• Introduction • Functional requirements • Basic elements of stairs • Type of stairs



What is vertical movement or vertical circulation? • Circulation is a movement of human and goods between interior spaces in the building to the entrance or exit. • Can be channeled through several types – passageway, corridor, stairs, ramps, etc. • Vertical circulation is movement of human and goods between stories of a building.

• Classified into 2 classes;
• Class 1 system – ramps, staircase, elevators, escalators. • Class 2 system – mainly not for human, e.g. dumbwaiters.





• Stairs can be made of concrete. stone. wood.Stair INTRODUCTION (cont. 5 . steel or combination of any of these.) STAIRS/STAIRWAY • A set of steps formed to make it possible to pass to another level on foot by putting one foot after the other on alternate steps to climb up or down the stair.

on which a person usually climbs up or climbs down facing the ladder. 6 . • Not suitable for elderly and handicapped and as a mean of escape in case of fire. • Usually fixed in an upright.) LADDER • A series of narrow horizontal steps fixed between two upright of wood or metal. it only occupy the least floor area. near vertical position or more at a shallow slope for ease of use.Stair INTRODUCTION (cont. where there is not enough space for a stair. and that should be fixed in position and fitted with handrails both sides. Therefore. • Should only be used for access to loft conversion of one room.

fixed between two vertical upright. • Formed at a slope of at least 1:20. low building.) STEPLADDER • A series of comparatively narrow. flat. 7 . RAMP • A ramp is a surface.Stair INTRODUCTION (cont. sloping uniformly as an inclined plane up and down which a person may pass on foot between levels. usually adjacent to a long. Thus. horizontal steps. which provide more comfortable and secure support for the foot than the slim. it occupies a considerable area.

8 . • Should be constructed of materials that are capable of maintaining strength and stability for a period of time sufficient to escape to the outside. including dead and imposed load.Stair FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS STRENGHT • Able to support for movement between floors. FIRE SAFETY • The steps and the width should be adequate for the safe escape to the outside. headroom and dimensions of the handrails and guarding. thread. SAFETY IN USE • Comply with the Building Regulation in determining the rise.

• Provide a suitable means of escape in case of fire. • Provide a degree of insulation where part of a separating element between compartments in a building.Stair PRIMARY FUNCTIONS • Provide an access from one floor to another. 9 . • Provide a safe means of travel between floors. • Provide a mean of conveying fittings and furniture between floor levels. • Provide an easy mean of travel between floors.


• Tread – horizontal surface of a step • Riser – vertical surface or near vertical of a step 11 .Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY STEPS • A series of horizontal open treads with a space between the treads with a space between the treads or as enclosed steps with a vertical face between the treads.

Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont. • The dimension of the riser and thread will determine whether the stair is steep or shallow. • The rise and tread in one flight and landings between floors should be equal.) FLIGHT • Uninterrupted series of steps between floor and landing. • The rise and tread should have the same size to avoid interruption in the rhythm of going up or down. • A flight should have no fewer than 3 steps and no more than 16 risers. or between landing and landing. 12 .

) • The dimensions will depends on the function of the building and should comply with the Building Regulation (UBBL). e.) FLIGHT (cont. Section 40. • The shallow stair requires more area but suitable for public building to minimise danger to the public escaping via stair during emergency. 13 .g.Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont. • The steeper stair will save more space and is accepted for houses because the occupants are more familiar with the stair.

14 .Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont. • Minimum 2 m clearance from the pitch line for a convenience of human and goods movement. landings and floors above the stair.) HEAD ROOM • A clearance height between the pitch line of the stair and the underside of the stairs.

15 . capped by a handrail. grouted or set in mortices either cast or cut in the material.) Baluster • Vertical stand that supports handrails for security purposes. Balustrade • A series of baluster.Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont. • Can be made from timber or steel. • Can be bolted to the sides of flights or through the material. Handrail • Horizontal member fixed on the top of series of balusters. • Can be made from timber or steel.

Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) Closed railing Open railing .

Stair TYPE OF STAIRS • Type of stairs: o Straight flight/straight run o Quarter turn/L-shaped o Half turn (dog leg)/180 return o Spiral (helical) & elliptical o Winder 17 .

18 .Stair TYPE OF STAIRS Straight Flight Stair • Rises from the floor to floor in one direction with or without an intermediate landing. commonly used in the traditional ‘two-up two-down’ cottage. • Known as ‘cottage stair’ as well. • The most economical use of the straight flight is to locate the stair in the centre of the plan running for front to back.

• The quarter turn sometime will be replaced with winders for economic use of space. turns through 90˚.) Quarter Turn Stair/ L-shaped • Rises to a landing between two floors.Stair TYPE OF STAIRS (cont. • Good in compact planning. then rises to the floor above. 19 .

then rises parallel to the lower flight to the floor above. 20 . • Advantage – can be constructed within the confined vertical stair well. • The most common arrangement of stairs. turns through 180˚.Stair Half Turn (Dog Leg) Stair • Rises to a landing between floors.

but difficult to use due to the sharp turns. • Usually use where the space is very limited for access to an intermediate floor of one room.Stair Spiral & Elliptical Stair • Constructed as either a spiral(helical) stair or an ellipse stair. Spiral (helical) stair Elliptical stair 21 . Very dangerous for the very young and elderly. • The most economical way to save space.

Stair TYPE OF STAIRS (cont. 22 . • To reduce the number of steps required in the rest of the stair and to economise in space. • Not recommended for public buildings in the means of escape stairs especially for the very young and elders. • Can be hazardous as they only offer little foothold at the interior corner.) Winder Stair • Triangular treads/tapered treads that wind around quarter of half turn in place of landings. • Usually use in domestic stairs.

Stair Stairs can be made of : • Timber • Concrete – precast & cast-insitu • Metal • Stone 23 .

24 . • Handrail balustrading is important to provide visual and practical safety barrier to the side of stairs. • The design of stairs flight landings or tapered steps is depend on the space to accommodate it.Stair Timber Staircase • Constructed from timber board • Common use in domestic work.

Stair 25 .

Stair Timber Stair (cont.) Tapered stairs/winder • Frequently used because can use space economically Open tread stairs • • • • Closed string Cut strings or carriages Mono-carriage Alternating tread stairs 26 .

Stair Timber Stair (cont.) 27 .

) Open riser stairs Closed riser stairs with housed stringer 28 .Stair Timber Stair (cont.

Stair Alternating trade stairs • Application – access to domestic loft conversion only • Very steep pitch – very economic use of space • Not very safe. 29 .

• Common use in multi-storey building. the usual form is half-turn. quarter turn. 30 . half turn or geometrical. • Better fire resistant from timber staircase. But. precast or combination of both. • Can be formed as straight flight.Stair Reinforced Concrete Staircase • Can be cast in-situ. • The construction of the staircase depends on the structural of the building and the convenience in casting the stairs in situ or the use of reinforced concrete support and precast steps.

• Typical in-situ RC stairs are: o Inclined slab stair o Cranked slab stair o String beam stair o Cantilever stair 31 . which of having its own appearance . • Will maintain its strength and integrity for a reasonable period during an outbreak of fire. it is more suitable than timber stair as an escape route.) • Variety of stair types and arrangements are possible. characteristic and method of construction. Therefore.Stair TYPE OF STAIR In-situ RC stair (cont. stronger and hardwearing. • Common use as it is non-combustible.

32 . • The landing is built into the walls as one way span slab. • Disadvantage – wasteful cutting of brick or block to allow the flight built into the walls. • The flight span from floor to landing and landing to floor.Stair TYPE OF STAIR Inclined slab stair (cont.) • Constructed when there are LB wall around the stair.

) • The stair is constructed as a cranked (bent) slab spanning from landing to flight and to landing with no side supports. • Disadvantage – more costly 33 .Stair TYPE OF STAIR Cranked slab stair (cont. • This type of construction only use when the landings can not gain support each side of stair.

) String and trimmer stair/String beam stair • The landing beams are supported by side walls (LB) or the beams of the frame and in turn support inclined beams that support the flight. • Best suited for to the use of precast concrete steps and precast landing. 34 . • Disadvantages .cause untidy soffit or underside of the stair.Stair TYPE OF STAIR (cont.

Stair TYPE OF STAIR (cont. 35 . or can be partly cantilever from the spine wall and supported by the enclosing frame or walls.) Cantilevered stair/cantilevered spine wall • Constructed to cantilever from the spine wall.

Stair TYPE OF STAIR (cont. Common use for aesthetic reason. thus the stair shaft can be used for other purposes e.g. • Advantages – o good quality control of finished product o no formwork thus no storage required and save the site space o stair can be installed at any time.) Precast Concrete Stair • Can be produced to most of the formats used for insitu RC stair. for lifting or hoisting space o Hoisting. • Seldom used because of the majority using cast in-situ method. 36 . positioning and fixing of stair can be carried out by semi-skilled worker.

Stair TYPE OF STAIR Stone Stair (cont. 37 .) • Traditionally constructed using natural stone as the steps. • Can be formed as: o Rectangular/stepped soffit o Flush soffit • The end of the steps are built into the walls. The landings are constructed using one or more large slab of natural stone built into enclosing walls and bearing on the steps below.

) (cont.Stair TYPE OF STAIR Stone Stair (cont.) Stone steps with stepped soffit Stone steps with flush soffit 38 .

39 . mild steel or aluminium alloy for both external and internal used.Stair Metal Stair • Can be produced in cast iron. • Disadvantage – regular maintenance in the form of painting. • Advantage – no need formwork during construction. steel flat plate with textured top surface or bar grating. • Can be painted or covered with concrete for fire safety reason. therefore is more expensive. • Treads can be in the form of steel pan filled with concrete. • Usually is custom made. • Steel channel section serves as stringer.

) 40 .Stair Metal Stair (cont.

Stair Simple Reinforced Concrete Stairs Formwork Reinforcement 41 .

Stair Metal stairs 42 .

Stair Timber Spiral Stair 43 .

Stair Precast Stairs – hoisting and assembling 44 .

Stair Precast Stair 45 .

Elsevier.Building Construction Handbook . 4) Francis D. 2nd ed. .al. Building Construction Illustrated. 2005.. McGraw Hill.K. 2.Barry. 1991. The Construction of Building. al. Merritt et.. 5th ed.Vol. 2) Frederick S. Building Design and Construction Handbook.5th ed. 2001.Ching.Van Nostrand Reinhold. 3) Roy Chudley. Blackwell Science Ltd. 6th ed. et.REFERENCES 1) R.1992.