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Simulation and Research of Transient Recovery Voltage

Baina He
College of Electric and Electronic Engineering Shandong University of Technology Zibo, China
AbstractTransient recovery voltage (TRV) is one of inherent characteristics in power system, the peak and rate of rise of TRV are important factors affecting switching course of test circuit breaker. Circuit breakers can fail to interrupt fault current when the power system has TRV characteristics that exceed the rating of the circuit breaker. The paper investigates the transient requirements of 1100kV circuit breakers by ATP simulation calculation mainly for Jindongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen ultra high voltage (UHV) pilot project. This research item includes TRV after circuit breakers interrupt the short-circuit currents or the current in out of phase condition and TRV under different fault types. The investigation was carried out by digital simulation to analyze TRV waveforms. The paper present the detailed settingup of the digital model of the substation based on the on-site measurement of the substation data. Based on the output, the peak values and rate of rise of the TRV waveforms can be determined. Finally, the paper gives some measures of suppressing TRV, simulates and analyzes suppression effect of MOA on transient recovery voltage. Keywords-ultra high voltage; transient recovery voltage; simulation; metal oxide arrester;

Yunwei Zhao
Department of Electric Engineering Shandong Industry Polytechnic College Zibo, China current can produce higher TRV, which cause very big menace for circuit breaker insulation and influence breaking capacity of circuit breaker. So the TRV is one of the important parameters in design process. With the technology unceasing development, the traditional method already cant reflect the real equipment insulation level. Therefore, how to accurately calculate the UHV circuit breaker TRV is calculately established national standards related to the important basis, but also resolve the current of UHV transmission system in insulation reliability problem is one of the important means. II. SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT RECOVERY VOLTAGE



Transient recovery voltage is the voltage across the terminals of a pole of circuit breaker following current zero when interrupting faults. TRV waveshapes can be oscillatory, exponential or combinations of these forms. The actual shape of the TRV is determined by the connected lumped and distributed inductive and capacitive parameters defined by the bus equipment connected[1-3]. TRV depends on the circuit characteristics and circuit breaker characteristics, the time is very short, only tens of microseconds to several milliseconds[4]. A lot of research and test analysis[5-7] show that the TRV rising rate and amplitude is the impact of circuit breaker is the most important factor. Study of TRV is extremely important to ensure that breaker electrical insulation limits, as defined by the appropriate standards, are not violated due to power system characteristics. In the UHV power grid, circuit breaker is very important equipment but difficult to manufacture[8,9]. How to determine the transient characteristic of circuit breaker, which for the manufacture and safe and reliable operation of UHV system is very important. In UHV system, circuit breaker break fault

Based on Jindongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen UHV AC demonstration project, the paper studies the characteristics of TRV of breaking short circuit current and out-of-step outage by the 1100kV circuit breaker. The demonstration project line full-length is 2300km, transmission capacity is 3000MVA, each 100km line charging power is 315.5Mvar. Generator terminal voltage is 1078kV. The arrester installed on both sides of the line use the Japanese UHV system of C type metal oxide arrester(MOA) parameters, lightning impulse voltages are respectively 1620kV and 1550kV when the lightning currents are 20kA and 10kA. The TRV to which a circuit breaker is subjected depends on the type of fault, its location and the type of switching circuit. The ATP is used to compute the TRV waveforms and to calculate its parameters[10,11]. The paper focuses on the study of Jindongnan-Nanyang line, and Jindongnan substation is GIS. The parameters of substation circuit breaker bus side have a great influence on the peak and rate of rise of the TRV. The bus side parameters including UHV system which is connected directly to UHV busbar, the capacitance to ground of all components on bus, entrance capacitance of transformer, capacitance between high voltage winding and middle voltage winding, the composition of 500kV system etc. Jindongnan substation is a terminal station, the high pressure side structure is comparatively simple, capacitance is small. UHV Jindongnan GIS substation main wiring is shown in Fig.1.

Supported by Shandong University of Technolgy Science and Technology Funded Project(103121) and Doctoral Scientific Research Fund (411019).

978-1-4673-1335-3/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

two-phase and three-phase grounding short-circuit fault and circuit breaker open to produce TRV. The simulation waveforms of TRV are shown in Fig.2, Fig.3 and Fig.4.
800 [kV ] 600



-200 0.097





[s] 0.102

(file dan.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0005A

Fig.1 Transformer substation main wiring diagram of Jindongnan GIS

Fig.2 TRV wave of single-phase grounding fault

1.50 [M V ] 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 -0.25 -0.50 0.097

The substation using double circuit breaker single bus wiring scheme, a return line and a group of main transformer(TR) run. GIS is connected to the overhead bus through the casing(BGL and BGT). GIS is installed with two sets of circuit breakers(CB1 and CB2), five disconnector swithes (DC1, DC2,DC3, DC4, DC5), transformer circuit and GIS buses are respectively arranged a group of arrester(MOAT, MOAL, MOAG). GIS bus and line are installed with earthing switch(ESL, EST), transformer circuit and outlet are installed with capacitor voltage transformer(CVTL, CVTT), which can be more easily extended to 3/2 connection in the future. The key of calculation of TRV is to obtain the parameters of each component in GIS. Through the cooperation with EHV/UHV GIS related enterprises, to obtain internal structure of GIS detailed assembly drawings and dimension. So the paper can establish equivalent model of calculating TRV according to GIS structure, and the capacitance parameters through three dimensional electric field calculating are applied to TRV calculation, which greatly improve accuracy of the results. Finally, the GIS each element value obtained are shown in Table 1.
Bus side TR CVT CT Bus MOA Casing Bus capacitor total C(pF) 5000 5000 80 20*2 300 8980 19400 total 10490 Line side High resistance CVTL ES Line MOA Casing C(pF) 5000 5000 150 20*2 300





[s] 0.102

(file liang.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0005A

Fig.3 TRV wave of two-phase grounding fault

1.80 [M V ] 1.36




-0.40 0.100





[s] 0.105

(file san.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0005A

Fig.4 TRV wave of three-phase grounding fault

According to real line of UHV demonstration project, Jindongnan substation wiring and the GIS parameters of each element selection, the paper builds simulation model and sets simulation time 0.12s. Supposing 0.03s at the end of the Jindongnan circuit breaker happen single-phase (A phase),

From the simulation results, the maximum peak of TRV is about 729kV and the rate of rise is 2.43kV/s when Jindongnan circuit breaker happen single-phase grounding short-circuit fault. The maximum peak of TRV is about 1200kV and the rate of rise is 4.08kV/s at two-phase grounding short-circuit fault. The maximum peak of TRV is about 1600kV and the rate of rise is 6.40kV/s at three-phase grounding short-circuit fault. Compared with simulation results, TRV peak of three-phase grounding short-circuit is larger than single-phase and twophase, the rising time is shortest. Obviously three-phase grounding short-circuit fault is the most serious cases of generating TRV.

When circuit breaker cut out-of-step failure, although outof-step oscillation current is smaller, but recovery voltage is higher, which is a test for the circuit breaker. The TRV of breaking out-of-step failure is used as evaluation condition for circuit breaker. The TRV of breaking out-of-step failure is related with the oscillation phase of two systems out-of-step. The most serious case is electromotive force (EMF) phaseangle difference of two systems is about 180o, TRV waveform is shown in Fig.5, the maximum peak of TRV is about 2650kV and the rate of rise is 8.26kV/s.
3.0 [MV] 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

inhibit the rise steepness of TRV and can not change the frequency of higher harmonic voltage in TRV. Taking UHV demonstration project as an example, Jindongnan GIS substation circuit breaker terminal install MOA, the paper takes the most serious fault forms three-phase grounding short-circuit fault as an example to study and build simulation model. Before and after installing MOA the TRV waveform are shown in Fig.6.
2.0 [MV] 1.5





-1.0 0.1000





0.0 -0.5 0.1003

[s] 0.1020

(file 828kV.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0005A

(a) Waveform before installing MOA

0.1006 0.1008 0.1011 0.1013 0.1016 [s] 0.1018
1.2 [MV] 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.160

(file shiyan5.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0020A

Fig.5 TRV waveform of out-of-step fault (phase D-value is 180)

Since the phase-angle difference is 180 does not conform to the actual system, so the IEC recommended the maximum phase-angle difference is 105o, at the time, the peak of TRV is about 1970kV and the rate of rise is 1.48kV/s. III. SUPPRESSION MEASURES OF TRV

Because the TRV is inevitable in power system, and it has a series of serious harm to the system equipment, all the countries are trying to study suppression measures of TRV. It is not easy to completely suppress TRV of UHV transmission line. In general, it can take measures to limit TRV amplitude and the rate of rise, thus to reduce the transmission system insulation levels[12]. On the whole, basically there have the following kinds of method obtained widespread application: (1) circuit breaker with tripping resistance; (2) installing zinc oxide arrester(MOA) at the side of the circuit breakers; (3) installing resistance-capacitance absorbers (R-C absorbers) at the side of the circuit breakers; (4) parallel with MOA and R-C. MOA is main equipment of suppressing TRV, selecting suitable MOA to reduce the line protection level, which is important to determine the reasonable economic insulation level. According to the expected TRV level and preselected MOA to estimate the number of valve into the corresponding calculation program, continuously and automatically adjust parameters until obtaining the desired level of TRV. Thus to determine MOA number, height and other parameters. From the MOA volt-ampere characteristics can be seen, in the normal operating voltage, the resistance value of MOA valve is higher, but it occurs over voltage, the resistance value is very low, which limits the amplitude of TRV and absorbs the energy of TRV. But because the MOA valve action voltage and the response time lag, accordingly, MOA can not





[s] 0.165

(file shiyan6.pl4; x-var t) v:X0023A-X0005A

(b) Waveform after installing MOA Fig.6 TRV waveform before and after installing MOA

From the simulation results, the TRV peak value is 1750kV and the rate of rise is 6.47 kV/s before installing MOA, and the TRV peak value is 1090kV and the rate of rise is 4.44 kV/s after installing MOA. Thus, MOA has obvious action of suppressing TRV. IV. CONCLUSION Circuit breaker in breaking fault current conditions will produce a higher TRV, TRV affects the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker. The paper takes UHV demonstration project line as the research object to simulate TRV. According to the actual transmission line structure, the paper selects the parameter value of all components and establish simulation model. It simulates various fault types and observes the TRV waveform change, the simulation results show that three-phase grounding short-circuit fault is the most severe cases, the TRV peak is highest, the rate of rise is biggest and the distortion degree is the most serious. In addition, the paper introduces measures of suppressing TRV, simulates and analyze suppression effect of MOA on TRV. After installing MOA on

transmission line, the TRV peak and the rate of rise are decrease. REFERENCES
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