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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 13-23 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.

com/jfnr/1/3/1 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/jfnr-1-3-1

The Application of Dietary Fibre in Food Industry: Structural Features, Effects on Health and Definition, Obtaining and Analysis of Dietary Fibre: A Review
Filiz Yangilar*
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ardahan University, Ardahan, Turkey *Corresponding author:

Received May 29, 2013; Revised June 19, 2013; Accepted June 20, 2013

Abstract It is important for food materials to be delicious as well as nutritious and natural. Rapidly increasing of human population of world, environmental pollution caused by consistently developing technology, insufficient education and problems caused by wrong nutrition are making supplying of natural food is more difficult. Healthy nutrition refers to efficient and balanced nutrition, that is, efficient intake of nutrient elements (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals) for body cells to work smoothly. But, oil content present in the structure of some food materials is a problematic situation for consumers. In order to solve this problem, dietary fibre can be used, which can improve the textural and sensual qualities of products in addition to being functional. An excessive interest has been observed over the last years in fibrous nutrients in developed countries (e.g. USA and various parts of Europe). In the present review, it has been conducted on the food products in which dietary fibres are used, changes taking place in the structures of these nutrients, the importance of the use of dietary fibres. Keywords: dietary fibres, laxative, analtical methods, health

1. Introduction
A nutraceutical food may provide expanded utility beyond its nutritional benefit. These benefits can be both physcial and mental and are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Today’s functional foods and dietary supplements are typically marketed to large groups of the total population. Scientific evidence confirming the relationship between food and health has promoted the rapid development of a new food market in recent years: the functional food market (Siró, Kápolna, Kápolna and Lugasi, 2008; Viuda-Martos et al., 2010). Dietary fibre (DF) was originally defined in 1972 by Trowell as ‘that portion of food which is derived from cellular walls of plants which are digested very poorly by human beings’ (De Vries, 2010; EFSA, 2010; Westenbrink et al., 2012). DF has been known and investigated for a very long time (Asp, 2004), from being considered as waste to being described as a ‘universal remedy’ that improves any physiological problem within human organism (Rodríguez et al., 2006). Dietary fibre cannot be digested by the human digestive enzymes to absorbable components in the upper alimentary tract (Trowell et al., 1976; Ajila and Prasada Rao; 2013). Over the past two-hundred years diet has become increasingly processed, leading to greatly reduced fibre content (Burkitt & Trowell, 1975; Cleave, Campbell, & Painter, 1969; Kendall et al., 2010). Dietary supplements are typically marketed in the form of a capsule, pill, powder or gel and are not presented for use as a conventional food, meal or diet. Dietary supplements contain one or more dietary ingredients (e.g.,

vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals) and are intended to supplement the diet (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1994; van Kreijl et al., 2006; Eussen et al., 2011).

2. Structural Features of Dietary Fibres
Dietary fibre as a class of compounds includes a mixture of plant carbohydrate polymers (Thebaudin, Harrington, & Bourgeois, 1997; Rodríguez et al., 2006; Mongeau, 2003; García Herrera et al., 2010), both oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, e.g., cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, gums, resistant starch, inulin, that may be associated with lignin and other noncarbohydrate components (e.g., polyphenols, waxes, saponins, cutin, phytates, and resistant protein). Dietary fibre is composed of nondigestible carbohydrate, lignin and other associated substances of plant origin, fibres of animal sources and modified or synthetic nondigestible carbohydrate polymers. Cereals are the principal source of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses, whereas fruits and vegetables are the primary sources of pectin, gums and mucilage (Normand, Ory, & Mod, 1987; Elleuch et al., 2011). Each polysaccharide is characterised by its sugar residues and by the nature of the bond between them (Table 1) (Elleuch et al., 2011). Resistant starch and resistant protein withstand digestion in the small intestine. Resistant starch is composed of four groups (RS1: physical inaccessible starch, RS2: ungelatinised starch granules, RS3: retrograded starch and RS4: chemically modified starch) (Fuentes- Zaragoza, Riquelme-Navarrete, Sánchez-Zapata, & Pérez-Álvarez, 2010).

galactomanan gums. Rodríguez et al. 2002. & Rincόn. glucose. 2009. • It should have a positive consumer image. 2012. Alvarez and Peña-Valdivia. and Kleiman (1994) Sun.2)-D-fructosyl-fructose Sulfato-galactose β-(1. 2006. Khare.4) mannose β-D-(1.g.4) glucose β-(1.4) mannose β–D-(1. . 2013). rhamnose.4)-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl-D-glucosamine α-(1. galactose.and β-(1.3) glucose β–D-(1.4)-D-galacturonic acid (some of the carboxyl groups are methyl esterified (1-4) galacturonic acid. Wu. and Thibault (2001) Blecker et al.4) galacturonic acid α-(1. • It should have no taste and no negative odour.6) galactose References Olson et al. • It should work harmoniously with food processing. (1987) Arabinose Galactose α -D-galactose α -D-xylose Ridley. Pomeranz 1991.2-. Vetter. O’Neill and Mohnen (2001) Galactose. Saura-Calixto and Larrauri 1996). & Godeck.4)-D-Glucose Polyphenols: Syringyl alcohol (s). Fiber includes: insoluble fiber (lignin. The Classified of Dietary Fibres Compunds Dietary fibres are as soluble or insoluble.4) xylose β–D-(1.1:seed gum from Abutilon indicum e.3). 2010.4) xylose β–D-(1. it must be of high concentrate in a small quantity. (2000) Olson et al. • It should be in an adequate price (Kunzek. • Its addition must not affect the food it is being added to.. but it must also have a long shelf life. • It should contain the expected physiological effects. arabinose. apiose.4) glucose β–D-(1.5)-L-arabinofuranose β-(1. Ajila and Prasada Rao. Doco.4) mannose and β-D-(1. 1993.14 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Fibres Cellulose β-glucans Hemicelluloses Xylans Arabinoxylans Mannas Glucomanns Galactoglumannans Galactomannas Xyloglucans Pectin Homogalacturonan Rhamnogalacturonan-I Rhamnogalacturonan-II Arabinanes Galactanes Arabinogalactanes-I Arabinogalactanes-II Xylogalacturonan Inulin Gum Carrageenan Alginate e.4)-D-galactopyranose β-(1.4) glucose α-(1. (2001) Oechslin. Ramirez-Santiago et al. 2011). Guaiacyl alcohol (G) and p-coumaryl alcohol (H) β–(1.. Larrauri.4) glucose and β-(1.. galacturonic acid Unusual sugar such as.4)-D-mannose Rhamnose. Lόpez. cellulose and hemicelluloses) and soluble fiber (pectins. Renard. Slodki. Bonnin. and a large range of nondigestible oligosaccharides including inulin) (García Herrera et al.. xylose.4) glucose β–D-(1.2)-D-fructosyl-fructose D-Glucose α-(1. and Bolton (1999) Borderis et al.4)-D-mannuronic acid or α-(1.2) rhamnose and 1-. (1987) Johansson et al.4) mannose and β-D-(1. 3. based on whether they form a solution when mixed with water (soluble).6)-D-galactopyranose α-(1. • To maximise its use.4) galacturonic acid β-(1. • It should contain a balance between soluble and insoluble fibre with an acceptable presence of bioactive compounds. Lutz. Chemical composition of dietary fibres Main chain Branch units β-(1. Martinez. (1. β-glucans. and Amado (2003) Vidal. The choice of analytic method to investigate fibres depends on the composition of each particular fibre (Elleuch et al.4)L-guluronic acid β–(1. colour or texture effects.2:seed gum from Lesquerella fendleri Oligofructose (enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin) Polydextrose (synthetic) Resistant maltodextrins (heat and enzymatic treatment of starch) Lignin Chitosan Table 1. Tomkinson. dietary fibres are constituted of a mixture of chemical entities. Mannose. arabinose. Carlson. or not (insoluble) (Periago.4)-D-galactopyranose β-(1. O'Shea et al.g.6)-D-Glucose D-(1. Müller. galacturonic acid β–(1. Williams. and Albersheim (2000) Sing. Mishra.4-rhamnose α-(1. 2008. La Course. fucose α-arabinose α-arabinose α-arabinose Xylose Le Goff. 2010. (2005) The chemical nature of fibres is complex. aceric acid. Ros. 1999. Khare and Gupta (1997) Abbott.. xylose. Larrauri (1999) described the “perfect fibre” as having the following characteristics: • It must not contain any components that are nutritionally offensive.

intermediate laminate and on the primary wall vegetables Generally are composed monomers of hexose and pentose Oatmeal. root of galactose. mild and easily controlled reaction conditions (Liu. bran. 1992. haricot bean.. Rodríguez et al. acetic and nitric acids that did not solubilize cellulose but only lignin (Van Kamer.. 2004.. Dülger and Sahan. 2008). whole grains It is been consist of aromatic alcohols and the components of other Vegetables. 2005). thus affecting its safety (Li. Ajila and Prasada Rao. peas. Although soluble fibre is less common in foods than insoluble fibre. Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin Dietary fibres Pectin Gum Mucilages Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin Table 2. Liu et al. 1995. Dülger and Sahan. the high content Whole grains. Thus.. Dietary fibres Pectin Gum Mucilages it is believed to have important effects in the digestive and absorptive processes (Dreher. The varietes and sources of dieteray fibres is given in Table 2 (Jalili ve ark. legumes Compounds which is synthesized in plants that it is contain of Food additives glycoprotein Insoluble fibres It is the main component of cell walls which consisting of glucose Whole grains. root vegetables. The insoluble part is related to both water absorption and intestinal regulation.. arabinans and β-glucans (Kamp. 2011). 2004.. Later on it was proposed the isolation of fibre by digestion of the samples with trichloroacetic. this method can cause the undesired decrease of overall physiological activity (Zhang et al. the high content Whole grains. 2003). 2006). the microbial fermentation itself is still in its infancy stage and microbial fermentation of DF may produce toxic substances. However. 1949. monomers beans family of cruciferous. which consists of a sequential extraction with diluted acid and alcali solutions. It is well known that dietary fibre fractions behave in a different way. developed in the Experimental Station of Weende. the side chain group can be preserved almost intact. haricot bean. Gottinguer. flour cell wall 4. apple. of special interest are those enzymes that hydrolyze fructans. legumes Compounds which is synthesized in plants that it is contain of Food additives glycoprotein Insoluble fibres It is the main component of cell walls which consisting of glucose Whole grains. . root of galactose. root vegetables. Recently. microbial fermentation of dietary fiber has been widely recognized and accepted due to the high selectivity.. Jacobs and Delcour.5h). apple Primary and secondary the cell walls Bran. apple Primary and secondary the cell walls Bran. mannans. cabbage. cabbage. side-effects and difficultly controlled extraction conditions greatly limit its use (Wang et al. which enables the cation exchange capacity not to be impacted (Ma et al. rhamnose. 1987. Each category has different physiological effects (Schneeman. Du et al. Types and and sources of dietary fibres Features Sources Soluble Fibers It is been galacturonic acid. whereas the soluble fraction is associated with the reduction of cholesterol in blood and the decrease of glucose absorption by the small intestine. and was adopted by the ‘Association of Official Analytical Chemists’ (AOAC) for determining fibre until the 1960s. Obtaining and Analysis of Dietary Ffibre The reported method is that from Weende.. Fuller & Gibson. According to Hong et al. 2009). Miller.. 2011). galactans. Many consist of the use of highly purified enzymes that selectively release oligoand polysaccharides that constitute DF. 1998). apple. 2001.Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 15 Jalili ve ark. 2013). Removal of starch and protein can be more complete using chemical method. rhamnose. Physical method. bran. legumes. there are three methods to gain dietary fiber: Chemical method. 2006). & Schaafsma. but the poor selectivity. Asp. (2012) generally. 1999a). NS plus UA in the hydrolysates were determined following the same procedure as in SDF analysis (Mateos-Aparicio et al.. flour cell wall Features Sources Soluble Fibers It is been galacturonic acid. arabinose. 2005. Several are very specific and precise for the identification and quantification of the different DF components. Soluble dietary fibre presents a potential prebiotic character (Gibson & Roberfroid. Rodríguez et al. 1. Therefore. 2001. Grigelmo-Miguel et al. Germany. such as extrusion cooking. The method was based on the enzymatic removal of protein from the material and the separation into soluble and insoluble fractions by centrifugation (Figure 1) (Mańas.. hemicelluloses and soluble dietary fiber which plays an important role in physiological function is soluble in alcaline solution. intermediate laminate and on the primary wall vegetables Generally are composed monomers of hexose and pentose Oatmeal. 2010). Peressini and Sensidoni. monomers beans family of cruciferous. 2011). arabinose. 1997). 2005.. peas. physical method and microbial fermentation. 2001. It has also the advantages of not destroying the structure of natural fiber and no loss of important physiologically functional SDF and hemicelluloses. Definition. legumes. whole grains It is been consist of aromatic alcohols and the components of other Vegetables. does not cause degradation of the polymer structure or some other deep damage. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) residues obtained after enzymatic treatment and centrifugation were treated with 12 M sulphuric acid (30°C. 1h) and then hydrolysed with 1 M sulphuric acid (100°C. What are worse.

2002. Dietary Fibres Effects on Health In 400 BC Hippocrates already mentioned the beneficial effects of DF. 2012) and a number of other effects (Bourquin et al. 2003. Christensen. EFSA. due to its ability to reduce cholesterol (Andreasen. Cassidy. 2003. Ajila and Prasada Rao. Anderson. 2010. Mendeloff. 1998. Lately.. Rosell. Rodriguez et al. 2009.. their capacity for adsorbing carcinogenic agents. 2009.. 2012). Topping. 2011. prevention and treatment of obesity (Schweizer & W€ursch. Schneeman. Bingham et al. so while Kellogg (1923) promoted its positive action. McCance and Lawrence (1929) considered DF to be a non-digestible portion of plant foods that irritated the intestine. 1991. In recent years. Thebaudin et al. Ajila and Prasada Rao. Pins et al.. Larsson. 2002. and in vivo. Landbo.. Pérez Jiménez et al. Peters et al. Marlett et al. Hauner et al. Schneeman. Elleuch et al.. Over the years. 2002. Anderson et al.16 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Figure 1. Grigelmo-Miguel et al..Wang. García Herrera et al. Since the mid-1970s. Nie. 2013. dietary fibre has received much positive attention with regard to its potential as a pharmafood. decreased post-prandial blood glucose response. Ascherio and Willet. Nawirska and Monika Kwaśniewska. 2006. 2008. Rossi. 1991. Davidson & McDdonald. 2012. in vitro. Tungland & Meyer.. more recently its utility has been questioned. 1995. 2001. 1996). Hansen. 1986. improvement of the tolerance to glucose in diabetics (Oestmann. Gallaher and Waggoner. Also. so it is recommended to consume plant foods with lignified or suberized cell walls that are the most effective for . Ajila and Prasada Rao. 1998. 1994. O'Shea et al. 2002). Brighenti and Björck. 2006).. Tinker.. 2009. interest in the role of dietary fibres in health and nutrition has prompted a wide range of research and received considerable public attention (Abdul-Hamid & Luan. Davis. Nowadays. 2010) and anti-carcinogenic effects (Scharlau et al.. research show that the ingestion of suitable quantities of food fiber produces many beneficial effects on the digestive tract. such as the regulation of the intestinal function. 2005. 1999a. 2000) and ease constipation (Telrandhe et al. 2003. 2011. 2001. Kim.. 1997. & de Barber... 1994. 2000. 1995. These effects include modulation of blood lipid profiles. 2012. much research has focused on characterizing the physiological effects resulting from human consumption of a wide variety of dietary fiber sources. Flow diagram for dietary fibre analysis procedure 5.. diabetes and coronary heart disease... Foods rich in fibre contain a broad spectrum of compounds that may prevent different types of cancer. 2013). 2011). & Meyer. 1987.. Terry et al. Viertanen and Aro.. Kimm. Ferguson & Harris. Cui. laxation (Hong et al. 2013) or prevention of chronic diseases as colon cancer (Mongeau.. & Roberts. 2006. 2009. 2003. Estruch et al. Mann & Cummings. Elleuch et al. Bingham and Cummings. several fibres have demonstrated.. Smith and Guftason. 1994. Cleave (1956) related certain diseases with ‘deficiency of fibre syndrome’ and Walker (1947) proposed that DF determined in great extension the digestive tract function (Rodríguez et al.

Dietary fibres can provide a multitude of functional properties when they are incorporated in food systems. 2007. was used as a source of dietary fibre in bread making (Toma. 2002. Shogren. dairy.. Technological and physiological properties of dietary fibre products Technological property Physiological functionality Water holding capacity Laxative Water swelling capacity Reduction of blood cholesterol Water retention capacity Reduction of blood glucos Reduction the risk of chronic disorder e. sensory characteristics and shelf-life of foods due to their waterbinding capacity.. (Anonymous. and texture (Cofrades et al. 2006). 2001. 1997). & Poos. texturising and thickening effects (Dello Staffolo. Grigelmo-Miguel et al. diabetes. 1991.Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 17 linking hydrophobic carcinogenic agents (Steinmetz & Potter. zinc. Institute of Medicine. Thus. Orr. Górecka. daily intake for total fibre for adults has been set at 38 g for men and 25 g for women (Trumbo. Rodríguez et al. Over the years.. & Barber. and abdominal cramps.. water binding. Some examples of these soluble fibers are those from fractions of grains and multifruits (Bollinger.. Rodríguez et al.. Among foods enriched in fibre. Rodríguez et al. 2004. 2006).. 2004. thanks to their capacity to retain water. In the case of beverages and drinks. gradually increasing used fiber in nutrition will protect us from these side effects. 2002. fibres addition contributes to the modification and improvement of the texture. Bertola.. a dietary fibre added to a food product must perform in a satisfactory manner as a food ingredient (Jaime et al.. 2001. Schofield. 1987.. 2001).. Dietary fibre and soy protein preparations due to their functional properties are extensively used in many branches of the food industry. Recommended intakes for fiber are also included for children and teenagers (Table 4).. people in developed countries currently only eat about 11±12 g per day (SauraCalixto. Schweizer & Würsch. obesity Water solubility and some forms of cancer Oil holding capacity Viscosity Texturizing Stabilizing Gel-forming capacity Antioxidant capacity 6. estimates of actual total dietary fibre consumption range from 14 to 29 g/day. Most commonly. Fibre as a food ingredient can offer physiological functionalities for each technological property. Finney. wheat bran and oat bran in bread making. 2005). etc. 1999a). the most known and consumed are breakfast cereal and bakery products such as integral breads and cookies (Cho & Prosky. Waszkowiak and Szymandera-Buszka 2008). using of too much fiber can prevent as iron. Martino. However. (iv) to add colour. (ii) as a bulking agent in reduced-sugar applications. anticlumping. 2006). Dietary fibres from different sources have been used to replace wheat flour in the preparation of bakery products. & Tabekhia. Sęķ & Uchman. 2001. pectins (Bjerrum. citrus fibre can play a number of roles: (i) it may be used as a tool for improving texture. Pomeranz. Spiller. Pietrasik & Duda. 2007). 2000.. Schlicker. 2001. 2003. & Bevukaqcua. 1986. 2010). 2013).. coronary heart disease. polidextrose (Mitchell. 2004. calcium and magnesium the absorption of minerals by the body exactly. gelforming ability. antisticking. frozen dairy. Rodríguez et al. 2006). Soukoulis et al. 1991. meat. 2002). Sudha et al. 2004.. 1985. diabetes and coronary heart disease and ease constipation (Telrandhe et al. Rodríguez et al. and (v) as natural antioxidant (Viuda-Martos et al. with spesific recommendations of 30±45 g per day (Bonfeld. 2006). Food and Nutrition Board. Gelroth & Ranhotra. Slavin. 1979.. & Janitz. 2000). fat binding. as shown in Table 3 (Elleuch et al. fat mimetic. confectionery. 1993. the softness of the bread crumb and the firmness of the loaf (Sangnark & Noomhorm.. Duxbury. Figuerola et al. Although numerous health organisations suggest increasing the consumption of DF. cellulose beet-root fibre (Nelson. introduction of dietary fibre in meat products has been shown to improve cooking yield. Therefore. 1999. ß-glucans. Ayo and Carballo. In addition. Ramirez-Santiago et al. Thebaudin et al. From a functionality perspective. pasta and soups. including the meat sector (Bilska. Table 3. Ramirez-Santiago et a. Eastwood. Dietary reference intake values for total fiber by life stage Adequate intake (g/day) Life stage group Male Female 1-3 years 19 19 4-8 years 25 25 9-13 years 31 26 14-18 years 38 26 19-30 years 38 25 31-50 years 38 25 51-70 years 30 21 Over 70 years 30 21 Pregnancy 28 Lactation 29 . 2006. with only a few countries reporting fibre consumption at or above the WHO recommendation. Jiménez-Colmenero. Recommended adult intakes for total fibre in countries which have developed guidelines range from 21 to 40 g/day. 2012. The literature contains many reports about additions of dietary fibre to food products such as baked goods. a by-product from potato industry. 2002. thereby reducing economic losses. and World Health Organization has recommended that total fibre intake be 25 g/day (WHO/FAO. Nelson. 2001. Dintzis. Wang. 2011).g. D’Appolonia. Makała & Olkiewicz. Waszkowiak. 2012). In addition. and with most reported values below either national or WHO recommendations (Gray. Yates. and Bechtel (1977) used cellulose. beverages. 2001. Table 4. dietary fibres are incorporated into bakery products to prolong freshness. Rosell. 2001). Using of high fiber in a short time may occur gas. Fibres can modify bread loaf volume... Utilization of Dietary Fibres in Food Industry To be acceptable. 2010). its springiness. Potato peel. bloating. Hoogenkamp. (iii) to manage moisture in the replacement of fat. O'Shea et al. dietary fibre has received much positive attention with regard to its potential as a pharmafood. Grigelmo-Miguel et al. 2010. 1999a). 2006). Krysztofiak. due to its ability to reduce cholesterol. soluble fiber being the most used because it is more dispersible in water than insoluble fiber. rich in dietary fibre. 2005. 1996. the addition of dietary fibre increases their viscosity and stability. 2004. as well as milk and meat derived products.

(Knuckles. the most common added-fibres are those consisting of pectins with different degree of esterification. However. 2005. 2000. For example meat products (Alesón-Carbonell. (1999a).. The use of fibres in dairy products is also widespread: e. in comparison with cereal brans. The contents of dietary fiber in some foods Fiber Fiber Food Food (%weight) (%weight) Almonds 3 Nuts 2 Wheat 3 Walnut 2 Lima beans 2 Broccoli 1 oatmeals 2 Carrot 1 Peach 2 Strawberry 1 Whole wheat flour 2 Apple 1 Corn 2 White flour <1 7. and iodised table salt for comparison and the effects of thermal processing and storage on changes in iodine content were determined. 1997. mainly fruits. reported that insoluble and soluble dietary fibre (DF) fractions of peach DF concentrate. air and modified atmosphere) on the shelf-life of bologna sausage were analysed. but are not commonly consumed (Slavin. & Kuri. (2008). stronger antioxidant capacity and greater grade of fermentability and water retention (Grigelmo-Miguel & Martı´n-Belloso.. were analysed for neutral sugars. which mainly comes from fruits and are a factor in keeping the stability of the final product. as a starting raw material to produce antioxidant dietary fiber powder was investigated.. (2008). Fernández-López et al. The contents of dietary fiber in some foods are given Table 5 (Jalili et al. due to the increase of total solids and the formation of networks comprised of hydrated cellulose and hemicellulose. Apple fibre addition greatly increased viscosity and elevated the Tg values. Perez-Alvarez... 1997. (2009). oregano essential oil (OEO) and the storage conditions (vacuum. The increase of soluble material did not alter significantly the rheology of the samples but limited the freezing point depression and elevated the glass transition temperatures. Studies Related to Dietary Fiber Grigelmo-Miguel et al. 2008. 2001). indicating a potential cryoprotective action. 2010). 1996... uronic acids and Klason lignin. Rodríguez et al. Saura-Calixto. The effects of blanching and hot air drying (60-80 oC) on the drying kinetics and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber powder were first evaluated.. higher amounts of total and soluble fibre. 2008. was noticeable.g. Rodríguez et al. Soukoulis et al. Rodríguez et al. (2010).. it is fast becoming one of the most appreciated ingredients in today’s market place.. & Sayre. and reduces synaeresis in yoghurt and other fermented milk products (Blecker et al.. obtained by an enzymatic-chemical method. Citrus fibre may be incorporated into a broad range of products. The results showed that blanching had a significant effect on the fiber contents and compositions. reported that use wheat dietary fibre and soy protein isolate as carriers of KI and KIO3 for fortification of processed meat with iodine.. reported that the effect of orange dietary fibre (ODF). fibre compounds such as inuline and oligofructose are used as sugar substitutes (Gonze & Van der Schueren. 2003). Products from minced pork were prepared with addition of iodised wheat fibre and soy isolate. Waszkowiak et al. 2007).. 2006). inulin introduces numerous improvements into dairy products. Viuda-Martos et al. Rodríguez et al. (Grigelmo-Miguel & Martı´n-Belloso. fish (Sanchez-Zapata et al. ODF and OEO samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. which present beter nutritional quality. 2006). The greatest effect of the . Total DF constituted 31±36% dry matter (DM) of the concentrate and insoluble DF was its major fraction (20±24% DM).. reported that the feasibility study of using carrot peels. 2010) and dairy product (Sendra et al. reported that the effects of four dietary fibre sources (oat.. Isolated fibre components such as resistant starch and ß-glucans are also used for increasing fibre content in pastries. Servings of commonly consumed grains. Rodríguez et al.. wheat fibre was more effective in limiting iodine losses during thermal processing and soy protein during storage of the products. particularly in the presence of proteins. The sensory evaluation scores were similar for samples with ODF and OEO. apple and inulin) on the rheological and thermal properties of model sucrose polysaccharides solutions and ice cream mixes were investigated. Ekici and Ercoskun. Legumes and high-fiber bread and cereal products supply more dietary fiber. wheat. Although citrus fibre itself may be invisible in the food products. by using DF as substitutive of fat without loss of quality (Byrne. however it is starting to use other DF sources. 1997). 1999b. Larrauri et al. breakfast cereal. indicating the reduction of water molecule mobility from the bulk aqueous phase to the ice crystals’ surface. Results suggested that peach DF concentrate may be not only an excellent DF source but an ingredient in the food industry. 2006).. 1997. etc. whereas inulin caused a remarkable increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) in model solutions and ice cream mixes. Viuda-Martos et al. 1999.. Chantaro et al. 2006). fruits. Fernandez-Lopez. 2001. less caloric content. and stored either in air or vacuum packaging. The use of oat and wheat fibre favoured viscosity development due to water-binding. and vegetables contain only 1–3 g of dietary fiber (Marlett & Cheung. It was shown that both alternative carriers limited the iodine changes in meat products compared with iodised table salt. It improves body and mouthfeel in cheese analogues or ice cream. The content of fibre in insoluble compounds increased significantly the viscosity and the shear thinning behaviour of the model solutions and ice creams.18 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Enrichment of bakery products has traditionally consisted of the addition of unrefined cereals. 2007). water retention and swelling capacities of the fiber powder. 1999b. The high proportion of soluble fraction (11±12% DM) in the peach DF concentrate. Martin. Viuda-Martos et al. Hudson. Orange dietary fibre and oregano essential oil could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products. In the case of lowcalorie chocolates and derivatives. 1998. Results suggested that the potential use of dietary fibres as crystallisation and recrystallisation phenomena controllers in frozen dairy products.. Chiu. 2006). For the elaboration of jams and marmalades. Table 5. The addition of DF to bakery products also improves their nutritional quality since it makes possible to decrease the fat content.

the date by-products of two date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. a by-product of apple juice industry. The DF concentrates showed a high water-holding capacity (~15.6% and 29.19 and 7. Grossi et al.07 and 3. Cakes were prepared from blends of wheat flour containing 0–30% apple pomace. and were found to be more in ripe peel than in raw peel. Bound polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were in the range of 8. Sudha et al. respectively: sucrose 52. the aim of this work was that pod as raw materials.7% DM for Deglet. (2010). the temperature of cellulase action of 57. which can be used in functional foods. glucose 13. 10% and 15% levels and studied for rheological characteristics.33%. Amylograph studies showed decrease in peak viscosity and cold paste viscosity from 950 to 730 BU and 1760 to 970 BU respectively. The volume of cakes decreased from 850 to 620 cc with increase in pomace content from 0% to 30%.16 mg/g respectively where as cakes prepared from 0% and 25% apple pomace blends had 2. the pH of the cellulase 8.5 g water/g sample) and oil-holding capacity (~9. Galactose.51%) was obtained with the time of cellulase action of110.5% and 2. (2011). respectively).4 and the rate of cellulase of 0.38 min. contained 10.8% moisture. constituted 9. but its flow behavior was characterized by a lower flow index (n).0-2. Water absorption increased significantly from 60.5 and 0. Gel microstructure was examined using confocal scanning laser microscopy. respectively. Pectin (0..98-9.9%.12% and 2. Apple pomace procured from fruit juice industry. apple pomace. Thus. The following values (on a dry matter basis: DM) were obtained for fleshes of Deglet-Nour and Allig cultivars. carbohydrate composition and bound phenolics in dietary fibre of mango peels were determined. and higher yield stress (s0) than the SYC yogurt.1-29. ash 2. indicating weakening of the dough. Incorporation of the YSF reduced significantly the syneresis and produced a more acceptable mouthfeel in the SYYSF yogurt in comparison to the SYC yogurt. the temperature of cellulase action of 65ºC.. indicating the viability of the process to obtain a commercial product. from the Degach region (Tunisia). two formulations of pork .1% to 70. the studies indicated the presence of significant amount of bound phenolics in dietary fibre.2% (w/w). (2011).19-11. in order to investigate the synergistic cooperation between high pressure treatment (HP) and carrot dietary fibre. inulin or pectin were added to milk prior to addition of rennet. Deglet-Nour and Allig. (2008). and kaempferol and quercetin were the major flavonoids of the peels. protein 2.15 mg/g indicating that apple pomace can serve as a good source of both polyphenols and dietary fibre. Gum acacia (1-3% (w/w)) significantly decreased gel times and coagulum firming times and these gels had more open casein networks than the control gels. (2007).52%. On the other hand the maximum of IDF (66.72%) was obtained with the time of cellulase action of 72. Fagan et al. study the effect of cellulase on extraction rate of soluble diet fiber (SDF) and insoluble diet fiber (IDF).. total dietary fibre 14. The rheological analysis showed that the SYYSF yogurt had lower storage modulus (G) and loss modulus (G00) values in the linear viscoelastic region than the SYC yogurt..4% DM) and low protein and ash contents (8. Gel times and coagulum firming rates were determined from the sensor response characteristics. reported that this study was to determine the effects of soluble dietary fibre inclusion on milk coagulation kinetics. Its syneresis and microstructure properties were evaluated and compared to those of a stirred yogurt (SYC) without added YSF. Three fibre ingredients gum acacia. the temperature of cellulase action.5%. As a result of the work maximum yield of SDF (6. 0. glucose and arabinose were the major neutral sugars in insoluble and soluble dietary fibres. relaxed and covered with fibrous structures attributed to the YSF components. were analysed for their main chemical composition. Finely ground apple pomace was incorporated in wheat flour at 5%. the pH of the cellulase 8. fructose 12. The SYC yogurt exhibited a more compact casein micelle aggregates network than that of the SYYSF yogurt which was more open.5% ash and 51.4% (w/w)) significantly reduced gel times. Qi et al.. protocatechuic and syringic acids were the bound phenolic acids.8 and the rate of cellulase of 0.Nour and Allig. Elleuch et al. (2006). Yam soluble fiber (YSF) extracted from Pachyrhizus erosus was added (1 g per 100 mL) to a stirred yogurt (SYYSF).7 g oil/g sample) and pseudoplasticity behaviour of their suspensions. date DF concentrates may not only be an excellent source of DF but an ingredient for the food industry. the major fraction of total DF. and optimize the effects of the cellulase that included four sides: the time of cellulase action.20. Gallic. Also in view of the antioxidant property of pomace.9%. 37ºC. water and oil-holding capacity and rheological behaviour) of dietary fibre (DF) extracted from date flesh.4%.392 mg/g. Ferulic acid was identified only in dietary fibre of Raspuri peels.) cultivars.0%. Milk coagulation was monitored using a controlled stress rheometer. which adds additional health benefits of antioxidant properties of mango peel. it would play an important role in prevention of diseases.. is a rich source of fibre and polyphenols. Above 0.7% and 29.6-72.55%. The elaboration of DF concentrates from date fleshes was characterised by an extraction yield of 67%.7% and 13. added pectin increased coagulum firming times and resulted in a limited casein network developing.4% and 18. Insoluble DF. Resistance to extension values significantly increased from 336 to 742 BU whereas extensibility values decreased from 127 to 51 mm.1% of dietary fibre.6% with increase in pomace from 0% to 15%. Studies were also conducted on the physicochemical properties (colour. Cakes prepared from 25% of apple pomace had a dietary fibre content of 14. respectively. Ajila and Prasada Rao (2013) in this study. NIR transmission sensor and a hot wire sensor. higher consistency index (k). A 2% (w/w) addition of inulin was required to decrease gel time and coagulum firming time and no discernable difference was observed between the inulin enriched and control gels. Ramirez-Santiago et al. The chemical composition of these DF concentrates showed high total DF contents (between 88% and 92.83 min. the pH of the cellulase and the rate of cellulase. Dough stability decreased and mixing tolerance index increased.101-0.Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 19 carriers was found in meat products fortified with the less stable KI.1% DM. Thus. Total dietary fibre content was in the range of 40.1% and 3%.2% The total phenol content in wheat flour and apple pomace was 1.

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