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Session objectives
• • • • • • • To establish an understanding of the terms Continuous filament Staple Micro fibre Single and plied yarns Fancy yarns Blended or mixed fibres

Staple or filament?

• Definition: • A fine continuous length of fibres or filament with or without twist. • Spinning is applied to fibres to add a twist and therefore strength. • Yarns can be produced in many ways.

• A single yarn is a continuous thread of twisted staple (cut or short length fibres) or continuous filament fibres. • The direction of twist can be anti or clockwise.

• This is known as


Twist is applied to yarns during the spinning process. It adds strength that enables the yarns to be used for knitting and weaving. The S or Z twist refers to the direction of of the twist. Z clockwise, S anti-clockwise. Woven fabrics are usually constructed from Z twist yarns in the warp and S in the weft. Light is reflected in opposite directions and the two types, enabling effects, eg stripes.

The amount of twist depends on the fabrics and use.

High twist yarns are strong and hard, making them suitable for weaving as they can withstand the . tension in the loom Low twist yarns are softer and weaker, more bulky, therefore more suitable for weft yarns and for knitting

Continuous filament
• Also known as filament yarns. • Either manufactured, e.g. polyester or polyamide. • The only natural filament is…………….

Mono or multi
• Monofilament yarn is made from a single continuous monofilament that can be many miles in length. • E.g. nylon. Fishing line, veg/ onion bags sewing threads. • apY

• Made from multiple continuous filaments of silk or manufactured fibres with or without twist.

Worsted (wool) yarns are smooth, uniform, regular, fine and lustrous as they are made from longer types of wool fibres. Worsted fabrics are smooth faced, where the colours as the yarn can be seen clearly. End use, suits, trousers and skirts.

2 ply or 3 ply
• The plying of yarns involves twisting together two or more singles or plied yarns together to make a thicker, stronger yarn. • The ply can be the same, which will improve the strength, regularity and weight or different to produce special effects…….

Fancy yarns
Are produced to give irregularities to the yarn.

Bouclé and loop yarns are ply yarns that use three sets of yarns – base or core yarn, effect yarn, and tie yarn. The effect yarn is looped around the base or core yarn and tied with a binder yarn.

Nub Knot, slub


Slub yarns can be either single or ply yarns, characterised by soft bulky areas spun at regular or irregular intervals

Spiral and corkscrew
• yarns are ply yarns in which one ply is soft and thick and the other is fine.

Textured of bulked yarn
• textured yarn a general classification for continuous filament man - made fibre yarn which have been treated to give them handle and appearance which is different from the untreated yarn and / or stretchy. These yarns in some cases exhibit spun yarn effect. The yarns may be crimped ,curled, coiled, distorted through air jet process or given a false twist and then be heat set.

Bulked yarn
• Is made by combining and blending staple fibres that have different shrinkage properties. These can be wet or heat finished to give thicker and softer yarns. • Acrylic and cotton fibres can be bulked, this shrinks the acrylic fibre and fluffs up the cotton. The result is a very inexpensive yarns that’s warm, lightweight, has a soft handle and very suitable for knitwear.

Textured yarn

• Is made from a thermoplastic yarn, e.g. polyester or nylon. • During the production process, crimps, coils or loops are heat set into the length. This add bulk and thickness, making the yarn warmer, more elasticated, more absorbent, allows for more water transportation and gives a softer handle.

Core-spun yarns

Core spun yarns definition
Are made up from multi-component yarns in which the core stays at the centre. While the other fibres are spun around it in a single spinning process. Stretch fabrics can be made from core spun yarns, with the core being the elastane filament that’s then covered with non elastic natural or manmade covering.

Strong sewing threads
Are often made with a polyester core, covered with a cotton yarn. The polyester gives high strength and the cotton covering prevents it from over heating and melting the polyester during high speed operations

Elastane filaments
• Are always sheathed or covered by another yarn as the knitting or weaving processes can’t cope with elastic yarns. • The covering filaments temporarily protect stabilise the fabric. The elasticity is restored during the finishing process. • Core spun yarns enhance fabrics, making them more comfortable to wear and more lively. • End uses can be either knitted or woven fabrics; sportswear, hosiery, dresses.