OF TRUTH What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer.

Certainly there be, that delight in giddiness, and count it a bondage to fix a belief; affecting free-will in thinking, as well as in acting. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind be gone, yet there remain certain discoursing wits, which are of the same veins, though there be not so much blood in them, as was in those of the ancients. But it is not only the difficulty and labor, which men take in finding out of truth, nor again, that when it is found, it imposeth upon men's thoughts, that doth bring lies in favor; but a natural though corrupt love, of the lie itself. One of the later school of the Grecians, examineth the matter, and is at a stand, to think what should be in it, that men should love lies; where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets, nor for advantage, as with the merchant; but for the lie's sake. But I cannot tell; this same truth, is a naked, and open day-light, that doth not show the masks, and mummeries, and triumphs, of the world, half so stately and daintily as candle-lights. Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl, that showeth best by day; but it will not rise to the price of a diamond, or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man doubt, that if there were taken out of men's minds, vain opinions, flattering hopes, false valuations, imaginations as one would, and the like, but it would leave the minds, of a number of men, poor shrunken things, full of melancholy and indisposition, and unpleasing to themselves? One of the fathers, in great severity, called poesy vinum doemonum, because it filleth the imagination; and yet, it is but with the shadow of a lie. But it is not the lie that passeth through the mind, but the lie that sinketh in, and settleth in it, that doth the hurt; such as we spake of before. But, howsoever these things are thus in men's depraved judgments, and affections, yet truth, which only doth judge itself, teacheth that the inquiry of truth, which is the love-making, or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, which is the presence of it, and the belief of truth, which is the enjoying of it, is the sovereign good of human nature. The first creature of God, in the works of the days, was the light of the sense; the last, was the light of reason; and his sabbath work ever since, is the illumination of his Spirit. First he breathed light, upon the face of the matter or chaos; then he breathed light, into the face of man; and still he breatheth and inspireth light, into the face of his chosen. The poet, that beautified the sect, that was otherwise inferior to the rest, saith yet excellently well: It is a pleasure, to stand upon the shore, and to see ships tossed upon the sea; a pleasure, to stand in the window of a castle, and to see a battle, and the adventures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage ground of truth (a hill not to be commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene), and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and tempests, in the vale below; so always that this prospect be with pity, and not with swelling, or pride. Certainly, it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in providence, and turn upon the poles of truth. To pass from theological, and philosophical truth, to the truth of civil business; it will be acknowledged, even by those that practise it not, that clear, and round dealing, is the honor of man's nature; and that mixture of falsehoods, is like alloy in coin of gold and silver, which may make the metal work the better, but it embaseth it. For these winding, and crooked courses, are the goings of the

that doth so cover a man with shame. but it mates. as children fear to go in the dark. what the pains of death are. as that he is brave towards God. and blacks. fear preoccupateth it. grief flieth to it. that there is no passion in the mind of man. for the most vital parts. scarce feels the hurt. Revenge triumphs over death. Yet in religious meditations. deserebant. after Otho the emperor had slain himself. when a man hath so many attendants about him. It is no less worthy. and the like. Vespasian in a jest. to call the judgments of God upon the generations of men. There is no vice. Nay. Certainly the Stoics bestowed too much cost upon death. vive et vale. the fear of death. as to be found false and perfidious. Certainly. And by him that spake only as a philosopher. for the time. he shall not find faith upon the earth. what the pain is. holding forth his neck. conjugii nostri memor. death is no such terrible enemy. as in that it shall be the last peal. And therefore Montaigne saith prettily. And the like. in some of the friars' books of mortification. sitting upon the stool. Groans. is like one that is wounded in hot blood. and bent upon somewhat that is good. are not the quickest of sense. it being foretold. . For a lie faces God. why the word of the lie should be such a disgrace. to observe. and not upon the feet. and friends weeping. made it appear more fearful. Galba with a sentence. if he have but his finger's end pressed. and of superstition. which goeth basely upon the belly. believe it. the one is as painful. non dissimulatio. is increased with tales. Surely the wickedness of falsehood. as to be born. sed etiam fastidiosus potest. and to a little infant. and therefore a mind fixed. It is worthy the observing. show death terrible. and a coward towards men. when the whole body is corrupted. Nunc dimittis. cannot possibly be so highly expressed. nor miserable. when he inquired the reason. when many times death passeth. when a man hath obtained worthy ends. Ut puto deus fio. He that dies in an earnest pursuit. to say that a man lieth. Tiberius in dissimulation. who. and therefore. Jam Tiberium vires et corpus. and a discolored face. If it be well weighed. over and over. and masters. that when Christ cometh. But.serpent. but the fear of it. and obsequies. perhaps. and such an odious charge? Saith he. and as that natural fear in children. so is the other. as a tribute due unto nature. how little alteration in good spirits. and natural man. that can win the combat of him. till the last instant. is weak. and shrinks from man. love slights it. out of mere compassion to their sovereign. and breach of faith. Septimius Severus in despatch. It is as natural to die. so weak. though he were neither valiant. Seneca adds niceness and satiety: Cogita quamdiu eadem feceris. A man would die. Livia. the sweetest canticle is. honor aspireth to it. only upon a weariness to do the same thing so oft. nay. Adeste si quid mihi restat agendum. as the wages of sin. with less pain than the torture of a limb. is holy and religious. as the other. doth avert the dolors of death. that a man should think with himself. and passage to another world. there is sometimes mixture of vanity. pity (which is the tenderest of affections) provoked many to die. Feri. the contemplation of death. and thereby imagine. You shall read. and by their great preparations. and convulsions. si ex re sit populi Romani. above all. mori velle. OF DEATH Men fear death. Pompa mortis magis terret. for they appear to be the same men. the approaches of death make. quam mors ipsa. Better saith he qui finem vitae extremum inter munera ponat naturae. we read. and as the truest sort of followers. non tantum fortis aut miser. and dissolved. or tortured. Augustus Caesar died in a compliment. as Tacitus saith of him. is as much to say. it was well said.

and witty reconcilements. in the conventicles of heretics. and fathers of their church. Ecce in deserto. and profane persons. Is it peace. that heresies. doth so much keep men out of the church and drive men out of the church. and divisions about religion. There is a master of scoffing. Both these extremes are to be avoided. it doth avert them from the church. a wound. Death hath this also. We shall therefore speak a few words. For indeed. were the poets. but following. It is but a light thing. It establisheth faith. yea. and hear you speak with several tongues. For you may imagine. and reading of controversies. the true placing of them. as breach of unity. when itself is well contained within the true band of unity. when the chief doctors. and lukewarm persons. Peace is not the matter. were in two cross clauses . -Go not out. more than corruption of manners. the other. were evils unknown to the heathen. The quarrels. and therefore. in an outward face of a church. and others. if the league of Christians. whensoever it cometh to that pass. than in any constant belief. do hear of so many discordant. that is. what kind of faith theirs was. what are the fruits thereof. and maketh them. when some men seek Christ. and schisms. which will be done. to sit down in the chair of the scorners. is worse than a corrupt humor. towards those that are without the church. if an heathen come in. towards those that are within. penned by our Savior himself. But the true God hath this attribute. The doctor of the Gentiles (the propriety of whose vocation. or cringe by themselves. when atheists. the outward peace of the church. who are apt to contemn holy things. another saith. The Morris-Dance of Heretics. is a happy thing. all speech of pacification is odious. sets down this title of a book. drew him to have a special care of those without) saith. which containeth infinite blessings. will he not say that you are mad? And certainly it is little better. So that nothing. that voice had need continually to sound in men's ears. And therefore. For to certain zealants. so in the spiritual. will endure no mixture. For as in the natural body. that in his catalogue of books of a feigned library. every sect of them. distilleth into peace of conscience. it is certain. into treaties of mortification and devotion. There appear to be two extremes. because the religion of the heathen. The fruits of unity (next unto the well pleasing of God. as if they would make an arbitrament between God and man. that one saith. or solution of continuity. are of all others the greatest scandals. Ecce in penetralibus. importeth exceedingly. but yet it expresseth well the deformity. and it turneth the labors of writing. consisted rather in rites and ceremonies. Contrariwise. concerning the unity of the church. Jehu? What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. what the bounds. that he is a jealous God. and taking part of both. which is all in all) are two: the one. which cannot but move derision in worldlings. Nolite exire. it is peace. nor partner. Concerning the bounds of unity. his worship and religion. and extinguisheth envy. The reason was. For the former. certain Laodiceans. think they may accommodate points of religion. it kindleth charity. OF UNITY IN RELIGION Religion being the chief band of human society. and party. and depraved politics. and what the means. by middle way. and contrary opinions in religion. that it openeth the gate to good fame. As for the fruit towards those that are within. to be vouched in so serious a matter. -Extinctus amabitur idem. hath a diverse posture.and expectations.

when the matter of the point controverted. Christ's coat indeed had no seam. and know well within himself. were truly discerned and distinguished. and put them into new terms. which is between man and man. shall sometimes hear ignorant men differ. mean one thing. that in the procuring. What would he have said. In veste varietas sit. by two kinds of controversies. than substantial. whereupon he saith. from points not merely of faith. they do not dissolve and deface the laws of charity. to put it into the hands of the common . The one is. Men create oppositions. and done already. Of this I may give only this advice. There be two swords amongst Christians. and yet they themselves would never agree. than he was. For this is but to dash the first table against the second. the spiritual and temporal. as it is noted. of rending God's church. they may cleave.thereof. to propagate religion by wars. For. For as the temporal sword is to be drawn with great circumspection in cases of religion. or unities: the one. to put the sword into the people's hands. is against us. according to my small model. scissura non sit. but upon an implicit ignorance. doth not discern that frail men. in such things. blasphemy. much less to nourish seditions. kindled only by contradiction. but the church's vesture was of divers colors. There be also two false peaces. it would be embraced more generally. order. by St. and both have their due office and place. that could endure the sacrificing of his own daughter. Men ought to take heed. in fundamental points. except it be in cases of overt scandal. as we forget that they are men. or by sanguinary persecutions to force consciences. or like unto it. by one of the fathers. et oppositiones falsi nominis scientiae. to authorize conspiracies and rebellions. men must beware. in the toes of Nebuchadnezzar's image. soundly and plainly expounded: He that is not with us. He that is not against us. and of human society. when it is pieced up. in the maintenance of religion. For truth and falsehood. but of opinion. and obscurity. are like the iron and clay. for all colors will agree in the dark: the other. is with us. But if it were done less partially. but it is driven to an over-great subtilty. when he beheld the act of Agamemnon. of religious unity. unity and uniformity. that knows the heart. which is the ordinance of God. or muniting. But we may not take up the third sword. in that distance of judgment. Lucretius the poet. when the matter of the point controverted. and the like. intend the same thing. Paul. And if it come so to pass. Devita profanas vocum novitates. not worth the heat and strife about it. or good intention. as whereas the meaning ought to govern the term. which are not. in the warning and precept. when the peace is grounded. and again. so fixed. if he had known of the massacre in France. Concerning the means of procuring unity. in some of their contradictions. but they will not incorporate. they be two things. the term in effect governeth the meaning. exclaimed: Tantum Religio potuit suadere malorum. or the powder treason of England? He would have been seven times more Epicure. shall we not think that God above. This is a thing may seem to many a matter trivial. that is. is too small and light. and accepteth of both? The nature of such controversies is excellently expressed. A man that is of judgment and understanding. upon a direct admission of contraries. that he giveth concerning the same. that is. and atheist. or intermixture of practice against the state. so that it becometh a thing rather ingenious. that those which so differ. The other is. which is Mahomet's sword. so it is a thing monstrous. is great. and so to consider men as Christians. if the points fundamental and of substance in religion. tending to the subversion of all government.

I am sure. or honor. the revenge be such as there is no law to punish. the more ought law to weed it out. Therefore why should I be angry with a man. But yet the spirit of Job was in a better tune: Shall we (saith he) take good at God's hands. both Christian and moral. That which is past is gone. and assassins. and many more. Surely in counsels concerning religion. and it is two for one. and irrevocable. But base and crafty cowards. and all learnings. that those which held and persuaded pressure of consciences. and do well. to the cruel and execrable actions of murthering princes. for the death of Pertinax. duke of Florence. butchery of people. yet it is but like the thorn or briar. by doctrine and decree. and subversion of states and governments? Surely this is to bring down the Holy Ghost. those facts and opinions tending to the support of the same. as they are mischievous. to make the cause of religion to descend. that the church. Ira hominis non implet justitiam Dei. For the delight seemeth to be. which prick and scratch. why. for it is a prince's part to pardon. had a desperate saying against perfidious or neglecting friends. out of the bark of a Christian church. whence it cometh. not so much in doing the hurt. a flag of a bark of pirates. with things present and to come. OF REVENGE Revenge is a kind of wild justice. were commonly interested therein. so end they infortunate. but you never read. for the wrong's sake. This is the more generous. he is superior. because they can do no other. I will ascend. And Solomon. for their own ends. or the like. therefore they do but trifle with themselves. OF ADVERSITY . and no less ingenuously confessed. that we are commanded to forgive our friends. keeps his own wounds green. and not be content to take evil also? And so of friends in a proportion. for the death of Henry the Third of France. as in making the party repent. that a man that studieth revenge. are like the arrow that flieth in the dark. who. do damn and send to hell for ever. in taking revenge. Certainly. which otherwise would heal. and bring him in saying. it is not so. as that for the death of Caesar. and be like the prince of darkness. for loving himself better than me? And if any man should do wrong. Cosmus.people. and other furies. princes by their sword. and be like the highest. as hath been already in good part done. a man is but even with his enemy. but the revenge of that wrong. else a man's enemy is still before hand. it doth but offend the law. but in passing it over. putteth the law out of office. And it was a notable observation of a wise father. which the more man's nature runs to. themselves. in the shape of a vulture or raven. This is certain. saith. But in private revenges. as by their Mercury rod. when the devil said. or pleasure. You shall read (saith he) that we are commanded to forgive our enemies. is for those wrongs which there is no law to remedy. are desirous. instead of the likeness of a dove. the party should know. to personate God. but thereby to purchase himself profit. that labor in past matters. Therefore it is most necessary. Some. There is no man doth a wrong. The most tolerable sort of revenge. It was great blasphemy. and wise men have enough to do. but then let a man take heed. but it is greater blasphemy. It is the glory of a man. and set. vindictive persons live the life of witches. For as for the first wrong. when they take revenge. merely out of ill-nature. as if those wrongs were unpardonable. to pass by an offence. and what is it better. that counsel of the apostle would be prefixed. Nay rather. Public revenges are for the most part fortunate. I will descend. Let that be left unto the Anabaptists.

than the other (much too high for a heathen). Tacitus saith. but the good things. then it is left to him generally. For if a man have that penetration of judgment. and dissimulation or closeness. and what to be showed at half lights. you shall hear as many hearse-like airs as carols. which figured in that strange fiction of the ancient poets. and arts of life. and dissimulation of her son. to him. or vary in particulars. It is true greatness. are to be admired. as Tacitus well calleth them). and what to be secreted. These properties. Certainly the ablest men that ever were. Bona rerum secundarum optabilia. the virtue of adversity. in general. of arts or policy. and to have some approach to the state of a Christian. most fragrant when they are incensed. Certainly virtue is like precious odors. sailed the length of the great ocean. are indeed habits and faculties several. We see in needle-works and embroideries. But if a man cannot obtain to that judgment. nay. are to be wished. and dissimulation to Tiberius. a habit of dissimulation is a hinderance and a poorness. Certainly if miracles be the command over nature. adversarum mirabilia. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament. and adversity is not without comforts and hopes. to know when to tell truth. than the felicities of Solomon. upon a sad and solemn ground. there it is good to take the safest. that saileth in the frail bark of the flesh. they appear most in adversity. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes. And the poets indeed have been busy with it. and wariest way. or crushed: for prosperity doth best discover vice. We rise not against the piercing judgment of Augustus. it is more pleasing to have a lively work. have had all an openness. where transcendences are more allowed. And again. when he went to unbind Prometheus (by whom human nature is represented). lively describing Christian resolution. But to speak in a mean. For where a man cannot choose. that the good things. securitatem Dei. and to whom and when (which indeed are arts of state. and frankness. and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath labored more in describing the afflictions of Job. adversity is the blessing of the New. Therefore it is the weaker sort of politics. when Mucianus encourageth Vespasian. nor the extreme caution or closeness of Tiberius. than to have a dark and melancholy work. Livia sorted well with the arts of her husband. that are the great dissemblers. that Hercules. but adversity doth best discover virtue. is temperance. to be close. attributing arts or policy to Augustus. which in morals is the more heroical virtue. Yet even in the Old Testament. that belong to adversity. of dealing. to take arms against Vitellius. he saith. OF SIMULATION AND DISSIMULATION Dissimulation is but a faint kind of policy. and a dissembler. which carrieth the greater benediction. and a strong heart. which seemeth not to be without mystery. for it asketh a strong wit. like the going softly. by one that cannot well see. and to do it. if you listen to David's harp. as he can discern what things are to be laid open. to have in one the frailty of a man.It was an high speech of Seneca (after the manner of the Stoics). upon a lightsome ground: judge therefore of the pleasure of the heart. which belong to prosperity. and the clearer revelation of God's favor. for it is in effect the thing. and to be distinguished. This would have done better in poesy. by the pleasure of the eye. The virtue of prosperity. Vere magnum habere fragilitatem hominis. and the security of a God. or wisdom. It is yet a higher speech of his. and a name of . through the waves of the world. in an earthen pot or pitcher. is fortitude.

in the negative. Besides (to say truth) nakedness is uncomely.certainty and veracity. by the tracts of his countenance. when a man industriously and expressly feigns and pretends to be. For he that talketh what he knoweth. for they could tell passing well. in the affirmative. if they be not altogether open. by how much it is many times more marked. it is good that a man's face give his tongue leave to speak. the revealing is not for worldly use. simulation. when a man leaveth himself without observation. when they thought the case indeed required dissimulation. to men's manners and actions. And the third. And in this part. it is indeed the virtue of a confessor. Therefore set it down. that he is. to a blab or a babbler? But if a man be thought secret. For who will open himself. when to stop or turn. and believed. if then they used it. and secrecy. and as in confession. it came to pass that the former opinion. There be three degrees of this hiding and veiling of a man's self. The first. is a great weakness and betraying. secrecy. As for talkers and futile persons. spread abroad. For the discovery of a man's self. that he is not. of their good faith and clearness of dealing. closeness. they are commonly vain and credulous withal. but then they were like horses well managed. while men rather discharge their minds. and it addeth no small reverence. that an habit of secrecy. will also talk what he knoweth not. mysteries are due to secrecy. The second. the secret man heareth many confessions. In few words. or without hold to be taken. when a man lets fall signs and arguments. what he is. and at such times. it inviteth discovery. reservation. but for the ease of a man's heart. . as the more close air sucketh in the more open. And assuredly. is both politic and moral. so secret men come to the knowledge of many things in that kind. that he is not. than a man's words. than impart their minds. made them almost invisible. For the first of these. as well in mind as body. dissimulation.

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