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How is an argument different from persuasion? What is the purpose of argument?

In what jobs might you find yourself arguing? When have you used argument in real life/class/work?

Aristotelian argument is also known as classical argument It was developed by Aristotle Most common form of argument (you probably use it now) Uses deductive reasoning (you state your claim and then help the reader understand how the evidence supports your claim)

Classical Scheme

Parts of a Classical Argument

Introduction Main Claim Evidence (supporting claim) Discussion of other perspectives (acknowledging, conceding, and/or refuting them) Conclusion

Introduction (exordium) Narration (narratio) Confirmation (confirmatio) Refutation (refutatio) Conclusion (peroration)

Instruction: Here you gain attention and establish credibility -Why are you qualified to talk about this issue? -How can you gain attention? Must know your audience in order to address them -You wouldnt speak to a group of 5 year olds the same way you would to your peers

Tips: Show how the issue affects the audience Show how the issue affects the community (or communities) in general Outline what a reader might do about the issue Explain what will happen if the reader does not get involved and take action Begin with a compelling quotation, statistic, anecdote, etc.

Instruction: Here you briefly explain the issue and provide some background info (or context) for the argument you will make, as well as explain why it is important. Is optional if the background is know information (this is unlikely but possible)

Tips: State the crucial facts that are generally agreed upon List the main issues or aspects that you will consider in your argument Introduce the main reasons that support your argument

The main body of your argument Offer evidence to support your thesis or claim Evidence=facts, statistics, expert opinion, other info


Other ways to deal with objections:

Must begin a refutation by dealing with the counterargument (the other side or sides) Must research counterarguments find out what the other arguments are and strategically build your arguments against them (to match them)

Agree that part of the opposing view is valid, then show how the rest is not Accept that the opposing view is a valid point but is not practical or has not worked Discredit any invalid sources they cite (use this carefully)

Instruction: Here you conclude your argument You may want to call for some form of action

Possible Conclusions: Summarize your case Stir readers emotions Call to action Tie back to beginning List main points/remind audience why argument makes sense

Taken from the McGraw-Hill Guide