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Energy Conservation for CDS-Based Virtual Backbone Construction using Dynamic Sleep Awake Mechanism (DSAM) in Wireless Sensor

Networks Introduction Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of spatially distributed wireless nodes equipped with sensors. The wireless nodes can also configure themselves into an efficient wireless network for data delivery. WSNs are expected to be used in many different applications such as disaster relief, environmental control, and intelligent buildings. Due to the limited transmission range of sensor nodes, node-to-node communication in WSNs usually involves intermediate relay nodes. Routing in sensor networks is about finding appropriate relay nodes between two sensor nodes. Once the relay nodes are selected, the routing path from the sending node to the receiving node will be finalized. Virtual backbone construction based on Connected Dominating Set (CDS) is a competitive approach among the existing methods used to establish virtual backbone in WSNs. Traditionally, CDS size was the only factor considered in the CDS-based approach. The motivation was that smaller CDS leads to simplified network maintenance. As an improved method, we introduce the concept of Dynamic Sleep Awake Mechanism (DSAM) for improving Lifetime as well as Energy conservation Index Terms: Wireless sensor networks, virtual backbone, connected dominating set, energy conservation, dynamic sleep awake mechanism Problem Description Intuitively, the size of the CDS used for virtual backbone construction should be as small as possible in order to take full advantage of the existence of virtual backbone. Actually, many studies have focused on MCDS-based virtual backbone construction over the past years. However, if the size of the CDS is too small, some useful features of the original graph will be lost. Note that MCDS is the smallest CDS. When MCDS is used to generate the virtual backbone, it is very likely that some important features are eliminated. CDS based virtual backbone could lead to some routing paths that are longer than the shortest paths in the original graph. Despite the benefits associated with virtual backbone based on small CDS, the unavailability of shortest paths is definitely a disadvantage.

Proposed Methodology In this work, inspired by the backbone concept in wired networks, virtual backbone is expected to bring substantial benefits to routing in WSNs. Once a virtual backbone is used in WSNs, the routing path search space will be restricted to the backbone instead of the whole network. This can lead to shorter routing path search time, smaller routing table size, and simpler routing maintenance. In addition, due to the limited number of sensor nodes in the virtual backbone, WSNs with the virtual backbone feature can adapt to topology changes quickly. In our research, we take both CDS size and routing cost into consideration. Specifically, we attempt to devise a polynomial-time constant-approximation algorithm that leads to a CDS with bounded CDS size and guaranteed routing cost in terms of routing path length. Further to improve energy conservation, we introduce the concept of Dynamic Sleep Awake Mechanism (DSAM) in the virtual backbone construction path and extend the life time of the network.

Hardware and Software Specification Processor RAM Hard Drive Operating System Tools Pre-Request Software Languages : 1.4 GHz Pentium IV Processor : 512 MB : 10 GB : Windows XP / Linux. : Ns-allinone-2.28. : Cygwin. : Tcl/Tk, OTcl, C++.

ER Diagram:

virtual backbone construction

Link Management

Simplified Network maintenance

Link Assignment

CDS Structure

Link Setup

CDS size

GOC-MCDS-D Creation

Node Number

Uniform residual Energy

Dominating Set

Network life time

Identical Residual Energy

Flow Diagram Of Algorithm1

Intially Set D Centralized Algorithm G Construct a maximal independent set I. Compute a shortest path O CM C D SPut all intermediate Nodes into c. C Output

Flow Diagram Of Algorithm2

Initiallise Every node and is assigned with a positive integer ID

Node comparision Construct a M I Message transformation S I (stage 1) output

Go back to node comparision

Flow diagram of algorithm3

Every black node send its ID to its neighbors

Send those pairs of ids, to all Its neighbors.

Send a message to the Neighbor

Connect the M Output

node with ID id2 received a message it sends this message to its neighbor with ID id1

I S I

Messages form a set M

(Stage 2)

In addition, if idi is not the leftmost id in the message, then it passes this message to node with ID If no message is passed in Step 6, then stop. Expected Outcome Otherwise, go back to Step 6.

Expected Outcome: CDS-based virtual backbone construction with bounded CDS size and guaranteed routing cost is NP-hard under both general graph and UDG model. Under UDG model, we propose an innovative polynomial-time constant-approximation algorithm, GOCMCDS- C, that produces a CDS with bounded CDS size and guaranteed routing cost in terms of routing path length. The distributed version, GOC-MCDS-D, is studied thoroughly through theoretical analysis and extensive simulations. Our simulation results clearly show that GOC-MCDS-D outperforms the existing algorithms. Further to improve energy conservation, we develop the concept of Dynamic Sleep Awake Mechanism (DSAM) in the virtual backbone construction path and extend the life time of the network.

Base Paper IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 4, APRIL 2013 CDS-Based Virtual Backbone Construction with Guaranteed Routing Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks Hongwei (David) Du, Member, IEEE, Weili Wu, Member, IEEE, Qiang Ye, Member, IEEE, Deying Li, Wonjun Lee, Senior Member, IEEE, and Xuepeng Xu