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Water Engineering Reference Notes




Open Channel Flow








D G Bertram


douglas.bertram@strath.ac.uk

Ext 3251


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REFERENCE TEXTS:
TITLE AUTHOR PUBLISHER
Hydraulics in Civil and
Environmental Engineering
A. Chadwick &
J. Morfett
E. & F. N. Spon ***
Civil Engineering Hydraulics Featherstone & Nalluri BSP Professional Books
(Blackwell)
**
Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers N. B. Webber Chapman and Hall **
Open Channel Hydraulics R. H. French McGraw Hill Book
Company
**
Open Channel Hydraulics Ven Te Chow McGraw Hill Book
Company
*
Fluid Mechanics V. L. Steeter
E. B. Wylie
McGraw Hill Book
Company
*
Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics
[Schaum's Outline series S.I. Edition]
R. B. Giles McGraw Hill Book
Company
*
Open Channel Flow F. M. Henderson Macmillan *
An Introduction to Engineering Fluid
Mechanics
J. A. Fox Macmillan
Mechanics of Fluids W. J. Duncan
A. S. Thom
A. D.Young
Edward Arnold
Mechanics of Fluids B. S. Massey Van Nostrand
Reinhold

Fluid Mechanics for Engineering
Students
J. R. D. Francis Edward Arnold


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CONTENT

1. Introduction to open channel flow - Chezy, Manning, Darcy Weisbach.
2. Determination of normal depth of flow.
3. The energy principle in open channel flows.
4. Theory of gradually varied flows (dy/dx).
5. Direct Step Method for gradually varied flows.
6. Classification of open channel flows.
7. Rapidly varied flows - the energy method.
8. Force momentum principle in open channel flows.
9. Hydraulic jump equations and energy dissipators.
10. Location of hydraulic jumps








Tutorial 2
Tutorial 1
Tutorial 3

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INTRODUCTION TO OPEN CHANNEL FLOW:

Open channel flow refers to any flow in which the flowing stream is not completely enclosed by solid boundaries

but has a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure.

Examples of open channel flow are: Rivers, Canals, artificial channels, Spillways, etc.



Rectangular Channel
Free
Surface
Natural River
Pressure
Velocity
V
P=ρgy

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CLASSIFICATION OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW:
Depending on the variation of depth and mean velocity with space and time, open channel flow may be classified
into different types.










• Steady Flow: The depth (y), discharge (Q), and mean velocity (V) at any section do not change with time
(t). In mathematical terms, for steady flow:
0 =
dt
dQ
, 0 =
dt
dy
, 0 =
dt
dV

Example of this kind of flow: Constant flow through a long length of an irrigation canal.
• Unsteady Flow: The depth (y), discharge (Q), and mean velocity (V) vary with time (t). In mathematical
terms, for unsteady flow:
0 ≠
dt
dQ
, 0 ≠
dt
dy
, 0 ≠
dt
dV

Examples: flow in a river during flood, tides in estuaries, surge waves, etc. We intend to cover this area in year 4.
Open Channel flow
Steady Flow Unsteady Flow
Uniform Flow Non-uniform Flow
Gradually Varied Flow
(GVF)
Rapidly Varied Flow
(RVF)

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• Uniform Flow: The depth (y), discharge (Q), and mean velocity (V) do not change along the length of the
channel (x) at any given instant. In mathematical terms, for uniform flow:
0 =
dx
dQ
, 0 =
dx
dy
, 0 =
dx
dV


• Non-uniform or varied Flow: The depth (y), discharge (Q), and mean velocity (V) change along the length
of the channel (x). In mathematical terms, for non-uniform flow:
0 ≠
dx
dQ
, 0 ≠
dx
dy
, 0 ≠
dx
dV

In varied flow there is an imbalance between gravity and friction forces and the net result could accelerate or
decelerate the flow. Varied flow can be accelerated dV/dx>0, or decelerated dV/dx<0.
Non-uniform or varied Flow may be further subdivided into:
• Gradually varied (GVF): the flow depth (y), as well as the other parameters vary slowly from one section
to another.
• Rapidly varied flow (RVF): the flow depth (y), as well as the other parameters change abruptly over a
short distance.









Uniform Varied Flow Uniform Uniform Varied Flow
Weir
Hydraulic
jump
Drop
GVF RVF GVF RVF RVF

y

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UNIFORM FLOW:
Consider a sloped prismatic channel in the following. The liquid in motion provokes a friction force at solid
boundary along the wetted perimeter:
Friction forces = τo Pdx
Longitudinal component of
the gravity force =ρg Adx Sinθ

In uniform flow:
Friction force = Gravity force
τo Pdx =ρg Adx Sinθ
τo =(ρg Adx Sinθ)/ Pdx
τo =ρg (A/P) Sinθ
τo =ρg R Sinθ for θ<5
o
Sinθ = tanθ=S

τ ττ τo =ρ ρρ ρg R S where τo is the boundary shear stress at the channel bed and walls and R is the
Hydraulic radius of the channel.

CHEZY EQUATION:

This equation was proposed by the French engineer, Antoine Chezy in 1769.
Chezy assumed that the force resisting the flow per unit area of the stream bed is proportional to the square of
the velocity:
τo ∝ V
2
θ
dx
Area=A
ρg Adx Sinθ τo Pdx
Wetted
Perimeter=P

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τo = K V
2
= ρg R S K is a constant of proportionality

V = RS
K
g ρ

V=C RS Chezy equation or flow rate Q=AC RS

Where V is the mean velocity of the flow and C is the Chezy coefficient and has the dimensions of T L . C
may be expected to depend on the Reynolds number 4 ν VR in smooth channels and on the relative roughness,
ks/R in rough channels. It varies widely over a typical range of 20 (rough channels) to 70 (smooth channels).
Several empirical methods for the prediction of C are available. The most commonly used method is due to the
Irish Engineer, Robert Manning.

MANNING EQUATION:
Robert Manning in 1889 found that:
n
R
C
6
1
=
S R
n
V
3
2
1
= Manning equation (SI Units)
or flow rate
2
1
3
2
S R
n
A
Q =
where n is a roughness factor. Ven T. Chow's book gives examples of values for n.




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Typical values of Manning's roughness n.

Type of surface Description n










C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e



Perspex open channel flume 0.01
Culvert, with bends, connections and some debris 0.013
Cast on steel forms 0.013
Cast on smooth wood forms 0.014
Unfinished, rough wood form 0.017
E
x
c
a
v
a
t
e
d

o
r

d
r
e
d
g
e
d

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s

Earth, after weathering, straight and uniform 0.022
Gravel, uniform section, clean 0.025
Earth bottom, rubble sides 0.030
Rivers 0.03-0.05
Floodplains 0.03-0.1


DARCY-WEISBACH EQUATION:
The headloss due to friction in steady uniform flow is given by:
For pipes:
g
V
D
L
λ h
f
2
2
=
For non-circular sections:

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D π
D π
P
A
R
4
2
= = D =4R
gR
V
λ
L
h
f
8
2
=
gR
V
λ S
f
8
2
= RS
g 8
V
λ
=
Darcy-Weisbach Equation
It can be noted that when comparing Chezy Eq. with Manning, and Darcy Weisbach Eqs., we obtain: C =
n
R
6
1
=
λ
g 8

The values of λ can be obtained using the Moody Diagram, see below.
• Laminar flow: Flow is considered to be laminar, if Reynolds number Re= 2000
4

ν
VR
. In
laminar flow the relative roughness has no influence on the friction factor, therefore
Re
64
= λ
• Smooth turbulent zone in which the friction factor is a function of Reynolds number only.
51 . 2
Re
log 2
1 λ
λ
=
• Transitional turbulent zone in which λ is a function of relative roughness k/4R, and Re.
• Rough turbulent zone in which λ is a function of relative roughness k/4R, only.
k
R
λ
8 . 14
log 2
1
=
Colebrook-White equation for smooth and rough turbulent zone:
]
4
51 . 2
8 . 14
[log 2
1
λ VR
ν
R
k
λ
+ − =




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Moody Diagram



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THE CONCEPT OF "NORMAL DEPTH":

In open channel flow when the body weight force is balanced by bed friction, then we have uniform flow. During
uniform flow, the depth of flow is known as "normal depth".


Examples of Normal Depth:
If channel slope is constant, flow will reach normal depth, y
n
, sooner or later.



THE CALCULATION OF NORMAL DEPTH:
The value of normal depth can be determined from Manning's equation
2
1
3
2
S R
n
A
Q = (or Chezy or Darcy-
Weisbach equation).
y
n

Body weight
Friction
y
n

y
n


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The following methods are available for calculating normal depth:
1. Direct calculation (only for wide channels).
2. From a graph.
3. Using Trial and error.
4. Using Newton-Raphson iterative technique.

1. NORMAL DEPTH (SPECIAL CASE; VERY WIDE RECTANGULAR CHANNEL):

In a wide rectangular channel (B>12y):
y
y B
By
P
A
R ≈
+
= =
2

2
1
3
2
S R
n
A
Q =
2
1
3
2
S y
n
By
Q
n
n
=
2
1
3
5
S y
n
B
Q
n
=
6 . 0
) (
S B
Qn
y
n
=

or
6 . 0
n
)
S
qn
( y = where q =dischrge per unit width.
Alternatively one can calculate Q, if given yn, S, n.

2. THE CALCULATION OF NORMAL DEPTH USING GRAPH:
If B is known, use Fig. 6.1 from the Ven T. Chow book (shown below).
• Calculate
S B
Qn
3
8

• From Manning equation we know:
3
8
3
2
3
8
B
AR
S B
Qn
=
B
y

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• Using Fig. 6.1 and
3
8
3
2
B
AR
, one can find
B
y
n
, hence y
n
.

3. THE CALCULATION OF NORMAL DEPTH USING TRIAL AND ERROR:

2
1
3
2
S R
n
A
Q =
3
2
) (
P
A
A
S
Qn
=
3
2
3
5
P
A
S
Qn
=
3
2
3
5
3
5
) 2 (
n
n
y B
y B
S
Qn
+
=
3
2
3
5
3
5
) 2 (
n n
y B
S
Qn
y B + =
If B is known, try different values of y
n
until LHS=RHS (Trial & Error Method). This method is the most suitable
for use in exams.

4. THE CALCULATION OF NORMAL DEPTH USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD:
The most suitable method for solution by computer or spreadsheet is the Newton-Raphson technique, an
Iterative Method
We have seen:
3
2
3
5
3
5
) 2 (
n n
y B
S
Qn
y B + =

2
3
↑ ) 2 ( ) (
2
3
2
5
2
5
n n
y B
S
Qn
y B + =
)
2
1 ( ) (
2
3
2
5
B
y
S B
Qn
y
n
n
+ =

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0 ) ( )
2
( ) (
5 . 1 5 . 1 5 . 2
= − −
S B
Qn
B
y
S B
Qn
y
n
n


Assume:

5 . 1
1
) (
S B
Qn
K =
B
S B
Qn
K
2
) (
5 . 1
2
=

then:

0
1 2
5 . 2
= − − K y K y
n n

1 2
5 . 2
) ( K y K y y f − − =
2
5 . 1
5 . 2 ) ( K y y f − = ′

Newton-Raphson:
1
st
Iteration:
) (
) (
1
1
1 2
y f
y f
y y

− = Continue till LHS=RHS or y=y
n

(or till error is very small)

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TUTORIAL 1

1. A rectangular channel is 3m wide and has a slope of 1/500.

(a) If the discharge is 10 m
3
/sec and the normal depth of the flow is 1 m determine the roughness coefficient
'n' and state whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.

(b) If the normal depth of the flow is 0.5 m determine the discharge. Is flow subcritical or supercritical?

(c) If the discharge is 25 m
3
/sec determine the normal depth of flow and state whether this is subcritical or
supercritical.

(d) At approximately what normal depth of flow would critical conditions occur? Assume Q=25 m3/s and the
bed slope is changed. (n = 0.00952).

Ans: (a) n=0.00952, flow supercritical
(b) Q=3.67 cumecs, flow supercritical
(c) Yn =1.975 m, flow subcritical
(d) Yn = 1.92 m, S = 1 in 465

2. A canal has a trapezoidal cross-section with side-slopes 1:1 a base width of 2.5m and a uniform bed slope of 1/400. If the
Chezy coefficient is 100, determine:

(a) The discharge if the depth of uniform flow is 2 m.
(b) The equivalent value of Mannings 'n'.
(c) If 'n' remains constant the normal depth of flow for discharge of 15 m
3
/sec.

Ans: (a) Q = 47.3 m
3
/sec
(b) n = 0.01
(c) y
n
= 1.072 m

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3. An open channel of trapezoidal section 2.5 m wide at the base and having sides at 60
o
to the horizontal has a bed slope of
1/500. It is found that when the flow 1.24 m
3
/sec the depth of water in the channel is 0.35m. Assuming the validity
of Mannings equation calculate the flow rate when the depth is 0.5m.

Ans: Q = 2.215 (m
3
/sec)

3. A rectangular channel bed ABC is 3 m wide and consists of a portion AB of slope 1/100 and BC of 1/900 slope. The
depth of flow on AB is 0.8 m. If Mannings 'n' = 0.02 discuss the nature of the flow on AB and find the normal depth
on BC.

Ans: Y
nBC
= 1.78 m.

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THE ENERGY CONCEPT IN OPEN CHANNEL
FLOW:
TOTAL ENERGY& SPECIFIC ENERGY
Total energy relative to a fixed datum is:
g
V
g ρ
P
Z
2
2
+ + as in Bernoulli's Equation








For hydrostatic pressure this becomes:
g
V
y Z
2
2
+ +
In open channel hydraulics we often make the datum along the channel bed and the energy is termed "SPECIFIC
ENERGY". Specific Energy, E, is defined as the energy of the flow per unit weight of fluid referred to the channel
bed as datum.

g
V
y E
2
2
+ =
Datum
Z
Bed
y
g ρ
P
=
Water Surface
Energy Line
V
2
/2g

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One can apply the energy principle between any two cross-sections in the flow:









f
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
h
g 2
V
y Z
g 2
V
y Z + + + = + +
h
f
is the total energy loss between sections 1 & 2 mainly composed of bed friction and is equal to dx S
f
for
shallow slopes. Z
1
-Z
2
is the change in bed slope and is equal to dx S
o
for shallow slopes.

Hence dx S E dx S E
f 2 o 1
+ = +
f o
S S
E
dx


=
where
f
S is the average slope of the energy line between any two sections in the flow.



Energy Line
Datum
Z
2

Bed
2
y
Water Surface
V
2
2
/2g
y
1

Z1
V
1
2
/2g
f
S
dx S
f
dx
1 2

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CONCEPT OF MINIMUM SPECIFIC ENERGY:
If we consider a channel with a constant discharge Q then depending on the channel slope (hence depth y) there
is a depth where the energy is minimum.






Note: The point of minimum energy is the critical depth.
For Minimum energy 0
dy
dE
=
g
V
y E
2
2
+ =
2
2
gA 2
Q
y E + =
dy
dA
gA
Q
1
dy
dE
3
2
− =

3
2
gA
B Q
1 0 − = 1
gA
B Q
3
2
= 1
gA
B V
2
=

In a Rectangular Channel:

A=By
1
gA
B V
2
= 1
gy
V
2
= gy V =
E = y + V
2
/2g
Specific Energy
y
V=Q/A dA/dy=B
In terms of

B
y Area=By
Q=Constant
Minimum
Energy
y y
Q=constant
45
o


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The point of minimum energy is the critical depth
cr cr
gy V =
CRITICAL DEPTH (RECTANGULAR CHANNEL):

1
gA
B Q
3
2
= 1
y gB
B Q
3 3
2
= 1
y gB
Q
3 2
2
=

g
q
y
2
3
cr
=
3
2
cr
g
q
y =

Examples:









Note: What is the difference between normal and critical depth of flow? See sketch below.

A=By q = Q/B

q=Discharge/Unit Width
y
cr

y
cr

Subcritical
Supercritical
Subcritical
Supercritical

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Minimum Energy (Rectangular Channel):

g 2
V
y E
2
cr
cr cr
+ =
2
y
y E
cr
cr cr
+ =
cr cr
y 5 . 1 E =

when
V>Vcr ; (y<ycr) Flow is supercritical, rapid 1
gy
V
Fr > =
V<Vcr ; (y>ycr) Flow is subcritical, tranquil 1
gy
V
Fr < =
V=Vcr ; (y=ycr) Flow is critical 1
gy
V
Fr = =

Fr is know as the Froude Number.








Depths y
1
and y
2
have equal energy and are conjugate depths but with different Froude Numbers.
cr cr
gy V =
Minimum
Energy

45
o

E
cr

g 2
V
y E
2
+ =
Subcritical



y
y
2

y
cr

y
1


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GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
THE GENERAL EQUATION FOR GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW IN A RECTANGULAR
CHANNEL:

Total energy (H) relative to a fixed datum is:
g 2
V
y Z H
2
+ + =
∴ )
g 2
V
(
dx
d
dx
dy
dx
dZ
dx
dH
2
+ + =
where
dx
dH
is slope of energy line -S
f

dx
dZ
is the slope of bed -S
o


S
o
- S
f
= )
gA 2
Q
(
dx
d
dx
dy
2
2
+ )
gA 2
Q
(
dA
d
dx
dA
)
gA 2
Q
(
dx
d
2
2
2
2
=


3
2
3
2
gA
Q
dx
dy
dy
dA
gA
Q
dx
dA
− = − =


3
2
gA
BQ
dx
dy
− =
Datum
Z
Bed
y
g ρ
P
=
Water Surface
Energy Line
V
2
/2g

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S
o
- S
f
3
2
gA
BQ
dx
dy
dx
dy
− =
3
2
1
gA
B Q
S S
dx
dy
f o


=

This is the General Equation for gradually varying flows predicting the change in flow depth in the downstream
direction.

A few points about the equation:

(1) What happens when S
o
= S
f
?
The flow would be uniform because 0
dx
dy
= .

(2) What happens when 0
gA
BQ
1
3
2
= −

?
The flow depth would be critical y
cr
; but ∞ =
dx
dy
at that point. This is a point of discontinuity in the equation and
therefore it can not be used at critical depth.



y
x
y
c

Shallow Slope
Steeper Slope
y
x
S
f

S
o


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RULE:
Start near y
cr
and work upstream towards subcritical flow.
Start near y
cr
and work downstream towards supercritical flow.
∴ This is therefore two separate calculations.

(3) The term Q
2
B/gA
3
often approximated for a rectangular section by:
A=By ; Q=q B

3
2
3
3 2
3
2
gy
q
gA
B q
gA
B Q
= = =
From Lecture 3:
3
2
cr
g
q
y =


3 cr
3
2
3
2
)
y
y
(
gy
q
gA
B Q
= = =
and the general equation becomes:

3 cr
f o
)
y
y
( 1
S S
dx
dy


= For rectangular channels only
B
y

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(4) There is a further approximation used when the river or estuary is considered very wide. For B/y>12, the
hydraulic radius R ≅ y (flow depth).

From Manning equation
o
3
2
S R
n
A
Q =
For uniform flow A = By
n ;
R = y
n


3
10
n
2
2 2
o
y B
Q n
S =
and for non-uniform gradually varying flow:
f
3
2
S R
n
A
Q =

3
10
2
2 2
f
y B
Q n
S =
∴ )
S
S
1 ( S S S
o
f
o f o
− = −
] )
y
y
( 1 [ S
3
10
n
o
− =

and finally the general equation approximates to:

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]
)
y
y
( 1
)
y
y
( 1
[ S
dx
dy
3 cr
3
10
n
o


= For wide rectangular channels only

This equation could be applied between any two cross-sections:


(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸



=


3 cr
3
10
n
o
)
y
y
( 1
)
y
y
( 1
S
x
y



A simple example of flow passing under a sluice gate on a concrete spillway:






The spillway slope is 1/1000 ∴ S
o
= 0.001
Mannings 'n' for the spillway n = 0.015
The spillway considered very wide and q = 1.71m
3
/s/m
2
y
Water Surface
y
1

∆x
Sluice
0.3m
0.2m
∆x

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Step 1: Calculate y
n
from Manning's equation.


Step 2: Calculate y
cr
from criterion for critical depth.

m 67 . 0
g
q
y
3
2
cr
= =


Step 3: From y=0.2 y=0.3 ∴ ∆y=0.1m,
m 25 . 0 y =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸



=
∆ 3
3
10
o
)
25 . 0
67 . 0
( 1
)
25 . 0
88 . 0
( 1
S
x
1 . 0

∆x=27.7m

m 88 . 0
S
nq
y
6 . 0
o
n
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

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CALCULATION OF GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW:
The methods used in practice are:
(1) Standard Step Method (not covered)
(2) Direct Step Method

DIRECT STEP METHOD:






2
S S
S
2 1
f f
f
+
= ;
2
S S
S
2 1
o o
o
+
=

Energy principle is:
dx S
g 2
V
y
g 2
V
y dx S
f
2
2
2
2
1
1 o
+ + = + +

2 f 1 o
E dx S E dx S + = +

f o
S S
E
dx


=
Energy Line
Bed
2
y
Water Surface
V
2
2
/2g
y
1


V
1
2
/2g
f
S
dx S
f
dx
dx S
o

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TABULAR SOLUTION FORM

Y A P R R
4/3
V V
2
/2g E ∆E S
f
S
f
S
o
-S
f
∆x Σx
BY B+2Y A/P Q/A Y+V
2
/2g 0
∆E S
f
∆x
BY B+2Y A/P Q/A Y+V
2
/2g 0+∆x




Note: When doing direct step method pay no attention to sign. It is always positive.



Known
Point
Next
value
of y
3
4
2 2
R
V n
3
4
2 2
R
V n

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CLASSIFICATION OF GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW PROFILES:
Classification by slope: (Five Slopes)














Classification By Region (Three Regions)

• Region 1 y>y
n
and y
cr

• Region 2 y between y
n
and y
cr

• Region 3 y less than y
n
and y
cr



y
n

y
cr

Mild (M)
y
cr

y
n

Steep (S)
y
n =∞

y
cr

y
n
negative! can not exist
Adverse (A)
Horizontal (H)
y
cr

y
cr
y
n =

Critical (C)

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ALL POSIBILITIES:





















H1 H2 H3
M1 M2 M3
C1 C2 C3
S1 S2 S3
A1 A2 A3

Can not Exist
Does not exist
Uniform Flow
M3
Steep Slope
y
cr

y
n

S
o
>S
cr

S3
S2
S1
Asymptotes
To Horizontal
Horizontal Slope
y
cr

(N.B. No H1 as y
n
=∞)
S
o
= 0
H2
H3
Asymptotes
To Horizontal
y
n
= y
cr

(N.B. C2 equivalent to uniform flow)

C3
C1
S
o
= S
cr

Mild Slope
y
n

y
cr

S
o
< S
cr

M2
M1
Asymptotes
To Horizontal
Asymptotes
To y
n
line

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Some Examples in Civil Engineering:















y
cr

(N.B. A1 does not exist)
Adverse Slope

Horizontal
Asymptote
A2
A3
Mild Slope (M)
y
cr

y
n

M3
M1
Mild
Steep
y
n

Hydraulic Jump
Sluice Gate y
n

y
cr

M1
Mild
M3
Hydraulic Jump

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y
cr

y
n

M2
y
cr

S2
Sluice Gate
y
n

y
cr

S1
Steep
S3
y
n

y
cr

Hydraulic Jump

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GVF TUTORIAL

1. A large tank in a fish farm is supplied with fresh water by a 1m wide rectangular channel leading to a
control sluice gate and then into the tank, as shown in Fig. 1. Assuming the water level just upstream of
the sluice gate is lm deep, and the supply channel is laid horizontally with Manning's 'n' value 0.012, use
the Direct Step Method in 0.1m depth Increments to determine the water level at A, 946m upstream of
the sluice gate. The discharge along the channel is 1m
3
/s.







2. A long rectangular channel with a mild slope of 1 in 900 suddenly changes to a steep slope of 1 in 4.,
The channel is 5 m wide throughout, has a Manning's n value of 0.02 and is designed to carry a
maximum discharge of 155 m
3
/s. Assuming critical conditions exist at the junction of the two slopes,
calculate the water surface profile for approximately 150 m upstream of the Junction using depth
increments of 0.5 m throughout.

3. A wide rectangular river slopes at 1 in 1600 carrying a discharge per unit width of 2 m
2
/s with a
Manning's "n" value of 0.025. An underflow sluice gate is placed in the river across its entire width, the
bottom of the sluice gate being 0.3 m above the channel bed. Calculate the water surface profile from the
sluice gate to the point upstream where normal depth occurs and assume no energy losses at the sluice
gate.

4. A rectangular channel 3m wide, slopes at 1 in 40 and carries a total discharge of 5 m
3
/s when Manning's
"n" value is 0.02. A sluice gate is placed across the channel width with the bottom of the gate 0.2m
above the channel bed. Use the Direct Step Method to calculate the water surface profile downstream of
the sluice gate. Your depth increments should be smaller than 0.1m.

Ans : Q1 – 1.4m; Q2 – 6.3m approx; Q3 – 4.3km; Q4 – 85.4m
Sluice gate
Large Tank
946m

A
Q=1m
3
/s
1m

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RAPIDLY VARYING FLOW

In rapidly varied flows if we are considering short reaches and small energy losses then the energy method is
used. For large or unknown energy losses, force-momentum principle is used e.g. hydraulic jump.

RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW- ENERGY METHOD:

Rapidly varied flow occurs whenever there is a sudden change in the geometry of the channel over a short
length. Typical examples are flow over broad-crested weirs and flow through venturi flumes.
Flow over broad-crested weir is considered, with two possible flow regimes.






E
cr
is dominant energy: E
d/s
is dominant energy:
E
cr
= h + 3/2y
cr
> E
d/s
=
2
n
2
n
gy 2
q
y + E
d/s
=
2
n
2
n
gy 2
q
y + > E
cr
= h + 3/2y
cr

y
n
is the u/s and d/s of weir and the depth on the top of
the weir is given by:
E
cr
=
2
2
n
gy 2
q
y + E
d/s
=
2
weir
2
weir
gy 2
q
y h + +
y
d/s

E
cr

E
d/s
y
n

y
u/s

y
cr

h
E
d/s
E
cr

y
n

y
n

y
weir

h

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There are three roots to above equation:
• 1 negative ×
• 1 positive large = y
u/s

• 1 positive small = y
d/s


WORKED EXAMPLE OF RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW USING ENERGY METHOD:
A long rectangular channel with no friction loss has a normal flow depth of 1m when the discharge is 7m
3
/s. The
channel is 3m wide and there are constrictions inside the channel as shown below. Calculate the water level and
the energy line in the channel.
A represents a venturi flume contracting to 1.5 m in width.
B is a venturi flume of width 2.5m with a small weir at the channel bed 0.15m high
C is a weir 0.5m high












There are three roots for y
weir
:
• negative ×
• positive large = y
weir

• positive small ×

3m 2.5m 1.5m
3m
0.15m 0.5m
1m
A B
C
SECTION
PLAN

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Energy Levels:

1. Downstream energy: E
d/s
=
2
n
2
n
gy 2
q
y + =
( )
2
2
) 1 ( g 2
3 / 7
1+ =1.276m
2. 0.5m weir
3
2
cr
g
q
y = =
3
2
g
) 3 / 7 (
=0.826 E
cr
=3/2(0.826)+0.5=1.739m
3. 0.15 weir
3
2
cr
g
q
y = =
3
2
g
) 5 . 2 / 7 (
=0.906 E
cr
=3/2(0.906)+0.15=1.51m
4.
3
2
cr
g
q
y = =
3
2
g
) 5 . 1 / 7 (
=1.308 E
cr
=3/2(1.308)=1.962m


E
cr
0.5weir > E
d/s
∴ 1.739m dominates control section at C
E
cr
0.15weir < E
cr
0.5weir

∴ 1.739m dominates flow at B
E
cr
venturi > E
cr weirs
1.962> 1.839

∴ control section at A

Determination of water levels:
1. Critical flow over 0.5m weir y
c
=0.826m WL=0.826+0.5
2. U/S of 0.5m weir E
cr
=
2
2
gy 2
q
y + , 1.739=
2
2
gy 2
) 3 / 7 (
y +
y
sub.
=1.63m ; y
sup.
=0.466m
3. Over 0.15m weir
E
d/s
=
2
weir
2
weir
gy 2
q
y h + + ; 1.739=0.15+
2
weir
2
weir
gy 2
) 5 . 2 / 7 (
y + y
weir
=1.37m

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U/S Weir =1.63m as D/S

4. At venturi y
cr
=1.308m
E
cr
=
2
2
gy 2
q
y + ; 1.962=
2
2
gy 2
) 3 / 7 (
y + y
sub.
=1.89m ; y
sup.
=0.44m











0.15m
0.466m
1.37m
0.5m 0.44m
1.308m
1.63m
1m
Ed/s=1.276m
Energy Line
Eu/s
=1.962m
E
cr
=1.739m
1.89m
0.83m
1.63m

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THE CONCEPT OF FORCE-MOMENTUM IN OPEN CHANNEL FLOW:

According to Issac Newton law of motion: Net Force=Rate of change of momentum
= V
dt
dm
∆ =ρQ(∆V)







P P mgSin pdx Q V V
o 1 2 2 1
− + − = − θ τ ρ ( )
For a horizontal reach mg Sinθ 0
For a short distance τ
o
pdx is small
∴ P
1
-P
2
=ρQ(V
2
-V
1
)
P
1
=hydrostatic force=
1
2
1
2
1 1 1
ρ ρ gy B gA Z = where Z
1
is distance to the centroid of area
P
2
=
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
ρ ρ gy B gA Z =
∴ ρg(A
1
Z
1
- A
2
Z
2
)= ρQ( )
Q
A
Q
A
2 1
− = ρ ρ
Q
A
Q
A
2
2
2
1

dx
θ
mg Sinθ
τo Pdx
P
2

P
1

V
1
V
2

+

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or
Q
gA
A Z
Q
gA
A Z
2
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
+ = + = Specific Force
Specific Force 1 = Specific Force 2
A jump forms when SF
1
= SF
2

For rectangular channels, often expressed as per unit width:


q B
gA
B y
y q B
gA
B y
y
2 2
1
1 1
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
+ = +
Specific force per unit width:

q
gy
y q
gy
y
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = +
Applied to a Hydraulic Jump in Rectangular Channel:






q
gy
y q
gy
y
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = +

Specific Force 1 = Specific Force 2

y
1

y
2


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If q and y
1
are known, then y
2
can be calculated. i.e. K
2
y
gy
q
2
1
1
2
= +
K
q
gy
y
= +
2
2
2
2
2
Ky
q
g
y
2
2
2
3
2
= +
0 5 0
2
3
2
2
. y Ky
q
g
− + = Solve by trial and error or Newton-Raphson










RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW- FORCE MOMENTUM METHOD:

Significant energy losses over short distances. Apply Newton 2
nd
law i.e. Net force = rate of change of
momentum.

PER UNIT CHANNEL WIDTH



y
Specific
Energy (E)
y
Specific
Force (SF)
∆E
y
2

y
1


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(i) Forces
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
ρ ρ τ θ gy gy pdx mgSin − + −
consider slope horizontal mgSinθ = 0
Bed friction small τ = 0

(ii) Rate of change of momentum (per unit channel width)
m
dV
dt
q V V = − ρ ( )
1 2

(iii)
1
2
1 1
2
2
1
2
1 2
2
1 2
ρ ρ ρ g y y q V V q
y y
( ) ( ) ( ) − = − = −
g
y y y y q y y y y
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 1 2
( )( ) ( ) / − + = −

2
2
1
2
2 1 1 2 2 1
2
y y y y ) y y )( y y (
g
q 2
+ = + =
(iv) Assume q and y
1
are known, then solve for y
2

y y y y
q
g
1 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
0 + + =
ay by c
2
2
2
0 + + =

y
1

y
2

F
1

F2=1/2ρg y
2
2

ρg y
1

ρg y
2

Body
Weight
τ
dx

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∴ y
b b ac
a
y y y q g
y
2
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
4
2
8
2
=
− ± −
=
− + + /

(v) y
y y q gy
y
y y q gy
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
3
1
1 1
2
1
3
1 8
2
1 8
2
=
− + +
=
− + + / /


or
( )
y
y
V
gy
Fr
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
8
1
1
2
1 8 1 = +
|
\

|
¹
| −

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
= + −

¸

(
¸
(







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HYDRAULIC JUMP EQUATIONS AND
ENERGY DISSIPATORS:


Practical applications of the hydraulic jump are many; it is used
(1) to dissipate energy in water flowing over dams, weirs, and other hydraulic structures and thus prevent
scouring downstream from the structures
(2) to recover head or raise the water level on the downstream side of a measuring flume and thus maintain
high water level in the channel for irrigation or other water-distribution purposes;
(3) to increase weight on an apron and thus reduce uplift pressure under a masonry structure by raising the
water depth on the apron;
(4) to increase the discharge of a sluice by holding back tailwater, since the effective head will be reduced if
the tail water is allowed to drown the jump;
(5) to remove air pockets from water-supply lines and thus prevent air locking


JUMP IN HORIZONTAL RECTANGULAR CHANNELS:

For supercritical flow in a horizontal rectangular channel, the energy of flow is dissipated through frictional
resistance along the channel resulting in a decrease in velocity and an increase in depth in the direction of flow.
A hydraulic jump will form in the channel if the Froude number Fr
1
, of the flow, the flow depth y
1
, and a
downstream depth y
2
satisfy the equation:

( ) [ ] 1 Fr 8 1
2
1
y
y
2
1
1
2
− + =


This is known as the Belanger
equation.

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This equation may be represented by the curve in Fig. 1. This curve has been verified satisfactorily with many
experimental data and will be found very useful in the analysis and design for hydraulic jumps.



Fig 1. Relation between F
1
and y
2
/y
1
for a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel.


TYPES OF JUMP

Hydraulic jumps on horizontal floor are of several distinct types. According to the studies of the U.S. Bureau of
Reclamation, these types can be conveniently classified according to the Froude number Fr
1
of the incoming flow
(Fig. 2), as follows:

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For Fr
1
= 1, the flow is critical, and hence no jump can form.
For Fr
1
= 1 to 1.7, the water surface shows undulations, and the jump is called an undular jump.
For Fr
1
= 1.7 to 2.5, a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump, but the downstream water surface
remains smooth. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform, and the energy loss is low. This jump may be called a
weak jump.
For Fr
1
= 2.5 to 4.5, there is an oscillating jet entering the jump bottom to surface and back again with no
periodicity. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period which, very commonly in canals, can travel
for miles doing unlimited damage to earth banks and ripraps. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.
For Fr
1
= 4.5 to 9.0, the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the high-velocity jet
tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. The action and position of this jump are
least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. The jump is well-balanced and the performance is at its best. The
energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. This jump may be called a steady jump.
For Fr
1
= 9.0 and larger, the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the
jump, generating waves downstream, and a rough surface can prevail. The jump action is rough but effective
since the energy dissipation may reach 85%. This jump may be called a strong jump.
It should be noted that the ranges of the Froude number given above for the various types of jump are not clear-
cut but overlap to a certain extent depending on local conditions.


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Fig 2. Various types of hydraulic jump.


BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JUMP:

Several basic characteristics of the hydraulic jump in horizontal rectangular channels are to be discussed below:

Energy Loss

The loss of energy in the jump is equal to the difference in specific energies before and after the jump. It can be
shown that the loss is

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2 1
3
1 2
y y 4
) y y (
2 E 1 E E

= − = ∆
The ratio ∆E/E
1
is known as the relative loss.

Efficiency

The ratio of the specific energy after the jump to that before the jump is defined as the efficiency of the jump. It
can be shown that the efficiency is

) Fr 2 ( Fr 8
1 Fr 4 ) 1 Fr 8 (
E
E
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
2
+
+ − +
=

This equation indicates that the efficiency of a jump is a dimensionless function, depending only on the Froude
number of the approaching flow.
The relative loss is equal to (1 - E
2
/E
1
); this also is a dimensionless function of Fr
1
.

Height of Jump

The difference between the depths after and before the jump is the height of the jump, or h
j
= y
2
- y
1
. Expressing
each term as a ratio with respect to the initial specific energy,
1
1
1
2
1
j
E
y
E
y
E
h
− =

where
1
j
E
h
, is the relative height,
1
1
E
y
is the relative initial depth, and
1
2
E
y
, is the, relative sequent depth. All
these ratios can be shown, to be dimensionless functions of Fr
1
. For example:

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2 Fr
3 Fr 8 1
E
h
2
1
2
1
1
j
+
− +
=


Fig 3. Characteristic curves of hydraulic jumps in horizontal rectangular channels.

Since the relative, loss, efficiency, relative height, and relative initial and sequent depths of a hydraulic jump in a
horizontal rectangular channel are functions of Fr
1
, they can be plotted against Fr
1
resulting in a set of
characteristic curves (Fig. 3). With reference to these curves, the following interesting features may be noted:
• The maximum relative height hj/E
1
is 0.507, which occurs at Fr
1
= 2.77.

• 2. The maximum relative depth y
2
/E, is 0.8, which occurs at y
1
/E
1
= 0.4 and Fr
1
= 1.73.
• Experiments have shown that the transition from an undular jump to a direct jump takes place
approximately at this point Fr
1
=1.73.

• When Fr
1
= 1, the flow is critical and y
1
= y
2
= 2/3E
1
.


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• When Fr
1
increases, the changes in all characteristic ratios become gradual.

The characteristic curves will provide the designer with a general idea about the range of conditions under which
the structure is to be operated. For instance, in the design of a sluice gate involving a jump below the gate, such
curves will show clearly the formation of the jump for different gate openings under a given head. The above
discussion applies to horizontal rectangular channels. For horizontal nonrectangular channels, similar curves may
also be prepared.

Length of Jump
The length of a jump may be defined as the distance measured from the front face of the jump to a point on the
surface immediately downstream from the roller. This length cannot be determined easily by theory, but it has
been investigated experimentally by many hydraulicians.
The experimental data on length of jump can be plotted conveniently with the Froude number Fr
1
, against a
dimensionless ratio L/(y
2
-y
1
), L/y
1,
or L/y
2
. The plot of Fr
1
, vs. L/y
1
, is probably the best, for the resulting curve can
be best defined by the data. For practical purposes, however, the plot of Fr
1
, vs. L/y
2
is desirable, because the
resulting curve shows regularity or a fairly flat portion for the range of well established jumps.
A curve of Fr
1
, vs. L/y
2
, (Fig. 4) based on the experimental data of six test flumes has been prepared by the
Bureau of Reclamation. The curve shown in Fig. 4 was developed primarily for jumps occurring in rectangular
channels. In the absence of adequate data, this curve may also be applied approximately to jumps formed in
trapezoidal channels.

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Fig 4. Length
in terms of sequent depth y
2
of jumps in horizontal channels.
(Based on data and recommendations of U.S. Bureau of Reclamation).

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LOCATING THE HYDRAULIC JUMP
Occurs when open channel flow goes from supercritical to subcritical flow through critical depth.
• Cannot use energy principle.

• Need to use force momentum on a control volume.

• Ignoring body weight and bed friction, including hydrostatic forces only.

• Per unit width
) V V ( q gy
2
1
gy
2
1
2 1
2
1
2
2
− = − ρ ρ ρ
)
y
q
y
q
(
g
q
)
2
y
2
y
(
2 1
2
1
2
2
− = −
q
gy
y q
gy
y
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = + =Specific force/unit width
• Jump forms when equal specific forces exist either side of jump.


(6) Simpler case when y
2
(jump) equals normal depth y
n
downstream e.g. flow under a sluice gate.
• y
n
can be calculated using Manning's Equation
• use
q
gy
y q
gy
y
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = + and find y
1
by trial& error
• Use Direct Step Method, GVF profiles yg to y
1
to find ∆x.

(7) More complex case where y2 >y
n

• Calculate both GVF profiles separately
dx
θ
mg Sinθ
τo Pdx
P
1

P
2

V
1
V
2

y
2
=y
n

Sluice
y
g
y
1

∆x

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• Calculate specific forces for both profiles + Plot
on graph




(8) Consider jump drowning back SF
2
>SF
1
Jump moves upstream
SF
1
>SF
2
Jump moves downstream

Example:

There is a hydraulic jump downstream of a sluice gate (see below). The flow discharge is 12m
3
/s. The channel is
rectangular, 7m wide, and has a horizontal slope. The water surface profiles for H
3
, and H
2
are given below. Find
length and position of the jump.










Sluice
y
g

H
2

∆x
y
cr

H
3

S
o
=0
Sluice
0.2m
H
2

∆x
y
cr

H
3

S
o
=0
Profile H
3

Dist. From Weir (m) 0 1 2 2.5
y(m) 0.2 0.3 0.44 0.56


Profile H
2

Dist. From Weir (m) 1 2 3 4
y(m) 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88


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Calculate specific forces for both profiles:
Specfic force/Unit width=
2
y
gy
q
2 2
+ e.g. for y=0.3 SF=
2
3 . 0
) 3 . 0 )( 81 . 9 (
) 7 / 12 (
2 2
+ =1.044









The depth in which the specific forces are equal is y
1
=0.44m. This depth, y
1
, occurs at 2m from weir.
Froude Number, 87 . 1
44 . 0 81 . 9
1
7 44 . 0
12
gy
A / Q
F
1
1
=
×
×
= =
From plot of F
1
versus L/y
2
:
L/y
2
=4.2 L=4.2×0.95 ≈ 4m (Length of the jump)





Profile H
3

Dist. From Weir (m) 0 1 2 2.5
y(m) 0.2 0.3 0.44 0.56

Profile H
2

Dist. From Weir (m) 1 2 3 4 6 7.5
y(m) 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.78 0.68

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HYDRAULIC JUMP TUTORIAL
1. A very wide rectangular channel with Manning’s n value of 0.0159 has a steep slope of 1/40 followed by
a horizontal reach 133 m long, terminating in a vertical drop. If the critical depth at this drop is 1 m,
determine whether the jump will form upstream or downstream of the change in slope. Use depth
increments of 0.2 m in any numerical integration.
Ans. Depth at end of H2 profile = 1.4 m, Jump forms downstream.

2. Write down an expression for the rate of change of depth of steady non-uniform flow in a long prismatic
channel and deduce what simplifications follow from the assumption of (a) a rectangular cross-section
and (b) a very wide cross-section.

A very wide rectangular channel carries a discharge per unit breadth of 2.5m3/sec/m with a normal depth
of 1.5 m. The slope of the bed is 1 in 1000. An underflow sluice gate maintains an upstream head of 5.5
m and the breadth of the piers may be ignored. Show that a hydraulic jump will occur, and determine its
position assuming the value of Manning’s ‘n’ to remain constant. (Use depth increments of approx. 0.1 m
in any numerical integration, Neglect losses through the gate).

Ans. Jump forms 21 m downstream.

3. A channel 3 m wide with vertical sides has a uniform slope of 1 in 1600 and a Manning’s n value of
0.013. If the depth of flow in a long uniform reach is 1 m calculate the discharge. Streamlined screens
with an effective area of 60% are to be introduced into the channel about midway along its length.
Determine whether or not the screens form a control section and if so find the depth of flow 640 m
upstream. (Use depth increments of 0.1 in). Indicate what form the surface profile is likely to take
downstream of the screens.

Ans. Screens form control, depth = 1.04 m.

4. A broad rectangular channel carries 1 m
3
/sec/m width at a normal depth of 1.5 m. A pipe 0.5 m diameter
spans across the channel resting on the channel bed. Assuming all the losses to be concentrated at the
downstream side of the pipe and a hydrostatic pressure distribution throughout, find the average velocity
at the pipe and the depth upstream of the pipe.
Ans. Depth at pipe = 1.475 m. Vel. = 1.025 m/s U/s depth = 1.50 m.