# Module 3: Applied Biostatistics

Competency Statement Analyze epidemiologic data using appropriate statistical methods Learning Objectives • Describe the scales of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio) • Compare continuous and discrete data • Differentiate between ratios, proportions, incidence, prevalence, attac rates • Calculate ratios, proportions, incidence, prevalence, attac rates • Describe differences between these measures ! the proper interpretation of each • "#plain the advantage of using rates over absolute numbers when describing a population • Calculate measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) • Calculate measures of dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation, standard error of the mean) • Discuss in what setting the various measures of central tendency and dispersion are used • Describe the characteristics of a s ewed distribution • "#plain a confidence interval in non'technical terms • Calculate a ()* confidence interval around a mean • Describe two reasons why rates should be ad+usted • Calculate direct ad+usted rates using a standard population • Calculate indirect ad+usted rates using standard population rates • Describe the relative fre%uency concept of probability • Create a fre%uency distribution table ! histogram, &inomial and -oisson distribution, standard multiplicative and addition rules in probabilities • Describe the importance of a normal distribution • "#plain in non'technical terms the meaning of the central limit theory • Convert raw scores into standard scores • Determine probabilities from standard normal distribution • Calculate the area inside the normal curve between the mean and . standard deviation, mean and two standard deviations • Interpret a ()* confidence interval for an odds ratio • "#plain a confidence interval for an odds ratio in non'technical terms • Interpret a ()* confidence interval for a relative ris • "#plain an odds ratio of . • Discuss the difference between a standard deviation and standard error • Calculate a z'test using the standard error of the mean • "#plain the meaning of type . ! type 0 errors • "#plain the relationship between the sample size, .'1, 2, and power • 3elect an appropriate test statistic for the comparison of two means, two proportions, repeated measures assessment, appa statistic for inter'observer variation, Determine when to use a z'test or t'test • Determine when to use an unpaired or paired t'test • Interpret an unpaired t'test on two samples • Compare two proportions using z'test for proportion • 4se an unmatched Chi's%uare statistic • Apply appropriate tests of statistical significance for the comparison of two means or two proportions 5ist several tests of significance for categorical fre%uency data • Interpret a 6isher e#act test • Describe when to use a chi's%uare test vs7 a 6isher e#act test • Interpret a statistical method to compare paired nominal data • Apply an appropriate statistical method to compare ordinal data, paired and unpaired Interpret a -earson product'moment correlation coefficient • Describe the purpose of using linear regression • Create a simple linear regression model given a two related variables • Describe the purpose and use of multiple linear regression models • Describe the purpose of using logistic regression • Describe the process for and create a logistic regression model, control for bias, interaction and confounding in biological data Calculate sample size for a chi s%uare test • Calculate sample size for subgroup or stratified Topic Introduction to biostatistics \$ates, proportions, ratios (measures of fre%uency) Central location and dispersion Responsible group A &

C

\$ate ad+ustment -robability theory ! basis in sampling /ormal distribution

D A &

Confidence intervals for case control ! cohort studies 3tatistical inference

C

D

-arametric tests of significance

A &

/on parametric tests

C

Introduction to correlation and regression analysis

D

3ample size

A

Resource persons:
8r7 8alimbo 8ugagga Dr7 \$obert 8uso e malimbom9yahoo7co7u robertmuso e9gmail7com

Dr. Wamala J. F Dr. Andrew Tamale Dr. Luke Nyakarahuka

j_wamala@yahoo.com