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# Friction Factors for Pipe .

Flow
BY LEWIS F. MOODY, 1 PRINCETON, N. J.
The object of this páper is to furnish the engineer with a simple means of estimating the friction factors to be used in computing the loss of head in clean new pipes and in closed conduits runuing full with steady flow. The modern develop:ments in the application of theoretical hydrodynamics to the fluid-fr:ictjon problem are impressive and¡r scattered through an extensiva literatare. This paper is not intended as a critica! snrvey of this wide field. .For a concisa review, Professor Bakhineteff's (1) 2 sman book on the :mechanics of fluid flow is an excellent reference. Prandtl and Tietjeris (2} and Rouse (3) have also made notable contributions to the subject.. The author does not clabn to offer anything particularly new or original, his abn merely being to embody the now accepted conclusions in convenient form for engineering use.

I

N the_ present pipe-.flow study, the friction factor, ·denoted by fin.the accompanying charts,.is the coefficient in the Darcy formula . LV2

=fv 2g

in which h1i¡;¡ the loss of head in friction, in Jeet of fluid column of the fluid flowing ¡ L and D the lengtli and interna! diameter of t pe:-in-feet¡ V.the mean velocity of flow in feet per second; and g the acceleration of gravity in feet pei.: second per second (mean value taken as.32.16). The factor jis .a dimensionless quantity, and at ordinary velocities is a function of tw'o, and only two, other dimensionless quantities, the relative rougluiess of the surface, - (e being a linear quantity in: feet representativa of the
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with n.umerical constants for the case of perfectly smooth pipes or those in which the irregularities are small compared to the thickness of the laminar boundary !ayer, and for the case of rough pipes where the roughnelises protrude sufficiently t() break up the laminar !ayer, and the flow becoines completely turbulent. The analysis did not, however, cover the entire field but left a gap, namely; the transition zone between smooth and rough pipes, the region of incompleta turbulence. Attempts to fill this gap by the use of.Nikuradse's resulta for artificial roughness produced by closely packed sand grains, were nat adequate, since the re-: sults were clearJy at variance fróm actual experience for ordinary surfaces encountered in practice. Nikuradse's curves showed a sharp drop followed by a. peculiar reverse curve, 3 not observed with commercial surfaces, and nowhere suggested by the Pigott chart based on many tests. Recently Colebrook (11), in collaboration with C. M. White; developed a function which. gives a practica!· form. of traruiition curve to bridge the gap. This function agrees with the two extremes of roughness and gives values ih very satisfactory agreement with actual measureinents on most forros of commercial piping and usual pipe surfaces. Rouse (12)·has sho-wn that it is a. reasonable and practically adequate solution and has plotted a chart. based. upon it. In arder to .simplify the plotting, Rouse adopted co-ordin tes inconvenient for ordinary engineering use, since f is implicit in both co-ordinates, and R values are representad by curved co-ordinates, so that interpolation is ttouble-: sorne. .The author has drawn up a new chart, Fig. 1, in the more conventional form used by Pigott, taking advantage of the functional relationships established in recent years. Curves af J versus R are plotted to logaritpmic scales far vario'us const11.nt values afrelahlve roughness ; and to permit easy selection of ' an accompanying chart, Fig. 2, is given from whichi canpe read for any size.of pipe of a given type of surface. In arder to find the frlction loss ·in a pipe, the procedure is as follows: Find the appropriate

absoluta roughness), and the Reynolds number R = VD (v being " . . the- coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid in. square feet per second).. Fig. 1gives numerical values. off as a function of and

R:

Ten years ago R. J. S.. Pigott (4) published a chart for the s e · ,friction factor, usÍng the same co-ordinates as in 'Fig. 1 of this paper. His chart has proved to be, Ínost useful and practica! .a d has been reproduced in .a nn.mb r of texts (5). The Pigott chart was based upon án an ysis of some 10,000 experimenta from various sources (6), but did nat havé the benefit, in plotting or fairing the curves, of later developments in functionalforms of the curves. , · In the same year Nikuiadse (7) published his experimenta on artificially roughened pipes. Based upon the tests of Nikuradse and others, von Kármán · (8) and Prandtl (9) developed their theoretical analyses of pipe flow and gave us suitable formulas
1 Professor, Hydraulic Engineering, Princeton Univeraity. Mem. A.S;M.E. • Numbers in parentheses refer to the Bibliography at the end of the papar. · Oontributed by the Hydraulic Diviaion and presentad at the Selni-Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 19-22, 1944, of THE

De

from Fig. 2, then follow the

corresponding line, thus identified, in Fig. 1, to the value of the Reynolds nutnber R corresponding to the velocity af flow. The factor f is thus faund, for use in the Darcy formula LV2

=fv 2g

.AMlDRIOAN 8oCIETY OF MECHANIOAL ENGINEERS.

NoTE: Statements and opinions advanced in papera are to be understood as individual expressions of their authors and not those of the Society. ·

In Fig. 2, the scales at the top and bottom give values of the diameter in both feet and inchés. Fig. 1involv.es anly dimensionless quantities and is applicable in any system of units. To facilitate the calculation of R, auxiliary scales are shown at the top of Fig. 1, giving values of the product (VD") for two fluids, i.e., water and atmospheric air, at 60 F. (D" is the inside diameter in inches.) As a further auxiliary,.Fig..3 is given, from which R can be quickly foui:td for water at ordinary temperaturas, for any size of pipe and mean velocity V. Dashed liD.es on this chart have been added giving values of .the discharge or quantity of fluid flowing, Q = A V, expressed in both ·cubic feet per second and in U. S. gallons per minute.
• Reuse, reference (3), p. 250; and Powell, referen,ce (10), p. 174.

671

''f-.00. .oca 10. • . 1 as.01 - o 2. 0: :: ..¡.02 . lllllll.004 z :I: C) f3 o z lll . ['-.001 -..• .008 .05 •oo 3 • . ' .. .002 o 0::: w > ::> .006 ...000... • . -.0001 tn > M'K .000. 1 1 .0002 .015 ·01 wlc ..0004 .06 L L I . 0• · •<oo'l 3.o.04 IIBBlEJlliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiJIII 1111111111111111111111111 .O) t:3 . lll. •oo'•• • • • 10• z .0008 .llllllllllllllllllllllfiiiiiiiiii-WWft _. (/) ll z > a :j 1 ...05 .J .

--·· ..-----·...··-...e .. 2 3 ·· IN FT.Oo O.¡:.J }d ·. =----. •':'r:-.. -· e: ) --. c . e : (V IN•• < . .::::·_:·::::. ..¡ ..=-====? --·-- : FIG......:...)-_ ........REYNOLDS NUMeER R. -· · · !]_.. V IN 5 .-• •...2-. i.... ---·-·-··". t?.:.. _: JOS . .j td y ... D'""..·-------·-· . .------- fi' _..

. ·4 includes an auxiliary diagram constructed by Dr. .06 1'\!a .04 .ooops ooop4 ..!' ._ !"\ )\. in the right-hand margin of Fig.0005 z . the correspo:ilding R may be read at the top of the auxiliary graph. 60 .000...QQ03 (!) " .<1>!'- :::1 ID 0:: . . For other :fiuids. ·.002 RV "' IEL '" 1" ...03 .:< '1'\. J'>)< a. Prof.. i'\ . " '\ 0:: o .. .¡ '\ PIPE DIAMETE IN INC:8ES 0 FIG.016 .'\ . 1 2 .2.OOOP()B .012 "r-.000... Datigherty's kind permissiorÍ has been reproduced. .4.008 1 .. Fig..07 .5 .¡ o :"\. ·f'\.0002 '1'\.·· > ·!.. by following a horizóntalline to the appropriate diagonal at the right.l'\. ' LLI ' K. 4 . 6" z UJ .000. "'f\ 1'- .il . • Reference (13) andreference (5). .. Wislicerius..t.004 . R.. :::1 ..For any value of v in the lefthand diagraÍn.009 .03 '\ 1'. .J :ooo.f\ ft 0:: 8 ·""'. From the last coiisideration. 20 3040 o 11 80 IOQ · ..01 1.02 ..06 1'.J . 673 PIPE.OOOP2 • " Kr'\ l'\.005 l'\l" . O :os . . 1?. 1'.025 (!) :::1 1'\. . 1<1: 1"\: a: J: ... .01 <+-:- ':090.-. 1' .003 . 1"' o 1" 1'\.1 .01 . which with. 2.. 1-.j is independent of R.018 U J ffi "['.cient. DIAMETER IN FEET.¡) - 2 4 51¡) 1) 20 5 .006 . an approximate figure for R is suffi. 200 300 ·.05 . 1"\.03 "'1'\ '\:b.6' U) !'\.035 . To enable R to be qirickly found for various :fiuids. . UJ ...0001 " 1 " f'. F.ooopos 3 4 'q6 810 .. and in the rough-pipe zone.. complete turbulence.. .0006 . G. L.MOODY FRICTION FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW.3 . ¡.o8 . . · · /Over a large part of Fig. / . the ldnematic viscosity v may be found from Fig.['\ .02 .008 1'\. which gives R for various values of the product VD" shown by the diagonallines.04 .014 ·tii· . . :::1 1LLI N r. tAl'\ "'/ 1' "' 1'\.s 1'\. 2.1'\ '"\. since f varíes only slowly with changes in R.005 .0004 J: ·..· N& )'. it becomes ppssible to show. values of f for rough pipes and....4 ..

3. for 6 in. 2.TION oF UsE oF CarnTs Fig. diam (left-hand margin). for 6 in. the diagonal for V = 6 fps gives R = 2. 1. · Example 1: To estimate the lo. jnstead ofusing Fig. In lLLusTRA. diam (bottom. In Fig. 3. compute VD" = 6 X 6 = 36).s of head in 200 ft of 6-in. the diagonal for "asphalted cast iron" gives e D = 0.shed line in Fig.5 (10') (bottom scal!ll) {or.' asphalted cast-iron pipe carrying water with a mean velocity of 6 fps: In Fig.If it is seen that the conditions of any problem clearly fall in th zone of conwlete turbulence abo've and to the right of the dá.0008 (left-hand margin). 2 will give the valúe off directly withoút Jurther reference to t. 1.scale). Iooate from the right- .he other qharts. then Fig.

The lines in Fig. . '· 1 Example 2: To estimate the lo s of head per 100 ft in a 15-in... Between Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3000 or 4000. top scale) gives f = 2 (106) (bottom scale) (or below VD 0.6850 vo·) '. region of "complete turbulence. engineering problems rarcly require more than this.0006 and 0. . In this case the point on Fig. the diagonal for V =· 20 fps gives R = 2 (10 6). representing the Hagen-Poiseuille law. = 300). The values off are here g ¡. (or.6 o.5 1 0. obstructions.ow. • • 11. With smooth tubing. ) 64 _3' = 4. 9ft friction loss It must be recognized that any high degree of accuracy. and obvious essential. a variation within about ==10 per cent.i. .5 ). corner prior to the reach of ·pipe cohsidered.. in old piping. NOVEMBER. off cannot be relied upon within a range of the arder of at least 10 per cent.DS NUMBER R= v. InFig.95 or.216(10.curve for D = 0. 5::!! o <( /' í7 1/ o. since the rapidity of deterioration with age. D IN FEET.v mg e curve.. by aid of the charts. The scale of the absolute roughness e used in plotting the charts is arbitrary.1 8 17- :E 6 5 4 3 1/ IY.M.S.. 1' 2 1 d· d 2 3 4 56 8 - 2 3 4 56 8 d ' 2 3 4 56 8 2 3 4 56 8.1 30 ' 1 IX . but.lanically. and naturally this' leaves much latitude. V =1. 2. The field covered by Fig. can only be guessed in most cases. the values. dependent upon the quality of the water or fluid and that of the pipe material. 1 falls just on the bqundary of the. compute.. up to the critica! Reynolds number of 2000.l 0. 2 without further reference to Fig. and. VD" = 20 X 15 D - . ! = R' independent of rotighness. TRANSACTIONS OF THE A. R. find the absoluta roughness corresponding to its performance. however. = 0. the . instead of using Fig.018 (left-hand margin). then from a test of such a pipe in any size we can.· o 4 3 fg 20 '1 1 1 lól b'lKl n. in the transition and rough-pipe regions.30 ' ' -u.E. the di!J.::u 5 Q ' ' ' ' ' X ' ' :_o. This point gives f = (). 1divides itself into four areas repre senting distinct fl. 1. 3..2 Ql5 r. It will be noted from the charts that a wide variation in estimating the roughness affects f to a much smaller degree. 2 might be more graphically represe ted by broad bands rather than single linea. 1 111> 1'1\ lili) 2 1. 2 3 '4 56 8 ¡". Even with this handicap.0007 (interpolating between e 0. making an estímate of performance speculative.8 . diam (botto:m scale). and in addition to the variation in roughness there may be.02 (O. in de termining f is not to be expected.ow characteristics. - LX / 1)< -o.ow is fully · stabilized under the control of viscous forces which damp out turbulence. the conditions depend upon the initial turbtilence due to sU:ch extraneous factors as sudden changes in section.25) 64:3 L V2 · (lOO) (20)2 = 8. then h¡ = J:v 2g = 0. this is not practica! due to overlapping. Pntil such a technique is developed.. Thus we have a means for measuring the -roughness hydraulically. good degrees of accuracy are obtainable.s· FOR WATER AT 60°F (V FIG: 3 IN S . Although we have no accepted method of direct measurement of the roughness.018 (1. a technique for measuring the roughness of a pipe mecl. for the reasons just explained.gonal for "cast iron" gives = 0. In the rough-pipe region. it is tru'e.. w· 1- 10 11. right-hand margin). and f can then be found directly from the right-hand margin in Fig. a probable variation in/ ·within about ='=5 per cent (14)..l 7 REYNOI. But.t.diam (left-hand margin). permitting a completely rational ' 'en y a s· solution. --v. 0::: a:: -. The charts apply only to new and clean piping. o "' 7oJ =o ::I: 60 50 u)40 11.4<( ' l. In Fig. we 300 200 100 80 '25 -. an appreciable reduction in effective diameter. we Jack the primary .5 (106) on the bottom scale (or below VD" = 36 on the top scale).0008.0007 (left-hand margin).-for 15 in._ edged entrance. 1 . fairly reasonable estimates of friction loss can be made. new cast-iron pipe.0008 and follow this curve to a point above R = 2.fortunately. at. 1. and for commercial steel and wrought-iron piping. LLI - '. based · upon the sand-grain diameters of Nikuradse's experimenta.674 e . or a sharp. a point above R = 1 ' = 300. 3. The first is the region of laminar fl.5 ft frictwn loss 2 5 have to get along with descriptiva terms to specify the roughness. 1944 hand margin the curve for D = 0. then · L V2 h¡ =f D (200) (6) 2 . say." Here R or VD' need only he approximated sufficiently to see that the point falls in the complete turbulence region. rough pipes.02 (left-hand margin). for l5 in. in any case where we have a sample of pipe of the same surface 'texture available for test in the laboratory or in the field. carrying water With a mean velocity of 20 fps: In Fig. Here the fl. .

t 0 (/)1. '\..1\ 1... " t fk """.•"''o '\ "''\ REYNOLDS NUMBER R 2""._ 2"" '\ ·"'- ..OCXJJ r-- . . i""- " '"\.: · """ '\ • '\ 1". 1""""\. "'\ '\.. """' "-..'"\. "\. · 6 4 :. -"''"\. '\ . " "\1 . '"\. .. 'l._ "\. """' '\. '\ ITI o .. "''\ . ..o...il> '&> 4 -+-.'N. .. ..Óooa ro · .." """' ""' ""' (l't <' """' ""' ""' 0.... "'"\.. "'""" 1"'- " 1"'. ""- '""- "''\ ""- " '"\.: t:S"-:-.""" '\.. """"\. ""' """' ""' ""' """' ""' ""' ""' '" " < \ "-e · ."'\ 1 ThJl l" '-%' J oJ 1\ / ."".. ·\ \\1\ \ Ri \ \ \ \ ·\ V. _&. "\. " '\ " '\ . "\.oooo 6 l -""" 1 l"'i-J' '"\.. s"' """ "\. . ·r.. - '\ '\.0002 § .._ ?. l{o'-\ufo ·\'P 1.ooo1 8 _· r'--. 1"- ' 1"- - :e rn (') t-1 o .. q z z e_ < a H o f-3 ·< z a f-3 z :-1 X a ª rn ¡:o o 1¡:1 :.\. """"\.' 1"\.pr.. '\.: " '\ 1"-.o o6 s t='§' ""' ""'\ ""' ""' " '\ ''\ "" ""''\ ''h_. 1""- "'\ '\.A * 0o 00 ·0 o. """_:-. o "< . '\ " " -"''\ '\..""" '\.: """ ""- ""- b.: """ "\. D{ 11 '\ "\ . """' . """' '\ \\' \\ 1\ . "\.. \'ª-' 1\\ \ 1 '3· \\ ... . '\_ "\.i".0. 1"' . 1"" '\ l_"" 1"'\ """ '\ '\ ' '\.'. 1 ' l. '"" '\ """ "\.U. ""' ' '\. " "\."\.t '"\.. -: r-::..•:f. t>. e ""' ._.1 Y !"'..1"'""" "" '. "b \ \ !.. '\ """ "\. Ot.. O. \0· . . .·. \ '\_ "\._ 1 """' 1 i' """' ._.( • '> 'J-· «- ""- '\. .. " '..: '\ "" .. · · t. '\ '\ '\ '\ '\ '"\. '"\.1 .F' 2 ' (o.0004 .. ' '\ '\ .:. .1 "'""- "d o K'bo 0 0o l_"" ""- G '\ o. "'. """ '\.J111 .r1-++- ""- 1"- :""- ""- '\.' """ 1"" '\ " 1 ""'' """' '\ . q *.- -· \" '\ '\_ "\. .: ""- 1"" '\ 1 """' ... """'. 'l 1 .. " '\.' " 1 1\ lW o¡o· ·<'G. """ "\._ ""''\ '..e. """'. '\ """"\.\ \o. " ""' " 1'\. RJ l\ '"ttk:!1Z.""-. en o E o 1-<'j tj """"\... "'.t \\1 _ 1& 1 "'- J l & 1 <Ji \ .. "! \ -._ ·"""' " 1 '"\.

-- ---- .r--- .• ¡.- l -+ 4.."-..-T1 . '\ ..+----. '\ \ -."-.. ... --.....---.+r+.'. . -.."-.--. --.+++- . --..

2 45 J -+-4-+ YH1--"'•ol' '\1' ' '\ ' . ' +-_¿ ' ' -.--_¿ r+ ' . "\._ ' ' ' -1 "\.

4 o•• IN INCHES) C> 61 ..000001 JO w VALUES OF {VD") (V IN::c.0. X Fra.

Consequently. Mechanical Engineering.1 0.011 0.section. far from circular in shape.. Fig.estimated as of . · 8 "Mechanische ." by E." by R. and casts particular doubt on accepted formulas for open-channel friction in the critica! or shooting-fiow regions. no. Prinqeton.001 0. 5. for which 'a formula such as Manning's better representa the available information. N.002 0." by Th.FOR PIPE FLOW small diameter. we should replace it by a new criterion. 5 "Hydraulics. Buriarie and i oint O.. the Fraude number relating the velocity head and ·depth." by R. With Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between theSn:iooth and Rough Pipe Laws. even when the·fiow is unifor'm. Y. 58-76. J. W. · · 11 "Turbulent Flow in Pipes.the arder of 0.02 0. Bakh. New York. A. The Chezy formula is equivalent to the Darcy formula for pipes.M. the problem is highly complex. 016 Prominent form ma..u Gottingen.01 0.. pp.ct1 y e divided by the surface breadth." Tech. Rouse.'' by H. 1 is not reco=ended with much con:fidence for general application to open channels. 611.0005 0.014 0. vol. England).. in which o denotes t e average dep h or . 1936. Inc. Engineering Societies Mó'nographs. 1940. 'joints or rqughly troweled O.A. .013 0. ("Mechanical Similitude and Turbulence. N. 497-501.. Pigott. PIPE FRICTION FACTORS APPLIED TO 0PEN-ÜHANNEL FLOW 677 D = 4m = 4 ( Sectional area ) . Princeton University Press.. Y.such formulas as Manuing's are recommended for open channels in preference to the use of . however. we can drop the Reynolds number as an index of performance. eventhe smaJl absolute roughness is suffi. 1930. 1933. S. McGraw-Hill Book. pp.. pp. Fachgruppe 1.. 2gm 1 vg m BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 "The Mechanics of Turbulent Flow... 10 "Mechanics of Liquids. at least as an approxiiDation. Daugherty.. 2 for·concrete may be somewhat more definitely described.rks or deposita of atonas on bottom e vertible futo f by the relation f = -' It should be considerad.'' by R. or similar tubing. F. N. S the slop . N.. Company. 1933. Mero. 6 '·'A Study of the Data on the Flow of Fluid in.rks." or critica! state. paper Hyd-55-2. 1937... 0.nning roughness factor n.'' by L. vol. Princeton University. Oolebrook. if we could correlate e and n. 55.) . . E was . 014 Concrete surface with alight form ma. This proposed criterion defines whether the fiow falls in the "tranquil.03 n O. 55. and a line corresponding to this value has been drawn in Fig. Rou e. Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenim1re. in similar manner to the plotting off as a function of the relative roughness and the Reynolds number for closed conduits. on the basis of Scobey's data the lines given in Fig.MOODY-:-FRICTION FACTORS . pp.E.and M¡¡. The Macrñillan Company.Pipes. J. so that the friction factors are practically indepimdent of Reynolds number. 4 "The Flow of Fluida in Closed Conduits.000005. V. the Cliezy coefficient being con- Accordingly. Engineering Societies Monographs. whieh can be expressed as V2 or _ V . for the smocithest surfaces reported upon.. The neglect of this factor may at least partially accourit for inconsistencias ·between various open-channel formulas. Forschungsheft 361. the latter forro representing the · ratio of mean velocity to the gravitational critica! velocity or velocity of propagation of surface waves. 1931. P. 0115 {Highest practica! grade of concrete. no. 1933." ·by J. but by applying the Colebrook function to the available data_ (14. copper. 2. and the tubing becomes in effect a "rough pipe. and e a coefficient. 1933.015 0. · 9 "Neuere Ergebnisse der Turbulenzforschung. · 2 "Applied Hydro. N. by using ab equivalent diameter ' voo v_. Mathematik. Trans. A.. however. 7-32. Proceedo Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. . sectional area .surfaced and of large cross section. ' . Y. These considerations suggest the plotting of openchannel friction factors as a function of the relative roughness and the Fraude number. G.''-by B. 77. 15). so that.03 Pipe friction factors have sometimes been applied to openchannel fiow. that the Chezy coefficients have'been derived principally from observations on relatively wide and ·shaJlow channels of large area and rough bottoms. pp. 0. or more stn. and more commonly the friction losses in large pipes and other closedf conduits have been computed from openchannel formulas." by L. with surf ce waves or disturbances. For the foregoing reasons. Panagos 6 · has applied the Colebrook function to the test data collected by Scobey (16) and finds the following values of e correspondiríg to the Kutter n ratings given by Scobey. 133-156. Berlin.. NewYork.cient to brea}!: up the laminar boundary !ayer. 7 "Stromungsgesetze in Rauhen Rohren.003 0. and that they involv a free water surface not present in closed conduits.105-114. it would be helpful in selecting a value of e for such variable surfaces as concrete. fairly smooth.012 0. 1938-1939.and Aeromechanics.'ll.A:C. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Journal o/ the Institution of Civil Enuineers (London. 1934. The charts can however be•applied. Kemler.. Open channels dealt with in engineering practice -a:re usually rough. 0125 smooth . Y. vol." by C.. NewYork. 3 "Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic Engineers. It is therefore the author's view that while. which may be at least tentatively utilized: Kuttern .016 Absoluta roughnesse . 515. serving as a minimum limit for surfaces likely to b encountered in practice. corresponding to large Reynolds numbers and falling in the zon'e of complete turbulence. and between open-channel and pipe-Jriction formulas. . The Chezy formula for open channels is V = e-•1/mS in whil'h Vis the mean velocity." Very few experimenta have carried the velocities and Reynolds numbers high enough to permit a clase estimate of E for drawn brass. as follows: ·0. introduces a consideration not involved· in closed-conduit fiow. New York.. 1938. pp. L. van Kármán." by H. McGraw-Hill Book Company.00015 0. Powell. for open channels.. Length of perimeter· Since civil engineers usually classify surface roughness by the Kutter .DJ. O.005 0." "shooting. Inc. 1-22..values of derived from the pipe friction factors.S.." the sectionhl area divided by the wetted perimeter. 12 "Evaluation of Boundary Roughness.01. N. to noncircular closed conduits of not too eccentric a forro or not too different from a circular. Tietjens.0105 0. Prandtl. Inc.Ahnlichkeit und Trirbulenz.meteff. Nachrichten van der GBfJellschaft der Wissenschaften ¡. Nikuradse. vol. the loss of head divided by'Iength of channel. m the hydraulic mean depth or "hydraulic radius. · The presence of a free surface. Prandtl and O.