1

THE ACTUAL DATE OF ÄRYABHAA
-Dr. M.L.RAJA, M.B., B.S., D.O.,*

INTRODUCTION
Äryabhatta mentioned his date in the tenth loka of Kälakriyäpädah (3
rd
Adhyäyah) of
his Äryabhattïyam. But scholars differ whether it is abhih or astih in the first sentence of
this loka. Accordingly, the date of Äryabhatta varies by 3240 years. Scholars like Tandulam
Sree. Narayana Sastri of Chennai and Sree Kotta Venkatachalam of Vijayawada (“Kalasaka
Vijñänamu - Prathama Bhägamu - Jyotis Siddhäntula Käla Nirnayam” Telugu,1949, pages 56 to
59)
1
mentioned the following with abhih , as the actual tenth loka.
.| .| .| .|··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. +
·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.··. ·. ·. ·. -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++
ayabdnm abhiryad vyattstrayaca yugapd : + ++ +
Tryadhik vimatirabdstadeva mama janmano: :: :tt : ++ ++ ++ ++
Meaning: 1.asti: - Sixty, 2.Abdänäm - Of the years (sixth [genitive] case), 3.astyabdänäm - Of
sixty years, 4.abhi: - By Sixes (third [instrumental] case of six – always plural in Sanskrit), 5.
Yadä - When, 6. Vyatïtä: - Were elapsed excessively, 7. Traya: - Threes (3 – first [nominative]
case, Masculine – always plural in Sanskrit), 8.Yugapädä: - 1/4
th
of the Mahäyuga, 9.Tri -
Three, 10.Adhika - Excess, 11.Vimsati: - Twenty, 12.Abdä: - Years, 13.Tadä - At that time, 14.
Mama - My, 15. Janmana: - Since birth (fifth case of Janman – Birth), 16.Atïtä: - Were passed.
However, some scholars mentioned it is not abhih but astih (first [nominative] case
of sixty) and the loka is as shown below.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*Director, AVINASH (Academy on Vibrant National Arts and Scientific Heritage), Erode,
Tamilnadu, 09443370129, mlrsreekrishna@yahoo.com

2
.··.··... . .··.··... . .··.··... . .··.··... .|· |· |· |··.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + ·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. +
·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.·- - - - -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++
ayabdnm airyad vyattstrayaca yugapd : + ++ +
Tryadhik vimatirabdstadeha mama janmano: :: :tt : ++ ++ ++ ++
But Kota Venkatachalam and Narayana Sastri mentioned, “abhih was changed into astih, so
as to reduce the antiquity of Äryabhattïyam.
1
With that change, date of Äryabhatta, which is
actually 2764 B.C.E., was pushed towards modern period by 3240 years and accordingly his date
was wrongly fixed as 476 C.E.” Hence, it has become an absolute necessity to arrive at the
correct and definite conclusion. This can be done by analyzing this sentence grammatically and
syntactically. In grammatical analysis, the word denoting action in this sentence, “Vyatïtäh” has
to be understood properly.
Vyatt
‘Vyatïta’ is the word denoting action in this sentence. It is a Past Passive Participle
word, denoting past tense and shows that the sentence is in passive voice. The word Vyatïta is
Vi + Ati + E + Ta ( |4 + ¤|6 + ² + 6 ). Vi + Ati = Vyati (Ya Sandhih), Vyati + E (²) =
Vyatï (Dïrga Sandhih), Vyatï + Ta = Vyatïta (-46l6). The Plural word of ‘Vyatïta’ in the first
(nominative) case is “Vyatïtäh” (-46l6l- ). “Vi” is Indeclinable Preposition – Prädaya –Avyaya
- Upasargah.
2
“Ati” is another Upasargah, with the meaning ‘Over, Beyond, Overstep,
exceedingly, excessively’.
3
In Sanskrit Language, more than one Upasargah can join a single
verb. “E” (² ) is the transitive verb ( BTPT ) with the meaning of pass, go, approach, escape,
reach, retire and appear.
4
The exact meaning will depend on the Upasargah joined with it
and the nature of the sentence. “Ta” is the affix at the end and is the most important one. “Ta”
is K[dantah (T(-6-) suffix of “Nisthäh” ( |+!ól-) type. There are two suffixes in Nisthäh type.
3
They are “Ta” ( 6 ) and “Tava” ( 64 ). Päini denotes them as “kta” and “ktava” as both
will not undergo Gua and V[ddhi changes ( 16 1646¸ |+!ól Päini 1-1-26).
5
Both denote
Past Tense (|+!ól {¬¸6} Päini 3-2-102).
6
But, Ta denotes object (Karman – TP+¸ ) on whom or
on which the action was done or in the intransitive sentences, the action (Bhäva - ¬l4), as per
Päini’s Astädhyäyï 3-4-69 and 70 Stra and hence is Karma Nisthäh Hence the sentence will
be in Passive Voice. Tava denotes the agent (Kart[ - T6 ) who or which did the action and
hence it is Kart[ Nisthäh. Hence, the sentence will be in Active Voice. These are shown by
Päini’s Astädhyäyï 3-4-69 and 70 Stra as follows.
7

“O- TP|H ¬ ¬l4 ¬ ¤TPT-4- (Lah karmai ca bhäve ca akarmakebhyah)”+ 3-4-69+
“64l¹4 Tt4 16 GO¤l- (Tayoreva [Tayo: Eva] k[tya kta khalarthäh” + 3-4-70+
Thus the Ten Lakaräh (Lat, Lit, Lut to L[t) denotes both the object (karmaï and agent (Kart[
– as denoted by “ca”) in Transitive Sentences and in Intransitive Sentences (Akarmaka), the
action (Bhäva) and the Agent (as denoted by “ca”) (3-4-69). But, in the sentences with k[tya
and kta ( 16 - 6 ) affixes and with words meaning khal, denote only (Eva) the object and action
(Tayo: - Of those two). Thus, they will not denote agent. Hence, these sentences will be in
Passive voice only and not in Active voice. Thus, “Ta (Kta)” is Past Passive Participle suffix.
Since, this sentence is in passive voice, the “ta” suffixed word denoting action, should agree in
number, gender and case with the object (Karmaï only and not with the agent (Kart[). Besides,
the object will be in first (Nominative) case and the agent who did the action, will be in third
(Instrumental) case.
There are four exceptions to this, where the sentence will be in both passive and active
voices. These were mentioned by Päini’s Astädhyäyï 3-4-71 and 72 Stra.
8
Accordingly, when
it denotes, 1.The beginning of an action (¤l|( TP|H 16- T6|¹ ¬ Päini 3-4-71), 2. With the
4
words meaning motion ( ¬t4¤ [ ¬|6 +¤¤ ] - the physical motion as mentioned in Astädhyäyï
of Päini by Srïsa Chandra Vasu, Volume 1 page 281, as an explanation to Pini 2-3-12 and
¬t4¤ – To come, To go, To start & c - Ibid., Volume 2 page 1517 as a translation of the Päini
8-1-51),
9
3. In intransitive sentences ( ¤TPT ) and 4. When joined with the following verbs,
lis (to embrace), ï (to lie down), Sth (to stand), s (to sit), Vas (to dwell), Jan (to produce),
Ruh (to mount) and J[i (to grow old) [2, 3 and 4 - the Pini 3-4-72], the “Ta” suffix denotes
either the agent or object (as denoted by ca (¬) in both these 3-4-71 and 72 Stra). Thus, only in
these four exceptions, the sentence with “Ta” suffixed word denotes either the agent or the
object. In all the other, it will denote object or action only and thus, the sentence will only be in
passive voice. Besides, in all these four exceptions also, the sentence with “Ta” suffix can be in
passive voice, denoting object. In this 3-10 loka, the word “Vyatïtäh” with “Ta” suffix, 1. Does
not denote the beginning of an action, 2. The meaning of Vyatïtäh is ‘were elapsed
10
excessively’
and hence it does not give the meaning of physical motion. Because of the joining of the two
Upasargah, Vi ( |4 ) and Ati ( ¤|6 ) with the verb “E - ² - ²(. ),” the word “Vyatïtäh” has the
meaning of “were elapsed
10
excessively”, abandoned, left behind. Moreover, the meaning of
the sentence itself is elapsing of time and not physical motion at all. Besides, the word Gati
( ¬|6 ) does not have the meaning of elapse or elapsed,
11
3. This sentence has the object
Yugapädäh ( ·.·...·.) and hence it is a transitive sentence. Besides, the word ‘elapsed’ is
transitive as it shows that something was elapsed by some other thing. The verb “E - ² - ²(.)”
is transitive ( BTPT )
4
and hence -46l6l- is also transitive and 4. The fore mentioned verbs,
“lis” etc., are not there in this sentence of 3-10 loka. Hence, these four exceptions cannot be
applied to this sentence. Hence, this sentence of 3-10 loka is in passive voice only and not in
active voice.
5
Päini’s Astädhyäyï 3-2-187 and 3-2-188 Stra,
12
mentioned that “Ta” suffix
denotes present tense, 1. In sentences with verbal roots ñi ( |¬, 3-2-187) and 2. With the
verbal roots meaning Inclination, Understanding and Respect (3-2-188). But this sentence of
3-10 loka, do not have these verbal roots and hence it denotes past tense only.
PAST PASSIVE VOICE
Thus, the word “Vyatïtäh” (-46l6l-) with the “Ta” (past passive participle suffix) in
this sentence of 3-10 loka of Äryabhattïyam, denotes that the sentence is in passive voice and
is in past tense. Since it is in passive voice, the word denoting action should be in accordance, in
Number, Gender, and Case, only with the object, on which the action was done and not with the
agent and the agent should be in third (Instrumental) Case. Besides, the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4,
should be in accordance with the noun to which they are applied, in Number, Case and Gender.
(Numbers from 5 to 19, in number and case and numbers after 19, in case only, to the noun they
are applied). Thus, in this sentence of 3-10 loka, Traya: ( ×4-) which is of First [Nominative]
case, Masculine and Plural, shows that the noun to which they are applied i.e. the object
Yugapädäh ·.·...·.) is in Plural, Masculine and Nominative Case. Hence, the word denoting
action (with K[idantah T(-6- - Nisthäh |+!ól- suffix “Ta” ) “Vyatïtäh” should also be in
Plural, Masculine Gender and in First (Nominative) Case in accordance with the object
Yugapädäh. Exactly, “Vyatïtäh” is in Plural, Masculine Gender and in First (Nominative)
Case (like Rämah abdah. Besides, the agent (Kart[ - T6 ) should be in Third (Instrumental)
Case, as it is a passive voice sentence. Thus, the word abhih which is in third (Instrumental)
case is correct and the word astih which is in first (Nominative) case is not correct,
grammatically and syntactically.
Thus, in the first sentence of 3-10 loka, 1. The word Trayasca Yugapädäh (all the
three quarters of Yuga) is the object and is in plural, masculine and first case, 2. The word
Vyatïtäh is the word denoting action and is in plural, masculine and first case, in accordance with
the object and 3. astyabdänäm abhih (by sixes of sixty years) is the agent doing action and is

6
in third instrumental case, as it is passive voice. Here the following important things to be noted.
1. The meaning of the verbal noun, Vyatïtäh is “were elapsed
10
excessively”, abandoned, left
behind (“The Student’s Sanskrit English Dictionary,” Vaman Shivram Apte, Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers, reprint 2000, page 537 & “A Sanskrit – English Dictionary,”
Monier Williams, Oxford Clarendon Press, London, May 1872, page 937).
2. In the object Trayasca Yugapädäh (all the three quarters of Yuga), the word “Trayasca”
denotes all the three quarters of Yuga. (Trayah – ×4- -- - = Three -- ×4- -- - + ¬ = ×47¬ – visarga
sandhih). Here the word ca ( ¬ ) was added to Trayah, so as to denote all the three quarters
of yuga. Thus, ca (¬) was added here with that purpose only and hence was written after
Trayaha only and not after Yugapädäh.
3. In the agent, astyabdänäm abhih (by sixes of sixty years), the word “astyabdänäm”
denotes, indicates and qualifies which “sixes” did the action of elapsing excessively. Thus, it
is a Visesaam ( |4H9HP¸ ) and “abhih” is the Visesyam ( |4H!4P¸ ). Here the Visesaam
is in the sixth (Genitive) case and it need not agree with Visesyam, in case ( |4¬|16-). This is
asthïvibhaktyantam Vyadhikaraa Visesaam
13
( 9!ól|4¬1t4-6 -4|¤T¹H |4H9HP¸ Pandit
L.Anantarama Sastri, ‘Samskrita Vyakarana Pravesika,’ pages 75-76). This is like
“Rpyakääm aqbhih” (¹¸-4TlHl .:|-. ).

Hence, there won’t be any difficulty to
understand that abhih is the agent and is in third case as it is in passive voice and
astyabdänäm is simply the qualifying Visesaam to highlight the Visesyam of abhih.
This can be clarified by citing an example.
In the sentence “Sïtäyäh Rämea raksitah Dharmah ( Bl6l4l- ¹lPH ¹|-.6- ¤P-),” raksitah is
the past passive participle denoting action, with Nisthäh “Ta” affix and with the meaning “was
protected.” Which was protected then? It is Dharmah, which is the object and is in first case as it
7
is in passive voice. Who protected Dharmah? It is Rämah, who is the agent and is in third case
(Rämea), as it is passive voice. Which Rämah protected Dharmah? It is Sïtä’s (Sïtäyäh)
Rämah. Thus, Sïtä is in sixth (genitive) case. Sïtäyäh is the qualifying word - Visesaam
( |4H9HP¸ ) and Rämea is the qualified word - Visesyam ( |4H!4P¸ ).
Besides, in Sanskrit, the numerals can come alone and denote meaning,
substantively. For example, Siddhänta Kaumudï, on giving explanation to the Päini Stra
1-4-51, gives examples like, (46t6 H6 P!Hl|6 where H6 (100) is in second case and gives
full meaning.
14
In 1-55 loka of Sürya Siddhäntah , the number 12 is used as, “µl(HÞ µl(HÞ µl(HÞ µl(HÞ ¬¹l4l6l
¬¬.. 46Pl+T-· ¹l|H|¬- B|(6l- H&l- 97«l F4|4=4l(4-+” (The departed revolutions of Jupitor
( ¬¹l4l6l ¬¬..) is multiplied by 12, µl(H µl(H µl(H µl(H 12 + Þ ÞÞ Þ multiplied by).
15
In the 2-22 loka of
Äryabhattïyam, the number one is used as BT B¬¬÷ 9(l+l 4Pl6¸ (B + 9T = BT, the number
of terms plus one, the same increased by the number of terms and the number of terms).
16

Thus, in the first sentence of this 3-10 loka, the word Vyatïtäh (in plural, masculine
and first case) is the word denoting action and has the meaning of “were elapsed
10
excessively.”
What were elapsed excessively then? All the three quarters of Yuga (Trayasca Yugapädäh) - the
object and is in plural, masculine and first case. By whom or by which, they were elapsed
excessively? It was by sixes of sixty years astyabdänäm abhih - the agent which did the
action) and is in third (instrumental) case, as it is passive voice. Thus, the meaning is very simple
and straight, “When, all the three quarters of Yuga were elapsed excessively, by sixes of sixty
years (360 years), twenty three years (23) were passed, indeed at that time, since my birth”
(4(l – When, ²4 – indeed, 6(l – at that time).
Thus, the following 3-10 loka of the Kälakriyäpädah (Third
Adhyäyah) of Äryabhattïyam with the word “abhih” is absolutely correct, grammatically
and syntactically.

8
.··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + .··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + .··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. + .··.··... .:|-.·.·. ··.·.|·..·.·.-·. ·.·...·. +
·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . ·.|·.+ . |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.· |·.-.|·.···.··.··. ·. ·. ·. -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++ -.-. -.-...:·.|·.. ++
Accordingly, Äryabhatta was 23 years old at Three Hundred and Sixty years (360) of Kaliyuga
(3101 – 360 = 2741 B.C.E.). Thus, 2764 B.C.E. is the date of Äryabhatta and not 476 C.E.
Thus, the grammatical analysis of the word Vyatïtäh shows that astih which is in the
first (Nominative) case, as an agent (Kart[) in this 3-10 loka of passive voice is syntactically
wrong. If we analyse, considering both astih and Yugapädäh as two separate objects, then also
it is wrong grammatically. Päini’s Astädhyäyï, in the 1-4-51 stra ¤T|¤6 ¬ (akathitam ca),
mentioned about the use of two objects in a sentence.
17
Patanjali si’s Vyäkaraa
Mahäbhäsya and Siddhänta Kaumudï, the Sanskrit grammar texts explained this stra and the
7-1-69 stra of Päini [|4¬l9l |¬"HPOl- - vibhäsä ciamuloh]. (1.Siddhänta Kaumudï,
Jnanendra Saraswati and Jayak[isha
18
- pages 129, 130, 445 & 446 and 2. The Siddhänta
Kaumudï, Srïsa Candra Vasu
19
- Numbers 539 & 2765 {pages 329 to 331 of Volume 1 & 672
and 673 of Volume 2 Part 1} and Patanjali si’s Vyäkaraa Mahäbhäsya – text and
commentary, Kaiyata Upädyäya & Nägesa Bhatta,
20
edited by Bhärgava ästri, volume 2
pages 263 to 273 and volume 6 page 61). Accordingly, the 12 verbal roots Duh (to milk), Yäc
(to beg), Pac (to cook), Da (to punish), Rudha (to obstruct or confine), Praccha (to ask), Ci (to
collect), Br (to tell), äs (to instruct), Ji (to win, as a praise of wager), Manth (to churn), Mus
(to steal) and other 4 verbal roots Nï, H[, K[is, Vah (to carry or to convey) alone (total 16) have
two separate objects in the same sentence. The secondary object is known as Gaua Karmai
( ¬lH TP|H ). Of the 16, in the 12 verbal roots starting from Duh, the primary object
(Karmai) will be in second (Accusative) case and the secondary object (Gaua Karmai)
will be in first case, in the passive voice. In the next 4 verbal roots starting from Nï, the
9
primary is in first case and the secondary is in the second case, in passive voice. 1. Vyatïtäh is
not of these 16 verbal roots. 2. astih and Yugapädäh are both in nominative (first) case and
none in accusative (second) case. Hence, astih is wrong either as an agent (Kart[) or the object
in passive voice.
Here, because of the word Vyatïtäh and the Nisthäh “Ta” suffix, the sentence is in
passive voice only and is discussed elaborately. In spite of this, even if we consider it as active
voice, then also astih is wrong. This is because astih, the agent (Kart[), is in singular and the
word Vyatïtäh, denoting action is in plural. This is not correct in active voice, where the agent
and the verbal noun should agree in number, gender and case. But, first of all, the sentence itself
is in passive voice and not at all in active voice.
Further, we can not take astih and Yugapädäh in-combine as agent (Kart[) in active
voice, as the sentence is in passive voice as discussed elaborately so for. Thus, it absolutely ruled
out this possibility. Besides, “ca (¬)” was added after Traya only and not after Yugapädäh and or
astih. Hence it denotes all the three parts of Yuga and not the action of joining words. If it were
to denote combination, then it would have been written after Yugapädäh and or astih. Further,
Yugapädäh is the object and Trayah (3) just denotes how many parts of Yuga i.e. giving details
of Yugapädäh. Hence Trayah is not the object, but it qualifies the object and “ca ( ¬ )” is added
here to qualify Trayah further, stressing that all the three parts of Yuga were elapsed and thus
definitely not to combine Yugapädäh and astih. Thus the word ca (¬) was added only to
denote all the three quarters of yuga. Further, the words astih and Yugapädäh are not
consecutive and adjacent, as the word denoting action Vyatïtäh and yadä are in-between. [Ca ( ¬)
can be used in the sense of combination of joining words or assertions and the joined words are
normally consecutive and should be either nouns or verbs alone and not mixed]. Thus, the use of
astih is wrong in this sentence of 3-10 loka of the Kälakriyäphädah (Third Adhyäyaha) of
Äryabhattïyam. Thus, 3577 Kaliyuga (3600 –23 = 3577 & 3577–3101 = 476 C.E.) is not at all
10
all the date of Äryabhatta.
CONCLUSION
Thus, in this sentence of 3-10 loka of Äryabhattïyam, it is proved absolutely that
abhih is the correct word and not astih, grammatically and syntactically. Thus, 2764 B.C.E.
is the date of Äryabhatta, as per grammatical and syntactical analysis of the tenth loka of
Kälakriyäpädah (3
rd
Adhyäyah) of Äryabhattïyam.
REFERENCES
1. Kotta Venkatachalam, “Kalasaka Vijñãnamu - Prathama Bhãgamu - Jyotis Siddhãntula
Kãla Nirnayam” Telugu book, Vijayawada 1949, pp. 56 –59
2. Vaman Shivram Apte, “The Student’s Sanskrit English Dictionary” Motilal Banarsidass,
2
nd
Edition, reprint 2000, page 505 & Monier Williams, “A Sanskrit – English
Dictionary,” Oxford Clarendon Press, London May 1872, page 908
3. Ibid., page 9 & Ibid., page 12
4. Ibid., page 92 & Ibid., page 137 & K.L.V.Sastri and L.Anantharama Sastri, “Dhãturùpa
Mañjari, An Easy Text on Sanskrit Verbs” R.S.Vadhyar & Sons, Palghat, 2001, page 39
& Fr. John Kunnapally “Prakriya Bhasyam” Malayalam, Translated into English by
Prof. KV.R.Pai, page 361
5. “The Astãdhyãyi of Pãini” 1-1-26, Srïsa Chandra Vasu, Motilal Banarsidass, 1
st
Edition,
reprint 2003, Volume 1 pp. 21 & 22
6. Ibid., 3-2-102, Volume 1 pp. 450 & 451
7. Ibid., 3-4-69 and 70, Volume 1 pp. 584 to 586
8. Ibid., 3-4-71 and 72, Volume 1 pp. 586 & 587
9. Ibid., 2-3-12 Volume 1 page 281 & 8-1-51 Volume 2 page 1517
10. Vaman Shivram Apte, “The Student’s Sanskrit English Dictionary,” op.cite., page
537 & Monier Williams, “A Sanskrit – English Dictionary,” op.cite., page 973
11. Ibid., page 180 & Ibid., page 283
12. “The Astãdhyãyi of Pãini” 3-2-187 and 3-2-188, op.cite., pp. 481 & 482
13. Pandit L.Anantarama Sastri, “Samskrita Vyakarana Pravesika,” R.S.Vadhyar & Sons,
Palghate, 1999, pp. 75-76

11
14. “The Siddhãnta Kaumudi” Srïsa Candra Vasu, Number 539, Volume 1 page 330, Motilal
Banarsidass, New Delhi, Second Edition Reprint, 2003
15. “Sùrya Siddhãntah Text with English Translation” 1-55 loka, E.Burgees & S.Jain,
Oriental Book Centre Delhi, 2005, Page 54
16. “Ãryabhattiya of Ãryabhatta” 2-22 loka, Kripa Shankar Sukla & K.V.Sarma, Indian
National Science Academy New Delhi, 1976, Page 65
17. “The Astãdhyãyi of Pãini” 1-4-51 op.cite., Volume 1 pages 187 & 188
18. “Siddhãnta Kaumudi” Jnanendra Sarasvati and Jayak[isha pp. 129, 130, 445 & 446,
Tukäräm Jävajï, Jävajï Dädäjï’s Nirnayasägar Press, Bombay 1908
19. “The Siddhãnta Kaumudi” Srïsa Candra Vasu, op.cite., Numbers 539 & 2765, Volume 1
pages 329 to 331 & Volume 2 Part 1 pages 672 and 673
20. Patanjali si, “Vyãkaraa Mahãbhãsya” Text and Commentary, Kaiyata Upädyäya &
Nägesa Bhatta, edited by Bhärgava ästri, volume 2 pages 263 to 273 and volume 6 page
61, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishtan, New Delhi, Reprint Edition 1991
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