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MIGUEL YUSTE: HIS WORKS FOR CLARINET AND HIS INFLUENCE ON THE SPANISH CLARINET SCHOOL OF PLAYING IN THE

TWENTIETH CENTURY, A LECTURE RECITAL, TOGETHER WITH THREE RECITALS OF SELECTED WORKS BY BAX, MASON, KHACHATURIAN, CHAUSSON, BOZZA, BEETHOVEN, AND OTHERS Malena Rachel McLaren, B.M.E., M.M.

Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS May 2005

APPROVED: James Gillespie, Major Professor J. Michael Cooper, Minor Professor John Scott, Committee Member Graham Phipps, Director of Graduate Studies James C. Scott, Dean of the College of Music Sandra L. Terrell, Dean of the Robert B. Toulouse School of Graduate Studies

McLaren, Malena Rachel, Miguel Yuste: His Works for Clarinet and His Influence on the Spanish Clarinet School of Playing in the Twentieth Century, A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Bax, Mason, Khachaturian, Chausson, Bozza, Beethoven, and Others. Doctor of Musical Arts (Performance), May 2005, 55 pp., 33 titles. The popularity of the clarinet in Spain is second only to that of the guitar, and there is a rich tradition of clarinet playing that is accompanied by an equally rich repertoire of music for the clarinet by Spanish composers. The works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste (18701947) are among this little known repertoire. In the early twentieth century it was thought that Miguel Yuste wrote over one hundred works for clarinet. However, current research suggests that this is incorrect. What is known is that seven works for clarinet and piano have been published. Miguel Yuste and his music are pivotal in the establishment of the strong clarinet tradition for which Spain is presently known. In his thirty years as the clarinet professor at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid (1910-1940), Miguel Yuste’s music and pedagogical ideas became, and continue to be among the foundations of Spanish clarinet playing. This project discusses each published work and presents current research on the works composed for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste. After a brief history of Spain’s music and social climate in which it developed (Ch. 2), this document discusses the introduction of the clarinet in Spain, clarinet pedagogy at the Madrid Conservatory (Ch. 2), and Miguel Yuste’s influence within that pedagogy (Ch. 3). Establishing contact with living clarinetists whose music education was directly influenced by Miguel Yuste and/or his students provides invaluable insight into the traditional performance practice of the works and the extent to which Miguel Yuste influenced Spanish clarinetists in the twentieth century. Chapter 4 presents an annotated bibliography and brief discussion of the extant works for clarinet by Miguel Yuste. Each annotation includes the

title of the work, publisher, date of publication, duration, and any commercially available recordings.

ii . José Tomás Pérez. generosity in sharing information. and Enrique Pérez Piquer.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank the following clarinetists/scholars for their willingness to answer questions. and invaluable insight into Miguel Yuste’s clarinet music and his influence on Spanish clarinetists: Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín. Pedro Rubio.

. THE WORKS FOR CLARINET AND PIANO BY MIGUEL YUSTE……...... THE SPANISH CLARINET TRADITION……………………………………………....53 iii ..........17 The Zarzuela Spanish Folk Music Characteristics The Extant Works for Clarinet and Piano by Miguel Yuste 5............ 1916). STUDENT OF MIGUEL YUSTE…………………………………......TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………………………………………........10 Biography His Influence on the Spanish Clarinet School of Playing in the Twentieth Century 4.43 APPENDIX A: A CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF THE CLARINET PROFESSORS AT THE REAL CONSERVATORIO SUPERIOR DE MÚSICA DE MADRID………………………………………………………45 APPENDIX B: MIGUEL YUSTE’S SIX-YEAR COURSE OF CLARINET STUDIES AT THE REAL CONSERVATORIO SUPERIOR DE MÚSICA DE MADRID………………………………………………………………...47 APPENDIX C: NOTES FROM INTERVIEW WITH JOSÉ AVILÉS CÓRDOBA (B.. MIGUEL YUSTE…………………………………………………………………….. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………........3 A Brief History of Spain The Introduction of the Clarinet in Spain Clarinet Pedagogy at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid 3...ii Chapter 1.....1 2.51 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………..

CC 0017. In the early twentieth century it was thought that Miguel Yuste wrote over one hundred works for clarinet. op. Estudio Melodico. After a brief history of Spain’s Joan Enric Lluna. Miguel Yuste’s music and pedagogical ideas became. The works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste (1870-1947) are among this little-known repertoire. What is known is that seven works for clarinet and piano have been published. Joan Enric Lluna (Clarinet Classics. one is out of print.1 There is a rich tradition of clarinet playing that is accompanied by an equally rich repertoire of music for the clarinet by Spanish composers. In his thirty years as the clarinet professor at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid (1910-1940). 1997).CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The popularity of the clarinet in Spain is second only to that of the guitar. While relatively few of Yuste’s works are available to the general population. 8/59 were both performed in a recent recital by Mark Nuccio of the New York Philharmonic (March 11. also of the New York Philharmonic. both he and his music are pivotal in the establishment of the strong clarinet tradition for which Spain is presently known. current research suggests that this is incorrect. Pascual Martinez. Unfortunately. This project discusses each published work and presents current research on the works composed for clarinet by Miguel Yuste. recently performed two of Yuste’s works in recital at the Changchun International Clarinet and Saxophone Festival in China. and continue to be among the foundations of Spanish clarinet playing. 33 and Ingenuidad. However. 1 1 . op. Compact Disc Liner Notes for Fantasías Mediterráneas: Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. 2002 Louisiana State University). For example. Works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste are beginning to be included in recital repertoire outside of Spain.

Interviews with prominent twentieth-century Spanish clarinetists provide first-hand knowledge of Miguel Yuste’s influence on the Spanish school of clarinet playing in the twentieth century. duration. and any recordings that are commercially available. This document will also present a discussion of key structure as it relates to the form of each work and an inclusion of any misprints or performance suggestions. musical characteristics and performance practice issues is also provided when available. 2 . Each annotation includes the title of the work. 3).music and the social climate in which it developed (Ch. Each work is written for clarinet in B-flat. Pertinent information concerning each work. date of publication. Establishing contact with living clarinetists whose music education was directly influenced by Miguel Yuste and/or his students provides invaluable insight into the traditional performance practice of the available works and the extent to which Miguel Yuste influenced Spanish clarinetists in the twentieth century. 2). Chapter 4 presents an annotated bibliography and brief discussion of available works for clarinet by Miguel Yuste. this document discusses clarinet pedagogy at the Real Conservatrio and Miguel Yuste’s influence within that pedagogy (Ch. publisher. such as its dedication.

Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. anti-Romantic government of Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) created an environment of “economic and intellectual crisis” which prompted many composers and musicians to leave Spain. 19th Century: Historico-Political Background.. 2nd ed. revolutions. “Spain. I.3 The music profession suffered countless losses due to the severe lack of musical organizations and virtually no systematic music education. The anti-liberal. Outside her borders the general impression around Europe was that Spain was “musically backward. 5: Art Music.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. several fiercely individualistic regions reside within Spain’s borders. Early nineteenth-century Spain saw the Napoleonic Wars.. From the Hunter’s Bow: The History and Romance of Musical Instruments. and the Bay of Biscay to the north have provided numerous opportunities for neighboring countries to invade. this “ever-changing panorama of history” has provided a collage of cultural influence throughout Spain’s history. 1942). However. the Mediterranean to the south. Perhaps contributing to the individualism and intentional preservation of its regional traditions is Spain’s “ever-changing panorama of history. ed. Its proximity to France on its eastern border. While the official language of Spain is Castilian.CHAPTER 2 THE SPANISH CLARINET TRADITION A Brief History of Spain Spain has always had a strong sense of regional identity..”4 Beatrice Edgerly. 2001). Spain has had a consistent history of invasion and occupation. 2 3 . (New York: G. 3 Belen Perez Castillo.”2 From the Celts and Greeks to the Romans and Arabs. 24.P. 393. 29 vols. An unfortunate effect of the constant threat of invasion is extended periods of economic and political instability. Civil Wars. 128. and coup d’états. vol. Putnam’s and Sons.

4 . Spain’s first musical societies formed in the 1860s.6 A “prominent clarinetist…was Lorenzo Castronovo. 7 Julián Menéndez. 6 Albert Rice. A 3104). 58. and year of his birth. began to grow in popularity. opened in 1830. 8 B. deemed unequalled in his time according to Spanish history. 1766. Iwan Müller’s thirteen-key clarinet was adopted in Spain.” Music and Letters 64 (1983): 213. brass clarinets were introduced by José Claret and Leandro Valet. These were made by Luís Rolland of Madrid c. The Introduction of the Clarinet in Spain The clarinet was introduced to Spain by the 1770s. (New York: Oxford University Press. It is known that Antonio Romero (1815-1886). Prior to this time. “Ventas de instrumentos musicales en Madrid durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. The Clarinet in the Classical Period. which would later become a strong tradition in itself. At the 1827 Madrid Exhibition. By 1845 Antonio Romero had written 4 5 Ibid. in Spain only a few composers and certain virtuosos escaped the general degradation of the music profession.8 The earliest known Spanish-made clarinets were fivekeyed C clarinets (B-Liège. and the wind band. Spain’s first conservatory. Kenyon de Pasqual. 2003). Ibid. Little is known of Castronovo. however. This is the environment into which clarinetist. B. clarinets were imported from England. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part I. composer. outside of his birth place. 1953): 8.Compared to the exaltation of composers in the rest of nineteenth-century Europe.5 By the 1830s Spain began to emerge from the turbulent environment.” Revista de Musicologia 5 (1982): 311. but by 1833. The Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid. an important performer and later clarinet professor at the Real Conservatorio. Kenyon de Pasqual“English Square Pianos in Eighteenth-Century Madrid.”7 Beginning in 1785 instrument makers Joseph Estrella and Fernando Llop advertised clarinets in the daily newspaper.1800. Madrid. and conductor Miguel Yuste was born. Diario de Madrid. began playing on a five-key clarinet. Woodwind 5/8 (April.” translated by Enid Standring.

” as well as “facilitating the execution of various passages which were before impractical.” The Clarinet 26/3 (Sept. Romero lists the advantages that he believes his new clarinet offers. In general these advantages include: 1. Antonio Romero began to develop his own innovations to the Boehm-system clarinet. While he felt that Klosé’s clarinet offered definite improvements to Müller’s system. Romero acknowledges the more recent clarinet innovations by Hyacinthe Klosé. In his Método.”9 In addition. it was made the mandatory instrument at the Real Conservatorio where Romero was the clarinet professor. applied Boehm’s flute improvements to the clarinet in collaboration with instrument manufacturer. 9 5 . This Boehm-system clarinet was patented in 1844. arpeggios and scales. By 1853 he was ready to present his new clarinet to instrument makers. introducing a fingering chart for Müller’s clarinet. Romero discusses the advantages of the Klosé system over Müller’s system. by a Royal Order. Romero believed there was room for continued improvement in intonation and facility on the clarinet. Improved facilitation of trills. Louis Auguste Buffet. an important pedagogue at the Paris Conservatory. These advantages can be summarized as an overall improvement in “tuning and sonority. After a visit to Paris in 1851. Romero includes a fingering chart and exercises to assist in learning the Klosé system. With several mechanism changes. Despite positive feedback it wasn’t until 1862 that the Paris-based Lefévre manufacturing company agreed to build Romero’s clarinet. 2. Klosé was able to correct many problems typical of clarinets at that time. Klosé. Enrique Pérez Piquer. Always interested in improvements to the clarinet.his Método Completo para Clarinete. and in 1866. 1999): 47. “Antonio Romero y Andía: A Survey of His Life and Works. The Romero system clarinet was patented in 1862. In the 1886 third edition of the Método. Better sonority and intonation of throat-tones.

the Romero System clarinets were complicated to maintain and were. 48. Stanley Sadie. not widely adopted. While it is significant that Spain was involved in this instrumental revolution. By the time Miguel Yuste began his studies at the Real Conservatorio (1883). with Romero’s retirement. 2001).. it was difficult for clarinetists to continue to adapt to constant change. ed. therefore. Yuste 10 11 Ibid. with this new B-flat clarinet system.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 29 vols. vol. 4. Additionally. “Antonio Romero y Andía.3.”12 Antonio Romero retired from the Real Conservatorio in 1876. and his Romero System clarinet fell out of use shortly thereafter. Antonio Romero had retired and the use of the Romero System clarinet was no longer mandatory. 6 . students at the Real Conservatorio did not have time to adequately adapt to and foster the use of the Romero System clarinet. Kenyon de Pasqual.. 12 Ibid. The nineteenth century was a period of experimentation by clarinetists and instrument makers throughout Europe. Klosé’s clarinet was quite popular and was becoming the standard system for clarinets worldwide. An equality in the “strength and color”10 of all notes in the general range of the clarinet. 21:641. Meanwhile. Ibid. The lack of instrument makers in Spain and little financial support from the government. “with the aim that clarinetists won’t ever need to use the A and C clarinet because. 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishers. The addition of a low E-flat key.”11 5. contributed to its downfall. as well as the high import and export taxes. Improved mechanism so as to “avoid awkward movements of the fingers.13 Perhaps most importantly. Ltd. it is possible to play in all tonalities.. Each new system required an interruption in the learning process in order to learn a new mechanism. 13 B.

17 Ibid. the Madrid Symphony Orchestra. or B-flat clarinet…and [Julián] Menéndez wrote a low E-flat in some [of his works.”16 There was a revival of these full Boehm-system clarinets in Spain in the late 1970s into the 1980s. the National Orchestra. Miguel Yuste was a member of each of these groups. including] Introducción. 16 Ibid. there [are] a lot of exercises [that build this technique in the right hand little finger of moving] from one key to another in method [books] like Romero’s. the normal Boehmsystem (no low E-flat key) was most common. and the Society of Chamber Music. Compact Disc Liner Notes for Capricho Pintoresco: Música Española para clarinete. Romero tried to find a clarinet that could play every passage for C. “However. because [several] old[er] musicians told me. with Henry Wood at the London Philharmonic because Gómez liked to play only with the B-flat clarinet. (Harmonia Mundi. Additional playing opportunities included the Opera Orchestra at Buen Retiro Gardens. as Pamela Weston wrote in her book. The current members of the National Orchestra in Madrid play on Buffet R-13. The bass clarinetist plays a Selmer 25-II Bass clarinet. 2005. If you [look at] our history. Why [did this] happen…with Spanish clarinetists? I know. HMI 987022.14 The low E-flat key is an idea carried over from the Romero system clarinet. 7 . one of them is trying a Selmer Saint Louis B-flat clarinet. Andante y Danza. and the A clarinet would [not] be known [to] most of the clarinetists. 5 February. the Teatro Real. 2005. [In] Spain. it had a total of 88 members. 1999). the clarinetist[s] played all the music with the B-flat clarinet. Ibid. which includes a low E-flat key for the right-hand little finger. however. and he is probably going to change [to] it.17 Regardless of the instability of the development in the clarinet itself. Tosca. A. that in some Spanish orchestras like Valencia or even Madrid. e-mail message to author. 14 15 Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín. Joan Enric Lluna. I think [an important] reason [for this] is the fact that in Spain there [are] a lot of [wind] bands. The tradition of the wind band in Spain dates back to the 1850s. although these clarinets “are still in use in some wind bands [today]. Actually.likely played on a full Boehm-system clarinet. 3 February. Manuel Gómez had a discussion. and RC clarinets. [clarinetists] had a tendency to play all music with a unique clarinet. 15 The use of the low E-flat key is no longer common in present-day Spain. By the 1990s. Vintage. and the E-flat clarinetist uses a Buffet RC. there were many opportunities for clarinetists to perform in Spain in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.18 When the Municipal Band of Madrid was founded in 1909.” 18 Joan Enric Lluna.

46. When Romero began teaching at the Conservatory in 1849. the Real Conservatorio was modeled on Neapolitan music schools. 15: 542. and Cavallini. 29 vols. 2nd ed. Romero’s clarinet course of study at the Conservatory remained 19 Julián Menéndez. Francesco Piermarini. “With the founding of the Royal Conservatory of Music. even spending 73 years located in the Teatro Real.20 Since its founding. Stanley Sadie. 8 . and it is still used today.”22 His Método was the first clarinet method book by a Spanish clarinetist to be used at the Conservatory. 22 Menéndez. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part I” translated by Enid Standring.”19 Through her support and funding.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians..21 By 1849 Antonio Romero had written his Método Completo para Clarinete and had joined the faculty. 20 Robert Stevenson and Jose Iges. Carl Baermann. studies by Gambaro. the Real Conservatorio has changed names and locations six times. a general awakening in musical interest occurred. Romero’s early clarinet study consisted of Xavier Lefévre’s Clarinet Method.23 While Romero’s studies did not begin at the Real Conservatorio.. Woodwind 5/8 (April 1953): 8. Müller’s Method of Thirty Exercises. his method book remained a staple in the Spanish clarinet school. “It was only with the appearance of Antonio Romero…that interest in clarinet playing received a great and needed stimulus. 8.. F. vol. (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. The first clarinet professors at the Real Conservatorio were Pedro Broca (from 1830 to 1836) and Magin Jardín (from 1830 to 1857). After his retirement in 1876. Conservatory faculty used these same studies in their curriculum. 23 Piquer. 2001). “Madrid. 21 See Appendix A for complete listing of clarinet professors at the Madrid Conservatory.Clarinet Pedagogy at the Madrid Conservatory The Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid was founded in 1830 after María Cristina came from Naples to Madrid to marry Ferdinand VII (1829). his method book became an important addition to the course of study. Its first director was Italian opera singer. ed. Beer.

the Gambaro caprices and all the Paris Conservatory test pieces.unchanged for nearly twenty five years. this plan for the course of clarinet studies was “officially adopted by all state-supported conservatories.. Woodwind 5/9 (May 1953): 8. Krakamp.”29 24 Julián Menéndez. Miguel Yuste became clarinet professor and instituted a much needed update to the clarinet studies at the Real Conservatorio. Magnani. 9 . Also included were staccato studies by Aumont.”24 Yuste responded to the need for change by reorganizing the course of clarinet study at the Conservatory. Marasco. 25 See Appendix B for a detailed description of Yuste’s clarinet curriculum at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid.”28 By the 1950s. 278. (Great Britain: Halstan and Co. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part II. the teaching of the clarinet in Spain was somewhat old-fashioned and not sufficiently extensive or progressive to encompass the difficulties cropping up continually in the new orchestral works of the composers of the [beginning of the twentieth century].25 There was a “systematic curriculum for a sixyear course of study based on works from the Romero and Klosé tutors. Ltd.” 8. 1977). In 1909. 26 Pamela Weston. Stark and Wiedemann. 278. Kroepsch. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part II. 28 Weston.” translated by Enid Standring.”26 Each course was comprised of three terms in which Yuste “began to incorporate new works of significant clarinet pedagogues. More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past. Buteaux. 27 Julián Menéndez.”27 “General studies were drawn from the works of Carl Baermann. “Up to the time of Yuste’s appointment.

In 1883. 31 Enrique Perez Piquer. In 1885 Yuste won the first chair position with the Royal Corps of Halberdiers. (Logomusic Records. He began as the third clarinet in the Teatro Real. England: Emerson Editions. 14. In 1887. Luigi Mancinelli. (Yorkshire. the Chamber Music Society disbanded in 1904. but Miguel Ibid. 30 29 10 . where he was taken at the age of eight. Unfortunately. at the age of thirteen. but was moved to first chair by the conductor. Pamela Weston. His musical studies began with José Chacon at the San Bernardino Orphanage in Madrid. Yuste sat principal chair at the Buen Retiro Gardens.CHAPTER 3 MIGUEL YUSTE Biography Miguel Yuste Moreno was born in Alcala del Valle in Cadiz. Although Mancinelli later made several offers for Yuste to teach and perform in Italy.”30 He would later succeed González at the Real Conservatorio.31 In 1890 Miguel Yuste was a member of both the National Orchestra and the Chamber Music Society. 187. Yuste began studying clarinet with Manuel González and became his “star pupil. Enrique Perez Piquer. he won first prize at the Real Conservatorio and quickly became a steadily employed clarinetist. 1995). In 1889 he completed his clarinet studies at the Conservatory and became the solo clarinetist in the Concert Society Orchestra and the orchestra at the Teatro Real. Spain in June 1870. the same year he won first prize at the Conservatory. in the middle of a rehearsal. He remained as principal chair clarinetist. LCD 1001. The San Bernardino Orphanage fostered the children’s artistic education by organizing a wind band in which they played and learned an instrument. Yesterday’s Clarinettists: A Sequel. 2002). Compact Disc Liner Notes for La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. He gained public and critical recognition with performances of Brahms’ and Mozart’s quintets. Two years later. Yuste stayed in Madrid.

to transcribe and arrange many works for the band. CC 0017. Miguel Yuste “could be regarded as [one of] the ‘fathers’ of Spanish clarinet playing. In his thirty-year tenure. Compact Disc Liner Notes for Fantasías Mediterráneas: Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. Yuste’s work with Ricardo Villa and the Municipal Band of Madrid promoted a high level of music education and musical culture in the city of Madrid. Ricardo Villa. most people could not afford to attend. Joan Enric Lluna states that. assistant conductor. Many of these works became the basis of the Municipal Band’s repertoire and are still held in its archives. Unfortunately. 34 Piquer. Yuste made “big reforms in the course of clarinet study at the Madrid Conservatoire”32 and became a significant influence on Spanish clarinetists. Most significantly. La Obra para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. at the Real Conservatorio. Joan Enric Lluna.”33 His work with the Municipal Band of Madrid largely contributed to this influence.”34 Prior to the formation of the band. Manuel González. “Together they transformed [the Municipal Band] into a necessary vehicle for musical education of the highest order. 11 . some of this work was lost in the civil war (1936-1939). along with Antonio Romero and Julián Menéndez. More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past. 32 33 Weston. since until then only the Valencia and Barcelona bands were in existence. In 1909 Yuste succeeded his teacher. 1997). he helped to form the Symphony Orchestra of Madrid. (Clarinet Classics. While these were certainly quality musical events. later. He worked with conductor. and close friend.Yuste was given the esteemed position of clarinetist for the Royal Chapel the same year. the only concerts open to the public were those of the Symphony Orchestra and the Royal Opera House. Yuste’s tenure with the Municipal Band of Madrid included principal clarinet and. Also in 1904. Madrid’s Municipal Band “serve[d] as the musical education for the Madrid public at large and also of the provinces. 278. Joan Enric Lluna. Miguel Yuste was a member of the Municipal Band of Madrid from the time of its formation (1909).

In no time the Municipal Band acquired a high level of excellence and a good reputation, recognized by the people of Madrid, calling a couple of its prominent streets after the names of these two distinguished performers [Yuste and Villa].”35 Only two published sources in English briefly discuss Miguel Yuste and his contributions to clarinet pedagogy and repertoire. In her books, More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past and Yesterday’s Clarinettists: A Sequel, Pamela Weston provides a brief biography of Miguel Yuste. In this one-page biography, Weston states that Yuste “composed over a hundred clarinet pieces.”36 Current research by Pedro Rubio suggests that the actual number is substantially lower. In Galería de músicos andaluces contemporaneous (La Habana, Cuba, 1927) the author, F. Cuenca, notes that Miguel Yuste composed “over one hundred” works. He does not specify them for the clarinet. It is possible, however, that Yuste wrote over one hundred works total (Municipal Band, clarinet, and other instruments). In the 1958 book by Marian Sanz de Pedre titled La banda municipal de Madrid, it is cited that Yuste wrote “over one hundred works for clarinet.” Pedro Rubio suggests that this is probably where Pamela Weston found this information to include in More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past. As late as 2002, this same sentence was repeated in the Diccionario de la Música Española e Iberoamericana Vol X.37 While the misinformation that Miguel Yuste composed more than one hundred works for clarinet has now been clarified, it is unfortunate to note that the exact number of pieces Miguel Yuste wrote for clarinet is unknown at this time. In personal correspondence, Pedro Rubio, José Tomás Pérez, and Enrique Pérez Piquer have stated that the Madrid Conservatory library does not have many of Miguel Yuste’s works and suggests that anything that has not yet been published remains with Miguel Yuste’s
35 36

Ibid. Weston, More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past, 279.

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surviving family members. In the course of his esteemed career, Miguel Yuste married and had two children. His oldest son, also named Miguel, played clarinet with the Madrid Municipal Band. According to information from Enrique Pérez Piquer, Miguel Yuste married a second time, but the names of both wives and the second child are currently unknown.38 Members of the Yuste family still live in Madrid, and future interviews with the family by Pedro Rubio are scheduled in hopes of learning new information about Yuste’s life and precisely how many works he wrote for the clarinet.39 Regardless of the number of works, “Yuste’s contribution to the clarinet literature, although not prolific, is a challenge capable of compromising the most virtuosic player.”40

Miguel Yuste: His Influence on the Spanish School of Clarinet Playing in the Twentieth Century “Miguel Yuste exerted a major influence on the musical education of all the clarinetists who have occupied principal positions in all the musical groups of Madrid, each musician possessing his own unique style and colourful personality.”41 Miguel Yuste’s works were the beginning of an “educational process” from which many renowned Spanish clarinetists came.42 Perhaps most notably, Julián Menéndez (1896-1975) and his brother Anthony, both founding members of the Spanish National Orchestra, were educated by Miguel Yuste. José Taléns Sebastiá, solo clarinetist in the now disbanded Filharmonic Orchestra of Madrid and the Madrid Municipal Band, is another example. Similarly, Leocadio Parras, soloist with the Spanish

37 38

Pedro Rubio, e-mail messages to author, 6 September, 2004, 16 November, 2004, 21 January, 2005. José Tomás, e-mail message to author, 18 November, 2004. 39 Pedro Rubio, e-mail message to author, 16 November, 2004. 40 Piquer, La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid.

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National Orchestra until his death in 1973, is a notable example of Miguel Yuste’s influence on the music education of Spanish clarinetists in the twentieth century. In personal correspondence with contemporary Spanish clarinetists, several questions were asked pertaining to Miguel Yuste’s influence on Spanish clarinetists. Each person was asked to describe Yuste’s general influence and what they felt was his most significant contribution the Spanish clarinet tradition. The answers are as follows:

José Tomás Pérez, International Clarinet Association International Representative from Spain: translation from personal correspondence. I would say that Miguel Yuste definitely had an impact on clarinetists of the twentieth century up to the present. His works are being played in conservatories and auditions. His influence was greatest in Madrid where he created a very important school of clarinet playing. He did not have as much of an impact in the rest of Spain because technology and the ability to communicate in that era were very difficult. Due to the romanticism and virtuosity of his works, Miguel Yuste contributed greatly to the clarinet technique in that it was very distinct and pure. The general dynamic [range] of most clarinetists in Spain has changed considerably since Miguel Yuste was alive. It is now common for young students to study abroad and, therefore, have mixed styles and pedagogical ideas.

Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín, clarinetist in the National Orchestra of Spain in Madrid: I think of course Yuste had an influence [on] Spanish clarinetists. I think it was in two aspects. First of all, his technique was amazing as you can see in his pieces, and as Menéndez later and Romero before, it [was] a [difficult] aspect of [their music], and perhaps [because of] this, [his] music has not been [performed much] in concerts or recordings. Enrique Pérez told me that his teacher (an old man [friend] of Menéndez at the Municipal Band of Madrid) asked Menéndez if his music could be played. Then Menéndez took his clarinet and show[ed] him [how] to do it. If you listen to the recent recordings of Enrique Pérez [playing] Yuste or Menéndez you can recognize the extreme difficult pieces they are. However, all of us practice them, and it give[s] us a strong formation in technique. The other aspect of Yuste and, in general, the Spanish clarinetist is the lyricism [in] our way of playing. The melodies that you can find in Romero, Yuste or Menéndez[‘s] music give you a special flavor that you immediately recognize as Spanish, and it is natural for you to play it with a warm[th] and good sense. These pieces contain

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Of course. ninety percent of clarinetists [in Spain] have studied with the Menéndez studies and music. principal clarinetist with National Orchestra of Spain in Madrid (taken from correspondence with Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín): [With] respect to the influence [of Miguel Yuste].’ [This is] a good title for his music. and he influenced his pupils and colleagues in many ways. And finally. Many clarinetists thought a lot about what kind of sound they [were] looking for. Pérez thinks that many people [are] wrong [to] consider Yuste as an example of [clear and brilliant] sound. Pérez thinks that this legend of Yuste’s clear sound is a mistake. [which is usually what people think]. Pérez thinks that Spanish clarinetists [throughout] history have received many influences from the sound of different countries of Europe. Not only in the Menéndez clarinet playing but also because he felt that. dark or brilliant? I remember as a student hearing many comments about [these] qualities of the sound between the students. in the eighties the taste changed and clarinetists thought that Yuste’s music was little more than ‘only notes. I feel that Yuste’s most significant contribution probably was to consolidate. 15 . this mouthpiece [did] not exist! Around the [nineteen] sixties many clarinetist[s] suffered [from] the fever of dark sound. brilliant or dark. Enrique Pérez Piquer. we study Yuste’s music as well. There was a fight [about these] characteristics of the sound…which is better. a happy mood [in others]. Nowadays we can observe many Spanish clarinetists playing on light reeds and not focused in this dark sound. He [also] thinks that in Spain there is not a special quality of sound we inherited from Yuste. clarinet professor at the Conservatorio Teresa Berganza de Madrid: Yuste played an important role in the Madrid music society during the first decades of the twentieth century. When Yuste was playing. because he thinks that the clear sound in Spain comes from the time when clarinetist[s] were playing on a Vandoren 5RV mouthpiece. In my opinion the most important consequence for the Spanish clarinetists nowadays was his teaching to his finest pupil Julián Menéndez. after Yuste. Pedro Rubio. I remember [Dr.beautiful melodies with a nostalgic character in some moments. he had to continue composing for the instrument and take the clarinet beyond in this country. as people [are] and feel in our country. Perhaps due to this omnipresence. This music was very popular and until the seventies.’ Fortunately his music is now more appreciated and is easy to find in the clarinet recitals and [is] played for its musical value.] Gillespie naming Yuste as the ‘Chopin of the clarinetists. [Pérez] agrees with me [that] lyricism and good technique [were] the [biggest] influences and legacy from Yuste. and since then the tendency of the sound [has] changed. it was compulsory in almost every clarinet audition in Spain. As a result. through his post in the [Madrid] Conservatory and his clarinet music. and at the same time compensate [for] the lack of Spanish music and studies written for it in his time.

And remember that Yuste liked sounding ‘varonil.[Antonio] Romero’s legacy and translate it to the next generation (Menéndez and Leocadio Parra). Yuste liked students playing clear and with good articulation. Yuste listened to a blind man playing the clarinet in the street with a special articulation. 1916). and giving examples to help the student to understand any question. 43 43 See Appendix C for complete interview notes. with a straight chin that helps the student to obtain a good sound quality and flexibility. 2005): From Yuste’s lessons José Avilés remembers Yuste as a kind man. 16 . student of Miguel Yuste (taken from correspondence with Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín.José Avilés remembers Yuste paying special attention [to] the [embouchure]. interview with Córdoba on February 20. This was the influence from Yuste’s lessons that José Avilés told us. which means solid. José Avilés Córdoba (b. And about mechanism. José Avilés was required to practice a lot of long notes in getting it. For instance.’ a Spanish word that refers to the [masculine] characteristic of the sound. compact and big sound. talking a lot about whatever musical question. and showed to the students how the blind man did it to follow this way [sic]….

therefore. 21 February. and the Teatro Real is known to have been a common performance venue for the popular genre known as the zarzuela.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. In the 1650s the term.”44 The sounds that Yuste imagined likely would have been heavily influenced by the music that was a part of his daily life..CHAPTER 4 THE WORKS FOR CLARINET AND PIANO BY MIGUEL YUSTE “About Yuste[‘s] pieces. José Avilés (student of Miguel Yuste. Stanley Sadie. 2nd ed. The Zarzuela The zarzuela is a form of Spanish musical drama that is characterized by singing and dancing interspersed with spoken language. vol. zarzuela. was “used to refer to short musical plays of a lightly burlesque nature organized…to entertain the king and his guests at the renovated Palacio Real de la Zarzuela.. 29 vols. e-mail message to author. 2001). 27. this document will discuss Yuste’s works within the influences of the zarzuela and Spanish folk music characteristics. I imagine how it should sound and I try to write it. Louise K. traditional Spanish folk songs were a part of daily life. The term originally comes from the Spanish word for a bramble bush. “Zarzuela. 2005. b. 1916) remembers Yuste saying: I do not know harmony.. It is. 755. In addition to frequent performances of zarzuelas. but I have the melody and the harmony in my head. ed. highly likely that the influences of the zarzuela and Spanish folk music in general permeated Yuste’s musical vocabulary. (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. zarza. It is known that Miguel Yuste was principal clarinetist with the Teatro Real beginning in 1889. Stein and Roger Alier.”45 44 45 Carlós Jesús Casadó Tarín. 17 . Since Yuste himself did not approach his works from a tonal harmony standpoint.

sometimes whole scenes were in a recitative style. and entirely sung programs were becoming more common. duets and homophonic four-part choruses. partly spoken. vol. 2001).”46 By 1700 the Spanish court was under heavy Italian influence once again.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 46 18 . but the amount of singing as opposed to speaking was not standardized. 20: 650. Less than fifty years later. “Basing itself on the depiction of lower-class life. Her patronage in opening the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid in 1830 did much to benefit music education in Spain. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. the zarzuela took shape as a populist entertainment. Spanish musical theater came under a return of Italian influence. ed.) These productions were “a mixture of monodies. (The first was the 1660 production of Calderón’s La púrpura de la rosa. with distinct national Jack Sage and Lionel Salter. and Italian troupes were brought to Madrid to perform Italian opera. “Zarzuela. partly sung.Music was an important aspect of the zarzuela structure from its inception. by the middle of the seventeenth century. customs and humor. However. The monodies seem to have consisted often of recitative leading to an aria or arioso. The tide turned again when less than one hundred years later. Rossini’s operas were quite popular at the time that María Cristina came from Naples to marry Ferdinand VII. Carlos III was forced to appease the public by “making concessions to popular traditions and tastes.”47 The zarzuela once again became popular with the general public. Following the pattern of her native Naples. Within a few years. and on the traditional songs and dances familiar [to the people]. Spain’s prime minister was Italian. the students grew resistant to Italian dominance. and a resurgence of the zarzuela began again. an Italian director was hired and the language of instruction was Italian. 47 Ibid. the zarzuela exhibited strong influence of Italian opera..

29 vols. 2001). The “unmeasured” style is defined by a “flexible succession of tempos” combined with certain melodic elements. Spanish Folk Music Characteristics While there is much regional diversity in Spanish folk music. As Cunningham and Ibid. it is understood that several musical characteristics are common throughout the varying regional folk music of Spain. With influences from France to Hungary. 50 Ibid.49 Three of these are found throughout Yuste’s clarinet music.”50 The third rhythmic device that is commonly found in Yuste’s clarinet music is the use of dance rhythms. The second style is “guisto syllabic” which is defined by the use of alternating binary and ternary meters or “a sung metric-rhythmic device over an established base of a syllabic pattern…with stable accentuation that combines short and long rhythmic values in measured succession. Martin Cunningham and Jaume Aiats divide the rhythmic characteristics into four categories.”48 The zarzuela was such a popular genre by the last decade of the nineteenth century that eleven theaters in Madrid performed zarzuelas only. melodic. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.. 138. These melodic elements are discussed below. Miguel Yuste played regularly in one of these theaters. Martin Cunningham and Jaume Aiats. these characteristics have combined to create a recognizable Spanish folk music quality in the pieces in which they are heard.character…Songs and dances from many zarzuelas were to become as familiar to the Spanish man-in-the-street as Gilbert and Sullivan numbers to his English counterpart. 49 48 19 . including those of Miguel Yuste. and harmonic characteristics. 651. “Spain: II. 24. ed. 2nd ed.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. vol. 2 (ii):Traditional and popular music. They can be categorized into rhythmic. Sections containing repetitive... dance-like rhythms usually follow a section using the “unmeasured” style. Historical background: Musical characteristics. the Teatro Real.

56 As in the melodies. Ibid.Aiats state. 2001).52 This rhythmic device is most often used within a melodic context.”53 The melodies are not typically tonal. As a part of the “unmeasured” rhythmic style.51 Another common rhythmic device is the use in Spanish folk songs of the accent on the ultimate or penultimate “syllable” of a phrase. and. 24. There is a general tonal and modal ambiguity to many Spanish folk melodies. are often chromatic. 5: Art Music. 20 . these categories are most useful as “points of reference” and can overlap with ease. and sometimes have intervals of an augmented second and/or a minor third (“or close to”)54. there is occasional use of parallel thirds. 138. The melodic characteristics combine with the rhythmic elements to create some of the more typically recognizable qualities of Spanish folk music. ed. 54 Ibid. modal characteristics are commonly used in tandem with classical harmonies. 53 Ibid.. melodies are heavily ornamented and “maintain fixed points of tonal reference. 19th Century: Song and Lyric Theater. Each of these folk music characteristics is found in the works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste. The harmonic characteristics of Spain’s folk music exhibit a similar ambiguity. 55 Belen Perez Castillo.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. vol. Also common is the use of a terraced downward motion in the melodic line similar to falling thirds but with significantly more chromaticism.. due to early Roman and liturgical influences. These harmonic attributes combine with the above-mentioned rhythmic and melodic elements to create a distinctive Spanish folk music sound.. 51 52 Ibid. 2nd ed. “Spain. 142. Many of the harmonic elements used in Spanish folk music are within the bounds of “classical harmony. I. chromatic passages are common. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 29 vols. 130.”55 However.

danza y lamento. ed. General Features: Historical Background. Enrique Perez Piquer. S. vol. op 8/59.”60 in the melody is a typical Spainsh folk music characteristic. 148. The first interval of the piece. 1997. 58 Ibid. 8/59 (Candor-frankness and sincerity of expression) Publisher: Mundimúsica Ediciones.58 Yuste’s works can be classified as Neo-Romantic and are designed to “highlight the technical abilities of the performer…with beautiful melodies that suit the clarinet well.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. op. 2 (i):Traditional and Popular Music.L. none of Yuste’s available manuscripts supply dates of composition. 137. Martin Cunningham and Ramón Pelinski. a written minor third. 2nd ed. “Spain. 56 21 . Notes. 2001). suggests the influence of the zarzuela and Spanish folk music. piano. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Ingenuidad. 1995. 60 Cunningham and Aiats. Madrid.. LCD 1001. According to Mundimúsica Ediciones publishers in Madrid. Ingenuidad begins with an introduction beginning in d minor and moves to B-flat major. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira. Leyenda. Logomusic Records.. op. (Madrid: Mundimúsica S. 72. 138. 57 Miguel Yuste. Fantasías Mediterráneas Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. it is known that most of his works for clarinet were written for auditions and exams at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid. one can assume that the majority of his works for clarinet were written between 1909 and 1936. 59 Joan Enric Lluna. 24. L. Duration: 7:00 Recording: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. “or close to.The Extant Works for Clarinet and Piano by Miguel Yuste All of the available works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste are written for B-flat clarinet and are one movement in length. Therefore.”59 Ingenuidad. Dedication: none indicated on score. 29 vols. 1997).. Estudio de Concierto. II.57 However.. op. The use of an augmented second.

the introduction includes an aria-like melody. op.Example 1. 22 . 1997). 8/59 para clarinete y piano. Measures 1-2.L. Ibid. Example 2.61 Also typical of the zarzuela. Measures 6-20. (Madrid: Mundimúsica S.62 61 62 Miguel Yuste. Ingenuidad..

1972. solidifies its modality. The A section is in F major with heavy modal implications and melodic emphasis on the fifth scale degree. Estudio Melodico is based on a theme by Italian clarinetist and composer Luigi Bassi. Joan Enric Lluna. This second A section begins in A-flat major. Enrique Perez Piquer. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira. LCD 1001. clarinet with Jan Gruithuyzen. Duration: 7:00 Recordings: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. This work ends clearly in the key of F major. The exposition is 63 Piquer. 33 Publisher: Miguel Yuste. Dedication: none indicated on score. The piece follows basic sonata form with a brief (four-measure) introduction. and control of downward slurred leaps out of the altissimo is required. The fact that this is the relative major of d minor. the melodies are somewhat ambiguous. the key in which the work began. This is perhaps the most technically accessible of Miguel Yuste’s works for clarinet. piano. Fantasías Mediterráneas: Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. The range does not extend beyond an altissimo G. Bassi was known to write paraphrases on opera themes for clarinet and piano. however. and the only misprint occurs in measure 56 of the clarinet part where the meter change to 6/8 is missing.The meter change to 6/8 signifies the beginning of the A section. which is typical of both the zarazuela and Spanish folk music influence. Its technique is mostly scalar and not exceptionally difficult. This move from binary to ternary meter is a typical Spanish folk music characteristic. Estudio Melodico. Clarinet Classics. La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. it is embellished. There are several interval leaps into the altissimo at fast tempos. op. and Yuste pays homage to the paraphrase tradition with this work. A-flat major.1997. CC 0017. piano. 1995.63 Piquer does not specify the origins of this theme. When the A section returns. Logomusic Records. The B section continues with this melodic focus in a different key. 23 . and there are modal implications throughout. According to Enrique Pérez Piquer. with the development section by Miguel Yuste.

there is frequent use of chromaticism both harmonically and melodically. the melody is heavily ornamented and Miguel Yuste. While the basic harmony is tonal. 64 24 . Measures 1-12. op. Many of the Spanish folk music characteristics discussed appear in Estudio Melodico. 3). Additionally. For example. 33 para clarinete con acompañamiento de piano.in g minor. Estudio Melodico. phrases often end with an accent on the penultimate note or beat. the development moves to the relative major key. Example 3. (Madrid: Grafispania.64 There is also a repetitive rhythmic pattern combining long and short note values that occurs from the beginning of the piece (ex. and the recapitulation returns to g minor. Bb Major. 1972).

Example 4. 25 . Measures 41-51. The opening melody of the B section illustrates this characteristic.chromatic.65 65 Ibid. while it often returns to a point of tonal reference.

LCD 1001. Measure 53. 26 . The introduction is in G major and is a clear example of the zarzuela style with a recitative-like dialogue between the clarinet and piano. Dedication: “Homenáje de admiración al eminente compositor y maestro de clarinete Herrn Robert Stark. and requires an advanced level of technique. but the recapitulation is significantly more difficult due to awkward. Duration: 10:00 Recording: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. Madrid. 1995. Enrique Perez Piquer. The only misprint occurs in the piano part on the first beat of measure 70 where the right hand of the piano should have a C-sharp instead of a C-natural. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira. Example 5. 66 Ibid. however.This work is rhythmically complex in the clarinet part.L. a two-octave leap from throat-tone F to altissimo F occurs in a thirty-second note passage in the development section. an articulated altissimo G is required. The general range of Estudio Melodico does not exceed an altissimo F. especially in the recapitulation.66 The melody itself is not technically challenging. op. Solo de Concurso.39 Publisher: Union Musical Ediciones. For example. 1941. piano. S. There are several large interval leaps that occur within sixteenth and thirty-second notes. Logomusic Records.”67 This piece begins with an extended introduction (94 measures) followed by an A-B-A form and ends with a coda. non-scalar ornamentation figures.

1941).Example 6. Solo de Concurso. 27 .L. 39 para clarinete y piano. op.68 67 Miguel Yuste.” 2nd edition (Madrid: Union Musical Ediciones S. 68 Ibid.. Measures 12-21.

contrastingly.The first A section moves from G-flat major to e-flat minor. while the Coda. The last note of measure 234 is an E-flat instead of a D. 28 . The misprints in the clarinet part are as follows: 1. does not imply any modality and clearly ends the piece in G-flat major. Adding to the difficulty level. Measures 110-111. The rhythms in the clarinet part are complex. For example. especially in the introduction. the last note of the piece is an altissimo A. 69 70 Ibid. the first melodic idea of the A section ends with tonic chord in G-flat major (ex. 8). illustrating the modal tendencies of Spanish folk music. Ibid. The third note of beat four in measure 48 should be a G-sharp. This piece is quite difficult due to non-scalar and awkward technical passages.69 Example 8. Example 7. Measures 126-127. 3. 2. The A-flat on beat one of measure 200 is missing the ledger line. while the second melodic idea ends with a tonic chord in eflat minor (ex. and extensive altissimo control of soft dynamics is required.70 The B section continues in this manner moving between a-flat minor and C-flat major. 7).

S.72 71 Miguel Yuste. Capricho Pintoresco: Música Española para clarinete. Logomusic Records. Measures 1-23. piano. op. 72 Ibid. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira. op. Madrid. 1995.L. Harmonia Mundi. Enrique Perez Piquer. (Madrid: Union Musical Ediciones S. LCD 1001. Duration: 8:00 Recordings: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. clarinet with Artur Pizarro. 1958). 41 (Picturesque and Whimsical) Publisher: Union Musical Ediciones.L. 29 .”71 This work follows the zarzuela tradition in that it begins with an introduction in which a dialogue style opening is followed by an aria-type melody. 1999. Joan Enric Lluna. HMI 987022. Example 9. Capricho Pintoresco. piano. Dedication: “Al notable clarinetista Julián Menéndez.Capricho Pintoresco. 41 para clarinete con acompañamiento de piano. 1958.

73 The non-scalar melody in the opening of the A section is typical of Spanish folk music. Example 10. repetitive rhythmic accompaniment. the same key of the A section. and an accented penultimate syllable at the end of the phrase. Measures 23-41.Illustrating the Spanish folk music influence. the long-short. The cadenza immediately preceding the A section is firmly on the dominant of D major. 30 . this piece begins with modal implications by moving between d minor and D major. Also suggesting this influence are the use of a terraced descending passage in the same melody.

(Out of Print)75 Duration: 12:00. Enrique Perez Piquer. LCD 1001.Example 11. Logomusic Records. While there are frequent chromatic passages. The key signature for the clarinet moves from four to five sharps.74 The B section is in the relative minor. Harmonia Mundi. Vibraciones del alma. 73 74 Ibid. 1953. Capricho Pintoresco also ends with a Coda. There are several sixteenth-note terraced descents beginning in the altissimo register. and a D pedal point signifies the return of the A section. the Coda remains in D major. b minor. creating difficult and often awkward technical passages. Measures 44-55. Madrid. 1999. piano. Ibid. op. Recordings: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. 31 . 45 (Vibraciones of the Soul) Publisher: Harmonia Revista Musical. clarinet with Artur Pizarro. 1995. Joan Enric Lluna. and an altissimo A occurs briefly within a scalar passage. 75 The author was allowed to see a copy of this music through the generosity of José Tomás Pérez. Capricho Pintoresco: Música Española para clarinete. HMI 987022. Significant control of intonation and tone are required in the throat-tone and altissimo registers. piano. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira.

”76 “With [Vibraciones del alma Yuste] wanted to add to the National clarinet repertoire [a] work worthy to be played in the big concert halls. Vibraciones del alma. there is frequent use of chromaticism within the bounds of tonal harmony. along with Capricho Pintoresco. Example 12. 76 32 . Also typical of the Spanish folk music influence. and. Vibraciones del alma. expertly combines creativity and technical ability. This piece is organized into three different sections. The melody of the third section is quite lyrical. Vibraciones del alma begins with the first section in E-flat major. It is similar to a one-movement concerto with three clear sections. While most of Yuste’s works were written for auditions or exams. 2/4. La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste.78 The third section remains in 2/4. typical of Spanish folk music and Yuste’s works. op. The minor third interval in the Miguel Yuste. but the key changes to g minor. and the harmonic rhythm implies a slower tempo. these two works were likely written with a larger audience in mind. the second section is in a different meter. A key change to G major signifies the second section. The accompaniment figure to the second section demonstrates another Spanish folk music characteristic in its use of parallel 3rds.Dedication: “A mi querida hijo Miguel. 78 Yuste. 45 para clarinete con acompañamiento de piano. (Madrid: Harmonia. Measures 125-130. (out of print) 77 Piquer. 1953).”77 Piquer comments that this work.

danza y lamento. and lamento. 1997 Duration: 9:00 Recording: none commercially available. S. Measures 207-214. 72 Publisher: Mundimúsica Ediciones. the main source of difficulty comes from the numerous interval leaps and demanding technique throughout. The technique of this piece is generally non-scalar and contains a large amount of chromaticism. The zarazuela influence is evident not only in the use of an introduction. While the range requires the ability to play an altissimo G and several altissimo F-sharps. but in the first two sections of the work.L. Example 13. Besides the rhythmic complexities in the first section of the clarinet part.79 While the coda is extensively chromatic in both the clarinet and piano parts.fourth measure of the accompaniment and the accent on the penultimate beat of the melody further imply the influence of Spanish folk music. This piece begins with an introduction in D major and continues with three sections that correspond to the title: leyenda. op. Dedication: none indicated on score. there are interval leaps into and out of both the altissimo and throat-tone ranges at quick tempos. danza. A leyenda is a legend. it solidly ends the piece in G major. Leyenda. Madrid. or 33 .

in G-flat major. 72 para clarinete y piano. The leyenda. 14) After the opening measures of this section. danza y lamento. 1997). Measures 7-10. L. (ex. op. Miguel Yuste. (ex. 15) Example 14.80 79 80 Ibid. the melody becomes heavily ornamented.story. which corresponds to the original function of the zarauela. Leyenda.. (Madrid: Mundimúsica S. uses the augmented second interval in the first measure of the melody between beats one and three. 34 .

35 .81 81 Ibid. Measures 11-17.Example 15.

82 82 Ibid.There are also several instances of dialogue style writing. 36 . Measures 78-95. Example 16. especially in the danza section.

while the melody is somewhat embellished. and. 138. Leyenda. this third section is in a slower tempo and continues to illustrate folk music influences. The lamento is in g-sharp minor and moves to a 6/8 meter.Additionally.”83 Example 17. Yuste. the non-scalar melodic ideas and the use of a terraced descent visible in this example further indicate the influences of Spanish folk music. Both the piano and clarinet part are significantly chromatic.84 83 84 Cunningham and Aiats. Similar to Vibraciones del alma. danza y lamento. it returns to “fixed points of tonal reference. Measures 184-189. 37 .

85 a half-step away from the danza. The Coda is brief (nineteen measures) and ends the piece solidly in F major. This is a minor third from the opening key center of D major. “an augmented second. The introduction is in D major. Cunningham and Aiats describe this characteristic as the use of an augmented second “or close to. an augmented second from D. op.” This refers to the fact that Spanish folk melodies were not based on traditional tonal scales and the use of semi-tones was common.The overall key structure of Leyenda. the use of the augmented second and/or minor third interval. or close to” is used. which moves to F major. While it is most often seen in a melodic context. Miguel Yuste expands this melodic influence into the overall structure of Leyenda. This is the reason that the phrase. The use of the augmented second/minor third is a typical characteristic of both Spanish folk music and the zarzuela. along with its rhythmic complexity in the clarinet part. it is one of the most immediately recognizable Spanish folk music qualities. danza. Cunningham and Aiats. which is the key center of the danza and a minor third from the opening key of D major. 72 by creating an augmented second/minor third relationship between sections of this piece. y lamento reflects a Spanish folk music characteristic that is most often illustrated melodically. The advanced technical demands. This is a technically demanding piece using the full range of the clarinet to altissimo A-flat. One reason for the high level of difficulty in this piece is the fact that there are five key changes and frequent meter changes throughout the work. danza. and the leyenda is in G-flat major (“close to” an augmented second/minor third). 85 38 . create a challenging work at a high level of difficulty. y lamento. 138. The lamento proceeds in gsharp minor.

The first section is modal and fluctuates between D-flat major and b-flat minor. Typical of Spanish folk music. Enrique Perez Piquer. 148 Publisher: Mundimúsica Ediciones. Duration: 7:30 Recording: La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. Further illustrating the zarzuela and folk music characteristics. both the clarinet and piano parts are heavily ornamented and chromatic with occasional use of terraced downward motion. 1997. this work is a study of the concerto. LCD 1001. 1997). Madrid. Estudio de concierto. piano.L. Julián Menéndez. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira. the time signature moves from binary (2/4) to ternary (6/8) meter. 39 . The melody moves to the piano part. mi siempre amigo.Estudio de Concierto. (Madrid: Mundimúsica S. Dedication: “Al gran artista. 148 para clarinete y piano.”86 As the title implies. Logomusic Records. While it is a one-movement work. The second section is an Adagio in the key of e minor. there are three sections that function as three separate movements of a concerto. S. and the accompaniment figures in the clarinet are non-scalar interjections suggesting a dialogue between the two parts. op.L. 86 Miguel Yuste. op. 1995. It illustrates the zarzuela influence in its use of the dialogue technique followed by an aria-type melody.

Measures 78-85. For example. Much like a concerto finale. 87 Ibid.Example 18. is in F major. there is two-measure interlude that returns to an adagio 6/8 meter and the same melodic and accompaniment figures as the second section of the piece. 40 . and contains an interior A-B-A form. Yuste ends the piece with melodic ideas from the opening measures of the first section.87 The third section returns to a binary meter (2/4). melodic ideas from the first and second sections appear toward the end of this section. After a cadenza ending on an altissimo C.

41 .Example 19.88 88 Ibid. Measures 204-232.

Typical of a concerto. Complete control of tone throughout the range of the clarinet is necessary to perform this demanding work. An altissimo A occurs several times in non-scalar passages.Example 19 cont. 42 . In addition to the difficult technical passages. there many wide interval leaps into the altissimo. and an altissimo C is required at the end of a long chromatic run. this is a challenging piece requiring a high level of technical ability.

Sage and Salter. Typical folk music characteristics were another clear influence on Yuste’s works for clarinet.CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The strong clarinet tradition in Spain is accompanied by a rich repertoire of music for clarinet that is largely unknown outside Spanish borders. Fantasías Mediterráneas:Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. Piquer. in particular. While the precise number of works written for clarinet is unknown at this time.”91 the influence of his surroundings and his performing experience are undeniable in each of the seven 89 90 Lluna. The works for clarinet and piano by Miguel Yuste are a significant part of this repertoire’s development. During his thirty-year tenure at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid. The modal and improvisatory implications. and composer became a pivotal point in Spain’s clarinet history. 43 . are immediately evident in the majority of these works. La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste. The influence of both is strongly evident in his works for clarinet and piano. Yuste’s influence as a pedagogue. The rhythmic. The zarzuela. performer. and he performed regularly with zarzuela orchestras. While Yuste’s works can be defined as “Neo-Romantic. 651. 91 Lluna. Its interspersed dialogue within sung libretti as well as its extensive use of dance likely provided Yuste with a vocabulary of ideas on both form and style. his seven published works alone have solidly placed Yuste among the “fathers of clarinet playing” in Spain. melodic and harmonic devices discussed appear throughout Yuste’s clarinet works and instantly define the style in which these works should be performed. Miguel Yuste was surrounded by traditional Spanish folk music.”90 drew from contemporary popular themes and folk songs. being “familiar to the Spanish man-in-thestreet. Fantasías Mediterráneas:Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano.89 Throughout his career.

44 . in turn. have influenced two generations of clarinetists in Spain. Miguel Yuste and his music for clarinet and piano deserve further exposure to the worldwide music community. his compositional accomplishments. His works are still regularly studied at the Real Conservatorio in Madrid. Miguel Yuste’s pedagogical and compositional contributions continue to be an integral part of the Spanish clarinet tradition. and clarinetists throughout Spain still perform his works. Due to his exceptional career. These works. and his continuing influence on the Spanish clarinet tradition in Spain.published pieces for clarinet and piano. As is evident by personal correspondence with some of today’s most prominent Spanish clarinetists.

APPENDIX A A CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF CLARINET PROFESSORS AT THE REAL CONSERVATORIO SUPERIOR DE MÚSICA DE MADRID 45 .

1839-1849 Antonio Romero. 1879-1883 Manuel González. 1909-1940 Aurelio Fernández. 1820-1857 Ramón Broca. 1950-1971 Francisco Florido. 1971-1973 Vicente Peñarrocha.Pedro Broca. 1943-1950 Leocadio Parras. 1849-1876 Teodoro Rodríguez. 1876-1879 Enrique Ficher. 1989-present Andrés Zarzo. 1830-1836 Magin Jardín. 2003-present 46 . 1980-1988 Justo Sanz. 1883-1909 Miguel Yuste. 1973-2003 Máximo Muñoz.

APPENDIX B MIGUEL YUSTE’S SIX-YEAR COURSE OF CLARINET STUDIES AT THE REAL CONSERVATORIO SUPERIOR DE MÚSICA DE MADRID 47 .

Second Term: Comprehensive study of the various ornaments (grace notes. Third Term: Exercises by Stark. scales and arpeggios. etc. daily exercises by Romero and concentrated work on staccato utilizing studies from the Stark method. Magnani and Stark. The list below outlines the work necessary to the completion of each course of study.) from the methods of Romero. Second Term: Exercises and [studies] from the Romero and Klosé methods. Klosé. Third Course: First Term: Daily embouchure exercises. Klosé. each course being comprised of three terms of study. phrasing studies from the Stark method. diatonic scales and their arpeggios in every key plus articulated chromatic scale.) Third Term: Fingering exercises and a fuller understanding of the clarinet mechanism by Klosé. grupetto. Second Course: First Term: Daily long tones.“The official plan of study was embodied into a set of six courses. scales and arpeggios from the methods of Romero. Magnani and Stark. Magnani. Klosé. Magnani and Stark. (Second Term not specified by Menéndez. gradually increasing in speed. 48 . First Course: First Term: Daily long tones. Chromatic scale with various articulations. trills.

Fourth Course: First Term: Studies by Fiorello.Third Term: Melodic studies by Klosé. I hope to find this piece. Op. Op. Pérez Casas. Weber’s Concertino. Fifth Course: First Term: Muller studies and the scales studies of the second part of Stark’s op. Op. 8 February. Second Term: The studies of Cavallini. sight reading and transposition. Yuste. personal correspondence. Mozart Concerto. Third Term: Arpeggio studies by Stark. “I know that Entremés exists. Mozart Trio and Beethoven Trio. Fantasie Lucrezia Borgia. 2005. sight singing and transposition of new and old works. 23 February. Klosé. Stark. and Ballade by Yuste1. Caprices of Gambaro and Magnani and the Wiedmann studies. but I don’t know it and I am afraid that it is not easy to [find]…I [am planning to]…prepare an interview with the family for our clarinet magazine. 39. Intermezzo. Klosé and Stark. and staccato studies by Stark and Aumont. characteristic studies by Klosé.). 18. etc. transposition studies. 7th solo of Klosé. Second Solo. I would like to ask them about Yuste’s published and unpublished works for clarinet. personal correspondence. final studies of the Romero method. 2005. Twenty-four Virtuoso studies. Sixth Course: First Term: Extensive and rapid scales in all keys and varieties of scales (whole-tone. op. op. Grand Duo Concertante and First and Second Concertos of Weber. First Solo of romero. oriental. Among other things. 51. Op. 28 and 29. Second Term: Sonatas from the second part of the methods of Romero. 11. 49. Caprices Pittoresque. Klosé. ensemble playing. Fourteen studies. “Intermezzo refers to Entremés…[and] Ballade is an original piece for oboe that could be played [on the] clarinet…” Pedro Rubio.” 1 49 . Third Term: First solo of Beer. third part Stark method. Romero. Kruetzen. Stark. Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín. the Caprices of Gambaro. 40 and Rose. studies from magnani and Baermann. study of scales of triplets in various forms. Buteaux. scale studes by Stievenard.

Valencia. Kroepsch. Stark. (Sa…).”2 Julián Menéndez.Second Term: Buteaux Sonatas. 2 50 . scales and arpeggios. advanced arpeggio studies. 52. Debussy. Spohr. Saragossa] as well as many academies of music. Coroba. and the entire plan of studies has been officially adopted by all state supported conservatories…[Madrid. Jeanjean. studies of clarinet literature. Rhapsody. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part II. Marasco. Hamelin. Fantasie La Sonambula. Perier. Yuste.” translated by Enid Standring. studies. Studies. Seville (?). orchestral studies. These courses have been somewhat amplified in recent years by the addition of material from the works of the contemporary clarinetists Mimart. Op. Four Concerti. Biscay Academy. Concerti of Baermann. Third Term: Daily sight reading of Krakamp’s Preludes and Cadenzas. Woodwind 5/9 (May 1953): 8-14. Brahms Quintet. exercises. Cavallini. Malaga. Andante and Rondo. Legen. etc.

1916). STUDENT OF MIGUEL YUSTE 51 .APPENDIX C NOTES FROM INTERVIEW WITH JOSÉ AVILÉS CÓRDOBA (B.

Mr. as it was [done] in [the eighteenth] century. It seems that the student should be able to [transpose] all the music. Yuste liked students playing clear and with good articulation. José Avilés was required to practice a lot of long notes in getting it. Avilés remembers hearing some legends of Yuste. He did the first and second course at the conservatory with Miguel Yuste in 1933-34 and 1934-35. 1936 the Spanish Civil War was coming and José Avilés lost contact with Yuste. as my colleague José Tomás. number 1. 52 . who was [a] mate of Yuste’s son in the Municipal Band of Madrid. This was the influence from Yuste’s lessons that José Avilés told us.” And he remembers Yuste talking about Robert Stark. but it would be played. e-mail message to author. with a straight chin that helps the student to obtain a good sound quality and flexibility. to whom Yuste dedicated his Solo de Concurso. The 30th of May. and showed to students how to blind man did it to follow this way… José Avilés remembers Yuste paying special attention [to] the embouchure. The methods and pieces students played on Yuste’s lessons were Romero and Klosé exercises and studies and works [such] as [the] Mozart Concerto. He was getting old and probably he had trouble in his left hand. Years ago. and Yuste played it on his clarinet and the singer immediately followed him…1 1 Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín. …here you have some notes about our meeting with Yuste’s student…His name is José Avilés Córdoba and he was born in 1916. began to play the clarinet this way. 2. For instance. the soprano forgot the melody of her aria. José Avilés remembers Yuste saying: “I do not know harmony. 2005.” a Spanish word that refers to the [masculine] characteristic of the sound. The [more] you did it. And remember that Yuste liked sounding “varonil.5. as José Avilés could see. 21 February. but you should be listening to your mates in the classroom.The following interview notes are taken from personal correspondence with Carlos Jesús Casadó Tarín. From Yuste’s lessons José Avilés remembers Yuste as a kind man. This two academic years Yuste had not many students and he did not give many lessons. I imagine how it should sound and I try to write it. which means solid. February 21. Stark told Yuste that it was a difficult piece. They played with both lips over teeth. It could be that C and A clarinets were not use[d] by most of the students. Individual. The lessons were in [a] group. Spohr concertos and Weber pieces and concertos. and 2. Yuste listened to a blind man playing the clarinet in the street with a special articulation. 2005. After [the] War. and giving examples to help the student to understand any question. but he is sure that it was Vandoren. About Yuste[‘s] pieces. but I have the melody and the harmony in my head. when Yuste was playing opera at the theater. In Spain this ways follows during all the first part of the [twentieth] century! Even many old clarinetist[s] of today. And about mechanism. Yuste told them that everyone could learn from the others. compact and big sound. talking a lot about whatever musical question.5. In that time it was Julián Menéndez who gave most of the lessons. José Avilés studied with Francisco Villarejo. probably 5RV? The reeds were Vandoren very soft. the [more] you were a [better] clarinetist! He does not remember the model of mouthpiece. José Avilés played zarzuela during three years with Villarejo at the Ideal Theatre of Madrid. The clarinet [that] José Avilés was playing on was a full system Buffet Boehm B-flat.

ed. Weston. “Antonio Romero y Andía.” Translated by Enid Standring. Kenyon de. John Tyrrell. New York: G. 20. Yesterday’s Clarinetists: A Sequel. New York: Oxford University Press. Articles Menéndez. England: Emerson Editions. Great Britain: Halstan and Co. B.” Translated by Enid Standring. Sage. 649-652. 29 vols. 21.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Edgerly.. From the Hunter’s Bow: The History and Romance of Musical Instruments. ___________. ed. 2001.” The Clarinet 26/3 (1999): 46-51. 2002. __________.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Yorkshire. More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past. 1977. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part II.. vol. New York: Macmaillan Publishers Ltd. Enrique Perez. Woodwind 5/8 (April 1953): 8. Stanley Sadie.P. “Antonio Romero y Andia: A Survey of his Life and Works.” Revista de Musicologia 5 (1982): 309-323. __________. 53 . “Zarzuela.. 1942.. Stanley Sadie. Ltd. Pasqual. “English Square Pianos in Eighteenth-Century Madrid. Putnam’s Sons. Jack and Lionel Salter. 641. executive ed. Julián. 2nd edition. “Ventas de instrumentos musicales en Madrid durante la segunda Mitad del siglo XVIII. Pamela. 2003...” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.” Music and Letters 64 (1983): 212-217. 1980. Rice. ___________. “Teaching the Clarinet in Spain: Part I. Albert. 2nd ed. 20 vol. Piquer. The Clarinet in the Classical Period. Beatrice. Edited by Boris Erich Nelson. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Woodwind 5/9 (May 1953): 8-14. vol.

Capricho Pintoresco. 29 vols. 2nd edition. La Obra Para Clarinete y Piano de Miguel Yuste.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Belen Perez Castillo. ed.. 39 para clarinete y piano.. Madrid: Union Musical Ediciones S. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2nd ed. 148 para clarinete y piano. piano. Yuste. Stanley Sadie. John Tyrrell. Jose Iges. Executive ed. 15. 24. executive ed. 8/59 para clarinete y piano. Vibraciones del Alma. op. op.L.Stein. executive ed. Miguel.. Miguel. 1997. Jaume Aiats. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Sílvia Martínez García. Miguel. Josep I Martí I Perez. Miguel. Louise K. L. 41 para Clarinete con Acompaňamiento de Piano. 1997. vol. Madrid: Harmonia. Arcadio de Larrea Palacín. 1997.L. John Tyrrell.. 1941. ed.. Estudio de concierto. Miguel. vol. Leyenda. LCD 1001.. Yuste. op. Enrique Perez Piquer. 2001. 29 vols. Madrid: Union Musical Editiones S. Scores Yuste. danza y lamento. Solo de Concurso.. 33 para clarinete con acompañamiento de piano. Martin Cunningham.. Ramón Pelinski.. 2001. 1972. Yuste. Maricarmen Gómez. op. Ingenuidad.. 72 para clarinete y piano.. Miguel. op. Recordings Yuste. 2001. 54 . “Zarzuela. ed. Miguel. Stanley Sadie.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Robert.L. Estudio Melodico. 1958. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. op. 755-760. Louise Stein. Madrid: Mundimúsica S. “Madrid. Madrid: Grafispania. John Tyrell. 1953. and Roger Alier. Robert. Yuste. Logomusic Records. Albert Recasens. vol. 2nd edition. Stevenson. Madrid: Mundimúsica S. 114-154. 27. Madrid: Mundimúsica S. 540-544.. 2nd ed. Miguel. clarinete with Anibal Bañados Lira.. Stevenson. op..” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.L. Stanley Sadie. “Spain. 1995. (out of print) Yuste. 29 vols. 45 para clarinete con accompañamiento de Piano. Yuste.

Harmonia Mundi. 2004 – 24 January. Joan Enric Lluna. Mark. Riseling. 2005 – 23 February. ________. 2004. HMI 987022. 25 February. 29 August. 6 September. Capricho Pintoresco: Música Española para clarinete. 2005. clarinet with Jan Gruithuyzen.Yuste. 1997. 2004. 4 April. Letter to author. 1999. Fantasías Mediterráneas: Spanish Music for Clarinet and Piano. Clarinet Classics. E-mails with author. piano. Carlos Jesús. Miguel. ________. 2004 – 18 September. Yuste. E-mails with author. Letter to author. E-mail with author. E-mails with author. Nuccio. 2005. Joan Enric Lluna. 2004 – 8 February. Miguel. Tomás Pérez. 2004. 10 September. Paul. clarinet with Artur Pizarro. 2004. Pérez Piquer. Primary Resources: Casadó Tarín. 2005. E-mails with author. 3 February . Robert. 25 June. Pedro. CC 0017. 2005. 55 . 11 September. 2003 – 8 July. E-mail with author. José. piano. 2004. E-mails with author. Jean-Marie. Rubio. Enrique. 18 November.