UMTS Applied Radio Planning

Prepared By M. Ahsan Raza LCC P Pakistan ki t
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Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan

Course Objectives
▪ Understand the key planning parameters of the UTRAN ▪ Produce UMTS Link Budgets for various services ▪ Understand UMTS Coverage and its KPI’s KPI s ▪ Understand Capacity dimensioning in UMTS ▪ Appreciate the Coverage/Capacity relationship in UMTS ▪ Evaluate E l t GSM-UMTS GSM UMTS C Co-location l ti i issues

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1- The UMTS Air Interface

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The UMTS Air Interface UMTS ▪ Universal Mobile Telecommunication System ▪ Also called “3G”. along with other IMT-2000 technologies ▪ The evolution from GSM-GPRS-EDGE ▪ WCDMA technology. technology part of the CDMA family 4 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Processing Gain and Codes 5 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface 1.1.WCDMA.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Frame Period (we may still need frames/timeslots for signaling) 6 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface CDMA .

SPREAD SPECTRUM 7 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface CDMA Spreading •Essentially Spreading involves changing the symbol rate on the air interface Spreading P f Despreading Channel P f P Tx Bit Stream P f f Air Interface Chip Stream P f Rx Bit Stream Code Chip Stream Identical codes Code Chip Stream 8 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Spreading and Despreading Tx Bit Stream 1 -1 Spreading X Code Chip Stream Air Interface Chip Stream D Despreading di X Code Chip Stream Rx Bit Stream 9 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Spreading and Despreading with code Y 1 -1 Tx Bit Stream Spreading X Air Interface Chip Stream Code Chip Stream Despreading Code Chip Stream Y Rx Bit Stream X 10 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Interference mitigation Tx Signal P Rx Signal (= Tx Signal + Noise) P f P f f C Channel P f Signal Spreading Code P f Spreading Code Signal Wideband Noise/Interference ▪ The gain due to Despreading of the signal over wideband noise is the Processing Gain 11 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

the Chip Rate is Rc.The UMTS Air Interface Processing Gain ▪ If the Bit Rate is Rb. the energy per bit Eb and the energy per chip Ec then Rc Eb = Ec × Rb ▪ We say the Processing Gain Gp is equal to: Rc Gp = Rb ▪ Commonly the processing gain is referred to as the Spreading Factor 12 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Visualising the Processing Gain W/Hz Before Spreading W/Hz After Spreading W/Hz Ec With Noise Io f f W/Hz After Despreading /Correlation f W/Hz Post Filtering Orthog = 0 Eb No f dBW/Hz Eb Eb/No No f f Signal Intra-cell Noise Inter-cell Noise W/Hz Post Filtering Orthog > 0 Eb No f dBW/Hz Eb Eb/No No f 13 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

PROCESSING GAIN 14 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Types of Codes ▪ Channelisation Codes from a single cell or terminal ▪Are used to separate channels S2 C1 C2 C3 ▪ Scrambling Codes ▪Are used to separate p cells and terminals from each other rather than purely channels S1 C1 C2 C3 ▪ Different base stations will use the same spreading codes with separation being provided by the use of different scrambling codes. S3 C1 C2 C3 15 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface USE OF CODES 16 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Channelisation Codes ▪ Channelisation codes are orthogonal and hence provide channel separation ▪ Number N b of f codes d available il bl i is d dependant d t on l length th of f code d ▪ Channelisation codes are used to spread the signal 17 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

from Node B in downlink) ▪ • Uplink code lengths: 4 to 256 ▪ • Downlink code lengths: 4 to 512 ▪ • Code lengths are 2N.The UMTS Air Interface Channelisation Code Generation ▪ • Used to separate p transmissions from a single g source ▪ (from UE in uplink. derived using the OVSF scheme ▪ • Generate G t spreading di 18 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

1.2 = (1.-1) Cch.0 =(1.1.-1.1.2.2.1 = (1.-1.-1.-1) Cch.0 = (1.4.1.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = Spreading Factor of code (maximum 512 for UMTS) 19 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .0 = (1) Cch.4.3 = (1.1.-1.4.1) =(1 1 1 1) Cch.The UMTS Air Interface OVSF codes ▪ Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes can be defined by a code tree: Cch.1 = (1.1) Cch.4.-1) Cch.

The UMTS Air Interface OVSF codes: Example 1 20 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface OVSF codes: Example 2 21 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Scrambling Codes ▪ The spread data symbols are then scrambled by multiplying with a complex scrambling sequence ▪ Scrambling codes do not affect the chip rate ▪ The scrambling code is specific for a cell and thus serves to provide isolation between signals from adjacent cells ▪ There are 512 Scrambling Codes in the DL which can be allocated by Radio Planners 22 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface MULTIPATH EFFECTS 23 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface MULTIPATH EFFECTS AND THE RAKE RECEIVER 24 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface

Power Control and Near/Far Effect
▪ When a UE is near the NodeB it doesn’t need much power to

reach it

▪ In the same manner, if a UE is far away it needs greater power to

communicate with the NodeB

▪ Power Control is needed in the UL because a single overover

powered mobile could block a Cell

▪ Power Control is also needed in the DL to provide far away users

with enough power and to keep power low for near-by UEs

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The UMTS Air Interface

NEAR FAR EFFECT

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The UMTS Air Interface

Open Loop Power Control

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The UMTS Air Interface CLOSED LOOP POWER CONTROL 28 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

the RNC can combine the best signals from the NodeB’s NodeB s. ▪ However. A Softer Handover gain also occurs. This is called Soft Handover ▪ When in Soft Handover. hence providing a Soft Handover Gain ▪ Softer Handover applies when the mobile is being served by two cells on the same site. too many mobiles in Soft or Softer Handover could impose a significant Overhead on the system 29 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface Soft and Softer Handover ▪ In UMTS it is possible to have a UE connected to more than 1 NodeB.

SOFT HANDOVER 30 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

SOFTER HANDOVER 31 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Macro Diversity 32 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

RELOCATION – DRIFT RNC 33 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

HARD HANDOVER ▪ Compressed Mode 34 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

35 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .CELL BREATHING •Cell breathing refers to the effective expansion and contraction of a given cell due to sudden changes in the number of mobile users within the cell.

The UMTS Air Interface 1. NR and Loading 36 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . Eb/No.Ec/Io.2.

when you talk about chips.The UMTS Air Interface Interference and Noise Densities ▪ From the point of view of a UE. every other UE’s power appears as Interference ▪ Io is the Interference Density ▪ No is the Interference + Noise Density ▪ In general. or “Ec”. you use Io. When you talk about bits. you use No. or “Eb”. ▪ “No” considers Thermal Noise at the NodeB 37 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Ec/Io ▪ Ec/Io is the Chip Energy we obtain in the presence of the Interference generated by all other users ▪ Ec/Io of the Pilot Channel is used to: ▫ Estimate (“sound”) the channel (multipath characteristics) ▫ Decide which server is “best server” ▫ Make M k h handover d d decisions i i ▫ Typical requirement -15 dB 38 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

the result is likely to be dropped calls. If the mobile is unable to clearly receive one dominant CPICH. failed initiations. It carries no information and can be thought of as a “beacon” constantly transmitting the Scrambling Code of the cell.CPICH ▪ The Common Pilot Indication Channel (CPICH) is a common channel broadcast from each and every cell within a WCDMA network. throughput . ▪ Defines cell boundaries and provides each UE with a “lock” signal to determine the ownership cell. due to interference or coverage problems. ▪ Initial system acquisition and to aid the channel estimation for the dedicated channels ▪ The CPICH is one of the downlink channels utilized by each sector or cell. initiations poor voice quality and/or poor data throughput.

▪ Signal strength comparisons between base stations can be used to ▪ If the UE can’t see the CPICH the UE can’t see the cell. CPICH .CPICH ▪ The soft handoff algorithms for WCDMA are based on measurements made by y the UE on the Primary y Scrambling g Code of the Common Pilot Ch Channel l (CPICH). (CPICH) determine when to g go into soft handover between two cells.

•PCPICH=33dBm •Ec/Io From the UE perspective the Pilot is perceived as the ratio between the received energy per chip to total interference or Ec/Io .CPICH ▪ From the Node B perspective the Pilot is transmitted at a fixed level to keep the initial cell boundaries fixed.

▪ It’s It’ common to t allocate ll t 10%-15% 10% 15% t total t l available il bl PA power t to th the CPICH Node B Power Distribution per Sector .CPICH Power ▪ Increasing or decreasing the relative power allocated to this channel may modify the CPICH coverage.

The CPICH Quality (The ratio of the above two values) ▪ Ec ▪ Io ▪ Ec/Io .The Received Signal Level of a particular CPICH (dBm) . Three key related measurements for 3G optimisation are: .The Total Received Power (dBm) .CPICH Quality ▪ Initial 3G network optimisation will be performed purely from CPICH measurements.

Introduction Total Received Power Io ▪ In a WCDMA network the User Equipment (UE) may receive signals from many cells whether in handover or not Io (RSSI) = The total sum of all of these signals + any background noise (dBm) ▪ •E •c1 •E •c2 .

▪ Ec (RSCP) = The Received Power of a Particular CPICH (dBm) Ec1 Ec2 .Introduction Received Power of a CPICH Ec ▪ Using the properties of the WCDMA downlink scrambling codes the UE is able to extract the respective CPICH levels from the sites received.

-80 = -10dB Clearly in this example the second pilot is seen by the UE as the stronger.Io (dB) Ec1=-95dBm Ec2=-90dBm Io=-80dBm ▪ From the above three measurements we can calculate for each pilot the Ec/Io for that particular pilot ▪ (Ec/Io)1 = -95 .-80 = -15dB ▪ (Ec/Io)2 = -90 .The CPICH Quality Ec/Io ▪ From the previous two measures we can calculate a signal quality for each CPICH (Scrambling Code) received. The quality of the CPICH can be p of the signal g to noise measured in terms of Ec/Io. which is a representation ratio for spread spectrum signals. . ▪ Ec/Io = Ec .

Bearer Service.The UMTS Air Interface Eb/No ▪ Eb/No is the Bit Energy we obtain after despreading in the presence of the Noise generated by all other users and the N i f Noise from N NodeB d B equipment i t ▪ There There’s s a different Eb/No requirement for UL and DL: ▫ Typical requirement 1 to 10 dB ▫ Requirement varies by Bearer. Mobile Speed. Service Multipath Profile Profile. 47 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . and Type of Receiver.

▪ This rise in the noise level appears in the link budget and limits maximum path loss and coverage range. Three Users Two Users One User Background Noise 48 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface Noise Rise ▪ The effective noise floor of the receiver increases as the number of active mobile terminals increases.

The UMTS Air Interface Effect of Neighbouring Cells Users in other cells cause interference interference. is 0 0.6 6 (Urban Macrocells) 49 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . Typical ratio of power from other cells to power from own cell. cell i.

The UMTS Air Interface The Noise Rise Equation I total = PN 1 1− ∑ L j j =1 j =M = 1 1 − ηUL 1 Lj = ⎛ N0 ⎞ W 1+ ⎜ ⎜E ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ b ⎠ Rj j =M If we have M identical users: M ∑ Lj = ⎛ N0 ⎞ W j =1 1+ ⎜ ⎜E ⎟ ⎟R ⎝ b⎠ j 1 M ⎛ N0 ⎞ W 1+ ⎜ ⎜E ⎟ ⎟R ⎝ b⎠ j 50 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan I total l = Noise Rise = PN 1− .

The UMTS Air Interface Noise Rise and Loading Factor ▪ Capacity is linked to Eb/No value ▪ Maximum Path Loss tolerated is linked to maximum NR Noise Rise 1 dB 3 dB 6 dB 10 dB Loading Factor 20% 50% 75% 90% Noise Rise = −10 log10 (1 − ηUL ) 51 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Loading Factor Loading Factor = For M identical users with data rate R : Loading Factor = MvR W ⎛E ⎞ ⎜ b N ⎟(1 + i ) 0⎠ ⎝ Actual Throughput Pole Capacity ⎛ Eb ⎞ M (1 + i )v ⎜ N ⎟ 0⎠ =⎝ W R 52 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

5 3840000 Pole Capacity ≈ = 853 kbps (3)(1 + 0.5) • 50% of this would give a Noise Rise of 3 dB. •50% of 853 kbps = 426 kbps 53 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface UL Pole Capacity For large number of users W Pole Capacity ≈ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟(1 + i ) ⎝ N0 ⎠ W = 3840000 Eb/No = 3 i = 0.

54 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Air Interface DL Pole Capacity The Downlink benefits from orthogonality between channelisation codes. Pole Capacity p y≈ W ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ 1− α + i) ⎟( ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠ α is orthogonality factor and has a value between zero and 1.

The UMTS Air Interface Active Set and Pilot Pollution ▪ The Cells with which the UE is communicating form the UE’s Active Set ▪ This Active Set is made typically of 3 cells/pilot signals ▪ Any Pilot which is not a member of a UE’s Active Set and exceeds a certain threshold (typ. Ec/Io>-15dB) Ec/Io 15dB) is considered a Polluter ▪ Pilot Pollution is a common WCDMA issue that needs to be sorted immediately 55 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Summary of Key Concepts ▪ Processing Gain ▪ Channelisation and Scrambling Codes ▪ Ec/Io ▪ Eb/No ▪ Noise Rise ▪ Cell Loading ▪ Pole Capacity ▪ Near/Far Effect ▪ Soft S ft and d Softer S ft Handover H d Gain G i 56 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Air Interface Summary of Key Formulas ▪ Eb/No Eb Ec (dB ) = + G p N0 I0 ▪ Pole Capacity p y W UL Pole Capacity ≈ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ DL Pole Capacity ≈ W ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 − α + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ 57 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Link Budget 58 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2.

GSM’s ▪ Interference Margin for Noise Rise ▪ Target Eb/no ▪ Processing Gain (dBs) in UMTS = 10 log (3840000/User Rate (bps)) ▪ Power P C t l margin Control i ▪ Handover Gains 59 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Link Budget UMTS Link Budget vs.

Same as “Noise Rise Limit” ▪ Puts a limit to how many y users can be taken in the UL ▪ Has an associated Loading Factor: ▫ NR= 3dB.The UMTS Link Budget Interference Margin g ▪ An admission control parameter. Load Factor=75% 60 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . Load Factor=50% ▫ NR=6dB.

The UMTS Link Budget Target g Eb/No ▪ UMTS Link Budgets are made for Bearers ▪ A UMTS service may y use one or more Bearers. . with each Bearer having a QoS Eb/No requirement ▪ A typical Voice Bearer requires an Eb/No of 5dB ▪ A typical t i l 128 kbps kb B Bearer requires i and d Eb/N Eb/No of f about b t 2dB 61 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Gp = 25dB ▪ For a 128 kbps data Bearer.2 12 2 kbps voice Bearer Bearer. Gp= 15dB 62 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Link Budget Processing g Gain ▪ Depends on the bitrate of the Bearer ▪ Helps p with the required q Ec/Io at the receiver ▪ For a 12.

The UMTS Link Budget Power Control ( (Fast Fading) g) Margin g ▪ It’s entered to allow for adequate Power Control to compensate for Fast Fading ▪ It’s dependent on the Speed Profile of the Mobile ▪ At higher speeds. its smaller as the network cannot effectively compensate for Fast Fading 63 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The UMTS Link Budget Handover Gains ▪ If a UE is in Soft or Softer Handover. this will provide Diversity Gains ▪ These gains can help the Link Budget by helping in achieving the Target Eb/No with less power ▪ This gain is dependent on the Delta on the Ec/Io of the involved paths 64 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

most attention is paid p to the UL budget. y. g 65 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Initially.The UMTS Link Budget UL Link Budget g ▪ Because UL power is lower than DL power coverage is “UL limited”.

2k voice. ▫ For a 128kbps service. ▫ -120 dBm is effectively the receiver sensitivity for 12.The UMTS Link Budget -120 dBm Receiver Sensitivity y ▪ Typical noise floor of cell receiver is -104 dBm. Sensitivity is around -110dBm 66 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . the Rec. ▪ If target g Eb/No is 5 dB and allowed Noise Rise is 4 dB then: ▫ UE must be capable of delivering (-104-25+5+4)= -120 dBm for a successful connection. ▪ Considering full rate voice (12.2 kbps) processing gain is 25 dB.

then maximum path loss = 141 + 17 . ▪ The maximum air interface path loss can be calculated by considering antenna gains and miscellaneous losses (e. shadow fading. These could total 25 dB.(-120) ( 120) = 141 dB dB.voice ▪ If the UE can transmit at powers up to +21 dBm. building penetration loss). the maximum li k l link loss i is: 21 . body loss) ▪ If antenna gain = 17 dBi and losses = 4 dB.The UMTS Link Budget UL Link Budget g .g.g. feeder loss.4 = 154 dB ▪ Note: margins not considered (e. 67 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

voice Noise Floor N i Ri Noise Rise Li Limit it Processing Gain Target Eb/No Receiver Sensitivity UE Tx Power Maximum Link Loss Antenna Gain Feeder loss Body loss Maximum p path loss Margins Target path loss -104 dBm 4 dB 25 dB 5 dB -120 120 dBm +21 dBm 141 dB 17 dBi 3 dB 1 dB 154 dB 24 dB 130 dB 68 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Link Budget Link Budget g .

8 dB. ▪ Different service:. ▫ Processing gain = 17.different range. ▪ VT will typically operate at 64 kbit/s. ▪ Typically range for voice = 1.8 = 146. then the maximum path loss will be 154 .6 x range for VT 69 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .The UMTS Link Budget UL Link Budget g .25 + 17.VT ▪ UMTS is introduced to offer higher level services such as video telephony (VT) (VT).8 dB ▪ If all other parameters remain the same.

5 Antenna Gains: 20 dBi Feeder Loss: 3dB Body Loss: 0dB Maximum Path Loss: 151.5 dB 70 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . Noise Figure: 4 dB.5 dBm ( dBm) ) = 134.128 kbps Thermal Noise: -104 dBm.5 dB Processing Gain: 15 dB (10 log[3840/128]) Receiver Sensitivity -113.5 Max Link Loss = 21 dBm -(-113. Eb/No: 1.The UMTS Link Budget UL Link Budget.

5 dBm Required Tx Power: 24 dBm per channel Eb/No= 1.The UMTS Link Budget DL Link Budget.5 dB Receiver Sensitivity -113.84 x103 DL Pole Capacity = = 3Mbps (1. which in linear is i = 0.41)(1 + 0.5 dB.128kbps channels 11 channels @ 24 dBm = 34.41 3.5Mbps or 11.5 − 0.4 34 4 dBm 71 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .128 kbps Allowable Path Loss: 151.5 10^(1.5 1+i = 1.6) For 50% loading capacity = 1.5/10)= 1.

The UMTS Link Budget Conclusions ▪ Eb/No and capacity intimately linked. ▪ Asymmetric traffic requirements can be designed in. ▪ Link budgets are affected by fast fading and interference margins. ▪ Flexibility allows high data rate services to be provided provided. ▪ Uplink and downlink affected differently by increased loading. 72 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

3.Coverage Planning 73 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning Coverage Objectives ▪ Achieve Minimum Pilot Coverage on Service Area ▪ Minimum Coverage dependant on: ▫ ALP ▫ Services to be provided ▫ Loading ▪ KPI’ KPI’s ▫ RSCP (Ec) ▫ RSS (Io) ( ) ▫ Ec/Io ▫ Pilot Pollution (Scrambling Code overlapping) 74 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning Factors affecting Coverage ▪ ALP is a function of: ▫ Clutter Type ▫ Shadow Fading Margin ▪ Services: S i ▫ The higher the bitrate the lower the coverage ▫ Different Eb/No requirements q ▪ Loading: ▫ The higher the loading the lower the coverage ▫ Loading factor tied to Noise Rise Limit 75 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning 3.1 Network Dimensioning 76 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning

Dimensioning Inputs
Environment Site Configuration

Service

Demographic

Geographic

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Coverage Planning

Simple Coverage
▪ Link Budget based ▫ i.e. simple numerical calculation ▪ Firstly a link budget is created
Calculate Range Create Link Budget

Max PL

▪ The maximum path loss is used to calculate the

Max Range

cell range using a propagation model

Calculate Site Area

▪ The cell range is used to calculate the site area ▪ Site Numbers = (Total Area)/(Site Area)

Max Area Calculate Number of Sites in a given Area

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Coverage Planning

Shadow Fading and Building Penetration
▪ Building Penetration
▫ Mean and standard deviation per environment
P(connect) 50% 75%

▪ Shadow Fading
▫ Typically calculated using ‘Jakes’

Fu =

1⎡ ⎛ 1 − 2ab ⎞⎛ ⎛ 1 − ab ⎞ ⎞⎤ ( ) 1 − erf a + exp ⎜ 1 − erf ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟⎥ 2⎣ b b ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎝

0

x0 - α

Where: a =

(x0 − α )
σ 2

;

x0-α = Fade Margin σ = Standard Deviation of Model n = Propagation Model Exponent

⎛ e ⎞ g10 ⎜ b = 10n log ⎟ ⎝σ 2 ⎠
Point Location Probability Area Location Probability

P(connect)

76%

90%

5.6

x0 - α

▫ This assumes an isolated omni directional site…
79 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan

Coverage Planning Environment Distribution ▪ Spreadsheets don’t deal with topology or morphology accurately ▫ Hills. Hills parks and distributed target areas ▫ Interference and traffic captured by sites will vary ▪ Margins for site acquisition and overlap are required Urban Area Suburban Area Site Numbers Site Numbers? 80 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

2 Planning using Software Tools 81 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Coverage Planning 3.

•> -80 dBm •> -87 87 dBm 82 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . the pilot strength on the ground is an indicator of link loss. 113 dB loss: -80 dBm pilot 120 dB loss: -87 dBm pilot Popular indicator as drive test measurements report on pilot strength.Coverage Planning Pilot Power as an Indicator If pilot power is 33 dBm.

▪ Generally. therefore DL measurement not a reliable indicator of UL performance. MHAs have a different effect on UL to DL. performance •> -80 dBm •> -87 87 dBm 83 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . their effect will depend on deployed feeder loss. ▪ Even if MHAs are universally deployed.Pilot Power as an Indicator issues ▪ Pilot powers not necessarily equal Coverage Planning deployment of MHA at selected sites will alter target pilot values.

•Voice coverage g achieved 84 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . feeder loss. •VT coverage achieved hi d ▪ This allows maximum path loss to each h cell ll t to b be d determined t i d and d UL coverage to be calculated directly. ▫Cell receiver: noise floor. . MHA characteristics. ▫Margins required.Coverage Planning Letting the tool do the work ▪ It is possible to define: ▫The UE: in p particular Tx Power ▫The bearer: bit rate and Eb/No. noise rise.

Coverage Planning Pilot Strength Plot 85 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

▪ Not terribly “scientific” but it corresponds d di directly tl t to measurement reported by the UE in drive tests. 86 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Coverage Planning Assessing Interference with a St ti Analyser Static A l .Ec/Io E /I ▪ Pilot Pil Ec/Io E /I indicates i di pilot il power as a ratio of total wideband power (including the pilot itself).

Coverage Planning Ec/Io Plot 87 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning Assessing Interference with a Static A l Analyser . 88 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▫ Pilot power not considered as interference.Pilot Pil t SIR ▪ Pilot SIR gives the quality of the pilot. ▫ Effect of orthogonality g y on own-cell interference is considered. ▪ Pilot SIR is always better than Ec/Io.

Coverage Planning

3.3 Overcoming Coverage Problems

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Coverage Planning

Limiting mutual interference

• Downtilt antennas. • Consider mounting antennas on the side of buildings.

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Coverage Planning

Limiting mutual interference
6ºElec 0ºMech 0º 0º 6º 0º 6º

6º 6º 6 0º

0ºElec 6ºMech

-6º

6ºElec -6ºMech 0º

0º 6º

0º 12º

Controlling the backlobe can produce a small but significant improvement in capacity.
91 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan

cell interference (W) N Inter is the inter .Coverage Planning Limiting mutual interference • Key parameter: Frequency Re-use Efficiency (FRE).cell interference (W) 92 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . N Intra FRE = N Intra + N Inter N Intra is the intra .

Coverage Planning Mast Head Amplifiers (TMA’s) ▪ Used to lower the Noise Figure of the receiver ▪ Can “offset” feeder losses ▪ MHA used to increase coverage range ▪ Typ.3 dB) DC Ant by pass TMA BiasBias -T 93 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .6 dB Noise Figure (NF) ▪ Typ. 1. Typ Gain of 12dB (adjustable) ▪ Increase uplink capacity ▪ Adds Insertion loss on DL (~ 1.

▪ In practice a gain of 4 dB or more is expected from antennas spaced 2-3 23 m apart. ▪ Even if highly correlated correlated. Receive antenna 2 Receive antenna 1 94 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . coherent combination should yield ~3 3 dB improvement.Coverage Planning Uplink Receive Space Diversity ▪ Common to have two receive antennas per sector at the base station.

rather than simply an effective power gain. ▪ This is possible due to the synchronisation and channel estimation derived from the Pilot channel channel. ▪ Each antenna is connected to a separate finger of the Rake receiver. 95 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Coverage Planning Uplink Receive Space Diversity ▪ This is not “conventional” space diversity. ▪ Very low individual Eb/No will probably mean a very low pilot level which will lead to poor coherence and little gain .process becomes “self-defeating”. ▪ Thus Eb/No is improved.

4 Coverage in the Real World 96 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Coverage Planning 3.

Coverage Planning Typical vendor values ▪ Pilot Power = 5-10% of Total Power (30-35 dBm) (27-33 dBm) ▪ Control Channel Powers = 3-5 dB below Pilot ▫ CCPCH’s ▪ Other signalling Channels = 3-5 dB below Pilot ▫ PICH. AICH. SCH’s SCH s (27-33 dBm) ▪ Summary: Total Non-Traffic Channels = 20-25% of total power 97 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage Planning Some additional constraints ▪ GSM existing coverage ▪ GSM legacy sites ▪ Antenna limitations: height. azimuths. 98 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . etc.

4.Capacity Planning 99 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Capacity Planning Capacity Objectives ▪ Manage effectively predicted Load on Service Area ▪ Capacity dependant on: ▫ Number of users ▫ Position P iti of f users relative l ti t to th the cell ll ▫ Services demanded ▫ UE Power Control ▪ KPI’s ▫ Cell UL Load Factor ▫ Cell DL Power 100 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

the more noise ▪ Services demanded: The more high-bitrate users on the cell.Capacity Planning Factors affecting Capacity ▪ Number of Users: The more users the more noise ▪ Position of Users: The farther away. the less overall number of users possible ▪ UE Power Control: Imperfect power control will account for more noise in the network 101 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Also called “Resources” or “Cards” ▪ Soft Capacity: Variable. 16 Kbps Channel elements. depending on Network loading 102 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Capacity Planning Soft and Hard Capacity ▪ Hard Capacity: Hard limit imposed by actual channel elements ▪ Typ.

in the UL we don’t have Orthogonality to help us W UL Pole Capacity ≈ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ 103 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Capacity Planning UL Pole Capacity ▪ Capacity is typically limited on the UL ▪ This is because.

Voice ▪ If we assume a service with Eb/No = 6dB and i = 0.2x0.8 ▪ Eb/No= 4 (linear) UL Pole Capacity= 533 kbps ▪ If you consider 12.58) = 75. Voice activity factor (+overhead) of 58% ▪ New number of voice trunks is 533/(12.7 Voice Trunks ▪ Adding a typ.2 kbps Voice bearers: ▫ 533/12.Capacity Planning UL Pole Capacity Exercise.3 104 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2 = 43.

53) = 3. Typically 25% of this capacity will be allocated to Soft Handover 105 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2dB ▪ Typically. 40E = 53% Loading ▪ Noise Rise= -10log (1-0.3E being 100% capacity.Voice ▪ A typical UMTS Cell can handle about 40E of Voice services ▪ With 75.Capacity Planning UL Pole Capacity Exercise.

8 ▪ Eb/No= 2 (linear) UL Pole Capacity= 1066 kbps ▪ If you consider 64 kbps VT bearers with 100% activity factors: ▫ 1066/64 = 16.VT ▪ If we assume a service with Eb/No = 3dB and i = 0.6 = 4.2x0.1= 12.6 Voice Trunks ▪ Comparing bitrates: 64kbps/7.5 (7.Capacity Planning UL Pole Capacity Exercise.1kbps = 9 ▪ Comparing trunks: 75.58) ▪ Difference is due to different Eb/No’s 3dB (VT) vs 6dB (voice) 106 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .3/16.

Capacity Planning 4.1 Multi-Services Capacity and C Capacity it Di Dimensioning i i 107 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

9 Bitrate Ratios relative to voice ▪ (1x) 7.Capacity Planning Multi-Service Capacity Eb/No ▪ Voice= 5.1 kbps ▪ (9x) 64 kbps ▪ (18x) 128 kbps 108 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2kbps ▪ VT= 3.6dB= 3.6dB@12.8dB= 3 8dB= 2 2.8dB@128kbps 2 8dB@128kbps Activity Factors ▪ 58% ▪ 100% ▪ 100% dB vs Linear ▪ 5.8dB= 1.4 4 ▪ 2.8dB@64kbps ▪ 128PS= 2.6 ▪ 3.

32 0.8 536 75.00 PS 384 Not Applicable 0 0.40 0.0% 64.2 30 Not Applicable 58.33 0.0% 7.0% 0.2 1.38 0.00 PS 128 Not Applicable 0 0.00 0.0% 0.0 2 1.50 192 PS 64 Not Applicable 0 0.0 1.98 1 212.4% 6.00 Factor for i Reference Pole Capacity (kbps) Loading of Cell UL Noise Rise ( (Loading) g) 0.Capacity Planning Campbell’s Spreadsheet CS Bearers (kbps) CS user per cell PS Capture Data (Mbytes/hour) Activity factor Average rate (kbps) Eb/No Eb/No ratio Relative Ratio Equivalent data rate (voice) 12.10 109 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .8 1.1 6 3.58 0.28 CS 64 3 Not Applicable 100.0 1.0% 0.51 0.0 3 2.

400 Erlangs ▪ Considering g 30E per cell = 513 Cells or 171 Sites ▪ This with 52% loading and 2% GOS 110 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2 Million ▪ Mobile M bil penetration@80% t ti @80% = 1. = 2.76 1 76 Million Milli ▪ For an operator with 25% market share = 440K Subs ▪ With an avg voice traffic of 35mE per users = 15.Capacity Planning Traffic Exercise ▪ Manchester pop.

Capacity Planning Simple Capacity Dimensioning ▪ Capacity calculation based ▪ Calculate maximum capacity Calculate Carrier Capacity per carrier Calculate Sector Offered Traffic ▪ Calculate maximum offered traffic per sector Calculate Maximum Site Area ▪ Calculate site area based on traffic density Calculate Number of Sites in a Given Area ▪ Calculate the maximum number of sites in an area 111 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Capacity Planning Other Dimensioning Factors ▪ GSM/UMTS Interaction ▫ Proportion a percentage of voice traffic to GSM ▫ Don’t assume that UMTS carries all of the traffic ▪ Microcells ▫ Offer capacity relief to macrocells ▫ This allows macrocells to be larger. potentially with a lower loading ▪ Repeaters ▫ Extend the coverage of macrocells at a lower cost than adding a new Node-B 112 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

113 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Capacity Planning “2G” analysis ▪ Coverage thresholds can be set for various services and coverage examined in a similar manner to that for GSM systems ▪ Traffic T ffi captured t d by b cells ll f for GSM traffic t ffi can be b interpreted as cell loading for UMTS systems.

Capacity Planning 4.2 Analysis of DL Capacity 114 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Capacity Planning DL Pole Capacity DL Pole Capacity p y≈ W ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 − α + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ ▫ The Downlink must be able to match uplink capacity ▫ If i=0. pole capacity is 960kbps. ▫ At 50% loading UL capacity is 480 kbps (39 voice).6 and Eb/No is 6 dB. 115 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

then 141 dB link loss can be tolerated.Capacity Planning Further Analysis of the Downlink ▫ Minimum Rx power (25 dB processing gain. 3 dB Noise fi figure) ) = -104 104 + 3 + 6 .25 = -120 120 dB dBm ▫ If maximum Tx power is 21 dBm. Can DL support this? ▫ For every user that’s that s “allowed” allowed in the UL. the Cell will have to provide enough power to support it on the DL 116 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

3 Traffic Planning 117 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Capacity Planning 4.

▪ Different forecasts are given for different clutter categories categories. ▪ Knowing the clutter categories in the required service areas allows traffic to be simulated.Capacity Planning Traffic Density ▪ Traffic Density is forecast in terms of a density in terms of Erlangs per square kilometre. 1 4 2 Traffic Density Weightings Clutter Category 1: Cl tt Category Clutter C t 2 2: Clutter Category 3: Clutter Category 4: 10 50 30 10 3 118 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

it T Traffic ffi density d it is i th the parameter t entered t di in th the simulation i l ti t tool.2 12. 1 4 2 Area Weightings 3 3 Clutter Category 1: Clutter Category 2: Clutter Category 3: Clutter Category 4: 28 16 28 28 Weighting of Actual Traffic per Category Clutter Category 1: Clutter Category 2: Clutter Category 3: Clutter Category 4: 12 12.4 38.7 7 36.7 ▪ Notice that the actual traffic volume per category differs from the traffic d density.Capacity Planning Density versus Numbers ▪ It is important to realise that the weightings are in terms of terminal densities. l 119 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Sometimes the clutter category with the highest weighting occupies a small percentage of the area.

4.4 Capacity Plots

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Capacity Planning

Coverage vs. Capacity
Coverage vs. Capacity
170.00 165.00 160.00 155.00 150.00 145.00 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Throughput (k bps ) Uplink Dow nlink

Maxim mum Pathlo oss (dB)

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Capacity Planning

Link Loss vs. Capacity
1200 Capacity y (kbit/s) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 120 130 140 Link Loss (dB) +37 dBm +40 dBm +43 dBm +46 dBm 150 160

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4 0.8 1 Orthogonality BTS Power: 37 dBm 40 dBm 43 dBm 46 dBm 123 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2 0.Capacity Planning Orthogonality vs.6 0. Capacity 1200 Capacity (kbit/s) C 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.

Capacity Planning Out of Cell Interf.6 2 Out of Cell Interference BTS Power: 37 dBm 40 dBm 43 dBm 46 dBm Capac city (kbit/s) ) 124 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .2 1. Capacity 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.4 0. vs.8 1.

Number of Terminals 125 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Capacity Planning Capacity Planning Summary ▪ Capacity dependant on: ▫ Number of users ▫ Position of users relative to the cell ▫ Services demanded ▫ UE Power Control ▪ Multiple p Services Traffic characteristic of UMTS ▪ Pole Capacity. UL Cell Loading and DL Cell Power ▪ Erlangs vs.

UMTS 5 UMTS-GSM GSM Co Co-location location Issues 126 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .5.

etc ▪ Different coverage extents 127 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . GSM1900.GSM Co-location Co-location main Issues ▪ Have to live with existing GSM sites ▪ Have to live with existing antenna heights/azimuths ▪ GSM Interference: GSM1800.

GSM Co-location Interference Issues ▪ Interference can occur: ▫ between carriers ▫ between operators ▫ between systems ▪ Co-location of GSM and UMTS sites raises special problems problems. 128 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

GSM Co-location 3rd Generation Spectrum Allocations ITU (WARC-92) ( ) 1885 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 1980 20102025 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 1980 IMT-2000 2170 2200 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 2200 Europe Japan Korea 1880 1900 1920 GSM 1800 DECT UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired UL UMTS SAT 20102025 UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired DL 2170 UMTS SAT 1920 IMT-2000 1980 2110 IMT-2000 2170 Land Mobile UL 1920 Land Mobile DL 2110 IMT-2000 2170 IMT-2000 1980 Land Mobile UL 1850 Land Mobile DL 1990 2110 2200 USA PCS UL 1910 1930 PCS DL Reserved 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 129 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

unwanted emissions from modulation process and non-linearity of transmitter ▪ Spurious Emissions .can be b filt filtered d out tb by Cell Equipment ▫ Passive: non-linearities of passive components .GSM Co-location Intersystem Interference Issues ▪ Wideband Noise .Harmonic.Transmitter carriers from another system ▪ Inter-modulation Products .Spurious emission. specifications consider this in particular ▫ Active: A ti non-linearities li iti of f active ti components t . transceivers and receivers 130 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . Inter-modulation products ▪ Blocking . antennas.cannot be filtered out by Cell Equipment ▪ Other EMC problems . Parasitic.feeders.

To prevent UMTS BTS blocking: with transmit power = 43 dBm M l Max level l of f interfering i f i signal i l for f blocking bl ki = -15 dB dBm i in UMTS Isolation required = 58 dB 1805 MHz 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1880 MHz 1920 MHz 2110 MHz 1980 MHz 2170 MHz GSM 1800 Rx GSM 1800 Tx UMTS Rx UMTS Rx 131 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .GSM Co-location Isolation Requirements GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS 1920 – 1980 MHz 2110 – 2170 MHz Receiving band 890 – 915 MHz 1710 – 1785 MHz (UL) Transmitting band 935 – 960 MHz 1805 – 1880 MHz (DL) For example .

GSM Co-location Typical Isolation Requirements Isolation Requirements Specification Requirements GSM UMTS Tx to UMTS Tx to 900/GSM1 GSM 900 GSM 1800 800 to Rx Rx UMTS Rx 58 dB 40 dB 48 dB UMTS Tx to UMTS Rx 63 dB Blocking isolation Spurious emissions/inter -modulation products 39 dB 34 dB 34 dB 39 dB 132 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

t Diplexer UMTS 133 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▫ By y filtering g out the interfering g signal.GSM Co-location Achieving Isolation Requirements ▪ Isolation can be provided in a variety of GSM different ways. ways UMTS ▫ By antenna selection and positioning positioning. g UMTS GSM Filter ▫ By using diplexers and triplexers with GSM shared h df feeder d and d multiband ltib d antennas.

6.Practical Examples 6 134 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

The cell is heavily loaded.Practical Examples Small. ▪ Noise Rise will be the only radio- related cause of failure. 135 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Eb/No and Ec/Io failures are associated with path loss. isolated cell ▪ Traffic is spread across a small area with low path loss to the base station.

▪ Reducing target Eb/No on the uplink and the downlink. ▪ A Mast Head Amplifier p will not be of much use as uplink Eb/No is not a significant cause of failures. isolated cell ▪ Capacity improvements can be achieved by: ▪ Increasing Noise Rise limit. 136 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Practical Examples Small.

▪ Users at a great distance from the base station will not be able to make a connection. ▪ Gaps will appear in network coverage.Practical Examples Large. isolated cell ▪ As loading increases. ▪ Heavy loading will result in Cell Breathing. meeting Eb/No targets will be a problem. coverage 137 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

138 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Combining mechanical and electrical tilt can control backlobe radiation. ▪ Cell overlap can be controlled by pointing of antennas.Practical Examples Sectored Sites ▪ Capacity will be affected by overlap of cell coverage areas.

▪ It may be impossible to decode a dominant pilot pilot.Practical Examples Pilot Pollution ▪ A mobile can be too well served. 139 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Scaling pilot power and controlling radiation patterns is vital. ▪ Ec/Io and Eb/No failure due to co- channel interference.

▪ Effect on handover region can be monitored. ▪ Handover margin can be adjusted adjusted.Practical Examples Soft Handover ▪ Soft handover regions must be controlled to ensure that capacity is maximised. 140 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . ▪ Pilot powers can be scaled.

Practical Examples Dimensioning and Simulating a Network ▪ We are able to approximately dimension a network with a simple spreadsheet. ▪ The network can then be modified to incorporate practical features such as terrain features and traffic distribution. it is possible to simulate such a simplified network so that a clear understanding of the working of the simulator can be established. ▪ This is a simplified network not considering the effects of mapping data and uneven traffic distribution. ▪ However. 141 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

6 1 Simulation Examples 6.1 142 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Practical Examples The Network and Height Profile ▪ 3dB NR limit ▪ 20m antennas ▪ No MHA MHA. no RX diversity ▪ 500 Terminals spread on Urban and Suburban areas 143 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Reason for Failure ▪ Polygon area OK as far as Voice Service ▪ Some NR Limit reached h df failures il (aqua pixels) 144 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Practical Examples Voice.

Reason for Failure ▪ Polygon area shows UL Eb/No failures ▪ NR Limit reached h df failures il (aqua pixels) ▪ Changing azimuths on site to the right of polygon is not an option due to existing traffic restrictions t i ti 145 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Practical Examples VT.

Practical Examples VT.NR Limit increased to 6dB ▪ NR limit parameter g from 3 changed dB to 6 dB on all cells ▪ NR Limit reached problem fixed ▪ UL Eb/No problem still there 146 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Coverage plot is done ▪ It can be seen that Pilot level in Polygon area is very low (around -105 dB) 147 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . a Pilot failure.Practical Examples Pilot Coverage for Polygon ▪ Looking for the causes of the .

Height Profile is performed ▪ It can be seen that there is a significant obstruction preventing a good UL 148 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .Practical Examples Height Profile for Polygon ▪ Looking for the causes poor g .a coverage.

however the however. original problem is not solved ▪ No interference problems are created t d either ith 149 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan . g is antenna height increased from 20m to 40m ▪ This decreases the pathloss.Practical Examples Height increased to 40m ▪ Trying to fix the UL Eb/No failure.

Practical Examples Adding MHA and RX Diversity ▪ Another option is to add an MHA y and RX Diversity ▪ These additions prove the th solution for most of the problem pixels inside the polygon ▪ Height is still 40m. due to obstructions and poor site it location l ti 150 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Final Summary 151 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Final Summary Summary of Key Concepts ▪ Processing Gain ▪ Channelisation and Scrambling Codes ▪ Ec/Io ▪ Eb/No ▪ Noise Rise ▪ Cell Loading ▪ Pole Capacity ▪ Near/Far Effect ▪ Soft S ft and d Softer S ft Handover H d Gain G i 152 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

Final Summary Summary of Key Formulas ▪ Eb/No Eb Ec (dB ) = + G p N0 I0 ▪ Pole Capacity p y W UL Pole Capacity ≈ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ DL Pole Capacity ≈ W ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟(1 − α + i ) ⎝ 0⎠ 153 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

End 154 Copyright 2008 LCC Pakistan .

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