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Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis

according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
Manual
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
2
All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part or this manual
may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system or published, in any form or in any way,
electronically, mechanically, by print, photo print, microfilm or any other means without prior written
permission from the publisher. Scia is not responsible for any direct or indirect damage because of
imperfections in the documentation and/or the software.
© Copyright 2008 Scia Group nv. All rights reserved.

Table of contents
3
Obsah 
1  Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 1 
2  Definition of continuous beam .................................................................................................... 2 
3  Combination and construction stages ....................................................................................... 3 
3.1  Changes in combinations ...................................................................................................... 3 
3.2  Changes in construction stages ........................................................................................... 4 
3.3  Generation of redistributed combination ............................................................................. 5 
4  Definition or change of input parameters in concrete setup .................................................... 8 
4.1  Concrete setup > General > National annex ........................................................................ 8 
4.2  Concrete setup > General > Calculation > tab-sheet Beams .............................................. 9 
5  Definition of additional data for redistribution ......................................................................... 11 
6  New properties in services for evaluate the results ............................................................... 16 
7  Calculation of redistributed bending moment ......................................................................... 18 
7.1  Method according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5(4) ............................................................... 19 
7.2  Method according to French DTU, clause 3.2.2.5 .............................................................. 20 
7.3  Method - moment of resistance ........................................................................................... 22 
7.4  User input .............................................................................................................................. 23 
8  Check of redistributed bending moment .................................................................................. 24 
8.1  Check according to 5.5(4) .................................................................................................... 27 
8.1.1  Partial checks .................................................................................... 28 
8.1.2  Output table ....................................................................................... 30 
8.2  Check according to 5.6.2(2) ................................................................................................. 32 
8.2.1  Partial checks .................................................................................... 32 
8.2.2  Output table ....................................................................................... 35 
9  XML and parameterization ......................................................................................................... 37 
10  Definition of new terms .............................................................................................................. 38 
11  Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 39 
11.1  Example 1 ......................................................................................................................... 39 


Input manually the Name of My first chapter
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1 Abstract
The target of this project is the calculation and check of the redistribution of bending moment M
y

(moment around the local y-axis). Moment M
z
(moment around the local z-axis) is not redistributed.
The redistribution means decreasing bending moments above supports and increasing bending
moments in mid-spans where distribution of moments remains in equilibrium with the applied loads.


The user can select four methods for the calculation of redistributed bending moment M
y
:
- method according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5,
- moment resistance (redistributed bending moment = moment of resistance),
- user method.

After the calculation of redistributed bending moment according to the above-mentioned methods,
the user can check the value of redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5(4)
or 5.6.2(2). The moment can be redistributed, only if:
- a new type of member - continuous beam - is defined,
- additional data for redistribution are defined on continuous beam,
- a combination for redistribution is prepared.

The following steps for the calculation and check of redistributed bending moment have to be
performed:
- Definition of new type of member - continuous beam (chapter 2)
- Selection of combination or construction stages for which redistribution will be calculated
(chapter 3)
- Definition or change of input parameters in concrete setup (chapter 4)
- Definition of additional data for redistribution on continuous beam (type of method, selection of
support...), chapter 5
- Calculation of redistributed bending moment for selected member and selected method
(chapter 7)
- Check of redistribution bending moment in ULS checks (chapter 8)

 Limitations:
Supported direction: only bending moment M
y
(around the local y-axis)
Supported code: only EN 1992-1-1
Supported member: straight continuous beam
Supported cross-sections: all cross-sections


M
red,max
M
lin,max
M
lin,min
M
red,min
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
2
2 Definition of continuous beam
Bending moment can be redistributed only if continuous beam is defined. Continuous beam can be
defined via item Continuous beam (tree Structure > Model data).



After clicking on this item the user selects the type of continuous beam:
- standard – only one option is available.

Then the user allocates the existing 1D members (by selection in graphical window) to continuous
beam. The allocation of 1D members can be changed in the properties of Continuous beam via action
buttons Select Allocation and Remove inactive entities from allocation.


 Note:
- the continuous beam cannot be copied,
- graphical presentation and label for continuous beam can be set in dialog View parameters
setting > Model > Other model data > Continuous beam.


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3 Combination and construction stages
The user has to define for which combination or construction stages the redistribution should be
calculated.
3.1 Changes in combinations
There is a new check box Redistribution of bending moments in the manager of combinations and
in the dialog for editing of combination. This check box is active only for ULS combination and in case
that:
- concrete material is defined in project,
- code EN 1992-1-1 is selected,
- continuous beam is defined in project.

The check box Redistribution of bending moments can be parameterized via parameter Boolean.



Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
4


3.2 Changes in construction stages
There is a new check box Redistribution of moment in properties of each construction stage. If this
check box is ON, then:
- the redistributed moment will be calculated for all ULS combinations from the selected
construction stage (the check box Redistribution of bending moment in properties of each
ULS combination will be ON)
- supports for selected construction stage can be taken into account for redistribution.

The check box Redistribution of moment can be parameterized via parameter Boolean.


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3.3 Generation of redistributed combination

A new load case is generated and added to each combination with switching ON check box
Redistribution of bending moment. This load case contains moment reduction in each result-section.
Using one of the methods described below, the program calculates moment reduction above support.
For the calculation of redistributed bending moments in all sections, the program uses the following
procedure:
- moment reductions are recalculated in sections (a linear distribution is assumed along the length
of span),
- loop for all sections in span: run cross-section solver, calculate stress, integrate forces in phases
of cross-sections and the tendons,
- test the material of beams (only concrete + internal tendons in cross-sections can be calculated),
- E modulus increase over time (ageing, E modulus changes, …) is respected in calculations of
forces in phases of cross-sections.
- fill in new LC by moment reduction (forces in phases of cross-sections and tendons).

The load case with moment reduction can be presented in the services Internal forces on beam (tree
Results > Beams) and Internal forces (tree Concrete > 1D member), where a new item Load cases -
moment reduction is available in combo box Type of loads.





For Type of loads = Load cases - moment reduction a new combo box Load cases - moment
reduction is active with the list of all load cases with moment reduction for all combinations for which
Redistribution of bending moment is ON. The name of load case is derived from the name of the
source redistributed combination, for example name of LC for combination F1-MAX is F1-MAX/1. The
number behind the name of the combination means the number of the load case, because for
envelope combination several load cases with moment reduction can be generated.


Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
6




Basic principles for the generation of redistributed combination are:
- The redistributed combination can be created only for ULS combination depending on the type
of calculation (analysis):
- for TDA and Construction stages analysis the combinations are generated automatically .The
check box Redistribution of bending moment is ON for all ULS combinations in
construction/serviceability stage in which the check box Redistribution of moment is on.
- for other type of analysis the check box Redistribution of bending moment has to be switched
ON directly by the user in the dialog for the definition of combination.
- for linear combination only one load case with moment reduction is generated
- for envelope combination the following procedure is used
o the envelope combination is exploded to linear combinations in the background,
o for the selected member (only a member with redistribution data defined) and envelope
combination the dangerous combinations from linear combinations are created,
o for each dangerous combination a new load case with moment reduction is created and
filled in,
o the new created load cases are stored.
- the envelope combination is found from all dangerous combinations with load case moment
reduction directly in the current result/concrete service
- the contents of the redistributed combination can be presented only using the Combination key
M
lin
sn
j
AM
sn
j
AM
j,l
AM
i,p
sn
i
sn
j
M
red
Elastic bending moment ( linear or dangerous combination)

Moment reduction ( LC moment reduction)

Redistributed bending moment ( redistributed combination)

sn
i
sn
i
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- redistributed combination is taken into account if check box Redistribution of moment in
selected service (type of check) is ON


Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
8
4 Definition or change of input parameters in concrete setup

The new parameters influencing the calculation and check of the redistribution of bending moment are
in:
- Concrete setup > General > National annex
- Concrete setup > General > Calculation > tab-sheet Beams.

4.1 Concrete setup > General > National annex
There are parameters for calculation of value o according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5.4 in national
annex. The value o is used for calculation of redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1
and check of redistributed bending moment according to chapter 5.5 (4).





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4.2 Concrete setup > General > Calculation > tab-sheet Beams
There are parameters for the check of compression member and for selection method which is used for
the check of redistribution of bending moment M
y
.



- check box Normal force to calculation
o if this check box is ON, then normal forces in beam is taken into account for the design
of reinforcement, otherwise the beam is designed for the pure bending moment. This
check has no influence on checks of the member. This parameter is code
independent.
o default value is ON
- check box Check compression of member
o is active only if check box Normal force to calculation is ON
o is code independent and is used for the definition of member predominantly subject to
flexure or compression.
o if check box is ON then program checks the formula
 in design reinforcement (service Design As)
 in calculation of redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
10
 in check of redistribution according to chapter 5.5(4) (services for ULS checks,
value Redistribution check)



¿
÷
· · < +
ph
n
i
i cd i c p Ed
f A x N N
1
, ,

where

N
Ed
is normal force caused by external load
N
p
is normal force caused by prestressing
x

is relative number sets in Concrete setup, default value is 0,1
n
ph
is number of phases of cross-section
A
c,i
is area of concrete of i- th phase of cross-section
f
cd,i
is design value of concrete compressive strength of i- th phase
of cross-section


Design of reinforcement:
- if formula is satisfied, then program gives warning 60 (The member is not
considered to be in compression) and calculation is OK
- if formula is not satisfied, then program gives warning 61 (The member is
considered to be in compression) and calculation is not ok and the beam should
be calculated as a column. The user must switch the type of member to column
manually
Calculation of redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1:
- if formula is satisfied, then redistributed moment may be calculated
- if formula is not satisfied, then program gives error 851 (The member is not
predominantly subject to flexure) and redistributed bending moment is not
calculated
Check of redistribution according to chapter 5.5(4):
- if formula is satisfied, then check is OK
- if formula is not satisfied, then program gives error 851 (The member is not
predominantly subject to flexure) and check is not ok

o if check box is OFF, the previous formula is checked only :
- in calculation of redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1
- in check of redistribution according to chapter 5.5(4),
because only member predominantly subject to flexure can be used in these cases.

- group Check of redistributed moments
o user can select type of method for check of redistributed moments
o two methods are supported
 Check according to 5.5(4) - is method in EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5 (4)
 Check according to 5.6.2(2) - is method in EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.2(2)


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11
5 Definition of additional data for redistribution
Calculation and check of redistributed moment is not possible without redistribution data, because
supports and method for calculation have to be selected. Additional data for redistribution (RM data)
can be input via item Redistribution data in Concrete tree > 1D member. The item is active only, if:
- code EN is selected in Project > Basic data
- concrete material is selected in Project > Basic data
- one or more continuous beams are defined in the project



After clicking on item Redistribution data, the user has to select one Continuous beam and method
and supports for the calculation in dialog Redistribution moment.
 Note:
- The redistribution data cannot be input to a continuous beam if the graphical presentation of
continuous beam is OFF. This presentation can be set ON via View parameters setting >
Model > Other model data > Continuous beam
- Only input parameter for bending moment M
y
and for supports in direction of z-axis of LCS can
be set



There is a list of all supports in the direction of the local z-axis (name of supports) for all construction
stages in the dialog. All types of support are supported (standard supports, columns, crossing of
member). Each support has the following properties:
- x [m]
o non editable value, the position of the support on the continuous beam is
presented
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
12
- Reduce
o if check box is ON, the moment M above this support is redistributed,
o default value is ON
o the value can be parameterized using a Boolean parameter
- Redistribution
o combo box for selection of the type of method for the calculation of
redistributed bending moment, user can select these methods:
 EN 1992-1-1,5.5(4), default method
 Moment of resistance
 User input
o is active only if Reduce = ON
- Construction stages
o the supports can be defined in more construction stages and this property
allow the user to select for which construction stages the moment above
support will be redistributed
o is active if construction stages are defined and the check box Redistribution
moment is ON for one construction stage, see chapter 3.2.
o the list of construction stages for which the moment above support will be
redistributed. Only construction stages with Redistribution moment = On
are listed.
o the list of construction stages can be edited via button . The user can
select construction stages for which the moment above support will be
redistributed. Only construction stages with Redistribution moment = On
are listed in the dialog Construction stages selection.



There are additional properties for user input (redistribution = User input)
- Same input of internal support
o is active only for internal support
o if the check box is OFF, then input values for left and right side of the support
can be different.
o if check box is ON, then input values for both side of support are same
o the value can be parameterized via parameter Boolean






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Same input of internal support = ON Same input of internal support = OFF

- Equilibrium of Mred
o is active only for an internal support and if Same input of internal support is
OFF
o combo box for selection of the method for equilibrium of redistributed moment
above internal support. Three possibilities are supported:
 None (defualt value), the redistributed bending moment on the left
and right side of the support can be different
 Min, the redistributed bending moment on the left and right side of the
support are the same, minimum from both
 Max, the redistributed bending moment on the left and right side of
the support are the same, maximum from both

E
q
u
l
i
b
r
i
u
m

o
f

M
r
e
d

N
o
n
e


M
i
n


M
a
x



- Type of input
o combo box for selection of the type of input, two types are supported
 Delta ,the user inputs the value of A M (moment reduction) which is
subtracted from elastic bending moment
 Total (defualt), the user inputs directly the value of redistributed
moment above support








Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
14

Type of input= Total Type of input= Delta

- Value
o different type can be set for both sides of internal supports
o only value for bending moment M
y
(around y-axis of LCS) can be input
o combo box for selection of the type of value with two items.
 Abs (default) – the value is input as real value and the values Mr(l),
delta Mr(l), Mr(r), delta Mr(r) can be parameterized via parameter
Moment
 Rel – the relative value is input and the values Mr(l), delta Mr(l), Mr(r),
delta Mr(r) can be parameterized via parameter Relative.
- Mr(l) or delta Mr(l)
o edit box for inputting the value on the left side of the support
o is inactive for support in the beginning of a continuous beam
o type of the value depends on properties Type of input and Value
 Type of input = Total and Value = Abs, user inputs directly the
absolute value of redistributed moment (Mr(l) ). The final value of
redistributed moment is the same as the input value. The negative
value should be input.
 Type of input = Total and Value = Rel, user inputs the relative value
of redistributed moment (Mr(l) ) with limitations from 0 to 1. The final
value of redistributed moment depends on the value of elastic
bending moment.
 Type of input = Delta and Value = Abs, user inputs the absolute
value of moment reduction (delta Mr(l)) which is subtracted from the
elastic bending moment. It means that the final value of redistributed
moment depends on the value of the elastic bending moment. The
positive value should be input.
 Type of input = Delta and Value = Rel, user inputs the relative value
of moment reduction (delta Mr(l)). Moment reduction depends on the
value of elastic bending moment .Final value of redistributed moment
is calculated by subtracting the value of moment reduction from the
elastic bending moment.
- Mr(r) or delta Mr(r)
o edit box for input of the value on the right side of the support
o is inactive for support at the end of continuous beam and for internal support
if check box Same input of internal support is ON
o the type of the value depends on properties Type of input and Value
 Type of input = Total and Value = Abs, the user inputs directly the
absolute value of redistributed moment (Mr(r)). The final value of
Input manually the Name of My first chapter
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redistributed moment is the same as the input value. The negative
value should by input.
 Type of input = Total and Value = Rel, the user inputs the relative
value of redistributed moment (Mr(r)) with limitations from 0 to 1. The
final value of redistributed moment depends on the value of elastic
bending moment.
 Type of input = Delta and Value = Abs, the user inputs the absolute
value of moment reduction (delta Mr(r)) which is subtracted from the
elastic bending moment. It means that the final value of redistributed
moment depends on the value of elastic bending moment. The
positive value should by input.
 Type of input = Delta and Value = Rel, the user inputs the relative
value of moment reduction (delta Mr(r)). Moment reduction depends
on the value of elastic bending moment. The final value of
redistributed moment is calculated by subtracting the value of
moment reduction from the elastic bending moment.

The input values of RM data can be presented in numerical output in the Document via item
Redistribution data.



All properties of redistribution data are presented in default table. The input values can be changed
directly in the Document (double click on the value) or via XML


Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
16
6 New properties in services for evaluate the results
The possibility of calculation and check of redistributed bending moment produced some changes in
several services in comparison with previous versions of Scia Engineer:
- new check box Redistribution of moment
o is in following services
 Internal forces on beam ( tree Results > Beams )
 Reinforcement design ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Automatic member
reinforcement design )
 Cross-section characteristics ( tree Concrete > 1D member )
 Internal forces ( tree Concrete > 1D member )
 Design As ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member design )
 Design of non-prestressed reinforcement in prestressed css ( tree Concrete > 1D
member > Member design )
 Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-
prestressed concrete)
 Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-
prestressed concrete)
 Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on -
prestressed concrete)
 Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on
prestressed concrete)
 Allowable stress of concrete ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check >
Check on prestressed concrete)
 Allowable stress of concrete ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check >
Check on prestressed concrete)
 Allowable principal stresses
o is active only for
 ULS combination for which Redistribution of bending moment is ON
 Class with one or more ULS combination for which Redistribution of bending
moment is ON, see chapter 3
o if it is ON, the redistributed bending moment (with LC moment reduction) is taken into
account, else elastic bending moment (without LC moment reduction) is taken into
account

- new type of loads Load cases - moment reductions
o is in following services
 Internal forces on beam ( tree Results > Beams )
 Internal forces ( tree Concrete > 1D member )
o is active if one or more combinations are redistributed (check box Redistribution of
bending moment in properties of combination is ON), see chapter 3
o if this type of load is selected, then the new combo box Load cases - moment reduction
is active with the list of all load cases with moment reduction for all combinations for
which Redistribution of bending moment is ON. The name of load case is derived
from the name of source redistributed combination.




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17
- new value Check redistribution
o is in the following services
 Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-
prestressed concrete)
 Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-
prestressed concrete)
 Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on -
prestressed concrete)
 Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on
prestressed concrete)
o is active only if check box Redistribution of moment is ON
o if it is ON or selected, the value of redistributed bending moment is checked according to
the settings in concrete setup (Concrete setup > General > Calculation > tab-sheet
Beams > group Check of redistributed moments )




Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
18
7 Calculation of redistributed bending moment
The calculation of redistributed bending moment around the local y-axis of the member runs
immediately after the linear calculation (FEM analysis) where the following inputs are set:
- definition of combination and construction stages, chapter 3
- redistribution data , chapter 5
- reinforcement
o non-prestressed real user reinforcement (REDES bars or free bars)
o prestressed reinforcement (tendon or strands)

After changing the input data above, the results are deleted and calculation has to be run again. The
redistributed bending moments are taken into account in services for evaluation of results and checks
only if check box Redistribution of moment is ON.

Procedure for calculation:
- two end moment reductions are calculated in each span according to method below ( one
moment reduction above external support, two moments above internal support - on the left and
right side)
- moment reductions are recalculated into sections along the span (linear distribution is assumed
along the length of the span)
- loop for all sections in span with running cross-section solver for moment reduction where
o stress is calculated,
o integration of forces in phases of cross-sections and tendons is done respecting the
increase of E modulus over time (ageing, E modulus changes, …),
- the results (forces in phases of cross-sections and the tendons) are filled in into the new load
case - moment reduction,
- new load case - moment reduction is added to the redistributed combination (check box
Redistribution of bending moment in properties of combination is ON) similarly as permanent
load case, see chapter 3.3




i, j

is number of support
n is number of the span of continuous beam
M
lin,i,p
is elastic bending moment above i-support on the right side
M
lin,j,l
is elastic bending moment above j-support on the left side
M
lin,n,l
is elastic bending moment above left support of the span n
M
lin,n,p
is elastic bending moment above right support of the span n
M
red,i,p
is redistributed bending moment above i-support on the right side
M
red,j,l
is redistributed bending moment above j-support on the left side
Sn
i
n
span

AM
i,p
=AM
n,l

M
red,i,p
= M
red,n,L

Sn
j
M
l
i
n
,
i
,
p

=
M
l
i
n
,
n
,
l

AM
j,l
=AM
n,p

M
red,j,l
= M
red,n,p

M
l
i
n
,
j
,
l

=
M
l
i
n
,
n
,
p

M
red,max
M
lin,max
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19
M
red,n,l
is redistributed bending moment above left support of the span n
M
red,n,p
is redistributed bending moment above right support of the span n
AM
i,p
is moment reduction above i-support on the right side
AM
j,l
is moment reduction above j-support on the left side
AM
n,l
is moment reduction above left support of the span n
AM
n,p
is moment reduction above left support of the span n
 Note:
- The value of redistributed bending moment and moment reduction are input to the left or right
side of support, and not to the left/right support of the span
- The moment M
z
(around the local z-axis of the member is not redistributed)

Four types of method for calculation of two ends moment reduction in span are supported:
- EN 1992-1-1,5.5(4), default method
- Moment of resistance
- User input

7.1 Method according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5(4)
It is linear elastic analysis with limited redistribution calculated according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5.
The moment reduction above support is calculated according to formula

AM = ( 1 - o )·M
lin

and it follows that redistributed bending moment is calculated from formula

M
red
= M
lin
-AM = M
lin
- ( 1 - o )·M
lin
= o ·M
lin


where

AM

is moment reduction above support
M
lin
is elastic bending moment from linear analysis
M
red
is redistributed bending moment
o

is a ratio of redistributed bending moment to the elastic bending moment
calculated according to formulas 5.10a and 5.10 b in EN 1992-1-1
o = max (o
1
; o
2
) < 1,0
o
1
= k
1
+ k
2
·x
u
/d for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa
= k
3
+ k
4
·x
u
/d for f
ck
> 50 MPa
o
2
= k
5
for class B or C of non prestressed reinforcement
= k
6
for class A of non-prestressed reinforcement and for
prestressed reinforcement
x
u
is the depth of neutral axis at the ULS calculated for redistributed bending
moment calculated after second step of iterative calculation
d

is the effective depth of the cross-section
k
1
-
k
6
are parameters for calculation of value o, the values can be set in Concrete
setup > General > National annex. Some of them are dependent on the value
c
cu2
c
cu2
is the ultimate strain of the concrete. This value is automatically determined by
the program from the properties of concrete in compression







Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
20
 Limitations:
- non-prestressed user real reinforcement or prestressed reinforcement are input in continuous
beam
- equilibrium for ULS was found
- ratio of the length of adjacent spans of continuous beam in the range 0.5 to 2 (program have to
check the ratio of spans)
- the beam is predominantly subject to flexure, it means that above support the condition below is
fulfilled, see chapter 4
¿
÷
· · < +
ph
n
i
i cd i c p Ed
f A x N N
1
, ,

- the ratio of redistributed bending moment to the elastic bending moment is lower than 1
- if the limitations are not fulfilled, then the moment is not redistributed and the program gives a
warning or error

 Note:
- the lowest quality of concrete of all phases of the cross-section is used for calculation of value o
(values f
ck
and c
cu2
) for calculation of cross-section with more phases
- the value k6 (class A) is used for calculation of value o for cross-section with only prestressed
reinforcement
- the lowest quality of all reinforcement (k6 for class A) is used for calculation of value o for cross-
section with different classes of reinforcement
- the depth of neutral axis at the ULS is calculated for redistributed bending moment that is
calculated after second step of iterative calculation, because calculation of redistributed bending
moment leads to an iterative calculation. Full iteration is not used because the calculation would
take a lot of time.

7.2 Method according to French DTU, clause 3.2.2.5
For calculation of moment reduction according to French DTU clause 3.2.2.5c is used. Redistribution is
estimated on the basis of a localized rotation above the support equal to 0.003 rad. The moment
reduction, redistributed towards the neighbouring spans, can be calculated in the 1st approximation as:
|
|
.
|

\
| ·
+
·
· = A
p
p
l
l
L
EI
L
EI
M
3
3
00075 , 0

where

AM

is moment reduction above support
EI
l
is flexural stiffness of the left span of continuous beam at the support
L
l
is length of the left span of continuous beam at the support (the value is
presented in properties of continuous beam, see chapter 2)
EI
p
is flexural stiffness of the right span of continuous beam at the support
L
p
is length of the right span of continuous beam at the support (the value is
presented in properties of continuous beam, see chapter 2)

For usual floor beam stiffness, this value leads generally to a moment reduction around a 10th of the
elastic moment of the neighbouring spans.


Input manually the Name of My first chapter
21
 Limitations:
- there are no limitations for this method


 Note:
- the lowest quality of concrete of all phases of the cross-section is used for calculation (value E
c
)
of cross-section with more phases
- the flexural stiffness EI
l
is calculated on the left side of the support (just in front of the section)
- the flexural stiffness EI
p
is calculated on the right side of the support (just behind the section)
- the secant module of elasticity from properties of material is used for the calculation






Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
22
7.3 Method - moment of resistance

The redistributed bending moment above support equals the moment of resistance of the cross-
section. Moment of resistance is determined from the interaction diagram for the method Mu (moment
of resistance is calculated as an intersection of parallel line with axis of M
Rd
crossing the point
[N
Ed;
M
Ed,y;
M
Ed,z
] ) and interaction diagram ). The axis M
Rd
is resultant of vectors M
Rd,y
and M
Rd,z


Interaction diagram Linear bending moment

Redistributed bending moment


 Note:
- The line for calculation of intersection with interaction diagram is parallel with line My in this
case, because moment Mz is zero.


The redistributed bending moment and moment reduction are calculated according to procedure below

M
red
= M
Rd,min
(V
u,min
) if M
lin
(V) < 0 kNm
M
red
= M
Rd,max
(V
u,max
) if M
lin
(V) ≥ 0 kNm

AM = M
lin
- M
red

where

AM

is moment reduction above support
M
lin
is elastic bending moment from linear analysis
M
red
is redistributed bending moment
M
Rd,min

(V
u,min
)
is minimum value of moment of resistance determined from interaction
diagram of the cross-section. The value in brackets is symbol used in the
program
M
Rd,max

(V
u,max
)
is maximum value of moment of resistance determined from interaction
diagram of the cross-section. The value in brackets is symbol used in the
program


Input manually the Name of My first chapter
23
 Limitations:
- non-prestressed user real reinforcement or prestressed reinforcement are input in continuous
beam
- if the limitations are not fulfilled, then the moment is not redistributed and the program gives a
warning or error



7.4 User input
The redistributed bending moment or moment reduction is directly input by the user in redistributed
data, see chapter 5. The value of redistributed bending moment and moment reduction depends on
properties Type of value and Value in redistribution data and they are calculated according to table
below

Properties in redistribution data Formulas for calculation
Type of input Value Redistributed moment Moment reduction
Total Abs M
red
= Input AM = M
lin
- Input
Total Rel M
red
= Input·M
lin
AM = M
lin
·(1-Input)
Delta Abs M
red
= M
lin
- Input AM = Input
Delta Rel M
red
= M
lin
·(1-Input) AM = M
lin
·Input

where

AM

is moment reduction above support
M
lin
is elastic bending moment from linear analysis
M
red
is redistributed bending moment
Input is input value in properties Mr(l) or delta Mr(l) and Mr(r) or delta Mr(r) in
redistribution data

 Limitations:
- there are no limitations for this method










Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
24
8 Check of redistributed bending moment
The user can check calculated redistributed bending moment M
y
(around the local y-axis of the
member) using two methods:
- Check according to 5.5(4) - is method in EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5 (4)
- Check according to 5.6.2(2) - is method in EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.2 (2)

Type of the method can be set in Concrete setup > General > Calculation > tab-sheet Beams >
group Check of redistributed moments (no, one or more method can be ON). The redistributed
bending moment can be checked in the following services:
- Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-prestressed
concrete)
- Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on non-prestressed
concrete)
- Check response ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on -prestressed
concrete)
- Check capacity ( tree Concrete > 1D member > Member check > Check on prestressed
concrete)

For check of redistribution some conditions have to be fulfilled:
- the check box Redistribution of moment is ON
- the check boxes Check according to 5.5(4) or Check according to 5.6.2(2) are ON in Concrete
setup
- value Check redistribution is ON or selected.






Input manually the Name of My first chapter
25



The redistributed bending moments are checked only in sections above supports. The maximum check
value from all selected methods is presented graphically. In numerical output the following is presented
- Summary table - is presented always
- Table for Check according to 5.5(4) , if this method is ON in Concrete setup
- Table Check according to 5.6.2(2), if this method is ON in Concrete setup
 Note:
- if redistributed bending moment in some section does not satisfy, the other check where bending
moment is taken into account (check capacity, check stress, check strain....) is not done and
program gives error 898 (The check of redistributed bending moment does not satisfy. Use
linear internal forces only).
- if equilibrium for ULS is not found in the section above support, the check redistribution will not
be done, program gives error 583 (Forces are zero or no equilibrium found ) and there is no
results for this section in tables for check according to 5.5(4) and 5.6.2(2).

The check of redistribution is performed according to the diagram below



Method
5.5(4)
Check ≤ 1
Check 5.5(4) = OFF
Check 5.5(4) = OK Check 5.5(4) = NOT OK
Method
5.6.2(2)
Check ≤ 1
Check 5.6.2(2) = OFF
Check 5.6.2(2) = OK Check 5.6.2(2) = NOT OK
Check 5.6.2(2) = NOT DONE
ON OFF
OFF
YES
YES
NO
NO
Equilibrium
is found
YES
Check 5.5 (4) = NOT DONE
Check 5.6.2(2) = NOT DONE
NO
ON
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
26



The results of all checks are presented in Summary table in the member check or in the single check

Member check

There are the following values in tables and in table composer

Member the name and number of the member
d
x
position of standard result section
Case type and name of extreme load case/combination/class
N normal force
N
lim
limit normal force to be considered predominantly subject to flexure
M
y
linear bending moment before redistribution calculated for source
combination of redistributed combination
M
red
redistributed bending moment calculated for redistribution combination
o ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment

o
lim
limit ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment calculated
according to formula 5.10
Check 5.5(4) Check redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1, chapter
5.5(4). The result of check can be:
OK - if check satisfies
NOT OK - if check does not satisfy
OFF - if check is OFF in Concrete setup
NOT DONE - if equilibrium is not found
Check 5.6.2(2) Check redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1, chapter
5.6.2(2). The result of check can be:
OK - if check satisfies
NOT OK - if check does not satisfy
OFF - if check is OFF in Concrete setup
NOT DONE - if check is ON in Concrete setup and check according to
5.5(4) satisfy or if equilibrium is not found
Check 5.6(3) Check redistributed bending moment according to EN 1992-1-1, chapter
5.6(3). This check is not implemented, therefore status of this check is
always OFF
Check
cal
The value of unit check of all partial checks
Check
lim
The limit value of unit check.
Check The results of check (OK or NOT OK)
W/E the number of warning or error



Input manually the Name of My first chapter
27

Single check
The tables for check detailing provisions are presented in the Document, if
- the check box Check results in dialog Change of setup is ON
- section above support is selected



The summary table in single check contains the following values:

8.1 Check according to 5.5(4)
This check is performed according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5(4) and it contains three partial checks:
- if the member is predominantly subject to flexure
- ratio of adjacent spans
- ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment
If the check is satisfied, linear elastic analysis with limited redistribution can be used at ULS. The check
satisfies only in case that all partial checks are fulfilled. The unit check is calculated as maximum value
of all partial checks
) ; ; max(
2 , 2 , 1 , cal cal cal cal
Check Check Check Check =
,
If the check does not satisfy, the redistributed bending moment does not satisfy too and should be
checked using plastic analysis or the linear elastic bending moment has to be used for the calculation.

Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
28
8.1.1 Partial checks
Check if the member is predominantly subject to flexure
The EN 1992-1-1 code does not define when the member is predominantly subject to flexure, therefore
was added to the concrete setup a new check box Check of compression of member (see chapter 4)
which is used for this check too.
The member is predominantly subject to flexure if the condition below is fulfilled

¿
÷
· · = < + =
ph
n
i
i cd i c p Ed
f A x N N N N
1
, , lim

where
N is normal force caused by external load and prestressing
N
Ed
is normal force caused by external load
N
p
is normal force caused by prestressing
N
lim
is limit normal force to predominantly subject to flexure
x

is relative number set in Concrete setup, default value is 0,1
n
ph
is number of phases of cross-section
A
c,i
is area of concrete of i- th phase of cross-section
f
cd,i
is design value of concrete compressive strength of i- th phase of cross-
section

The unit check is calculated as ratio of normal force caused by external load and by prestressing to
limit normal force.

lim
1 ,
N
N
Check
cal
=


 Note:
- this check is performed always independently on activity of check box Check of compression
in Concrete setup > General >Calculation > tab-sheet beam,
- if unit check ( N/N
lim
) is greater than 1, the program gives warning 884 (The member is not
predominantly subject to flexure).

Check ratio of adjacent spans
The check is performed only for the internal support of a continuous beam for which the following
condition has to be satisfied
2,0 > L
left
/L
right
> 0,5
The condition can be also written as

lim
|
|
.
|

\
|
<
right
left
right
left
L
L
L
L

where

L
left
is the length of span on the left side of support
L
right
is the length of span on the right side of support
Input manually the Name of My first chapter
29
L
left
/L
right
is ratio of adjacent spans
(L
left
/L
right
)
lim
is limit ratio of adjacent spans
if L
left
≥ L
right
, then (L
left
/L
right
)
lim
= 2
if L
left
< L
right
, then (L
left
/L
right
)
lim
= 0,5


The unit check is calculated according to formulas bellow

L
left
≥ L
right
L
left
< L
right

lim
2 ,
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
right
left
right
left
cal
L
L
L
L
Check

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
right
left
right
left
cal
L
L
L
L
Check
lim
2 ,



 Note:
- this check is provided only for the internal support of a continuous beam,
- if this check is not fulfilled the program gives warning 885 (Ratio of the length of adjacent spans
is out of the range (0.5-2.0)).


Ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment
The following condition is checked in this check:

o > o
lim

o ≤ 1

where

o

is ratio of redistributed moment to elastic bending moment

lin
red
M
M
= o
M
lin
is elastic bending moment from linear analysis
M
red
is redistributed bending moment
o
lim
is a limit ratio of redistributed bending moment to the elastic bending moment calculated
according to formulas 5.10a and 5.10 b in EN 1992-1-1
o
lim
= max(k
1
+ k

x
u
/d; k
5
) for f
ck
s 50MPa and for class B and C of non-prestressed reinf.
= max(k
1
+ k

x
u
/d; k
6
) for f
ck
s 50MPa and for class A of non-prestressed reinf. and for
prestressed reinforcement
= max(k
3
+ k

x
u
/d; k
5
) for f
ck
> 50MPa and for class B and C of non-prestressed reinf.
= max(k
3
+ k

x
u
/d; k
6
) for f
ck
> 50MPa and for class A of non-prestressed reinf. and for
prestressed reinforcement
x
u
is the depth of compression zone at the ULS calculated for redistributed bending moment
d

is the effective depth of the cross-section
k
1
-
k
6
are parameters for calculation of value o, the values can be set in Concrete setup > General
> National annex. Some of them are dependent on the value c
cu2
c
cu2
is the ultimate strain of concrete. This value is automatically determined by the program from
the properties of concrete in compression


Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
30
The unit check is calculated according formula below

o ≤ 1 o ≥ 1
o
o
lim
3 ,
=
cal
Check

|
.
|

\
|
= o
o
o
, max
lim
3 , cal
Check


 Note:
- the lowest quality of concrete of all phases of cross-section is used for calculation of value o
lim

(values f
ck
and c
cu2
) for calculation of the cross-section with more phases
- the value k6 (class A) is used for calculation of value o
lim
for cross-section with only prestressed
reinforcement
- the lowest quality of all reinforcement (k6 for class A) is used for calculation of value o
lim
for
cross-section with different classes of reinforcement
- the depth of neutral axis at the ULS is calculated after redistribution (for redistributed bending
moment).
- if this check is not fulfilled the program gives warning 886 (Ratio of redistributed bending
moment to elastic is lower than the limit value or greater than 1.0)

8.1.2 Output table
Numerical output can be presented in member check or in single check.
Member check
There are two types of table for presentation of results for check redistribution bending moment
according to 5.5 (4)
- default



- detailed


Input manually the Name of My first chapter
31
There are the following values in tables and in table composer

Member the name and number of the member
d
x
position of result section
Case type and name of extreme load case/combination/class
N normal force
N
lim
limit normal force to be considered predominantly subject to flexure
M
y
linear bending moment before redistribution calculated for source combination of
redistributed combination
M
red
redistributed bending moment calculated for redistribution combination
o ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment

o
lim
limit ratio of redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment calculated
according to formula 5.10
L
left
/L
right
ratio of adjacent spans
(L
left
/L
right
)
lim
limit ratio of adjacent spans
L
left
length of span on the left side of support (effective span)
L
right
length of span on the right side of support (effective span)
x
u
depth of compression zone axis after redistribution
d effective depth of cross-section
Class.reinf class of reinforcing steel
f
ck
characteristic compressive cylinder stress of concrete in the compressed zone
Check
cal
the value of unit check of all partial checks
Check
lim
the limit value of unit check.
Check the results of check (OK or NOT OK)
W/E the number of warning or error

Single check
Tables for check of detailing provisions are presented in the Document if:
- check box Check results in dialog Change of setup is ON
- section above support is selected



Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
32
The table for check according to 5.5(4) in single check contains the following values:



8.2 Check according to 5.6.2(2)
It is a method of check using a plastic analysis without direct calculation of rotation capacity. Plastic
analysis is an extreme case of moment redistribution, where moment is distributed in accordance with
the structure's ability to resist them.
This check is performed according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.2(2) and it contains three partial checks
- check of depth of compression zone after redistribution
- check of class of reinforcement
- check of ratio of the moments at intermediate support to the moment in the span

The check satisfies only in case that all partial checks are fulfilled. The unit check is calculated as the
maximum value of all partial checks
) ; ; max(
2 , 2 , 1 , cal cal cal cal
Check Check Check Check =


If the check does not satisfy, the redistributed bending moment does not satisfy and should be checked
using plastic analysis with direct calculation of rotation capacity (EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.3) or linear
elastic bending moment has to be used for the calculation.


8.2.1 Partial checks
Check of depth of compression zone
Adequate rotation capacity for plastic analysis is deemed to be achieved if depth of compression zone
is restricted to depth as follows (EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.2(2)):
lim
|
.
|

\
|
<
d
x
d
x
u u

where
x
u
is depth of compression zone axis after redistribution
d

is effective depth of cross-section
x
u
/d

is calculated ratio of x
u
/d
(x
u
/d)
lim
is limit ratio of x
u
/d
(x
u
/d)
lim
= 0,25 for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa (strenght classes ≤ C50/60)
(x
u
/d)
lim
= 0,15 for f
ck
> 50 MPa (strenght classes ≥ C55/67)
f
ck
is characteristic compressive cylinder stress of concrete in the
compressed zone




Input manually the Name of My first chapter
33
The unit check is calculated according to formula below


lim
1 ,
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
x
d
x
Check
u
u
cal

 Note:
- the lowest quality of concrete of all phases of cross-section is used for calculation of limit ratio
x
u
/d for calculation of cross-section with more phases
- if this check is not fulfilled, the program gives error 887 (Depth of neutral axis after redistribution
does not satisfy)
- if value x
u
> d, then the check is not performed (value x
u
/d is not calculated and appeared in
numerical output ) and the program gives warning 288 (The check xu/d is not performed, because
xu > d (member in compression))


Check of class of reinforcement
Only reinforcement with a big ductility can be used for plastic analysis, therefore class A of non-
prestressed reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement cannot be used for this check due to its low
ductility.
The value for unit check for class A of non-prestressed reinforcement and for only prestressed
reinforcement is loaded from Concrete setup > Errors and warning > group Check value for section,
where the value cannot be calculated. For other classes of reinforcement, the unit check is not
calculated.




 Note:
- this check is not fulfilled and program gives error 863 (Reinforcement of class A or prestressed
reinforcement is not recommended for this check) if:
o only Class A of non-prestressed reinforcement is defined in the checked section,
o only prestressed reinforcement is defined in the checked section
o prestressed reinforcement and class A of non-prestressed reinforcement is defined in the
checked section









Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
34
Check of ratio of the moment at intermediate support to the moment in the span
The ratio of moments at intermediate supports to those in adjacent span must lie between 0.5 and 2.0
(EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.6.2(2). It means that

lim
, ,
|
|
.
|

\
|
<
l pos
left
l pos
left
M
M
M
M
,
lim
, ,
|
|
.
|

\
|
<
r pos
right
r pos
right
M
M
M
M

where
M
left
is elastic bending moment on the left side of the support
M
pos,l
is the maximal elastic bending moment in the left span
M
right
is elastic bending moment on the right side of the support
M
pos,r
is the maximal elastic bending moment in the right span
M
left
/M
pos,l
is ratio of elastic bending moment on the left side of the support to
the elastic moment in the left span
(M
left
/M
pos,l
)
lim
is limit ratio of bending moment on the left
if M
left
≥ M
pos,l
, then (M
left
/M
pos,l
)
lim
= 2
if M
left
> M
pos,l
, then (M
left
/M
pos,l
)
lim
= 0,5
M
right
/M
pos,r
is ratio of elastic bending moment on the right side of the support to
the elastic moment in the right span
(M
right
/M
pos,r
)
lim
is limit ratio of bending moment on the right
if M
right
≥ M
pos,r
, then (M
right
/M
pos,r
)
lim
= 2
if M
lright
> M
pos,r
, then (M
right
/M
pos,r
)
lim
= 0,5


The unit check is calculated according to formulas bellow

M
left
≥ M
pos,l
and M
right
≥ M
pos,r
M
left
≥ M
pos,l
and M
right
< M
pos,r

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
lim
,
,
lim
,
,
, max
r pos
right
r pos
right
l pos
left
l pos
left
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
r pos
right
r pos
right
l pos
left
l pos
left
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
,
lim
,
lim
,
,
, max

M
left
< M
pos,l
and M
right
≥ M
pos,r
M
left
< M
pos,l
and M
right
< M
pos,r

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
lim
,
,
,
lim
,
, max
r pos
right
r pos
right
l pos
left
l pos
left
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
r pos
right
r pos
right
l pos
left
l pos
left
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
,
lim
,
,
lim
,
, max



 Note:
- this check is provided for intermediate support of continuous beam, where elastic bending
moment M
left
or M
right
are non zero
- for outside support only one side of support is checked, if elastic bending moment above this
support in non-zero
o support at the beginning of the member (right side of support is checked, if M
right
= 0)
o support at the end of the member (left side of support is checked, if M
left
= 0)
Input manually the Name of My first chapter
35
- if unit check of this check is greater than 1, the check is not fulfilled and the program gives error
888 (Ratio of the elastic moments at the supports to elastic moment in the span is out of the
range (0.5-2.0))





8.2.2 Output table
Numerical output can be presented in member check or in single check.

Member check

There are two types of table for presentation of results for check redistribution bending moment according
to 5.5 (4)
- default

- detailed


There are the following values in tables and in table composer

Member the name and number of the member
d
x
position of result section
Case type and name of extreme load case/combination/class
N normal force
M
y
linear bending moment before redistribution calculated for source
combination of redistributed combination
M
red
redistributed bending moment calculated for redistribution combination
M
left
is elastic bending moment on the left side of the support
M
pos,l
is the maximal elastic bending moment in the left span
M
right
is elastic bending moment on the right side of the support
M
pos,r
is the maximal elastic bending moment in the right span
M
left
/M
pos,l
is ratio of elastic bending moment on the left side of the support to the elastic
moment in the left span
(M
left
/M
pos,l
)
lim
is limit ratio of bending moment on the left
M
right
/M
pos,r
is ratio of elastic bending moment on the right side of the support to the
elastic moment in the right span
(M
right
/M
pos,r
)
lim
is limit ratio of bending moment on the right
x
u
depth of compression zone axis after redistribution
d effective depth of cross-section
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
36
x
u
/d

is calculated ratio of x
u
/d
(x
u
/d)
lim
is limit ratio of x
u
/d
f
ck
is characteristic compressive cylinder stress of concrete in the compressed
zone
Class.reinf class of reinforcing steel
f
ck
characteristic compressive cylinder stress of concrete in the compressed
zone
Check
cal
The value of unit check of all partial checks
Check
lim
The limit value of unit check.
Check The results of check (OK or NOT OK)
W/E the number of warning or error

Single check
The tables for check of detailing provisions are presented in the Document if
- the check box Check results in dialog Change of setup is ON
- section above support is selected



The table for check according to 5.6.2(2) in single check contains the following values:



Input manually the Name of My first chapter
37
9 XML and parameterization
Almost all values for redistribution data for the user method can be parameterized (see chapter 5) and
changed via XML. In addition, the following check boxes are parameterized
- Redistribution of bending moments in definition of combination (see chapter 3.1)
- Redistribution of moment in properties of each construction stages (see chapter 3.2)
Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
38
10 Definition of new terms

REDES a module of SCIA Engineer for the definition and drawing of real
non-prestressed reinforcement



Input manually the Name of My first chapter
39
11 Examples
11.1 Example 1
Six non-prestressed continuous beams with two spans, with same load, but with different number of
upper bars above support and different method for redistribution of bending moment
- B1: upper bars above support =7|16, method according to EN 1992-1-1, 5.5(4)
- B2: upper bars above support =7|16, method Moment of resistance
- B3: upper bars above support =7|16, user input, delta M
r
= 30kNm
- B4: upper bars above support =6|16, method according to EN 1992-1-1, 5.5(4)
- B5: upper bars above support =6|16, method Moment of resistance
- B6: upper bars above support =6|16, user input, delta M
r
= 30kNm


Linear internal forces along continuous beam


Required area


User defined reinforcement via REDES (real bars)







Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
40
Check member in extreme sections for linear bending moment

Cross-section with reinforcement Interaction diagram
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
b
o
v
e

s
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

B
1
,
B
2
,
B
3

(
x

=
6
,
0

m
)

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
b
o
v
e

s
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

B
4
,
B
5
,
B
6

(
x

=
6
,
0

m
)


S
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
t

m
i
d
s
p
a
n

(
x

=
2
,
4

m

a
n
d

x

=
9
,
6

m
)



Section above support with 6|16 (member B4-B6) does not satisfy for linear bending moment,
therefore we used functionality for redistribution.
Input manually the Name of My first chapter
41


The redistributed bending moment was calculated for three different methods and for two numbers of
upper bars above support, see table below


The redistributed bending moment
above support M
red
[kNm]
Upper reinforcement above support
7|16 6|16
EN 1992-1-1,5.5(4) -232,8 (B1) -240,4 (B4)
Moment of resistance -252 (B2) -219,6 (B5)
User input (Abs,Delta M
r
= 30 kNm) -210,4 (B3) -210,4 (B6)

 Note:
- the method according to EN 1992-1-1, clause 5.5(4)
o for upper reinforcement 6|16 the moment was not redistributed (is the same as the linear
elastic moment) because equilibrium was not found
- the method Moment of resistance
o for upper reinforcement 7|16 redistributed bending moment is bigger than the linear
elastic bending moment, therefore this redistribution is not usable
o support at the end of the member (left side of support is checked, if M
left
= 0)
- the User method
o the redistributed bending moment is independent on reinforcement


The detailed evaluation will be done only for configurations in the table below

Method M
red

[kNm]
Upper
bars
Internal forces after redistribution
E
N

1
9
9
2
-
1
-
1
,
5
.
5
(
4
)

-
2
3
2
,
8
(
B
1
)

7|16
M
o
m
e
n
t

o
f

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

-
2
1
9
,
6
(
B
5
)

6|16
U
s
e
r

i
n
p
u
t

(
A
b
s
,
D
e
l
t
a

M
r

=

3
0

k
N
m
)

-
2
1
0
,
4
(
B
6
)

6|16







Redistribution of bending moments and plastic analysis according to provision 5.5 and 5.6 of EN 1992-1-1
42
Check of redistributed bending moment for member B1,B5 and B6



Check of capacity of critical section for member B1,B5 and B6



Conclusion:
The use of redistribution bending moment decreases the bending moment above the support and it
allows for decrease of the amount of reinforcement (upper bars above support) for method Moment of
resistance and User input.