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resources: Depletion of natural resources has led to serious efforts to conserve natural resources all over the world so that they may be used in a proper way for human society today and in the days to come. To many people, conservation of natural resources the means holding supply of or controlling these

Chapter 15 Practices for Conservation of Resources

resources in such a way that a part of it is left for the future.

OBJECTIVES Conversation maintenance, resources. twofold:


CONSERVATION: preservation, utilization, is

includes sustainable of

restoration and encasement of natural Aim conservation

1. To preserve the natural resources and to ensure quality to environment. 2. To ensure continues yield of

resources by establishing a balanced cycle of harvest and renewal.

PRACTICES OF CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES: Creating awareness of the importance of the conservation of natural resources has focused on many areas such as: Reducing use Reusing

Recycling natural resources Decreasing pollution of air, water and soil by making use of energy-efficient appliances and vehicles. CONSERVATION OF WATER: water is used for irrigating crops. Following are the techniques for conservation of water.

Use of Sprinklers: Sprinklers are very effective and efficient technique of water. They not only economies water but also effectively irrigate uneven land. Drip or trickle irrigation technique helps in conserving because. roots. Mulching: It is a method of covering soil to prevent evaporation so that the soil retrains moisture. The cover is provided by dry plant materials such as straw, dried leaves and wheat stable. Rainwater Harvesting: It is a technique to store rainwater for use. Rainwater harvesting ensures the supply of water in the dry months and groundwater is recharged by the reservoirs. It will definitely increase availability of water. Prevention impotent. households, of The Wastage wastage of of Water: water in and water Water through is evaporation through provided

underground perforated pipes near the

Prevention of wastage of water is very commercial buildings

public places can be prevented by closing taps when not in use, repairing any leakage from pipes and not throwing the garbage in water.

CONSERVATION OF SOIL: Soil is a renewable resource. It can be used and reused if properly taken care of. Efforts for soil conservation are directed at: o Preventing loss of topsoil. o Maintenance of soil fertility.
Important practices in hilly and mountainous areas Terrace farming: The rainwater flows very fast on the hills. To slow down the flow of water the mountain slope is cut into steps. As the water flows down step to step, the soil eroded from one step gets deposited on following steps. Contour ploughing: Contour ploughing means

plouging along the contours. This type of plouging helps in preventing the rainwater from washing the soil away but it is useful only when the land is totally flat. Controlling the shifting cultivation A forestation: forests play an important role in the conservation and protection of soil. A forestation means planting trees on the land. This protects the soil from erosion and helps in maintaining soil fertility.

Soil erosion can be reduced by: 1. Bounding the fields 2. Controlling overgrazing:

Overgrazing removes the soil covers and exposes it to harsh winds. Suitable pasture should by develop for grazing animals. 3. Adopting scientific crop rotation practices: Using crop rotation will make the soil more fertile. Crop rotation mean growing different crop on the same piece of land. For example, first year maize, second year cotton, third year groundnuts, and fourth year maize. 4. Constructing river embankments: Rivers carry with them soil from held near the river banks during flood, thereby causing great damage. This can be prevented by making a strong wall with rocks and stones on the banks of rivers. These walls are called river embankments. 5. Conservation of Forrest and Wildlife: Most important practices of forest conservation are: o To plant trees o Van Mahotsava an important festival preventing forest fire. o Establishment of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.




RESOURCES: Most of the mistrials are exhaustible. So they need to be conserved. Some practices related to conservation of mineral resources are: Better technology Efficient utilization of minerals Reuse and recycling of minerals Special conservation programmes include the National A forestation and ecodevelopment Board, the National water lands Development Board, the Hill Area Development Programme. REUSE AND RECYCLING OF MATERIALS: Recycling means salvaging materials in order to reuse them. It helps to save money and valuable natural resources and also minimizes pollution. Recycling is mostly done in industrial sector. It is of two types: Internal Recycling: Involves the process in which waste material is reclaimed as part of the manufacturing process and reprocessed in the factory. Example of internal recycling is trimming of copper pipings cutoff standard lengths and its waste being melted for reuse. External Recycling: Recycling in which worn-out or used objects such as paper or glass bottles are recollected and reused for manufacturing new objects. For example newspaper recycling.

Benefits of recycling: Recycling has dual advantages: Saving on the natural resources Obtain the commodity at cheaper price Saving in energy and raw materials Reduces damage to the environment Recycling glass means fewer sandpits and limestone quarries are needed. This means lesser environment pollution.








conserved by reducing wastage and losses, improvement in efficiency by technological up gradation and improved operation and maintenance. At individual level, energy can be saved by: o Changing our energy-wasting habits and lifecycles. o By using energy-efficient equipments. o We should try to replace coal and petroleum whenever possible, with other renewable sources of energy like sun, wind and water. o We should use the public transport system or car pools instead of using individual vehicles. o The energy of falling water can be used instead of coal to produce electricity. o Solar energy can be trapped in solar cells to run cars and other machines.

USE OF NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES: The fast depletion of conventional fuels has compelled people to concentrate on finding and tapping some non-conventional sources of energy that may last for a longer period of time. Some of the inexhaustible sources of energy like solar, hydel, wind and nuclear energy can only brined hope for the sustained socioeconomic development of human society.

Solar energy: Special attention has been given to solar energy he causes of its steady supply and pollution-free use. This resource can be trapped more effectively in regions where there are long sunshine hours like India. That is why solar heaters and cookers are becoming popular these days in industries and homes. Indian government is working towards generation of energy through nonconventional energy. sources, particularly solar

Wind power: Today, aero generators are being used to generate electricity. They use winds energy as the main source of energy. The wind as an energy source will never run out and does not cause any pollution. Nowadays wind energy is being used for running mills, irrigating fields and for carrying out other farm activities in India. It is estimated that about 20,000 MW of electricity can be generated from wind alone in the country. Hydropower generation: Water energy is also a very common non-conventional source of energy. Flowing of water is used in as generation energy, known

hydropower. This is a very common source of energy in various parts of the world including India. Many dams and reservoirs have been built on the rivers like the Brahmaputra, the Ganges, the Yamuna, and the Satluj etc. Hydropower generation is useful for irrigation and other purposes. Tidal Power: Tidal power of water in coastal areas of India can generate 9000MV of electricity in the gulf of combay, Gulf of Kutch and other coastal areas.

Bio energy/biogas: Bio energy produced from organic waste is an important renewable source of energy- Biogas generated from the decomposition of organic wastes like manure and domestic waste is becoming increasingly popular as a fuel. It is cheaper and environment friendly. It has more practical uses in Indian villages where organic waste in the form of cattle dung is available in plenty. The slurry produced in a biogas plant also be used as manure for agricultural fields.
Find out alternatives that can replace their usual requirement Easy availability Should not damage the environment Should be equally efficient in performance.







Examples of alternatives to minimize depletion: Easy and economic supply of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in place of firewood can save thousands of living trees from being cut. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in automobiles in place of petroleum/diesel. Solar Chullas and biogas Chullas in place of traditional Chullas which use firewood as fuel.


OF rapid energy

RENEWABLE depletion of has resources

prompted people to concentrate on finding and tapping some non-conventional energy resources that may last for long. These energy resources are called renewable energy resources. ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Renewable resources bring hope for the sustained socio-economic development of humanity for years when exhaustible resources will be depleted. Solar energy has come up in fulfilling the worlds future energy requirements and pollution-free use. Some other renewable, inexhaustible and cheaper resources are hydel power, nuclear power and bio-energy.