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Manual

Hollow core slab - InBlock approach

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All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part or this manual may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system or published, in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photo print, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publisher. Scia is not responsible for any direct or indirect damage because of imperfections in the documentation and/or the software. © Copyright 2009 Scia Group nv. All rights reserved.

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Table of contents

Table of contents
Table of contents............................................................................................................................... 3  Gist of manual ................................................................................................................................... 5  Template in Scia Lite ............................................................................................................................... 7  About InBlock ........................................................................................................................................ 13  Updating of InBlock ........................................................................................................................ 13  Types of update ........................................................................................................................... 13  Properties of InBlock in view ............................................................................................................... 15  Parametric properties ..................................................................................................................... 15  Viewing parametric properties...................................................................................................... 15  Properties appear for advanced projects ..................................................................................... 15  Setting advanced level ................................................................................................................. 15  Properties of InBlock ............................................................................................................................ 17  Basic properties .............................................................................................................................. 18  Name ............................................................................................................................................ 18  Exposure Class (Project parameter) ............................................................................................ 18  Exposure Class ............................................................................................................................ 18  Fire duration (Project parameter) ................................................................................................. 18  Fire duration ................................................................................................................................. 18  Cross-section ............................................................................................................................... 18  Topping thickness ........................................................................................................................ 23  Length .......................................................................................................................................... 23  Supports ....................................................................................................................................... 23  Construction stages........................................................................................................................ 24  Add pre-cast beam ....................................................................................................................... 24  Add topping and joints 1 ->2 ........................................................................................................ 24  Local beam history ....................................................................................................................... 24  Reinforcement ................................................................................................................................. 25  Pre-cast beam reinforcement ....................................................................................................... 25  Slab reinforcement ....................................................................................................................... 26  Fitting plate ...................................................................................................................................... 29  Use fitting plate ............................................................................................................................ 29  Select fitting plate ......................................................................................................................... 29  Opening generator ....................................................................................................................... 29  Loads ................................................................................................................................................ 31  Load generator ............................................................................................................................. 31  Spreading ..................................................................................................................................... 36  According to ................................................................................................................................. 36  Alpha coefficient ........................................................................................................................... 36  Position in the floor ....................................................................................................................... 36  Analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 37  Model............................................................................................................................................ 37  Mesh Refinement ......................................................................................................................... 38  Sections for checks ...................................................................................................................... 39  Mechanical resistance checks ....................................................................................................... 40  Concrete data .................................................................................................................................. 40  50% load on outer most slab........................................................................................................ 40  qk (kN/m2) .................................................................................................................................... 40

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Parameters in the Template ................................................................................................................. 41  Template dialogue ................................................................................................................................. 43  Default design checks in template ...................................................................................................... 45  When reinforced with prestressed reinforcement ....................................................................... 45  Stage1: Storage yard stage (pressing stage) .............................................................................. 45  Stage2b: Erection (after adding distributed dead load) ............................................................... 45  Stage3: Service stage .................................................................................................................. 45  When reinforced with non-prestressed reinforcement ............................................................... 46  Stage2b: Erection (after adding distributed dead load) ............................................................... 46  Stage3: Service stage .................................................................................................................. 46  Document ............................................................................................................................................... 47  Preparation of General Cross-sections .............................................................................................. 49  Preparation of drawing ................................................................................................................... 49  Importing as general cross-section .............................................................................................. 49  Cross-section parameters .............................................................................................................. 51  Preparation of Product Range Library (PRL) ..................................................................................... 57  New Product range library ............................................................................................................. 57  Cross-section library ...................................................................................................................... 59  Attributions to cross-section when extracted from PRL ............................................................... 61  Preparation of Borehole Pattern Library (BPL) .................................................................................. 63  Preparation of Sectional Strand Pattern Library (SSP) ..................................................................... 65  Preparation of Non-prestressed Reinforcement Scheme Library .................................................... 69  Preparation of Fitting Plate Library ..................................................................................................... 71  Preparation of Template ....................................................................................................................... 73  Setting up the project ..................................................................................................................... 73  Prerequisites.................................................................................................................................... 76  Libraries........................................................................................................................................ 76  Load cases ................................................................................................................................... 76  Construction stage ....................................................................................................................... 77  Recommended settings .................................................................................................................. 78  Parameters ................................................................................................................................... 78  Template dialogue ........................................................................................................................ 78  Modelling an InBlock ...................................................................................................................... 81  Editing the InBlock Properties ....................................................................................................... 83  Optional settings ............................................................................................................................. 83  Saving model for ODA .................................................................................................................... 84  Saving the project as Template ..................................................................................................... 85  Template in ODA.................................................................................................................................... 87 

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Gist of manual

Using a template in Scia Lite

Learning about InBlock

Using a template in ODA

Properties of InBlock

Preparation of new template

Preparation of libraries

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Template in Scia Lite

Template in Scia Lite
A ready-made template with a hollow core beam may be used for the design checks in Scia Lite as follows:   Start a new project (Pull down menu: File > New) From the templates, choose the suitable template

  

Template dialogue appears Edit the input values as required Press [OK]

Note: Template dialogue can be accessed also after entering into the project

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Hollow core slab 

Template is opened in Scia Lite

 

Template dialogue may be opened from tree menu to edit the parametric input Other propertied of InBlock may be edited through its Property window. It appears when the InBlock is selected in Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Note: Parametric properties are hidden in the list of properties appear in the Property window. These can be edited through Template dialogue

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Template in Scia Lite

Each property of InBlock is explained in detail, in the chapter concerned. However, the tool tip diagrams help the user to understand the properties offhandedly (keep the mouse pointer on a property to see its tool tip diagram).

After editing the properties of InBlock through property window, press [Standard update for all instances] that appears at the bottom of Property window

Note: Edited input remains ineffective until the InBlock is updated

To edit Standard Beam End Zone (SBEZ) data or Data Concrete, select them and edit through Property window

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Hollow core slab

Start the calculation from Tree menu

Run the Construction stage analysis

Note: An update of InBlock is recommended before performing calculation

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Template in Scia Lite

For output, open Document from Tree menu

Choose the suitable document template from the Document manager opened

 

Document is opened with document template chosen Press [Full regeneration of document] to get the results in the document

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Hollow core slab

Export the results to the suitable format by using the Export tool in the toolbar

Save the project

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About InBlock

About InBlock
The hollow core beam is modelled as an InBlock in Scia Engineer. The Intelligent Block (InBlock) is a new dimension in modelling. This is a model associated with all its relevant properties.

A geometric entity may be associated with its lateral dimensions. Similarly, a three dimensional model is associated with all its relevant properties viz., cross-section, length, supports, reinforcement etc.

One may have customised view of these properties as per one’s own choice.

Updating of InBlock
Properties of an InBlock may be edited to suit the requirements of current job. After editing the properties, the InBlock must be updated to bring the edited input into effect. (Property window > [Standard update for all instances]). Update is automated if the properties of InBlock are edited through template dialogue.

Note: Input through InBlock properties alone remains after updating. If any entity is edited through its own property window, such changes are nullified by update.

Types of update
  Standard update Deep update

Standard update
A standard update refreshes the InBlock instances. When the properties of InBlock are edited, a standard update brings them into effect.

Deep update
A deep update refreshes the InBlock instances. Also, during the refresh, it deletes the additional data (Ex: Data Concrete) modelled on the member.

Note: When InBlock is edited, user has to choose “standard update” to bring the modifications into effect. Standard update and update are used synonymously in this manual.

Type of update may be changed through InBlock properties. InBlock assumes “standard update” by default.

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Properties of InBlock in view

Properties of InBlock in view Parametric properties
Parametric properties of the InBlock are hidden. These properties should be edited through Template dialogue (Main tree menu > Template dialogue)

Viewing parametric properties
Main tree menu > Project > Protection > Hide parametric properties: No

Properties appear for advanced projects
Following properties appear for advanced projects alone. Default values (if not edited by advanced users) are applied for standard projects.      Stressing bed (Default: Default stressing bed) Fitting plate (Default: No fitting plate) Analysis model (Default: Simplified model) Mesh refinement (Default: No mesh refinement) Sections for check (Default: Default sections)

Setting advanced level
Main tree menu > Project data dialogue > Basic data > Project level: Advanced 15

Hollow core slab

Note: In addition to above, one can have customized view of properties as per one’s choice.

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Properties of InBlock

Properties of InBlock

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Hollow core slab

Basic properties
Name
Name is automated. User may edit it, if needed

Exposure Class (Project parameter)
This is project parameter that contains the list of possible exposure classes

Exposure Class
This is the exposure class against which the member is expected to sustain

Fire duration (Project parameter)
This is project parameter that contains the list of possible fire durations

Fire duration
This is the fire duration (period) during which the member is expected to survive

Cross-section
Cross-sections are listed based on the exposure class and fire duration set for the InBlock. If no suitable cross-section is available for these settings, no cross-section is listed. Input field appears blank. InBlock can not be updated without cross-section.

Change in cross-section modifies the other properties of InBlock, suitably. User should check the suitability of those automated modifications when the cross-section is changed. Input of the following properties is deleted, if the cross-section changes:     Topping reinforcement Joint reinforcement Openings Fitting plates

Note: Cross-sections are listed based on the exposure class and fire duration set for the InBlock. If no suitable cross-section is available for these settings, no cross-section would be listed. Input field appears blank. InBlock can not be updated without cross-section.

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Properties of InBlock

Cross-section parameters

InBlock parameter
InBlock parameter is the one which affects the properties of cross-section, dynamically. In the hollow core cross sections, topping thickness (Tt) alone is the InBlock parameter.

Geometric parameters of cross-section
Values of geometric parameters of the cross-section are measured during the update of cross-section.

These geometric values can be edited by user. But, actual values are restored when [Update] is pressed. These are used in the preparation of simplified cross-section and in mechanical resistance checks according to EN1168: 2005 + A1:2008.

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Hollow core slab

To use the user defined values, user has to press [OK], without [Update] before closing the crosssection manager

Following are the geometric parameters of the hollow core cross-section: (Their applications appear in brackets) 1. Bb (mm) : Bottom width of hollow core slab (Preparation of simplified cross-section) 2. Bt (mm) : Top width of hollow core slab (Preparation of simplified cross-section) 3. H : Height of hollow core slab (Preparation of simplified cross-section) 4. bw0 (mm) : Outer web thickness (Cl. 4.3.3.2.2.2: Shear with torsion capacity) 5. bw (mm) : Inner web thickness (least one, if inner webs vary in thickness) (Cl. 4.3.3.2.1: Spalling check) 6. sumabw (mm) : Total thickness of all webs (All outer + all inner) (Default values are measured at mid height of the slab) (Cl. 4.3.3.2.2.2: Shear with torsion capacity) 7. hf1 (mm) : Thickness of upper flange (minimum thickness, if varies) (Cl. 4.3.3.2.6: Load capacity of elements supported on three edges) 8. hf2 (mm) : Thickness of lower flange (minimum thickness, if varies) (Cl. 4.3.3.2.6: Load capacity of elements supported on three edges) 9. hj (mm) : Height of joint (Cl. 4.3.3.2.3: Shear capacity of the longitudinal joints)

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Properties of InBlock 10. beff (mm) : Effective width of webs (Cl.4.3.3.2.4: Punching shear capacity)

Note: beff is equal to sumabw by default. To change the value of beff, user has to edit the value and press [OK], without [Update].

11. Bnom

: Nominal width of cross-section. This is nothing but the value of Bb rounded to the nearest multiple of 100 (Definition of fitting plate, opening and loads)

Above picture explains how the default values are measured for a cross-section. Among them, parameters Bb, Bt and H govern the accuracy of simplified cross-section. Rest govern the output of mechanical resistance checks.

Note: [Update] in the cross-section manager restores the default values. They are measured from the cross-section as shown in the above picture.

Cross-section tool tips
Tool tips for geometric parameters appear when the mouse pointer is kept at the parameter in the cross-section manager / library.

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Hollow core slab

Editing geometric parameters of cross-section
1. Select the cross-section in the InBlock properties 2. Open the cross section library 3. Press [Edit] 4. Edit the parameters to suit the requirement (in the opened cross-section manager) 5. Press [OK]. But, don’t press [Update] 6. Close the cross-section manager

Note: Connected parameter “Topping thickness (Tt)” has to be changed through InBlock properties (through template dialogue, when parameterized)

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Properties of InBlock

Topping thickness
No topping is assumed by default (topping thickness = 0). Topping thickness should always be edited through properties of InBlock. Topping should never be edited through cross-section manager as dissuaded above. Topping thickness, present among the InBlock properties prevails after update.


Length

Note: Topping thickness remains same when the cross-section is changed.

This is the total length (Le) of hollow core beam. It is the sum of clear distance between supports (Ln) and width of supports at left end and right end. Following schematic representation illustrates:

Supports
The default supports may be added/deleted/edited through the dialogue concerned.

Support remains at the same place when length is increased/decreased. deleted, if the decreased length is not able to accommodate it.

However, a support is

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Hollow core slab

Construction stages
Add pre-cast beam
This is the stage during which the pre-cast beam is added (Pre-cast beam is nothing but the hollow core slab without topping and joints).

Add topping and joints 1 ->2
This is the stage during which the topping and joints are added (valid only when the topping and joints are present)

Local beam history
Local beam history (LBH) is defined through this property.

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Properties of InBlock

Reinforcement
Pre-cast beam reinforcement Reinforcement type
Reinforcement type changes between prestressed & non-prestressed. Scia Engineer finds the type of reinforcement for the cross-section chosen and sets this property, automatically. Scia Engineer distinguishes the cross-section between prestressed and non-prestressed based on the availability of suitable sectional strand pattern or non-prestressed reinforcement scheme.

Note: A combo box appears to set the “Reinforcement type”, if a particular cross-section has i) both strand pattern(s) and reinforcement scheme(s) ii) none of the suitable reinforcement patterns

Sectional strand patterns
This input option appears when the reinforcement type is Prestressed. Suitable strand patterns (from the strand patterns library) to the chosen cross-section are shown in the combo box. Selected sectional strand pattern may be edited by pressing […] button.

Note: Suitability of strand pattern is dependent on cross-section, exposure class and fire duration

Stressing beds
This input option appears only when the reinforcement type is Prestressed. Available stressing beds in the library are shown in the combo box. Selected stressing bed may be edited by pressing […] button.

Non-prestressed reinforcement
This input option appears when the reinforcement type is Non-Prestressed. Suitable reinforcement schemes (from the Non-prestressed reinforcement library) to the chosen crosssection are shown in the combo box. Selected reinforcement scheme may be edited by pressing […] button.

Note: Suitability of non-prestressed reinforcement pattern is dependent on cross-section, exposure class and fire duration

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Hollow core slab

Slab reinforcement
Slab reinforcement means the reinforcement provided for the topping and joints.

Reinforcement top cover (mm)
This is the default concrete cover provided for reinforcement bars in the topping when the topping reinforcement is defined. This cover is measured from the top of the topping slab. This input option is valid when the topping is present.

Note: “Reinforcement top cover” doesn’t appear among the properties of InBlock, if no topping is present.

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Properties of InBlock

Topping reinforcement
Topping reinforcement is defined through a dialogue concerned.

Following salient points explain the behaviour of topping reinforcement in different situations:          Topping reinforcement dialogue is opened, only when the thickness of topping is more than the sum of default concrete cover and default reinforcement bar Dynamic indicative diagram considers the width of fitting plate present Bar distance is calculated based on the number of bars. Hence the number of bars should be changed to change the bar distance (measured between the centres of bars) Topping reinforcement is deleted when the width of topping changes (due to change in width of fitting plate) Thickness of topping may be changed after defining the reinforcement. But, only to the possible thickness. In a layer, overlapping of bars is not allowed Bars are reduced to the available length when the length of member is decreased such that the member length is less than that of reinforcement bars Length of bars doesn’t change when the member length is increased Topping reinforcement is deleted when the cross-section is changed

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Hollow core slab

Note: “Topping reinforcement” doesn’t appear among the properties of InBlock, if no topping is present.

Joint reinforcement

One reinforcement bar can be defined for each joint through the dialogue concerned. Following salient points explain the behaviour of joint reinforcement in different situations:      Dynamic indicative diagram considers the width of fitting plate present Joint reinforcement bar and fitting plate do not coexist By definition of InBlock, joint reinforcement is assumed for full length Change in length of member does not affect the length of joint reinforcement. reinforcement always adjusts to the length of member Reinforcement in joints is deleted when the cross-section is changed Joint

Note: Though a full bar is defined for each joint, only half of its area is considered for design checks.

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Properties of InBlock

Fitting plate
Use fitting plate
This option has to be set ‘yes’ to define the fitting plate to the member

Select fitting plate
Suitable fitting plates, based on the cross-section chosen, are listed from the fitting plate library. No list appears if no suitable fitting plate is available for the cross-section chosen. Then user may define a new fitting plate by opening the fitting plate library through […].

Note: Non-prestressed reinforcement bars in pre-cast beam appear as there are present in the fitting plate width. But, this is only in view. Absence of these reinforcement bars in fitting widths is duly accounted in the design checks.

Salient features of fitting plates
  Fitting plate adjusts to full length when member length changes A fitting plate changes to another suitable one, if cross-section changes

Note: sumabw and beff (geometric parameters of cross-section) have to be reduced appropriately by user when the fitting plates are introduced (Width of cores overlapped by fitting plates ought not to be considered). When the values of sumabw and beff are changed press [OK] and close the cross-section manager without pressing [Update].

Opening generator
Openings may be defined through the dialogue concerned.

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Hollow core slab

Note: Non-prestressed reinforcement bars (in pre-cast beam, topping and joints) appear as they are passing through the openings. But, this is only in view. Discontinuity of these reinforcement bars due to openings is duly accounted in the design checks.

Following salient points explain the features of openings and openings dialogue.  Origin co-ordinates: Coordinates of origin from which the distances (X,Y) are measured

Reference: The point from which the dimensions of opening (DeltaX, DeltaY) are measured

     

Position of opening doesn’t change when length of member is increased/decreased However, opening is deleted when the available length is not able to accommodate it Dynamic indicative diagram considers the width of fitting plate present An opening can’t be defined beyond the length of member Openings are deleted when the cross-section is changed Nominal width (Bnom) is used as reference width of the slab

Note: sumabw and beff (geometric parameters of cross-section) have to be reduced appropriately by user when the openings are present (Width of cores overlapped by openings ought not to be considered). When the values of sumabw and beff are changed press [OK] and close the crosssection manager without pressing [Update].

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Properties of InBlock

Loads
Load generator

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Hollow core slab

Salient features
 Origin of co-ordinates: Coordinates of origin from which the distances (X,Y) are measured

    

Load always acts in z-direction Origin of reference co-ordinate system (from which the distances DeltaX and DeltaY are measured) is left bottom point of member Nominal width (Bnom) is used as reference width of the slab Loads may be defined under any load case except under the following: prestress, accidental and creep 5 types of loads may be defined self-weight,

Type of load 1. Point load i. ii. 2. Longitudinal line load Transverse line load i. ii. i. ii. 4. Partial surface load i. ii. 5. Full surface load i.

Characteristics Magnitude (kN) with direction Position (x, y) Magnitude (kN/m) with direction Starting point (x, y) with length (x) Magnitude (kN/m) with direction Starting point (x, y) with length (y) Magnitude (kN/m2) with direction Starting point (x, y) with dimensions (x, y) Magnitude (kN/m2) with direction

3.

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Properties of InBlock

Transformation of Loads
Based on the Type of Structure
After update of InBlock, the loads from the load generator are exported as standard loads of Scia Engineer. Transformation of load depends on the type of structure, as follows:  Frame XZ – value Y is not exported to the property of the load as eccentricity ey. But, resultant value of eccentricity is considered for the check of the longitudinal joint according to clause 4.3.3.2.3 Frame XYZ – – value Y is exported to the property of the load as eccentricity ey. Also, the resultant value of eccentricity is considered for the check of the longitudinal joint according to clause 4.3.3.2.3

Frame XZ 

Frame XYZ 

Point  load 

 

Line  load 

  Fig. 1 Properties of the loads after updating InBlock  
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Hollow core slab

Based on the type of load
After update of InBlock, the loads from the load generator are exported as standard loads of Scia Engineer. Calculation of eccentricities considers the width of fitting plate present. Transformation of load depends on the type of load, as follows:

Point load
Point load remains as point load itself, after transformation. ey = Y – Bnom/2; final eccentricity of the load related to the centroidal axis of the member

 

  Linear longitudinal load
Linear longitudinal load remains as linear longitudinal load itself, after transformation. ey = Y – Bnom/2; final eccentricity of the load related to the centroidal axis of the member

 

q1 

q2 

 

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Properties of InBlock

Linear transverse load
Linear transverse load is transformed into an equivalent point load. Value in kN: F = (q1 + q2)/2* Y; ey = Y + Y (q1+2*q2)/(3(q1+q2)) - Bnom/2; final eccentricity of the load related to the centroidal axis of the member

 

Transform

Surface partial load
Partial surface load is transformed into an equivalent line load. Value in kN/m: qline = qsurface Y; ey = Y + Y/2 – Bnom/2; final eccentricity of the load related to the centroidal axis of the member

 

Transform

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Hollow core slab

Full surface load
Full surface load is transformed into an equivalent line load. Value in kN/m: qline = qsurface * Bnom; Where: Bnom- width of the member Le - length of the element (see chapter 0) ey = 0m - final eccentricity of the load related to the centroidal axis of the member

   

Transform

Spreading
When this is ‘yes’, load that is distributed to the InBlock can be set by a distribution factor. Each user defined load, which is transferred to the point or line load will be multiplied by this distribution coefficient.

According to
Load distribution factor can be set either according to EN 1168+A1 or as per user’s choice. (This option appears only when “spreading = yes”)

Alpha coefficient
This is the load distribution factor as user’s choice. (This option appears only when “according to = user”)

Position in the floor
Position of floor can be changed between edge & centre. In this case, the load distribution factor is calculated according to figures C.1, C.2 and C.3 of EN1168 + A1. (This option appears only when “according to = EN1168”)

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Properties of InBlock

Analysis
Model
This input option changes between Normal cross-section & simplified cross-section. Hollow core slab is a complex geometric entity that takes long time for design checks. Simplified cross-section is a geometrically equivalent cross-section to Normal cross-section. Performing design checks over simplified model saves considerable time without compromising at the quality of output. An InBlock model adopts simplified cross-section, by default.

Note: The geometric accuracy of simplified cross-section is governed by the geometric crosssection parameters viz., Bb, Bt and H

Application of normal model instead of simplified model
Although the InBlock is opted with simplified model, normal model is used in the following situations:     Mechanical resistance checks (according to EN1168) are always performed over normal cross-section Self-weight of the member is always evaluated from the normal model Drying surface of cross-section is always calculated from the dimensions of normal crosssection When preparation of simplified cross-section becomes complex (due to the position of openings), following tests (which are usually performed over simplified cross-section) are performed over normal cross-section itself:

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Check response Check capacity Check cracks Allowable concrete stresses Allowable principal stresses

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Hollow core slab

Mesh Refinement

 

Local mesh can be refined at each node (separately) of the member through the dialogue concerned This refinement remains undisturbed when length or cross-section of member is changed

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Properties of InBlock

Sections for checks
These are the sections at which the design checks can be performed.

Default sections
Following are the default sections that user can’t edit/delete: 1. Pre-cast beam height 2. Half of member length 3. Transmission length (minimum if transmission length varies among the strands) (applicable to prestressed member only) Additional default sections for each opening (when openings present): 4. Starting edge of opening 5. Ending edge of opening 6. Middle of opening

Note: Among the default and user defined sections, user may select the intended sections to perform the checks

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Hollow core slab

User-defined sections
In addition to the default sections listed above, user can define new sections. Those sections may be edited or deleted.

Salient features
When the length or cross-section of the member is changed   Default sections adjust themselves User-defined sections remain unchanged. (sections are deleted, if the reduced length of the member is not able to accommodate them)

Note: Scia Engineer finds the repetitions among the sections and deletes them.

Mechanical resistance checks
This is the data needed to perform the mechanical resistance checks. But, it is not taken from here. When the InBlock is updated, this data is transferred to “concrete data”. Input is taken for calculations from “concrete data”.

Note: Geometric data, needed for mechanical resistance data is taken from the geometric parameters of cross-section of the cross-section. See the explanation under ‘cross-section’

Concrete data
Concrete data is generated from the InBlock automatically. resistance checks is taken from here for calculations. Data needed to perform mechanical

Note: “Mechanical resistance data” appears in the concrete data prevails over that appears among the properties of InBlock. (An update of InBlock makes both as same)

50% load on outer most slab
If this is yes, punching shear resistance is divided by 2, on account of application of more than 50% loads on the outermost web, situated at the free edge of a floor bay.

qk (kN/m2)
Surface load on InBlock, when supported on three sides

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Parameters in the template

Parameters in the Template
Following are the parameters used in the template to for easy editing:

Notation T1 T2a T2b T2c T3

Description Storage yard time Casting time for topping and/or joints Time of applying dead load Time applying long term life load Service life

Units Day Day Day Day Day

Used in Construction stage 1 Construction stage 2a Construction stage 2b Construction stage 2c Construction stage 3

AH1 AH2a AH2b AH2c AH3

Relative humidity Relative humidity Relative humidity Relative humidity Relative humidity

% % % % %

Construction stage 1 Construction stage 2a Construction stage 2b Construction stage 2c Construction stage 3

Ln tl tr Alpha_l Alpha_r Le Leff Left_sup Righ_sup

Clear distance between the faces of supports Width of left supporting element Width of right supporting element Coefficient for the position of left theoretical support Coefficient for the position of right theoretical support Length of member Effective length of member Position of left support Position of right support

m m m m m m m m m

Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length Properties of InBlock Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length Evaluation of effective length

ftd5_0 ftd7_0 ftd9_3 ftd12_5

Initial stress in 5mm strand prior anchoring Initial stress in 7mm strand prior anchoring Initial stress in 9.3mm strand prior anchoring Initial stress in 12.5mm strand prior anchoring

MPa MPa MPa MPa

In evaluating spw5_0 In evaluating spw7_0 In evaluating spw9_3 In evaluating spw12_5

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Hollow core slab

Initial

Initial stress / Characteristic tensile strength

-

In evaluating the initial stress in strands

spw5_0 spw7_0 spw9_3 spw12_5

Initial stress in 5mm strand Initial stress in 7mm Initial stress in 9.3mm Initial stress in 12.5mm

MPa MPa MPa MPa

Properties of 5mm strands Properties of 7mm strands Properties of 9.3mm strands Properties of 12.5mm strands

Tt ctop

Thickness of topping Top cover to the reinforcement bars in topping

mm mm

Properties of InBlock Properties of InBlock

qlll qllt qds qls qss qk1

UDL long term live line longitudinal load UDL long term live line transverse load UDL dead surface load UDL long term live surface load UDL short term live surface load Total load on 3-sde supported

kN/m kN/m kN/m2 kN/m kN/m kN/m
2 2 2

Load generator Load generator Load generator Load generator Load generator Load generator

Fdl axd axl

Point dead load Position of point dead load from left end Position of point dead load from right end

kN m m

Load generator Load generator Load generator

ExpClass FireDur

List of possible exposure classes List of possible fire durations

-

Properties of cross-section, sectional strand pattern and non-prestressed reinforcement pattern

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Template dialogue

Template dialogue
All the parametric properties are edited through the template dialogue. automated when the properties are edited through template dialogue. Most probable values appear as default values. Update (of InBlock) is

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Default design checks in template

Default design checks in template When reinforced with prestressed reinforcement
All prestressed checks are according to EN 1992-1-1, EN 1992-1-2 and EN1168 + A1:2008.

Stage1: Storage yard stage (pressing stage)
 Deformation

Stage2b: Erection (after adding distributed dead load)
    Deformation Crack control Bending moment capacity Shear force capacity

Stage3: Service stage
                Deformation Crack control Bending moment capacity Shear force capacity Torsion capacity Shear at interface Allowable compression/tension concrete stress Shear and torsion interaction Punching 3 side support Joint stress Anchorage Bearing Fire resistance check for detailing provisions Fire resistance – response Final result based on all checks

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Hollow core slab

When reinforced with non-prestressed reinforcement
All non-prestressed checks are according to EN 1992-1-1, EN 1992-1-2 and EN1168 + A1:2008.

Stage2b: Erection (after adding distributed dead load)
    Deformation Crack control Bending moment capacity Shear force capacity

Stage3: Service stage
               Deformation Crack control Bending moment capacity Shear force capacity Torsion capacity Shear at interface Shear and torsion interaction Punching 3 side support Joint stress Anchorage Bearing Fire resistance check for detailing provisions Fire resistance – response Final result based on all checks

Note: Checks are listed for the ECHO (Belgium) template. List of checks may vary in the other templates

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Document

Document
Default chapters cover all necessary description and output of the project. Checks are performed at the sections specified in the InBlock properties and at the ends of the member. Necessary explanatory messages are also given. There are two document templates. One is for prestressed job and another for non-prestressed. User has to choose the appropriate “document template” while opening the document. SP: Strand pattern (for prestressed project) RS: Reinforcement scheme (for non-prestressed project)

Note: No need to select the document template in ODA. document template and loads it automatically.

ODA recognizes the appropriate

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Hollow core slab

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Preparation of General Cross-sections

Preparation of General Cross-sections Preparation of drawing
   Open the drawing file of hollow core beam Draw the joints on both sides Draw the topping with an arbitrary thickness

Importing as general cross-section
   Open cross-section library Press [New] Choose ‘General’ group

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Hollow core slab

   

Import the cross-section with cores from drawing file into cross-section editor Set pre-cast beam with cores into phase 1 Set topping and joints into phase 2 View the cross-section in phase colour for conformation

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Preparation of General Cross-sections

Cross-section parameters
 Define the following parameters to the general cross-section (Cross-section editor dialogue > Main menu > Parameters)

Notation Tt TOPLEVEL

Explanation Thickness of topping Actual level of topping

Units mm mm

Description This is connected parameter. It appears in the properties of cross-section This is a dependent parameter. This is connected to top corners of topping so that ‘Tt’ works correctly.

In the above diagram, ‘TOPLEVEL’ is formulated with an extra 0.0002m (0.2mm). This is because… No topping means Tt = 0. But, a polygon that represents ‘topping’ becomes line when Tt = 0. This is absurd, mathematically. Hence an infinitesimal polygon is placed when Tt = 0. But, this topping with infinitesimal thickness is avoided in calculations, by a parameter ‘Active’

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Hollow core slab

Notation

Explanation

Units

Description

Active

Whether to consider the topping during calculation

-

Connect this to properties of topping. Select topping polygon Connect the parameter to the property: Active

Define the following geometric parameters of cross-sections with any default values. When cross-section is updated, correct values are measured and fed automatically.

Parameter Bb Bt H bw0 bw

Description Bottom width of pre-cast beam Top width of pre-cast beam Height of pre-cast beam Outer web thickness Inner web thickness (minimum thickness, if inner webs vary in thickness)

Units mm mm mm mm mm

sumabw

Total thickness of all webs (All outer + all inner) (Default values are measured at mid height of the slab)

mm

hf1 52

Thickness of upper flange

mm

Preparation of General Cross-sections

(minimum thickness, if varies) hf2 Thickness of lower flange (minimum thickness, if varies) hj beff Bnom Height of joint Effective width of webs (Cl. 4.3.3.2.4) Definition of fitting plate, opening and loads mm mm mm mm

Define the required parameters for Exposure class and Fire durations. Type of parameter = List

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Hollow core slab 

Change Tt to zero (Tt = 0)

Tool tip appears for every geometric cross-section parameter when mouse pointer is kept at the parameter

54

Preparation of General Cross-sections  Feed the project parameters with appropriate cross-section parameters

  

General > Draw colour: Phase colour Press [Update] Press [OK]

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Preparation of Product Range Library

Preparation of Product Range Library (PRL) New Product range library
Product Range Library (PRL) is an effective feature of Scia Engineer. It extends the utility of crosssection through editable properties. PRL is prepared from the general cross-sections. These general cross-sections contain the “crosssection parameters” listed above.

PRL is prepared in the following way:  Load all the general cross-sections into cross-section library

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Hollow core slab 

Libraries (Pull down menu) > Structure, Analysis > Fabricated Css, Product Range

    

Name: Rename the default set, if needed Fill the Code name: HOLCOR (this code is attributed to all cross-sections in the group) Fill the branch level 1, 2 and 3 as required Choose Product range as type of item Press [add]

 

Select the cross-sections to be added to PRL [OK]


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Note: Codename must be HOLCOR. Then only, the cross-sections are recognized for InBlock. Also, this code name is mandatory for mechanical resistance checks.

Preparation of Product Range Library

Cross-section library
  Open cross-section library. Delete the general cross-sections from it. This is because, InBlock reads only the cross-sections from the PRL Press [New]

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Hollow core slab 

To edit the cross-sections in library, press [Edit]

Note: List of cross-sections appears in the library only when the filter is 1) All or 2) Product range

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Preparation of Product Range Library

Attributions to cross-section when extracted from PRL

    

Name adopts consecutive number to avoid repetition Type: Product Range – HOLCOR Detailed: Lists the values of parameters Source description: From PRL settings, branch levels are shown in an order Type description: As general cross-section has been named

Note: After exporting the general cross-sections to product range library, user has to set the materials and project parameters again.

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Preparation of Borehole Pattern Library

Preparation of Borehole Pattern Library (BPL)
     Keep the product range cross-sections readily in the cross-section library Pull down menu: Libraries > Prestressing > Borehole patterns Borehole library is opened. Press [New] (No need to press [New] if no borehole pattern is available in the BPL) Cross-section library is opened. Choose the intended cross-section and press [OK] Borehole pattern dialogue is opened with the periphery of the cross section

  

Press [Import DWG] Import the boreholes with cross-section shape, from the drawing file (cores are a part of cross-section shape) Change the cover of each borehole (if needed) through the geometric details appear on right side when the borehole is selected

Press [OK]

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Preparation of Sectional Strand Pattern Library

Preparation of Sectional Strand Pattern Library (SSP)

   

Keep the product range cross-sections & borehole patterns readily in their respective libraries Pull down menu: Libraries > Prestressing > Sectional strand patterns Strand pattern library is opened. Press [New] (No need to press [New] if no strand pattern is available in the library) Cross-section library is opened. Choose the intended cross-section and press [OK]

Note: Cross-section must be from product range. Strand patterns prepared from general crosssections are not recognized by InBlock

 

Borehole pattern library is opened. Choose the intended borehole pattern and press [OK] A dialogue is opened to set the reference point of borehole pattern. Edit the default if needed

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Hollow core slab 

Sectional strand pattern dialogue is opened with the periphery of the cross section (with cores) and boreholes

Note: If boreholes are not found in the cross-section, reduce ‘Cover’ in the “Set reference point of borehole pattern” dialogue (picture appears in the preceding discussion).

  

Fill the boreholes with strands Edit the properties of each strand, if needed Properties of strand appear under Strand property tab when the strand is selected

66

Preparation of Sectional Strand Pattern Library    Yield strength of strand may be reduced (with a safety factor) to set as initial stress. (among the properties shown above, initial strength was fed with a parameter) Press [OK] In the Strand Pattern library opened, set appropriate Project parameters (Exposure class and fire durations)

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Preparation of Non-prestressed Reinforcement Scheme Library

Preparation of Non-prestressed Reinforcement Scheme Library
   Keep the product range cross-sections readily in the cross-section library Pull down menu: Libraries > Concrete, reinforcement > Non-prestressed reinforcement Non-reinforcement library is opened. Press [New] (No need to press [New] if no reinforcement scheme is available in the library)

Cross-section library is opened. Choose the intended cross-section and press [OK]

Note: Cross-section must be from product range. Reinforcement Schemes prepared from general cross-sections are not recognized by InBlock

 

Non-prestressed library is opened with new reinforcement scheme for the intended product range cross-section Press [Edit]

]

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Hollow core slab  

Choose Layers […] button to define new reinforcement layer(s) Layers dialogue is opened

    

Define the reinforcement layers needed with [Add layer] When “Layer type = Lower”, cover is measured from bottom surface of hollow core beam When “Layer type = Upper”, cover is measured from top surface of hollow core beam Use Explode option to edit each bar separately Press [OK] In the Non-prestressed reinforcement library opened, set appropriate Project parameters (Exposure class and fire durations)

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Preparation of Fitting Plate Library

Preparation of Fitting Plate Library
   Keep the product range cross-sections readily in the cross-section library Pull down menu: Libraries > Structure, Analysis > Fitting hollow core slabs Fitting plate library is opened. Press [New]

Cross-section library is opened. Choose the intended cross-section and press [OK]

Note: Cross-section must be from product range and type HOLCOR. Fitting plates defined for general cross-sections are not recognized by InBlock

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Hollow core slab 

Feed the Definition point (left or right) and Fitting plate width. This can also be done through Definition […].

Close the dialogues by pressing [OK]

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Preparation of Template

Preparation of Template

Setting up the project
 Start a new project in Scia Engineer

 

Choose Structure as type of new project Project data dialogue is opened

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Hollow core slab

Set the following under “basic data” tab

a) Data b) National code c) Project level d) Model e) Structure f) Material

: : : : : :

As per the user’s choice EC-EN Advanced Construction stages Frame XZ Concrete, C50/60 (or any other)

Select the following functionalities under “functionality” tab

a) Prestressing (for projects with prestressed reinforcement) b) Parameters c) Prestressing > Advanced (for projects with prestressed reinforcement) d) Concrete > Fire resistance e) Concrete > Hollow core slab

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Preparation of Template

Press [OK]

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Hollow core slab

Prerequisites
Libraries
Load the following into their respective libraries:      Product range cross-sections Corresponding borehole patterns (not mandatory) Corresponding strand patterns Corresponding non-prestressed reinforcement schemes Corresponding fitting plates

Note: At least, one product range cross-section and one strand pattern/reinforcement scheme are required to define an InBlock

Load cases
Define the following load cases           Self-weight of pre-cast beam Self-weight of topping and joints Prestressed load (Load type: Prestress) Distributed dead load Distributed long-term live load Distributed short-term live load Concentrated dead load Concentrated live load Fire load Any other load(s), if needed

Note: At least, first two load cases are required to define an InBlock

76

Preparation of Template

Construction stage
Main tree menu > Construction stages > Set up: Set the type as Time analysis

Define the following construction stages. Type of construction stages: Time analysis      Stage 1 with self-weight of pre-cast beam and Prestressing load Stage 2 with self-weight of topping and joints as last construction stage Stage 3 with distributed dead load and with short-term live loads, if present Stage 4 distributed long-term live load and with short-term live loads, if present Stage 5 with concentrated dead load and short-term live loads, if s

Attach the fire load to service stage.

Note: At least, first two construction stages are required to define an InBlock

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Hollow core slab

Recommended settings
Parameters
Define the parameters as wished. A parameter for thickness of topping (Tt) is recommended.

Template dialogue
   Prepare template dialogue through: Pull down menu > Tools > Parameters template settings Add sample pictures, if wished Change the property “Check page = yes”. This property checks the validity of input value in the template dialogue. When the implementation of the new input value is not possible, it restores the previous input value into the template dialogue.

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Preparation of Template

Document chapters
Set the document chapters as required.

Note: When the project contains strands, one document chapter with Beam strand pattern must be set. Based on this chapter, ODA distinguishes the document template between prestressed and non- prestressed projects.

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Hollow core slab

Check overview from all concrete checks in document
Scia Engineer has tailored a special functionality Check overview that reports whether member is passed/failed, based on all the checks that are added to the document. It should be at the end of the document. Maximum check value, from all the concrete checks, appears here. Checks, among which the member failed, are listed

 

Note: Functionality “Check overview” considers only the concrete checks that added to the document prior to it. Hence “Check overview” must be last among all the checks.

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Preparation of Template

Modelling an InBlock
  Main tree menu > Structure > Advanced input > InBlocks > New InBlock New InBlock Type dialogue is opened. Choose: Hollow core beam > ECHO

Note: “Hollow core slab” functionality should be enabled for this option to appear. (Main tree menu > Project > Functionality > Concrete > Hollow core slab)

81

Hollow core slab 

InBlock definition dialogue appears.

     

Set the Exposure class and Fire duration List of cross-sections appear based on the Exposure class and Fire duration set Press [OK] InBlock instance Type dialogue appears. Choose On vertex with LCS Press [Select] Insert the InBlock in Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Note: Suitable default properties (e.g.: Local beam history, concrete member data etc.) are generated by Scia Engineer along with definition of InBlock. User can check those default properties after modeling the InBlock and may edit them if needed. Update has to follow the editing.

82

Preparation of Template

Editing the InBlock Properties
       Properties of InBlock are listed in property window when the InBlock is selected Parameterise the thickness of topping Parameterise all other required properties Edit the properties as needed Press [standard update for all instances] Concrete data (generated automatically along with InBlock definition) appears Define Standard Beam End Zone (SBEZ) data from concrete tree to perform the bearing checks.

Optional settings

Main tree menu > Project > Basic data > Project level Set to standard to hide some advanced properties of InBlock

Main tree menu > Project > Protection > Hide parametric properties Check this option to hide the parametric input options. (Then parameters should be edited to change the input)

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Hollow core slab

Saving model for ODA
   Select InBlock in GUI Pull down menu: Tools > Selections > Save selection In the dialogue opened, save (save as new) the selection with suitable name

Press [OK]

Note: Save the selection with InBlock alone. Concrete data and SBEZ data follow it.

84

Preparation of Template

Saving the project as Template
  Project should be saved as user template Check the location of user templates Pull down menu > Setup > Options > Directories > Show directories for: User templates

 

Save the project in the User templates directory Save the project without mesh and results of calculation

Note: It is recommended to run the TDA calculation once before saving the project as Template. During calculation, some additional load cases are defined automatically. It is a prescribed functionality.

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Template in ODA

Template in ODA
  Start a new project (Pull down menu: File > New) Choose the type of project as Parametric Project

From the user templates, choose a template based on the requirement

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Hollow core slab

ODA interface is opened. Buttons appear on left side, show the default input values. Edit these values, if needed

 

Last button [Document] performs calculation, according to the settings in the template (TDA with the stages set) and produces the output Export the output to a needed format (see the first icon appears at the top left corner)

Save the project

Note: Pass through [Geometry] button before going to [Document]. If the defaults are edited in [Geometry] itself, go to any other button and then come back to [Geometry]. Then only, the InBlock is updated.

88