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LPU Phagwara Punjab


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This is to certify that Mr.Sanjeev Kumar has completed the Training in our Industry M/S BajaEngg.Works,Pvt.Ltd. during the period 01-06-13 to 15-07-13. His overall performance during the period was Excellent.

Signature & Seal of Training Manager

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The authors are highly grateful to Mr.AJAYGUPTA , training coordinate department of mechanicalengg.Lovely professional university, phagwara,Punjab for providing this opportunity to carry out the sixweek industrial training at BajajEngg.Works.The authors would like to express a deep sense ofgratitude and thanks profusely to Mr.Rohit Bajaj without the wise counsel and able guidance , it wouldhave been impossible to complete the report in this manner.The help rendered by himself forexperimentation is greatly acknowledged .The express gratitude to other faulty members of Mechanical Engineering Department ,of lovely professional university,phagwara,Punjab their intellectual SupportThroughout the course of this work.

Name of Student & Signature

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Company Profile

Business Type Export Percentage
Primary Competitive Advantages

Exporter , Manufacturer , Supplier 50%
    

Innovative engineering solutions Technical expertise Quality certified systems and standards Client focused approach Commitment to cost and time schedules

Sales Volume No of Staff Year of Establishment No of Production Lines Export Markets Investment on Manufacturing Equipment OEM Service Provided Production Type No of Engineers Product Range

Rs. 10 crore 150 1967 1 Worldwide Rs. 30 lakh
Yes Semi-automatic 3
  

Gun Metal Tanker Valves (used in oil and costly fluids with double disk) Angle Pattern Lift Check Valves (used for petroleum products) Vertical and Horizontal Check Valves Screwed & Flanged in Bronze, Cast Iron and Cast Steel (endowed with ISI&IBRCertification)

 

Boiler Mountings (endowed with IBR Certification) Gun Metal Gate, Globe, and Check Valves

Screwed and Flanged Ends (endowed with ISI)
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Single Piece & Two Piece with IBR certification (15mm to 50mm) Brass Pipe Fittings Brass/Gunmetal/Cast Iron/Cast Steel/Stainless Steel Valves and Corks used in water. Page 5 of 42 .Screwed & Flanged (in sizes 8mm to 150mm) Bronze/Cast Iron/Cast Steel Boiler Mountings (endowed with IBR Certification) Brass Die Casted Stop/Taper/Nozzle Cocks Brass Die Casted Float Valves Bronze and Brass Foot Valves Bronze/Cast Iron/Stainless Steel Steam Traps (Non Ferrous Metal from 15mm to 25mm) Bronze Steam Injectors (from 15mm to 40mm) Bronze Safety Valves (Straight/Angle Screwed/Flanged from 15mm to 50mm) Bronze/Cast Steel Water Level Gauge Glass Sets.Screwed & Flanged (10mm to 20mm-IBR certified) Bronze Fusible Plugs .            Bronze/Cast Iron/Cast Steel/Stainless Steel Ball Valves and Plug Valves. oil and steam and Specialised in Petroleum Valves Standard Certification ISO 9001:2000 & IBR.

1 Gun metal valve Die casting23 2.3 Bronze valve 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.2 Casting process 2.1 Types of grinding25-28 2.4.1Definition 1.1 Chemical composition of base metal19 20 2.1 Conventional machining 2.4 Valve product range 1. Acknowledgement:About Company/industry/institute List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations9 4 7 8 3 Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 9-18 1.2.3Investmentcasting 25 20 2.4 Machining process 2.4.2 Operation performed 25 29 30 33 Page 6 of 42 .3 Grinding process 2.2 Bronze gun metal valve 1.4.16 9 Classication of valves 1.2.2 1.4.3 Cast iron & cast Steel Valve Chapter 2: Project Work19-38 2.3 Uses & Application 10 11 11 12 14 15.1 Sand casting 2.4.3.

19 Page 7 of 42 .. 1) Chemical composition of base metal………………………….5.5 Gauges used 35-38 2.2.Thread pitch gauge Chapter 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39 Chapter 4: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 40-41 References:- List of Tables Page no.1 Vernier caliper.vernier.Micrometer.heightgauge.

31 4) Outside diameter grinder……………………..38 7) Capstan late………………………………….2) List of Figures Page no.34 5) Inside diameter grinder……………………. 1) Die casting……………………………………..41 10)Shot blast machine………………………….34 6) Turret lathe………………………………….42 11) Gauges……………………………………43-47 Page 8 of 42 ....39 8) Simple lathe………………………………….....23 2) Bench grinder…………………………………29 3) Surface grinder……………………………….

valves are also used inthe military& transport maintaining the correct pumping action.including plumbing valves such as taps For tap water.In nature there are valves for example one-way valve in veins controlling blood circulation& heart valves controlling the flow of blood in the chamber of the heart & the home.Valves have many uses. general engineering applications etc.closing or partially obstructing various passageways. fittings for gasoline and oil lines. Typical Applications:Pressure tight requirements.including controlling water for irrigation.residential uses such as taps in sectors.valves may also be automatic driven by a piston or fluid flow.valve and agreement pump bodies.gas control valves on devices fitted to hot water systems.CHAPTER 1 Introduction Definition: A valve is a device that regulates. bushings.industrial uses for Controlling process.People in developed nations use valves in their lives.paddle or wheel. pump automobiles valves. Valves may be operated manually. Page 9 of 42 .either by a handle.directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases.valves are technically valves fitting.liquid)by opening.small valve fitted to washing machines & dish washers.but are usually discussed as a separate category.

Globe valve. Pressure regulator or pressure reducing valve (PRV): reduces pressure to a preset level downstream of the valve. mainly for on/off control. Tap (British English). Ball valve. Pressure Reducing Valve Safety valve or relief valve: operates automatically at a set differential pressure to correct a potentially dangerous situation. good for regulating flow.      Ball cock: often used as a water level controller (cistern). Foot valve: a check valve on the foot of a suction line to prevent backflow. faucet (American English): the common name for a valve used in homes to regulate water flow. Page 10 of 42 . Gate valve.   Stopcock: restricts or isolates flow through a pipe. Check valve or non-return valve. since a 90° turn offers complete shut-off angle. with low pressure drop. allows the fluid to pass in one direction only. slim valve for on/off control but with some pressure drop. Plug valve. for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.          Butterfly valve. Piston valve. Needle valve for accurate flow control. for regulating fluids that carry solids in suspension. Flow control valve: an application which maintains a variable flow rate through the valve. and ideal for quick shut-off. typically over-pressure. compared to multiple turns required on most manual valves. Bibcock: provides a connection to a flexible hosepipe. for on/off control without pressure drop.



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BRONZE VALVES Page 14 of 42 .

IBR Certified Cast Iron Valves Page 15 of 42 .

CAST STEEL VALVE Page 16 of 42 .

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CHAPTER 2 Project work CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BASE METAL NON-FERROUS METALS LEADED GUNMETAL BRONZE to BS 1400: LG2 LG2 Leaded Gunmetal Bronze.excellent wear resistance at normal lubrication. This grade is also known as “Red Brass”. offering excellent machinability. Page 19 of 42 .high resistance to seizure and good corrosion resistance.

CASTING PROCESS 1) SAND CASTING Casting as an old technique is the quickest link between engineering drawing 2nd manufacturing .Melting process III.valve and agreement pump bodies. Basic Requirements for metal casting I.Solidification process V.Finishing draft allowance Advantages of Sand Casting: - Page 20 of 42 .It provides us with the possibility of forming wide range of shapes with wide range of materials. fittings for gasoline and oil lines. In sand casting expandable molds are used. So for each casting operation you have to form a new mold. called mold. pump impellers. bushings. Sand Casting is simply melting the metal and pouring it into a preformed cavity. allowing (the metal to solidify and then breaking up the mold to remove casting. general engineering applications etc.Typical Applications:Pressure tight requirements.Pouring technique IV.Removal of casting VI.A mold cavity II.

vi. Disadvantages of Sand Casting:i. resulting in quality defects in the cast product. Casting is the easiest and quickest way (technique) from drawing (design) to the production. ii. iii. including Goth external arid internal shapes. ii. v.i. ii. Casting can be used to create complex pad geometries. v. v.reduces the strength of metal) Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finish Safety hazards to humans and environmental problems Removal of pattern of the thin and small parts is very difficult Casting Quality: There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in a casting operation. Some casting methods are highly suited far mass production. Casting can be used to produce iv. Some casting operations are capable of producing parts to net shape. iii. No further manufacturing parts are needed. Limitation on mechanical properties Porosity (empty spaces within the metal . Casting Defects: i. Misruns (due to rapid solidification in the runner) Cold shuts (due to rapid solidification before complete filling of the mold) Cold shots (due to splattered globules of metal during pouring) Shrinkage cavity (due to lack of riser system) Microporosity (due to localized solidification shrinkage) Hot tearing (due to the die's prevention of contraction) Page 21 of 42 . iii. iv. iv. Casting process can be performed on any metal that can be heated to the liquid state. vi.

As a result this technique is quite uneconomic for low melting temperature metals.Also certain types of car wheels complex transmission cases. The usage of die-casting depends on the melting temperature of metal being tasted. surface flaws. Pinholes c. But it has a disadvantage that every time you need a new mold. 2) DIE CASTING :Sand casting is suitable for small numbers of large components and for metals that melt at high temperatures. physical. it is often possible to save the casting by welding. Mold crack Inspection Methods: 1) Visual Inspection to detect obvious defects such as Misruns. Defects related with sand molds :a. Die casting. Penetration f. Scabs e.I. Sand blow b. If defects are discovered but are not too serious. Mold shift g. Core shift h. Sand wash d. chemical. grinding or other salvage methods to which the customer has agreed. 3) Metallurgical. 2) Dimensional measurements to ensure that tolerances have been met. and other tests related with the quality a) Pressure testing to locate teaks in the casting b) Radiographic methods magnetic particle tests. use of fluorescent penetrant supersonic testing to detect either surface or internal defects in casting c) Mechanical testing to determine properties such as tensile strength and hardness. and carburetor parts can be produced by die casting. (Bronze & brass door handles are made from this technique.) Page 22 of 42 . For low melting temperature metals there is another suitable casting technique.

Properties of die-casting: 1) Huge numbers of small. Low-pressure die-casting: In this technique die is surrounded by gas burner to keep right thermal ingredients. Magnesium is heated continuously during the process to keep right thermal ingredients and to maintain the fluidity of magnesium while is kept under flask to prevent contact with air (02) to inhibit its explosive property and for this reason while pouring Mg. One of the great advantages of this process. there is no need to remove riser and Page 23 of 42 . It is just pouring from a label. Mainly Magnesium (Mg) is suitable for this technique. light castings can be produced with great accuracy. 2) Little surface finishing is required. because it is tight and strong. Mg is ideal for making rising wheels by using gravity die-casting. no pressure or external forces are involved.1) 3) Permanent mold (dies can be used over and over) Simplest method of die-casting is gravity die-casting. Before pouring the metal a powder called french chalk is put into the die made of cast iron to prevent sticking of the metal. (fig. again the surface is being powdered. which prevents explosive reactions and also keeps the metal surface clean and shiny. This powdering result in inert gases (S02) heavier than air.

to prevent sticking of sand to the die.runner. A plunger makes metal injection into the die. so it is easier than Mg to work with (It can be shaped. so wastes are minimized. Little final machining is needed. sand is sprayed with graphite-based oil. Between each injection of sand. High Pressure die-casting: In high pressure die casting to shorten the time For the metal to be solidified and to increase the output metal is infected into a water cooled die under high pressure and squeezed two times. This technique is also successful in thin walled structures. which increases output. In aeroplane industry X. lower the life of the die. Higher the melting point of sand being tasted. The sand is injected into 2 identical dies at the same time producing two identical castings. High-pressure die-casting provides a good surface and good die dimensions. and carried easily). To check if there are any cracks. I. Because of high pressures involved safety regulations should be obeyed with great accuracy. In this technique careful die design is important and usually a die made of steel is used High output justifies the quality of the output. closing of pouring hole 2) Moving the sand into the die 3) Filling the cavity by the sand 4) Intensification to compact the sand and reduce the cavitations (applying high pressure) Speed of operation depends on the cooling rate. the casting is painted with engineering blue color.ray technique is used instead. Aluminum is suitable for this process because it doesn't readily react with oxygen gas. The sand injection: 1) sand in the plunger. GRINDING PROCESS Page 24 of 42 . Ideal for a mass production. Solidification starts at the edges of the rim and moves inwards to the center. It is suitable for all nonferrous alloys.

50mm depth. there are some roughing applications in which grinding removals high volumes of metal quite rapidly. As the accuracy in dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0.g. Page 25 of 42 . However. is a machine tool used for grinding. in most applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal. about 0. low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. 2 Bench grinder. Grinding is used to finish work pieces which must show high surface quality (e.Fig. which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via shear deformation..25 to 0. A grinding machine. often shortened to grinder. Thus grinding is a diverse field.000025mm.

Its uses Page 26 of 42 . deburring.Fig:3 surface grinder I. which is usually used as a machining method to process metals and other materials. Belt grinding is a versatile process suitable for all kind of applications like finishing. b. Bench grinder. Belt grinder. grinding is the common name for machining metals.which usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench or floor stand. These machines include the:a. and stock removal. with the aid of coated abrasives. Sanding is the machining of wood.

A surface grinder has a "head" which is lowered. The grinding wheel is also being rotated in the same direction when it comes in contact with the object. Page 27 of 42 . creep feed grinding. Surface grinders can be manually operated or have CNC controls. c. and the work piece is moved back and forth past the grinding wheel on a table that has a permanent magnet for use with magnetic stock. The centers are end units with a point that allow the object to be rotated. and center less grinding. Fig: 4Outside diameter grinding Outside Diameter Cylindrical Grinding machine. inside diameter (ID) grinding. Types:There are five different types of cylindrical grinding: outside diameter (OD) grinding. Surface grinder which includes the wash grinder. Bench grinders are manually operated. This effectively means the two surfaces will be moving opposite directions when contact is made which allows for a smoother operation and less chance of a jam up. plunge grinding. The Curved Arrows refer to direction of rotation OD grinding is grinding occurring on external surface of an object between the centers.include shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or repaired.

The object is held in place by a collet. making a face of it flat or smooth. The grinding wheel is always smaller than the width of the object. which also rotates the object in place. A machine vise (made from ferromagnetic steel or cast iron) placed on the magnetic chuck can be used to hold non-ferromagnetic work pieces if only a magnetic chuck is Page 28 of 42 . The chuck holds the material in place while it is being worked on.Fig:5 Inside diameter grinding(pencil grinder) Internal Diameter Cylindrical Grinding. It is a finishing process that uses a rotating abrasive wheel to smooth the flat surface of metallic or nonmetallic materials to give them a more refined look or to attain a desired surface for a functional purpose. The Curved Arrows refer to direction of rotation ID grinding is grinding occurring on the inside of an object. a work holding device known as a chuck. Just as with OD grinding. and a reciprocating or rotary table. It is a widely used abrasive machining process in which a spinning wheel covered in rough particles (grinding wheel) cuts chips of metallic or nonmetallic substance from a work piece. Process:- Surface grinding is the most common of the grinding operations.[7] Surface grinding:Surface grinding is used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. the grinding wheel and the object rotated in opposite directions giving reversed direction contact of the two surfaces where the grinding occurs. while non-ferromagnetic and nonmetallic pieces are held in place by vacuum or mechanical means. The surface grinder is composed of an abrasive wheel. It can do this one of two ways: ferromagnetic pieces are held in place by a magnetic chuck.

6 (Sketch diagram of blast machine) Page 29 of 42 .Shot blasting Fig.

and glass-working. musical instruments (especially woodwind instruments). at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Types of lathe Machines:1. or to a faceplate. metal spinning. in place of the tailstock found on the Page 30 of 42 . drilling. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collets. cue sticks. and a bed upon which the tailstock and Carriage move. It rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting. the best-known design being the potter's wheel. It may be referred to as a tool room-type lathe. and camshafts. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders. a tailstock. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. a carriage. Engine lathes are made in various sizes. gun barrels.The engine lathe is intended for general purpose lathe work and is the usual lathe found in the machine shop. The engine lathe may be Bench or floor mounted. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers. Turret lathes-The turret lathe is a lathe used extensively for the high-speed production of duplicate parts. Lathes are used in woodturning. baseball bats. or a Sliding-gap or extension-type lathe. wood or other materials. crankshafts. knurling. I. table legs. or multiple tool holder. or deformation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object. Thermal spraying/ parts reclamation. metalworking. The engine lathe consists mainly of a Headstock. using clamps or dogs.MACHINES AND MACHINING PROCESSES:LATHE MACHINE:The lathe is a machine tool principally used for shaping articles of metal. Lathes can be used to shape pottery. which is required for machining large diameter work pieces and taking heavy cuts. bowls. Most engine lathes are back-geared and high torque. The turret lathe is so named because it has a hexagonal turret. the size is determined by the manufacturer. Engine lathes. sanding. 2.

IV. III.p. These tools may beindexed one after the other to perform different operations in a regular order. ( Fig-7 turret lathe machine) A capstan lathe or a turret lathe is a production lathe used to manufacture anynumber of identical pieces in theminimum time. to drive its spindle and other parts. Page 31 of 42 . making it possible to machine more thanone surface at a time. and is of heavier in construction. chamfering. when an engine lathewill require a motor of 3h. In a turret lathe. for high rate of production. A skilled machinist may be requisitionedfor setting up only for II. The capstan lathe was first developed in the United States of America byPratt and Whitney sometimes in 1860. cutting-off and many other operations in a regular sequence to produce a large number of identical pieces in a minimum time.p. boring. The headstock of a turret lathe is similar to that of an engine lathe in constructionbut possesses wider range of speeds. In a turret lathe. thread cutting. This is asix sided block each of which may carry one or more tools. Most turret lathes are equipped with a pump and basin for the automatic application of a coolant or cutting oil to the work piece. Thisis a decisive advantage in mass production. the tailstock of an engine lathe is replaced by a turret. Two or more tools may bemounted on the same face of the turret. II. This feature reduces total operational time. Differences between a Capstan Lathe and Turret and an Engine Lathe: I. Similar sizes of capstan and turret lathe and engine lathe. turning. A semiskilled operator can operate a capstan or turret lathe after the machinehas been set up by a skilled machinist. V. reaming.Special characteristics of a capstan or turret lathe enable it to perform a series of operations such as drilling.engine lathe. These lathes are development of engine lathes. combination of cuts can be taken. a capstan andturret lathe will demand power as high as 15h.

Capstan and turret lathe is fundamentally a production machine. capable of producing large number of identical pieces in a minimum time. 8 capstan lathe machine) Page 32 of 42 . C ap st an a nd t u r re t l at h e s a re n ot usu al l y f i t t ed w i t h l e ad s c r ew s fo r cu t t i n g threads.a large number of machines. (Fig. The centre lathe issuitablefor odd jobs having different shapes and sizes. i. VI. A short length of lead screw called “Chasing screw “ are sometimesprovided for cutting threads by a chaser in a turret lathe VII. where as actual productionmay be given by a semiskilled operator.

VI. VIII. IV. V. IV. III. V. Operations performed on lathe:Threading Facing Turning Taper turning Step turning Knurling Drilling Cutting I. IX. X.I. IX. II. VI. III. Parts of lathe:Bed Head stock Tail stock Carriage Apron Feed rod Lead screw Quick change gear mechanism Tool post Page 33 of 42 . II. VII. VIII. VII.

Fig:-9 Lathe Machine Measuring gauses Page 34 of 42 .

We manufacture these products as per the requirements of our clients. these are in compliance with the defined quality standards. II. Verniercalliper (Fig 10) We are engaged in offering our customers. V. Mech/dial/digital 0-150mm 0-200mm 0-300mm 0-450mm 0-600mm Vernier Depth Gauge Page 35 of 42 . VI. IV. III. These are designed by our professionals using the highest grade of material to enable strength and high durability. I.Mechanical Measuring Instruments Our offered Mechanical Measuring Instruments feature a set of various tools which are widely used for measuring purpose and feature perfection and an unmatched accuracy. Designed and developed using advanced technology. Vernier Caliper that is manufactured using superior quality raw materials.

12) We offer high grade screw pitch gauge in the market. We hold expertise in providing Vernier Depth Gauge. It is basically used for testing and measuring electronic goods and provide excellent performance. Our screw pitch gauges are very handy tool for gauging threads. The screw pitch gauge provided by us is made up of high quality tool steel and is appreciated for its efficiency and high performance.11) Our organization deals in offering a vast range of Vernier Depth Gauge. Page 36 of 42 . We make our screw pitch gauge available at very economical price.(Fig. which is well known for its accurate measurement and longer functional life. Specification:  0-150mm  0-300mm  0-450mm  0-600mm  0-1000mm Thread Pitch Gauge (Fig.

have engraved marking and are full length.13) We are offering a wide range of height gauges to our valuable customers.Height Gauge (Fig. The variety under the this include: double column dial digital height gauges. Bore Gauge (Fig. Page 37 of 42 . These are 50 hrc hardened.14) We offer our client bore gauges used as measuring or transfer tools in the process of accurately measuring holes. Our company presents to the customers an assortment of height gauges.

(Fig. This means that the rachet cannot be tightened any more and the measurement can be read. used by engineers. The rachet is turned clockwise until the object is „trapped‟ between these two surfaces and the rachet makes a „clicking‟ noise.5mm towards the anvil face. The object to be measured is placed between the anvil face and the spindle face.15) Page 38 of 42 . Each revolution of the rachet moves the spindle face 0.THE MICROMETER The micrometer is a precision measuring instrument.

there are lots of uses in our daily life such As tap for tap water.valve and agreement pump bodies. Page 39 of 42 . bushings. Future scope Valve has a large scope all around the world.including plumbing valves . Good quality by continuous team efforts & hard work. Cost effectiveness. The company is on approved list of main valve of consumer and consultants of the country. fittings for gasoline and oil lines. general engineering applications etc. pump impellers. Pressure tight requirements. With regard to the company should try to encourage the women employment more emphasis should be given on cleanliness & more concern should be shown to the employees by establishing informal relationship withthem .CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSION Bajaj Engineering Works is a leading manufacturer of Valves & Boiler Mountings & was set up about 4 decades ago. It has over the years built up an excellent track record by following the policy of customer satisfaction & has also obtained ISO-9001 : 2000 devices fitted to hot water system. that the company is also doing much in the field of Advancement.gas control valves . No doubt. Technology.

present & future plans of Bajaj Engineering Works. To know about how the complications are resolved with techniques & solutions by the working team of Bajaj Engineering Works. set-up & structure of the company. Primary data : a.CHAPTER 4 RESULT & DISCUSSION The study is conducted to observe & analyze the various aspects of Bajaj Engineering Works. c. I. By observing the practical functioning of the employees working in the company. (d) From Questionnaires filled up by various employees. By making regular visits to the company.To study a little part of Bajaj Engineering Works was encouraging precious & learning experience for me. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study is based on both primary & secondary data. II. Page 40 of 42 . V. To know the Background. establishment. To study the company profile. To know about the major welfare facilities provided by the Bajaj Engineering Works to theirEmployees. IV. b. By discussing the various issues with the experienced & senior staff. To analyze the Research & Development practice followed in Bajaj Engineering Works. 1. III. The main objectives of study are as follows: I.

The time for the study was not enough because the matters relating to industrial training requires deep Knowledge & it is really a very tough job.II. The study is basically based on the data. II. I have faced some of the problems or limitations which are as follows : I. what we study theoretically is bit different from what we see there in a firm as practically. III. Employees hesitate to fill the questionnaires. which are gathered by me from the various personnel concerned. (b) Annual Reports 1. Page 41 of 42 . So. It is difficult to approach the more employees or workers for the purpose of survey. V. in Bajaj Engineering Works. Secondary data : (a) Collected data from various published material like journals & periodicals. The theoretical & practical ways of study are different to some extent. ( c) Company‟s Profile LIMITATIONS OF STUDY During the study of the project. IV. so it demands proper time devotion & time of just 6 Weeks was not sufficient.

IV. Mr.Groover-author of modern manufacturing science www.Shukla (Design drawing & development) M. II.Joginder Singh(HOD of maintenance & production planning) V.piping-engineering.bajajvalves.P.Rohit Bajaj (Managing Director of company) Mr. III.html ***END OF REPORT*** Page 42 of 42 .