Data Display Types) Reset Button Step Button Used to cycle through individual data display types including: Current Barometer Current Altitude l Current Outside Air Temperature in Celcius l Timer Function l Clock Function l l An illuminated green LED indicates the currently active data display type. Start/Stop and Reset Buttons The Start/Stop button works only when in TIMER mode.All Programs .

All RightsPage Reserved.30º Flaps 113 90 115 90 Power Plant Limitations Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming Engine Model Number: O-360-A1F6D Maximum Power: 180 BHP Maximum Engine Speed: 2700 RPM Maximum Cylinder Head Temperature: 260ºC (500ºF) Maximum Oil Temperature: 118ºC (245ºF) Minimum Oil Pressure 25 psi Maximum Oil Pressure 100 psi Minimum Fuel Pressure 2 psi Maximum Fuel Pressure 8 psi Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division Propeller Operating Limits: Avoid continuous operation between 1700 and 1900 RPM with less than 10” MP. © 2007 Flight1 Software. 19 For Flight Simulation Use Only. .LIMITATIONS Airspeed Limitations SPEED KCAS KIAS VNE Never Exceed Speed 161 167 VNO Maximum Structural Cruising Speed 134 138 VA Maneuvering Speed: 2500 Pounds 2100 Pounds 1700 Pounds 101 93 84 102 93 83 VFE Maximum Flap Extended Speed To 10º Flaps 10º .

................................65 KIAS Landing Approach: Normal Approach...........83 KIAS Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity: Takeoff or Landing........ 16 KNOTS Page 20 Continued on Next Page ..................................................................................................... Sea Level....................65 KIAS Maximum Recommended Turbulent Air Penetration Speed: 2500 Pounds............... Flaps Up: Normal............................................................................................ it is not designed as a training device.................................................................... Flaps 30º.........................................79 KIAS Best Rate of Climb............NORMAL PROCEDURES IMPORTANT The procedures listed in this section are taken directly from the actual Cessna 177 Cardinal Pilot’s Operating Handbook..............................57 KIAS Enroute Climb.........................................................................................................................................93 KIAS 1700 Pounds.................................................................................................................................. 60-70 KIAS Short Field Approach................ Flaps 15º......................................................... 70-80 KIAS Normal Approach......... Flaps 30º..........................000 Feet.000 Feet.................................. Speeds for Normal Operation and Cruise Performance Table Takeoff: Normal Climb Out ..................................................................... 65-75 KIAS Short Field Takeoff.......................... 10.......................... It’s possible that some checklist procedures listed may not be accomplished in this simulation..................... Sea Level..................................65 KIAS Best Angle of Climb............... Flaps Up..................................................................................................... Although we have designed the AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal to resemble and function as closely as possible to the real aircraft..............................................................................................................................................................102 KIAS 2100 Pounds............................... Speed at 50 Feet...................................................................61 KIAS Balked Landing: Maximum Power..................................................................................................................................................... 10. Flaps 20º.............................................................. 75-85 KIAS Best Rate of Climb...........70 KIAS Best Angle of Climb................

............................................CHECK ON Fuel Selector Valve......TAKEOFF © 2007 Flight1 Software........................................................................................................................................................................ Belts.........CLEAR Ignition Switch.........FREE and CORRECT Flight Instruments.................................COLD Master Switch.................................................................................................................................................................ADJUST AND LOCK Fuel Selector Valve....................................NORMAL PROCEDURES Before Starting Engine [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Preflight Inspection.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Electrical Equipment................................................................................................................................................................................................ CHECK THEN OFF Stabilator and Rudder Trim..... COMPLETE Seats.................................................................................................................................CHECK IN Starting Engine [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Mixture............................................................................... Autopilot...........................................................................................BOTH ON Mixture.................................HIGH RPM Carburetor Heat........................................... 21 For Flight Simulation Use Only.......................................................... CHECK Fuel Shutoff Valve...... START Oil Pressure...................................................RICH (Below 3000 Feet) Auxiliary Fuel Pump......................................................................................................... RICH Propeller...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SET Cabin Doors.................................... All RightsPage Reserved............................................................................................................................................................................BOTH ON Fuel Shutoff Valve................................................................................................................................. Continued on Next Page ... CLOSED and LOCKED Flight Controls..................................... ON Radios..................... AS REQUIRED Throttle.................................................................................................OPEN Circuit Breakers...................................... CHECK Before Takeoff [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Parking Brake.......................................................................................................................................................................................OFF Brakes............................................................................. ON Prime...............................................................................................OPEN 1/2 INCH Propeller Area.........................TEST and SET Cowl Flaps........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Shoulder Harnesses..................................................................

....................................................................... 65-75 KIAS Wing Flaps............................................ Short Field Takeoff [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Wing Flaps...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................CHECK (RPM Drop Should Not Exceed 150 RPM on Either Magneto) B) Propeller.......................15º Carburetor Heat.................................................................................................................. RELEASE Stabilator Control................................................................ the mixture should be leaned to give maximum power.....................COLD Power............................................................SET [ ] Lights........................NORMAL PROCEDURES Before Takeoff................................................................................................................................................ RETRACT Prior to takeoff from fields above 3000 feet elevation........COLD Brakes......................................................................................... Return to High RPM) C) Carburetor Heat.............................................1800 RPM A) Magnetos....................................................................................... 0º-10º (10º Preferred) Carburetor Heat..................................................................... CHECK E) Suction Gauge...........................CYCLE (From High to Low RPM..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................APPLY Power... RETRACT (After Obstacles are Cleared) Page 22 Continued on Next Page .............................................................................................................................. The preferred flap setting for normal takeoff is 10º...... CHECK for RPM Drop D) Engine Instruments and Ammeter..................................................................................................................................................... CHECK [ ] Radios.......................................................... [ ] Throttle.......................... FULL THROTTLE and 2700 RPM Mixture.......................... FULL THROTTLE and 2700 RPM Stabilator Control.................................................................................................. AS REQUIRED Normal Takeoff [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] Wing Flaps........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Smooth and uniform throttle application should be used to ensure best engine acceleration.................................................57 KIAS (Until all Obstacles are Cleared) Wing Flaps.......FULL RICH (Lean for Max Power Above 3000 Feet) Brakes..................................... Continued.................................................................................... LIFT NOSE WHEEL at 50 KIAS Climb Speed... LIFT NOSE WHEEL at 50 KIAS Climb Speed.....................................

.........................9 12.......................................................................................................................79 KIAS (at Sea Level to 70 KIAS at 10............0 13...........................000 Feet) Power... OPEN AS REQUIRED Power should be reduced to 24 inches of manifold pressure and 2500 RPM for increased passenger comfort due to lower noise level..............................................................................24 INCHES Hg or FULL THROTTLE and 2500-2700 RPM Mixture................NORMAL PROCEDURES Normal Enroute Climb [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Airspeed..........................................000 Feet 130 Standard Conditions 11......................................15-24 INCHES Hg....................... FULL THROTTLE and 2700 RPM Mixture.......................... 2100-2700 RPM (No More than 75% Power) Stabilator and Rudder Trim.............................................. FULL RICH (Mixture May be Leaned above 3000 Feet) Cowl Flaps..............................................................................6 14........................................... Peak EGT © 2007 Flight1 Software..... Maximum Performance Climb Enroute Climb [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Airspeed...................... Continued on Next Page .............. ALTITUDE 75% POWER KTAS NMPG Sea Level 120 5000 Feet 125 10..................................................................................... FULL OPEN Cruise [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Power........................................................ 75-85 KIAS Power.................9 Zero Wind Recommended Lean................................................................. ADJUST Mixture..............................................................1 14........................................9 65% POWER KTAS NMPG 112 117 121 13........................................... LEAN Cowl Flaps................... FULL RICH (Mixture May be Leaned above 3000 Feet) Cowl Flaps.............................................................................4 12........................5 14.........................50ºF Rich of Peak EGT Best Economy............. CLOSED The cruise performance table illustrates the true airspeed and nautical miles per gallon during cruise for various altitudes and percent power......................................... 23 For Flight Simulation Use Only..................................................1 55% POWER KTAS NMPG 103 106 109 14............................................................. All RightsPage Reserved..................

Page 24 Continued on Next Page .......... Actual touchdown should be made with power off and on the main wheels first.......................................................................... The nose wheel should be lowered smoothly to the runway as speed is diminished.. ADJUST Touchdown................................ This reduces the weight on the main wheels which causes poor braking and increases the possibility of sliding the tires.................................................. AS DESIRED (0º-10º Below 115 KIAS..........................................................................................................................NORMAL PROCEDURES Descent [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Power.....AS DESIRED (Avoid Continuous Operation Between 1700 and 1900 RPM Below 10 Inches Hg) Mixture................................................................................................. RICH Carburetor Heat............................LOWER NOSE WHEEL GENTLY Braking.................BOTH ON Mixture....................................................................................................... Slips are permitted with any desired flap setting.... CLOSED Before Landing [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] Seats....................................... AS REQUIRED Cowl Flaps........................ Full down stabilator (control wheel positioned full forward) should not be used during the ground roll............................................................MINIMUM REQUIRED Normal landing approaches can be made with power on or power off and at any flap setting............... MAIN WHEELS FIRST Landing Roll.. Belts and Shoulder Harnesses........................................................................................................ use the minimum flap setting required for the field length...............................................................................................................................................SECURE Fuel Selector Valve...................................... ON (Apply Full Heat Before Closing Throttle) Propeller............................................................................................................................................................................................60-70 KIAS (Flaps DOWN) Stabilator and Rudder Trim........................................................ Surface winds and air turbulence are usually the primary factors in determining the most comfortable approach speeds... RICH or LEAN FOR SMOOTH OPERATION Carburetor Heat......................................................................................................................... 70-80 KIAS (Flaps UP) Wing Flaps.................................................HIGH RPM (Full In) Normal Landing [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Airspeed......................................... 10º-30º Below 90 KIAS) Airspeed................. When landing in a strong crosswind.........

................................................................................... Electrical Equipment............... IDLE CUT-OFF (Pull Full Out) Ignition Switch.................................. RETRACT (Slowly) Cowl Flaps...........SET Radios....................................................................................................................COLD [ ] Cowl Flaps.......................... REDUCE TO IDLE (as Obstacle is Cleared) Touchdown................................................................................ .... 70-80 KIAS (Flaps UP) Wing Flaps................................................................................................ MAIN WHEELS FIRST Braking....................................................................................................................................................................... 25 For Flight Simulation Use Only...............................................................................RETRACT TO 20º Airspeed........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30º (Below 90 KIAS) Airspeed.......................................................................NORMAL PROCEDURES Short Field Landing [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Airspeed........................................COLD Wing Flaps.......................65 KIAS Wing Flaps..........MAINTAIN 61 KIAS Stabilator and Rudder Trim........................................................................................... All RightsPage Reserved........OPEN After Landing [ ] Wing Flaps.......................... Autopilot OFF Mixture....................................................................................................................................................................................RETRACT (For Maximum Brake Effectiveness) Balked Landing [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] Power........................................................................................................................................................................... FULL THROTTLE and 2700 RPM Carburetor Heat...........................................................................................OPEN Securing Airplane [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] Parking Brake.............................................................................OFF Fuel Selector Valve............................................ ADJUST Power...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... RETRACT [ ] Carburetor Heat......................OFF Master Switch..............................................................RIGHT © 2007 Flight1 Software.................................................................................................................................................................................... APPLY HEAVILY Wing Flaps.......

Page 26 Continued on Next Page . Although we have taken great pains to ensure that our AOPA Cessna 177 Cardinal flies as closely to the real thing as possible. in some cases performance of the sim aircraft may not match exactly the performance of the real aircraft due to programming limitations in Flight Simulator.PERFORMANCE CHARTS IMPORTANT The performance charts listed in this section are taken directly from the actual Cessna 177 Cardinal Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

Continued on Next Page . 27 For Flight Simulation Use Only.PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved.

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PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. Continued on Next Page . 29 For Flight Simulation Use Only. All RightsPage Reserved.

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31 For Flight Simulation Use Only.PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved. Continued on Next Page .

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33 For Flight Simulation Use Only. Continued on Next Page .PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved.

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Continued on Next Page . 35 For Flight Simulation Use Only. All RightsPage Reserved.PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software.

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PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. Continued on Next Page . All RightsPage Reserved. 37 For Flight Simulation Use Only.

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39 For Flight Simulation Use Only. All RightsPage Reserved.PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. Continued on Next Page .

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Continued on Next Page .PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved. 41 For Flight Simulation Use Only.

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43 For Flight Simulation Use Only.PERFORMANCE CHARTS © 2007 Flight1 Software. All RightsPage Reserved. .

© 2007 Flight1 Software. All Rights Reserved.flight1.com . Page 44 www.