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Subject :- Dyeing and Printing



Textile materials posses various kinds of impurities which may be natural or

inherited in nature.  These impurities may be added purposely for better spinability or weaveability.  These impurities need to be removed from the fabric before dyeing it or printing it.













 As the impurities present may differ from fiber to fiber the preparatory process may differ and the conditions too may differ considering the fiber properties.  Preparatory processes may be classified into two main classes as follows:a. C!e"#i#$ %&'(e))e) where the impurities are removedby physical or

chemical means.
b. *+ite#i#$ %&'(e)) ,in which trace colouring materials are destroyed

and the whiteness of the materials is improved optically.

-.A Ob.e(ti/e) '0 %&e%"&"t'&y '%e&"ti'#)
The main objectives of the preparatory processes of textile materials are as follows:

emove the im%u&itie) from the fibers !both #"tu&"! as well as "dded impurities as it may interfere in subse"uent processes of dyeing or finishing applications.

 #mprove the capability of the fibers to absorb water solutions of dyes and chemicals.

 #mpart proper re"uired brightness or whiteness to the fibers according to need !especially when brilliant or pastel shades are desired.  #mpart dimensional stability to thermoplastic textile materials.

-.B P&e%"&"t'&y %&'(e))e)

The preparatory processes can be generali$ed into the following categories:

emoval or loose fibers or yarn projections from the fabric surface. #n Singeing the fibers are burnt away by flames! while in Shearing and Cropping the projecting fibers are cut by a extruder type blade.

The process of removal of si$ing material applied upon the yarn before weaving is known as Desizing.

 The most important of all processes is of Scouring in which most of the

water soluble and water insoluble impurities are removed.
 The last process is of destroying the colouring materials by the process of

Bleaching! this helps in increasing the optical brightness of the fabric.
 %ynthetics are processed by the an addition preparatory process known

as Heat setting.



1.- C'tt'# "#d ('tt'# b!e#d)

 &otton fibers on the average consist of '()-'*) cellulose when bone-dry. The

approximate amounts of other materials present in the fiber are: +.+-+.') proteins! (.,-+.-) pectin! (..-+.()waxes! (.,-*) ash! and (./-+.() other impurities.


-. 1ecause of their hydrophobic nature it is difficult to wetout unsecured cotton.  The preparation of fabrics made of cotton or polyester2cotton blends may include some or all of the following operations: o Singeing o o o o Desizing Scouring.  #n addition to the natural impurities! cotton fibers contain other foreign materials.  #n the scouring process these impurities are removed to the extent that the fibers will become hydrophilic and will easily w et-out. These materials are located mainly in the primary walls of the fiber that is at or near the fiber0s surface. Bleaching Mercerizing.  #ncreasing demands for savings in chemicals! energy! and water! certain treatments are often combined. An example of a combined application is the so called 0oxidative desi$ing0 where desi$ing and scouring take place at the same time." Si#$ei#$ 5 . 1.

 #f not done properly! unclear print patterns! mottled fabric surfaces! and pilling results. . After the formation of fabric it has a fu$$y or hairy appearance due to projecting fibers! thus affecting the luster and smoothness cotton is known for.  %ingeing of textile materials is necessary for te following reasons: o &otton materials are valued for their smooth appearance. This is the burning off of protruding fiber ends from the surface of the fabric. o 3nsigned fabrics are soiled easily o The protruding fibers obstruct the subse"uent dyeing and printing process o 4oods which are to be merceri$ed are signed to maximi$e the luster o #n fabrics of polyester and cellulosic fiber blends singeing is the best method to control pilling! sometimes double singeing is done to minimi$e the pilling. o #mproper singeing may lead to loss of . %ingeing is an important part of pretreatment.  %ome of the precautions to be taken in considerations during singeing:o The fabric to be singed should be dry as wet fabric tend to scorch more readily than dry./ ) loss in tensile strength loss in warp direction. o 3neven singeing may cause streaks on fabric or bubbles when the fabric is finished.

o %topping the machines may cause bars on the fabrics. The fiber ends burn off. o The fabric is moved very rapidly! and only the fiber ends are destroyed. The burning characteristics of fibers must be taken into account when this process is applied! as heat-sensitive fibers melt! forming tiny balls on the surface of the fabric. These balls interfere with dye absorption! so that! as a general rule! heat sensitive fibers would be singed after dyeing or printing.o The fabric should not contain any acid releasing salt!which may release acid on heating and tender the fabric. o %ingeing may cause hardening of the si$e thus leading to difficulty in its removal. ! . o o Possibility of thermal damage to temperature sensitive fabrics. This stops any singeing afterglow or sparks that might damage the cloth. o As soon as the fabric leaves the singeing area! it enters a water bath or desi$ing bath.  %ingeing process is as follows: o To produce a smooth surface finish on fabrics made from staple fibers first the fabric surfaces are brushed lightly to raise the unwanted fiber ends. o Then the fabric is singed with or passed over heated copper plates or open gas flames.

 This is done to ensure that subse"uent dyeing and finishing materials can be absorbed as evenly as possible.-.  Typical types of starches are as follows :- " .  The desi$ing bath can be a hot water bath or a bath of en$ymes depending on the si$ing material that were used.  5esi$ing also softens and removes any trash particles and seed-coat fragments.b De)i2i#$ A gas flame type singeing  5esi$ing is a process which removes the chemical stiffener 6a starch or other machine stiffener7 applied to warp yarns to make them easier to weave.  The cloth continues through additional baths containing more en$ymes and detergents that loosen the si$ing present and prepare the fabric for the scouring and bleaching.  The most commonly used si$ing materials are starches or polyvinyl alcohol.1.

?ater! given hot and cold wash. to . hours in the  Acid 5esi$ing: #t is a fast process done by using mineral # .   :arious other methods of desi$ing are: ot %teeping: The fabrics are impregnated with hot water pits. The en$ymes hydroly$e starch and convert it t o readily soluble substances. 3  There are two methods of desi$ing (a) De)i2i#$ 4it+ +'t 4"te& : The greige cloth is washed with hot water to remove P:A.o 8atural starches6vegetable starches7 o &hemical modified starches6ethers 2esters7 o 9rganic polymers6polyacrylates!carboxymethylcellulosemethylcellulose!polyesters7 o %olvent soluble materials6co-polymers of methyl.( < &.  &loth moves through the singeing and desi$ing process at a rate of up to =(( yards per minute.methacrylate7. like s"uee$ed and then stored for -. hour s at //< to .  o o o  The classical desi$ing process fundamentally involves: %welling of highly polymeri$ed si$e 5issolving >ashing of the swollen polymer %olubility of starches are promoted by action of acids! oxidi$ers and alkalis!if proper care is not taken then the acid and oxidi$ers not only attack starch but cellulose also!leading to degradation of fabric and making it weak. (b) De)i 2i#$ 4it + e#2yme) : The c loth is steepe d in baths containing en$ymes 6+) so lution b y volume7 or malt and kept for .

l7D Acetic acid to adjust the p@.  • E#2ym"ti( De)i2i#$3 Bost acceptable! economic and safe! Cuicker and better than rot o steeping.%ulphuric acid or @ydrochloric acid. %odium 1romite of (. Eabric D 8a9&l 6-g2l available chlorine7 at oom Temperature and stored for '(-+-( min.  O5id"ti/e De)i2i#$3 1y %odium @ypochlorite or %odium 1romite  P&'(e))3 +./ --g2l7 D &ommon salt 6+--g2l7D >etting agent 6+--g. -.&ellulose does not get tendered. 5anger of 9xy cellulose formation because of local! followed by hot and cold wash.&are is needed for temperature of *( and p@ of /.+-=) at *( $% o & & and dwell for +/ min and %couriing . %uitable for fabrics si$ed with P:A and2or acrylics. • The fabric is padded with bacterial en$yme 6+.-* hrs before washing with hot water./) %teamed for =(-=/min and then washed =.  Alkali 5esi$ing: 3sually done by %odium @ydroxide 8a9@ A -to =) 6owf7 at about /( o& and stored for ././ to *.(. and stored for about .As it is a fast process may cause damage to cotton. @ydrogen Peroxide 6/()7 -+) %odium %ilicate-+) %odium &arbonate. @igh &hemical cost.

o The soap that is formed then serves to emulsify the remaining waxes and wash away any dirt or other impurities.hours!is used to saponify the fats on the fibers. &hemical Process involved :%tarch6insoluble7 dextrin6insoluble7 dextrin6soluble7 maltose6soluble7 alpha-glucose6soluble7 1.-.  The success of the scouring process is judged by the improvement in wet ability of the scoured material.  The process essentially consists of treatment with a soap or detergent with or without a alkali. o Pectin is converted into their sodium salts which are water soluble! and proteins undergo basic hydrolysis to form water soluble amino acids.  %couring removes waxes and destroys vegetable matter residues in cotton and cotton blend fabrics.  C"u)ti( )'u&i#$ o An alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide 6/-+( g2l7 or a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate of a similar alkalinity! close to or above the boil! for +-.( S('u&i#$  This cleaning treatment is also referred to as alkali boil-off. $$ .

 The changes caused by treating with alkaliare summari$ed as follows: o %aponifiable oils and fats are converted into soaps o 3nsaponifiable sopas melt at scouring temperature and are emulsified by the soap formed during saponification o Pectins and pectoses are converted into soluble salts of pectic acids and metapectic acids.  9rganic se"uestering agents stable under hot alkali conditions are:o F5TA o 8TA o @F5TA T+e&e "&e t4' ty%e) '0 )('u&i#$3 (a) Kie&. The boiling is carried out for several hours 6+ to +hrs7. $2 .b'i!i#$ : Eabrics are heated under pressure using steam in steel stainless steel pressure vessels 6kiers7 of . The kiering li"uor is an alkaline solution containing caustic soda 6+ to =) of fabric wt7 6major component7! soda ash! sodium silicate and sodium peroxide with small amounts of =m 5iameter and = to . m height. (b) C'#ti#u'u) S('u& : #n this method! the desi$ed fabric is passed through a caustic solution 6= to *) caustic soda! surfactants and sodium phosphate7 and after saturation! passed on to 6 box where the fabric is heated with live steam at a temperature of +((<& for + hour. A se"uestering agent is added to the scouring bath to prevent caDD and mgD D ions combiing with soap molecules.

 After scouring! the cloth is rinsed well with water to remove the excess chemicals.o >ater soluble mineral substances are dissolved o #nsoluble dirt is removed and retained as suspension o %i$ing and other impurities are broken into soluble products.  are used most fre"uently in commercial bleaching of cotton greige 6untreated7 goods!  continuous methods. 9f these! the preferred and most widely used is the continuous bleaching in the open-width.  The bleaches are chemical agent or compounds that react with the color compounds in the fiber! oxidi$e them and render them colorless. o Proteins are hydroly$ed by formation of soluble amino acids or ammonia.D B!e"(+i#$  1leaching is re"uired to obtain pure whiteness since fibers are seldom pure white in their  &otton fabrics are naturally off-white to tan in color! depending on the amount of pigmentation in the fiber natural state. The final rinse may include a small amount of acetic acid if the fabric has to be neutrali$ed.-. #n particular! the open-width method is preferred when bleaching blendsG of cotton with heat-sensitive fibers! such as polyester! in order to avoid crease marks and other defects caused by treating fabrics in the rope form.  Bost bleaches used by cotton industry are either chlorine bleaches 6+()7 or per The per oxygen bleaches! and particularly hydrogen peroxide bleaches6'()7! @ydrogen peroxide bleaching is carried out by exhaust! semi continuous and oxygen bleaches. I# ty%i("! b"t(+ t&e"tme#t) '0 ('tt'# 0"b&i() 4it+ +yd&'$e# %e&'5ide i# $3  . sodium salts of 1.

(.6/()7 +.7 %odium silicate .f.) 6o. $4 .) ('#t"i#) t+e 0'!!'4i#$3  After padding the fabric is passed through a steamer.+-(.when needed  The bleaching is then carried out near the boil or at temperatures above the boil! under pressure! for an hour or more. t+e b!e"(+i#$ b"t+ i) %&e%"&ed ") 0'!!'4)3 @ydrogen peroxide 6=/)7 .) 6o.(.f..(. %teaming time may vary from as little as a few minutes to one hour or more! depending on the type of steam and steamer used.7 H %odium hydroxide .--(. After bleaching! the goods are thoroughly rinsed with a slightly basic solution to avoid the formation of insoluble silicates.7ie&)../) %odium hydroxide .  I# " ty%i("! ('#ti#u'u) b!e"(+i#$ i# t+e '%e#-4idt+ t+e %"ddi#$ b"t+ @ydrogen peroxide ./-+) 6o. 8eedless to say that the optical bri ghteners are also employ ed in bleach ing.7 >etting agent or detergent .w./--.w.-.f.--./) >etting agent .w.*) %odium silicate -+-+ .

 Berceri$ed cotton fabrics have greatly increased luster.-.1. minutes or less7! the alkali is washed off! and any excess alkali is neutrali$ed.  The strength of the fiber is increased as much as -( percent. %o! they are more easily damaged by $5 becomes more absorbent and has a greater affinity for moisture and for dyestuffs. The sodium ions in the solution displace the hydrogen on the cellulose-9@ groups! pushing the polymeric chains farther apart and swelling the fiber. 5uring merceri$ation the fiber swells! the natural convolutions of cotton are largely lost! and the fiber retains a fuller! rounded diameter. The cotton Berceri$ed fabrics are also more reactive.  Eabric treated in this way shrunk as much as -/ percent of its length! the finish was not applied commercially untiit was discovered that applying the finish under tension not only minimi$ed shrinkage but also increased luster  #n merceri$ation! as this finish is called! the cotton fabric is immersed under ten- sion in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide for a short! controlled period of time 6usually .E MERCERI8ATION  %ingeing! desi$ing! scouring! and bleaching are routine finishing processes! whereas merceri$ation is an optional step in the finishing of cotton and cottonblend fabrics.  the treatment of cotton with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide altered the strength! absorbency! and appearance of the fabric.  . This smooth surface reflects more light than does the untreated! flatter fiber.

Iarns that have been slack merceri$ed do not have the high luster of yarns merceri$ed under tension.  Eactors affecting the degree of merceri$ation must be carefully controlledJ otherwise the uneven application will lead to unlevel dyeing.  o  Berceri$ation can be applied to either yarns or fabrics %lack merceri$ation: merceri$ation of fabrics that are not held under tension! can be used to produce stretch fabrics. This process is not widely used.   At this stage the tension is applied only in the length direction. o &ontinuous merceri$ation  The fabric is padded with about -(--/) sodium hydroxide solution containing a wetting agent! and then passed over several cans to allow a dwelling time of approximately one minute during which the caustic solution will penetrate the fibers and react with them properly. The finished fabric can be stretched! and when the tension is removed! the goods will return to their original length. $ . >hile on the tenter frame! the fabric is washed by spraying water until the amount of sodium hydroxide on the fabric is reduced to only a few percent. The fabric is then placed on a tenter frame 6tension now is applied in both the warp and the filling directions7 and is pulled to its original or desired dimensions.acids and oxidi$ing agents! but merceri$ed fabrics are more receptive to resin finishes.   The fabric is removed from the tenter frame! and the remaining alkali is removed by passing! the fabric through several washers! one of which contains a dilute solution of sulfuric or acetic acid. #n particular! the amount of tension applied! and the concentration and temperature of the sodium hydroxidebath should be the same through out the entire application. 5uring slack merceri$ation yarns shrink and develop a good degree of elasticity.

 Properly tentered fabrics will be straight.  These fibres are very sensitive to alkali and are damaged "uickly on wet treatment at high temperature 6especially wool7. This means that the warp a nd filling yarns are at '(< angles to one another. :.F TENTERIN9  Tentering is the mechanical straightening and d rying of fabric s to secure uniform width and t o keep the filling yarns on-grain.  #f the fabr ic is fed to the chains so that the yar ns are perpendicular! the fabric stays on-grain . #f not! a bow or ske w situati on develops.  A tenter frame holds the fabric between two parallel chains! with eith er clips 6tenters7 or pins ! while adjusting the side-to-side alignment of the cloth. PROTENEOUS MATERIAL  Animal or protein fibres are very irregular in composition. @ence! these fabrics are $! .  This process is used after seve ral of the finishing opera tions.  The chains spread apar t to the desired fabric width! move with th e fabric through drying units! and release the fabri c to the next pr ocess.-.  Eabric goes through a lot of stress during preparation! dyeing! printing! and finishing  This often causes the w arp and fillin g threads to be off-grain. Berceri$ation is both inexpensive and permanent! and for these reasons it is widely used on cotton goods 1. They contain a significant amount of non-fibrous impurities-about /() in case of wool and about +/-=() in case of silk.  Tentering establishes the alignment of these warps and filling yarns.

 @ydrolysis of proteins can be carried out by treatment with acids! alkalis and en$ymes. %ericin is insoluble in water.-)  The process of eliminating K4um 6sericin7L from raw silk is known as degumming of silk.) &arbohydrates ..  T+e ('m%')iti'# '0 mu!be&&y &"4 )i!7 i) ") 0'!!'4)3 Eibroin .-(-=(/ >axy matter .) Pigment .  #t is comparatively easily hydroly$ed! whereby the long protein molecule of sericin! is broken down into smaller fractions! which are easily dispersed or solubillsed in hot water..(.A DE9UMMIN9 OF SILK  The silk filament 6&hemically a mono filament of protein7 extruded by the silkworm called a bave consists of two brins..*/ #norganic matter .-..(.(-.. :. $" .SILK :.--+.scoured with large amount of soap or detergent! with little or without alkali at low temperature.  These two brins are stuck together by sericin and become a single continuous filament. Thus the silk bave is of two brins held together by sericin.+.  5egumming of silk involves mainly the removal of sericin from the fibroin.-(.(. Acids are non-specific and tend to attack vigorously.() %ericin .

 This is known as K%oupling Kin which only +() to +/ ) of the gum is removed. Alkalis also attack both! sericin and fibroin.  Process of scoupling : o raw silk is soaked in lukewarm dilute soap bath for several hours and rinsed in fresh water.  #f the level is below '. The p@ should be kept at the leve+ of '. o After soupling the silk may be bleached or dyed.  #n certain cases! entire silk gum is not removed! but only sufficient amount is removed to make the silk soft and lustrous and workable in dyeing and bleaching./! the degumming loss will be greatly increased.  The degumming loss in this process in -(--/).  The degumming process which removes the silk gum is also called as boiling-of process and this is accomplished by the use of soap and soda. $# .  The degumming with soaps in the presence of mild alkalis like soda ash is in practice./.  5egumming with alkalis is a function of p@ and temperature and duration of treatment. @owever! the variation in the rate of hydrolysis is large enough to control the reaction.-/ g2l soap and # g2l soda ash at boiling temperature for /-*( minutes! maintaining the li"uor ratio at =(:+./ to +(.the treated material is given a hot wash for +(-+/ minutes and finally it is washed in cold water.  Process:- The degumming of raw silk is generally carried out using . p@. #f the p@ is over +(./! then the process of removing sericin will be slow.

to /) in weight of silk gum is removed. This is used mainly for warpJ hence the gum is left purposely. The fabric is evenly piled in the open vessel! filled with the degumming li"uor and treated from the bottom.  The degumming of silk fabrics is generally carried out batch-wise in small lots using e"uipments a& O%e# be(7: Bost common used e"uipment for degumming.  The resultant fabric has a much softer hand and a whiter appearance.  Although for raw silk fabrics the gum is retained purposely to provide body or produce a different texture! most silk fabrics are degummed as a part of the finishing process.o After bleaching the soupled silk is fre"uently given a treatment with hot 6.  aw silk is sometimes given a very mild scouring for the purpose of softening the fibre.  #n addition to removing the soil or additives used while weaving silk! scouring removes any sericin 6gum7 that remains on the silk. %ilk is usually bleached with dilute solutions of hydrogen peroxide./o&7 solution of tartar. This is called as MF& 3 %#?NL in which only . #n case of fabrics containing small "uantities of sericin the treatment in open beck may be "uite effective. 9ften a "uantity of the natural gum has been allowed to remain on the silk fiber to give it additional body and to make it easier to handle in spinning and weaving. b& St"& m"(+i#e: 3sed for the degumming of delicate fabrics and cases where the 2% . o This causes the silk gum remaining on the fibre to soften and remain in that condition permanently.  F& 3 %#?N can be prepared by simply washing the raw silk in lukewarm or hot water without the use of soap.

-.B!e"(+i#$ '0 )i!7 2$ . :.  The Assessment of effectiveness of degumming is done by the extent of removal of sericin by calculation the of weight loss of fabric after degumming! scanning through electro microscope or by chemical staining method.primary consideration is perfect production "uality! especially for goods which are to be plain dyed.

 5uring degumming the removal of sericin from the silk results in dull white to lightly tinted material. . 9f the above! @ydrogen Peroxide is mostly preferred.  S'me '0 t+e im%'&t"#t &edu(i#$ "$e#t) u)ed 0'& b!e"(+i#$ "&e: a) b) c) %odium @ydrosulphite 6@ydrose7 %ulphur 5ioxide.  5uring bleaching these natural colouring matters are decolori$ed2removed to produce pure white material.  agents. The chlorine based agents such as bleaching powder! %odium @ypochlorite are not generally used as they tend to chlorinate the silk fibroin. c) %odium Per borate d) %odium Peroxide.  T+e %'%u!"& '5idi2i#$ "$e#t) u)ed 0'& b!e"(+i#$ '0 )i!7 "&e3 a) @ydrogen Peroxide b) Potassium Permanganate. The silk being spun by silk worm contains natural colouring matter tinted with yellow! yellow -green and brown pigments. %odium2Oinc %ulphoxylate Eormaldehyde. An efficient bleaching process must ensure pure and permanent whiteness! level dyeing properties and non degradation of the material.  %ince some of the sericin is closely held by fibroin! complete elimination of the colour by degumming is not possible. 22 . The bleaching of silk is based on the use of either reducing agents or oxidi$ing The above reducing agents at time tend to reoxidise original colour may be restored in the bleached material.

w. #t is to be noted that the solution sodium hydrosulphite at /(o & for .w. %odium sulphoxylate formaldehyde is a stable reducing agent marketed as A bath containing --. should be made up only when re"uired as its reducing power deteriorates rapidly on =. as bleaching agent. :. B!e"(+i#$ 4it+ )u!%+u& di'5ide '0 )u!%+u&'u) "(ida. #n this process bleaching is done with the following typical recipe: %odium peroxide 23 --. B!e"(+i#$ 4it+ )'dium %e&'5idea. Met+'d) '0 b!e"(+i#$3 -. b. B!e"(+i#$ 4it+ )'dium +yd&')u!%+ite .m7! formic acid 6. The degummed silk goods are treated in a bath containing . This method exposed to sulphur dioxide gas or immersed in sodium bisulpite in water for . c. c. sufficiently to ensure uniform distribution./) the goods are treated at boil for -(-=( minutes. d. The degummed silk goods are hung in a suitable chamber where they are Approximately / kg of sulphur is re"uired to bleach +(( kg of silk.-* hours. grams per litre of The entire lot must be completely immersed and the bleaching li"uor is stirred Einally the material is thoroughly washed.) 6o. Einally the material is thoroughly Oinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde also known a decolin!safolin can also be used rongolite! sofolite! etc. 6o.) 6o. B!e"(+i#$ 4it+ )u!%+'5y!"tea. washed. b.-* hours.m7 . b.m7 sodium sulphoxylate formaldehyde and +--.w.+yd&')< a. storage 1. of bleaching is not generally practiced as it causes air pollution./)7 is prepared.

/ g2l Temperature . The hydrogen peroxide is used as an important agent for silk as the white colour generated lasts long and further it possesses good stability on storage. @ydrogen peroxide is the most preferred bleaching agent which is sold as =/-/() a"ueous solution. #n this process the liberation of perhydroxyions acts as a true bleaching agent.m7 --.w.. d.-/ hrs at *(o & The oxygen yielded by the decomposition of sodium peroxide oxidi$es the chromo gens of silk so that it becomes colorless./) 6o. e.m7 (. B!e"(+i#$ 4it+ +yd&'$e# %e&'5idea.*(-'(o & c.w. 5./o & Time .w. T+e ty%i("! &e(i%e '0 %e&'5ide b!e"(+i#$ %&'(e)) i) $i/e# be!'43 %ilk goods .Bagnesium sulphate %odium silicate %ulphuric acid 6'*)7 %odium bicarbonate Baterial:water Time (.(-. #t is "uite stable under acidic conditions./ g2l %oda ash .x kg Baterial: water .(. 24 ./) 6o.) 6o. @ere the sodium silicate acts as a stabili$ing agent and helps to maintain the speed of the process slow and steady.m7 =) 6o. b..m7 +:=( .w.* g2l %odium silicate -+.+:=( @-9.

m7 anipal >@8 . 2. Einally! the goods are washed and dried. 3. 1ecause strong acids readily attack the cellulose of the vegetable matter and do not immediately harm protein fibers like wool! the burrs! sticks! leaves! 25 .1 *OOL :.  hydrochloric acid.A C"&b'#i2i#$  >ool fabrics that have some vegetable matter clinging to the woven or knitted &arboni$ing is accomplished by the immersion of wool in sulfuric acid or yarns must be carbon i$ed.g2l sodium hydrosulphite Baterial: waterP +:=( The material is immersed in the above bath at *( o & and treated for =(-*( minutes.1.w. The mechanism behind this is that these agents absorb invisible 3: light and emit in the visible range of the spectrum! some of the commercial available agents are A ty%i("! &e(i%e3 /) 6o. :.6. #n order to achieve the re"uired degree of whiteness of a fabric! colour complementaries are introduced to achieve desired luster. anipal >@8! ?eucopher PAT. To obtain this the material is treated with optical brightening agents. O%ti("! b!e"(+i#$ met+'d > 1.

 a typical scouring procedure of raw wool the fibers are treated at temperatures below *((& 6l. #t is from this process that we derive the phrase being on tenterhooks as meaning to be held in suspense.(oE7! with an anionic or a non-ionic detergent and a small amount of a weak base such as sodium bicarbonate or ammonia :.C FULLIN9  >ool fabrics are fulled! or milled! to give the fabric a more compact structure.  The treatment is carried out under carefully controlled conditions so that the wool is not damaged! and the fabric is given a careful scouring afterward to remove or neutrali$e all the acid that remains.9.g. >ool can be scoured with a detergent solution at a p@ of upto++ 6e. #n a Eulling involves two processesQscouring and milling 6thickening7.1.  #n the milling machine! the wet fabric is pounded with hammers or is alternately 2 . :.) 8a-&(=7! when the scouring-bath temperature is kept below +-/o E. These are type of preshrinking! fabrics are subjected to moisture! heat! soap! and pressure.1.  followed by stretching the cloth on great frames known as tenters and held onto those frames by tenterhooks.  Bild detergents and sodium carbonate are fre"uently used.and the like that remain in the wool are destroyed.B SOURIN9  The scouring of wool is done in solutions of less concentration and at lower temperatures than the scouring of other fibers because the alkalinity of most scouring solutions damages wool..

bleaching! sometimes bleaching may be necessary. S NTHETICS  %ynthetic fibres are man made.1.  Eulling causes the yarns to shrink and to lie closer together and gives the fabric a >ool cloth may be given more or less fulling! depending on the desired denser structure. 2! .  =.  The most prominent fibr es are rayon! acetate! nylon! acrylic and polye ster.  Acetate fibr e is cellulose acetate .D BLEACHIN9  Although wool fabrics often are finished in the natural color or dyed without Traditionally! wools were bleached by process called stoving! which exposed the &urrent Processes use hydrogen peroxide and mild temperatures. ayon is regenerated cellulose.  characteristics of the resultant fabrics.stretched and compressed for mechanical action. :.  fabric to sulfur dioxide.

 Acrylic fibres are formed from wet or dry spinning of co-polymers containing at least . @ence antistatic oils and lubricants are applied to the fibre before weaving.  5ue to the low moisture uptake of synthetic fibres in comparison to cotton and wool! static electricity problems are encountered in yam preparation and weaving operations. 8ylon is a polyamide fibre manufactured by r eaction of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid .  The preparation processes are g enerally similar for all th ese fabrics and include: o @eat setting o %couring and 2" .  These fabrics re"uire no processing for the removal of natural impurities as they are man made. The commonly employed si$es! antistats and lubricants are 6i7 polyvinyl alcohol 6ii7 styrene -base resins 6iii7 polyalkylene glycols 6iv7 gelath! and 6v7 polyvinyl acetate./) by weight of acrylonitrile units.  Polyester fibre is manufactured by esterification of ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid.  They do re"uire some treatm ents such as removal of si$ e! antistat and lubricating oils used in weaving operations.

The adhesion of si$ing material to the yarn is also difficult.  The main synthetic si$es comprise of polyvinyl alcohol 6P:A7! polyacrylic acid! &B&! plastici$ed acidic vinyl acetates and acidic methyl acrylate polymers. o 1leaching! and rinsing.  >hen water soluble P:A is used as a si$ing agent in weaving! no desi$ing is necessary. es. @owever! high molecular weight 6R+!((!(((7 P:A is difficult to remove 2# .o insing 6for the removal of process chemicals used in weaving operations .-. The abov e processes are carri ed out in the same way as for cotton textil fibres and clothes are readily processed on the conventional m cotton. light scouring with =-/ g2l nonionic detergent at '/-+(() for -(-=( minutes is enough to remove the si$e material. The achineries u sed for =. DESI8IN9 OF S NTHETICS #$ '0 )y#t+eti() "#d b!e#d)  %ynthetic fibres are strongerJ hence increasing strength by si$ing is not the aim.  %i$ing of man made fibres with starch creates a lot of problems.

#n such cases! the fabric may be pre-acidified or acetic acid may be added to the desi$ing bath to bring ph at .1 HEAT SETTIN9  3nlike natural and regenerated fabrics! the synthetic fabrics re"uire a special preparatory operation called heat-setting. polyacrylic acid is soluble in mildly acidic or alkaline solution.  %etting process releases the strains imposed during drawing! knitting or weaving processes! minimi$es creasing during wet processing and imparts high degree of dimensional stability. Polyester si$ing agents are not removed by simple washing treatment.(-'(o&.  >hen acrylic si$es are mixed with starch! their ph of about '.. They can be removed by treating with a solution containing --= g2l nonionic detergent and+--g2l caustic soda or soda-ash6with or without +--g2l sodium tripolyphosphate7at .  The desi$ing of polyester2cotton blends depends on the nature of si$e used. P:A can be easily removed using hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a metal catalyst under neutral condition =./ will inactivate en$ymes.P:A and &B& are removed by hot wash. .  3nless this treatment is done these materials will shrink when treated with a"ueous solution and as a result the linear dimensions and the shape of ready articles change. 3% .  5uring this operation! the material is subjected to thermal treatment in tensioned condition in hot air! steam or hot water medium. a mixture of starch and emulsifying wax is removed by means of en$ymatic desi$ing followed by alkaline scour. the use of soft water or se"uestering agent is recommended. Acrylic copolymer is removed by simple mild alkaline scour.

 &ooling of the material resulting in the restoration of intermolecular bonds! the fibres being in new state! free from internal stress.  T+e )etti#$ %&'(e)) ('#)i)t) '0 t4' )t"$e)3  @eating of the material to a specific temperature depending on the fibre type! ensuring breakage of intermolecular bonds and e"uali$ing stresses in chains. Hyd&'-)etti#$ using hot water 3$ . D&y-+e"t )etti#$ 6or simply heat setting 2thermo setting7-using indirect oil or electrical heating in pin or clip stentering machine 1. The "uicker the cooling and the lower the temperature! the better is the stabili$ation effect.  Thus the material must be heated to a temperature close to the thermoplastic point of the fibre and some degree of width ways or lengthways tensions are normally imposed on the fabric. Ste"m-)etti#$ using high pressure steam  :. M"i# te(+#i?ue) '0 +e"t-)etti#$ "&e3 -. #n order to achieve a satisfactory degree of set in synthetic thermoplastic fibres it is necessary to supply sufficient energy to the fibre to weaken or to break inter-chain bonds and allow new bonds to be formed whilst the material is held to optimi$ed dimensions.

.=.: SOURIN9 OF S NTHETICS:  The scouring procedures for synthetic fibres are relatively simple since the fibres contain fewer impurities! most of which have at least some degree of water solubility! the most important being si$es and lubricants.=. =.  The major si$es used are polyvinyl alcohol! carboxylmethyl cellulose and polyacrylic acid! all of which are completely or partially water-soluble.S('u&i#$ '0 "(et"te3 32 .

 Addition of se"uestering agent will be helpful for hard water. @igh temperature may cause deterioration of setting.  Anionic detergents like fatty alcohol sulphonates behave like acid dyes and are adsorbed by the fibre./-+.(-./-.>ith polyamides or nylons! nonionic synthetic detergents 6+.  After scouring the nylon fabric should be washed thoroughly before drying.( &! this being sufficient to remove soil! oil! coloring impurities and antistatic agents. elaxation of knitting or weaving tensions occurs during scouring under minimum tension at =.(o & for the unset and '/-+((o & for heat-set. high temperature. %econdary acetate or triacetate can be scoured with soap or synthetic detergent usually at *(S.  Anionic synthetic detergents such as polyoxyethylene sulphates are preferred for all the synthetic fibres that are to be subse"uently dyed with disperse dyes! since nonionic detergents with low cloud point may hamper stability of disperse dyes at high temperature.  The temperature of scouring varies according to whether the material is already heat-set or not! being ./ g2l sodium carbonate or trisodium phosphate7 are suitable.g2l7 with the addition of an alkali 6(.=.  Their presence on the fibre will slow down dyeing and may reduce the exhaustion of the dye bath.1 S('u&i#$ '0 #y!'#  Polyamide or polyester fabrics are ade"uately scoured using an alkyl polyoxyethylene sulphate and sodium carbonate. #f the material is to be dyed with acid dyes! a nonionic detergent is to be used. The fabric should not be dried unevenly as this could lead to irregular results in dyeing! particularly with anionic product. 33 .

for other materials! scouring may be with cotton and linen the concentration of alkali should be doubled.m7 soap and -(-=(g2l soda ash at room temperature for -(-=( minutes! followed by rinsing at . %ometimes a short cold rinse is sufficient.  #f si$ing agents are not removed easily! an additional step of en$ymatic desi$ing is to be carried out. =.  These fibres are scoured with an ethoxylated alcohol! either alone or with a mild alkali such as sodium carbonate or phosphate.w.(o&. 34 .g2l synthetic detergent or soap 6alone or admixture with nonionic surfactant7 and .) 6o.=.g2l soda ash.=.: S'u&i#$ '0 %'!ye)te&  Polyester products which bear low "uantities of processing aids compatible with disperse dyes can simply be washed with water or may even be allowed to remain in the dye bath.. The best method depends on the type and "uantity of substances to be removed. Eor polyester-wool worsted fabrics! the scouring may be done with =-.  A soil suspending agent like sodium tripolyphosphate may be added.  8ormally scouring bath should have +-. Eor light weight materials the temperature should be below *( done at boil for -(-=( minutes.= S('u&i#$ '0 "(&y!i( 0ib&e)  Eor acrylic fibres! anionic surfactants should be avoided! because they may restrain the uptake of basic dyes.=. Eor blends o &.  .  The same condition may be maintained for polyester viscose blends.

 After scouring a thorough rinse at /(-*(o & is necessary to remove any residual alkali.w./-+) o.(o&. =.phosphates can be used as an alkaline agent. 3sually a weal alkaline treatment with nonionic detergent 6(.  Eormulations are composed for safe temperatures and p@ ranges that minimi$e acid and alkali degradation of the fibre. #n these cases! bleaching can include fluorescent whitening agents.%ynthetic fibres are generally manufactured with high levels of whiteness except when the conditions for fibre formation cause discolouration.chloroisocyanuric acid at P@ =-'! at *(-*/ o &! for =(-.m7 may be carried out at . As an example! polyester fibres have been bleached with di.A Ny!'# 35 .5 BLEACHIN9  #n synthetic fabric! discolouration results from the by products of manufacture! which include processing auxiliaries! spinning oils in yarn making! and formulations for yarn si$ing in weaving  .5.and tri. =.m7 and ammonia 6(. Addition of a solvent based detergent helps removal of oil and grease! if present./-+) o.w./ minutes.

/ c over =( min with subse"uent bleaching at this temperature for =( minutes. @@ =. ecommended bleaches are non chlorinated types: sodium perborate! percarbonate! and peracetic acid.B B!e"(+i#$ '0 0ib&e b!e#d)  #n /(2/( blends of natural and synthetic fibres! bleaching procedures are based on the sensitivity of the natural fibre component! provided that temperature and p@ are not damaging to the synthetic fibre.  The material is introduced cold and the temperature is raised to .5.  @ydrogen peroxide is not used because the bleach bath processes at too high a temperature. a peracetic acid bleach bath is processed with sodium pyrophosphate at p@ *-.  >hen the natural fibre component represents a small percentage of the composition! it may withstand harsher conditions than would normally be prescribed for bleaching it alone.(-. @eat sensitivity is a special consideration for bleaching the nylon thermoplasts..  3 . @eat setting temperatures for the various forms of nylon may cause yellowing from oxidation. >here possible! lower temperatures and p@ are recommended.  >hen a textile contains a fibre blend with fibres of e"ual sensitivity but une"ual percentages! bleaching formulations are tailored to the safe re"uirements of the fibres present in the larger amount.

/ to ==.5.  below = .. =. %odium nitrate-+.D A(&y!i(   1leaching is always accompanied with fluorescent whitening Acrylic fibers when boiled in a solution of Ph R.5.kgs >etting and dispersing agents. kgs &hlorite stabili$e Eormic acid Ato p@ =. 3! .C P'!ye)te&    o o o o o Polyester may be bleached using acidified sodium chlorite. A standard recipe for making +(( litrs solution for bleaching is: %odium chlorite---. There is no damage to the fier but a slight increase in crystalli$ation.=. neiher hydrogen peroxide nor 1leaching is done mostly by sodium chlorite for + hr at '( degrees #f a fluorescent agent is preset then it is preferable to bleach near boil for =/-.   mins./-.( An alternative is to bleach acrylics with sodium chlorite or hypochlorite at p@ hydrogen hypochlorite are applicable.

mu)!i#< 3" .P&e%"&"ti'# O0 C'tt'# 0"b&i( .

the si$ing material that were used. AIM OF EAPERIMENT3. 1. a. THEOR OF THE EAPERIMENT 5esi$ing is a process which removes the chemical stiffener 6a starch or other The desi$ing bath can be a hot water bath or a bath of en$ymes depending on The cloth continues through additional baths containing more en$ymes and stiffener7 applied to warp yarns to make them easier to weave.*it+ P&"(ti("! )"m%!e) E5%e&ime#t 1. a.To 5esi$e a untreated sample of muslin fabric as a preparatory process for dyeing process. detergents that loosen the si$ing present and prepare the fabric for the scouring and bleaching. :. Re(i%e '0 t+e %&'(e)) 1. Add /) mineral acid6diluted @&?7 MATERIAL REBUIRED ?arge container2bath 3# . b. c.

PROCEDURE        5. OBSERCATIONS    The colour of the fabric changes The si$e of the fabric also shrinks . 4% .b. c. f. e. ?et the fabric be in the bath for the next + hr. .RESULT  The fabric has been freed of various si$es applied to it during the process of weaving basically si$es of soluble nature are removed in this process. d. 6. %poon 4looves Bineral acid >ater %tirring rod Add water into the container2bath and put for boiling 1oil the bath till the temperature reaches +(( degrees6boiling7 Add the /) mineral acid to the bath %tir the mixture using a stirring rod #mmerse the fabric into the bath and stir it . emove the fabric after + hr and dry the fabric.. The solution in the dye bath is of muddy color which confirms the removal of the si$ings.

+. c. .. . %couring removes waxes and destroys vegetable matter residues in cotton and . 1. Re(i%e '0 t+e %&'(e)) 8A9@--)6owf7 %oap-+) 6owf7 %oda ash-+)6owf7 Baterial:li"uor ratio-+:-( 4$ cotton blend fabrics.E5%e&ime#t 1 1. a.To scour a desi$ed sample of muslin fabric as a second preparatory process for dyeing process. caustic scouring swells the motes and opens them up. THEOR OF THE EAPERIMENT This cleaning treatment is also referred to as alkali boil-off. In addition. AIM OF EAPERIMENT3. -. =. b.

PROCEDURE         5. f. OBSERCATIONS  The colour of the fabric changes!the whiteness of the fabric as compared to The si$e of the fabric doesnTt change muh. a.8A9@!soap! soda ash >ater %tirring rod Add water into the container2bath and put for boiling @eat the bath upto *(-*/ degrees and add soap 2detergent %tir the solution and immerse fabric Add the 8A9@ and %oda ash into the solution @eat the bath upto '/ degrees for the scouring to start ?et the fabric be in the bath for the next --= hr.:. Neep stirring the solution and donTt keep the solution stagnant emove the fabric after --= hrs and dry the fabric. b. c.  6. .RESULT  The resultant fabric is %coured with waxes removed and d vegetable matter residues in the fabrics 42 . desi$ed fabric is more. MATERIAL REBUIRED ?arge container2bath %poon 4looves &hemicals.. d. e.

color! which would distort the color of the fabric when dyes or pigments are added . b. vol %odium silicate-. gpl p@-+(. a... c.To bleach a scoured sample of muslin fabric as a second preparatory process for dyeing process. THEOR OF THE EAPERIMENT 1leaching is re"uired to obtain pure whiteness since fibers are seldom pure The bleaches are chemical agent or compounds that react with the color . #f the fabric is not properly bleached during preparation! it may retain its natural Re(i%e '0 t+e %&'(e)) a. c. 1. 43 white in their natural state compounds in the fiber! oxidi$e them and render them colorless.-+(.E5%e&ime#t : 1.. b.-) -. AIM OF EAPERIMENT3. @-9-.

Neep stirring the solution and donTt keep the solution stagnant emove the fabric after --= hrs and dry the fabric. c. f. :. soda ash.8A9@!soap! soda ash >ater %tirring rod . PROCEDURE         Add water into the container2bath and put for boiling @eat the bath upto *(-*/ degrees and add soap 2detergent %tir the solution and immerse fabric Add the 8A9@ and %oda ash into the solution @eat the bath upto '/ degrees for the scouring to start ?et the fabric be in the bath for the next --= hr. 5.. OBSERCATIONS  The colour of the fabric changes!the whiteness of the fabric as compared to 44 . per p@ Baterial:li"uor ratio-+:-( MATERIAL REBUIRED ?arge container2bath %poon 4looves &hemicals. d. e. a.d. e.

45 .desi$ed fabric is more.  The si$e of the fabric doesnTt change muh. The colouring and the "uality of the finished textile depends to a large extent on the pretreatment processes. 6. Thus! utmost care should be taken while selecting the proper preparatory treatments for the fabric.RESULT  The resultant fabric is %coured with waxes removed and d vegetable matter residues in the fabrics CONCLUSION Pretreatment process of fabric constitutes an important stage in the textile industry.

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!B=9=)4PT!"ieDBH)"FAH'iFb''7M&e)u!tH(tF&e )u!tH&e)#umFIN/F'#e%"$eH?FH0F0"!)e.G F'SLS28Ed5:td#*9&E H+!Fe#HeiFtdeyS).COBMANN 4! .i#Db''7)EidF/BA7=d 62$CH%$FPA115H!%$FPA115Hd?FFELTIN9DMILLIN9JPROCESSH)' u&(eFb!H't)F?K!'eRE$DOH)i$F95!PU .+tt%3DDb''7).P. FIBER TO FABRIC. BOOKS :.('.$''$!e.