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Theory

Steel Code Check




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Introduction
Welcome to the Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background.
This document provides background information on the code checks according to different national
and international regulations.


Version info
Documentation Title Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background

Release 2013.1
Revision 10/2013




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... iv
Version info ....................................................................................................................... iv
EC3 – ENV 1993 .................................................................................................................. 2
EC3 – ENV code check ............................................................................................................... 2
Material properties ................................................................................................................... 2
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................... 3
Classification of sections .................................................................................................... 4
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ............................................... 5
Section properties .............................................................................................................. 5
Bending moment ................................................................................................................ 5
Bending, shear and axial force ........................................................................................... 5
Torsion check ..................................................................................................................... 5
Built-in beams .................................................................................................................... 6
Compression members ...................................................................................................... 6
Lateral-torsional buckling ................................................................................................... 6
Shear Buckling check ........................................................................................................ 7
Shear buckling check for cold formed sections .................................................................. 7
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .................................. 8
Bending and axial compression ....................................................................................... 10
Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 10
EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance ...................................................................................................... 12
Fire actions effect Efi ........................................................................................................ 12
Material properties ........................................................................................................... 12
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions .......................................................................... 13
Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 13
Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 14
Steel Temperature ........................................................................................................... 15
Calculation model ............................................................................................................ 16
Code Check ..................................................................................................................... 16
Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 17
References ................................................................................................................................. 18
EC3 – EN 1993 .................................................................................................................. 19
EC3 – EN Code check ............................................................................................................... 19
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 20
Convention ....................................................................................................................... 21
Material properties ........................................................................................................... 22
Imperfections ................................................................................................................... 22
Plastic Hinges .................................................................................................................. 22
Classification of Cross-sections ....................................................................................... 22
Section properties ............................................................................................................ 24
Section Checks ................................................................................................................ 24
Stability Checks ............................................................................................................... 30
Built-in beams .................................................................................................................. 38
Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 38
Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs ................................................................. 40

Moments on columns in simple construction.................................................................... 45
Scaffolding ....................................................................................................................... 47
EC3 – EN Fire Resistance ......................................................................................................... 53
Fire actions effect Efi .............................................................................................................. 53
Material properties ................................................................................................................. 54
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions ............................................................................... 54
Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 54
Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 55
Steel Temperature ................................................................................................................. 56
Calculation model .................................................................................................................. 58
Code Check ........................................................................................................................... 58
EC3 – EN Cold-Formed ............................................................................................................. 59
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 59
Material properties ........................................................................................................... 61
Initial Shape ..................................................................................................................... 62
Geometrical Proportions .................................................................................................. 63
Effective Shape ................................................................................................................ 64
Section Checks ................................................................................................................ 70
Stability Checks ............................................................................................................... 82
Use of Diaphragms .......................................................................................................... 86
Special considerations for Purlins .................................................................................... 90
Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 97
References ................................................................................................................................. 98
DIN18800 ......................................................................................................................... 102
DIN18800 Code check ............................................................................................................. 102
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 102
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 103
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 106
Net area properties ........................................................................................................ 106
Plastic interaction formula for RHS section .................................................................... 106
Plastic interaction formula for CHS section .................................................................... 110
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 111
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 111
Calculation of the buckling length .................................................................................. 112
Torsional buckling .......................................................................................................... 112
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 113
LTB Check ..................................................................................................................... 114
Combined flexion for check method 2 ............................................................................ 117
Battened compression members ................................................................................... 118
Effective area properties ................................................................................................ 119
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 120
Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 120
Cold formed thin gauge members ....................................................................................... 120
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 121
References ............................................................................................................................... 122
ONORM B 4300 ............................................................................................................... 124
ONORM B 4300 Code check ................................................................................................... 124

Material properties ............................................................................................................... 125
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 125
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 126
References ............................................................................................................................... 127
NEN .................................................................................................................................. 129
NEN6770/6771 Code check ..................................................................................................... 129
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 129
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 130
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 132
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 132
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ........................................... 132
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 133
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 133
Buckling length ............................................................................................................... 133
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 133
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 134
Battened compression members ................................................................................... 135
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 136
Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 136
NEN6072 - Fire Resistance ..................................................................................................... 137
Fire actions effect ................................................................................................................ 137
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 137
Nominal temperature-time curve ......................................................................................... 138
Steel Temperature ............................................................................................................... 138
Calculation model ................................................................................................................ 141
Code Check ......................................................................................................................... 141
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 142
References ............................................................................................................................... 143
AISC – ASD : 1989 .......................................................................................................... 144
AISC - ASD Code check .......................................................................................................... 144
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 146
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 146
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 146
Flexural Torsional Buckling .................................................................................................. 146
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 146
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 147
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 149
References ............................................................................................................................... 149
AISC – LRFD : 2001 ........................................................................................................ 151
AISC - LRFD Code check ........................................................................................................ 151
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 153
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 153
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 153
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 153
Use of diaphragms .............................................................................................................. 154
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 154

Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 154
References ............................................................................................................................... 155
ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005 .................................................................................................. 156
ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check ............................................................................................... 156
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 158
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 158
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 158
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 158
Use of diaphragms .............................................................................................................. 158
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 158
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 159
References ............................................................................................................................... 159
ANSI/AISC 360-10:2010 .................................................................................................. 160
ANSI/AISC 360-10 Code check ............................................................................................... 160
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 162
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 162
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 162
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 162
Use of diaphragms .............................................................................................................. 162
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 162
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 163
References ............................................................................................................................... 163
AISI NAS S100-2007 ....................................................................................................... 164
AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check ........................................................................................... 164
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 164
Initial Shape ................................................................................................................... 166
Dimensional limits .......................................................................................................... 167
Effective Widths ............................................................................................................. 167
Properties of Sections .................................................................................................... 168
Tension Members .......................................................................................................... 169
Flexural Members .......................................................................................................... 169
Compression Members .................................................................................................. 178
Combined Compression and Bending ........................................................................... 181
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 181
2
nd
Order using Appendix 2 ............................................................................................ 185
Lapped Purlin Design ..................................................................................................... 186
References ............................................................................................................................... 187
CM66 ................................................................................................................................ 189
CM66 Code check ................................................................................................................... 189
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 189
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 191
Plastic coefficient ........................................................................................................... 191
Compression members .................................................................................................. 191
Factor kf ......................................................................................................................... 191
LTB Check ..................................................................................................................... 191
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 191

Combined flexion ........................................................................................................... 192
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 192
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 192
References ............................................................................................................................... 193
CM66 - Additif 80 ............................................................................................................ 194
CM66 - Additif 80 Code check ................................................................................................ 194
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 194
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 195
Section check ................................................................................................................. 195
Compression members .................................................................................................. 195
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 195
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 195
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 196
References ............................................................................................................................... 196
BS5950-1:1990 ................................................................................................................ 197
BS5950-1:1990 Code Check ................................................................................................... 197
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 197
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 198
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 200
Slender cross-section .................................................................................................... 200
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 200
Bending moment ............................................................................................................ 201
Bending, shear, axial force............................................................................................. 201
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 201
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 202
Compression member .................................................................................................... 202
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 202
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 203
References ............................................................................................................................... 203
BS5950-1:2000 ................................................................................................................ 205
BS5950-1:2000 Code Check ................................................................................................... 205
SIA263 ............................................................................................................................. 206
SIA263 Code check ................................................................................................................. 206
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 206
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 206
Section classification ...................................................................................................... 208
Slender cross-section .................................................................................................... 208
Sections properties ........................................................................................................ 208
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 208
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 209
Shear buckling ............................................................................................................... 209
Stability check ................................................................................................................ 209
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 209
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 209
SIA263 - Fire Resistance ......................................................................................................... 209
Fire actions effect Efi ............................................................................................................ 209

Material properties ............................................................................................................... 210
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions ............................................................................. 210
Nominal temperature-time curve ......................................................................................... 210
Net heat flux ........................................................................................................................ 210
Steel Temperature ............................................................................................................... 211
Calculation model ................................................................................................................ 212
Code Check ......................................................................................................................... 212
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 212
References ............................................................................................................................... 213
IS 800 ............................................................................................................................... 214
IS:800 Code check .................................................................................................................. 214
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 214
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 214
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 215
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 216
Section check ................................................................................................................. 216
Compression members .................................................................................................. 216
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .............................. 216
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 218
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 219
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 219
References ............................................................................................................................... 220
EAE code check ............................................................................................................. 221
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 221
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 222
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 224
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ........................................... 224
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 224
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 224
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 224
Compression members .................................................................................................. 225
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 225
Combined bending and axial compression .................................................................... 226
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 226
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 227
References ............................................................................................................................... 227
Annex A: Profile Library Formcodes ........................................................................... 229
Formcode 1: I-Section ......................................................................................................... 229
Formcode 2: Rectangular Hollow Section............................................................................ 230
Formcode 3: Circular Hollow Section .................................................................................. 230
Formcode 4: L-Section ........................................................................................................ 232
Formcode 5: Channel Section ............................................................................................. 233
Formcode 6: T-Section ........................................................................................................ 234
Formcode 7: Full Rectangular Section ................................................................................ 235
Formcode 11: Full Circular Section ..................................................................................... 236
Formcode 101: Asymmetric I-Section .................................................................................. 236

Formcode 102: Rolled Z-Section ......................................................................................... 238
Formcode 111: Cold-Formed Angle Section........................................................................ 238
Formcode 112: Cold-Formed Channel Section ................................................................... 240
Formcode 113: Cold-Formed Z-Section .............................................................................. 240
Formcode 114: Cold-Formed C-Section .............................................................................. 241
Formcode 115: Cold-Formed Omega Section ..................................................................... 242
Formcode 116: Cold-Formed C-Section Eaves Beam ......................................................... 243
Formcode 117: Cold-Formed C-Plus Section ...................................................................... 243
Formcode 118: Cold-Formed ZED-Section ......................................................................... 245
Formcode 119: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Asymmetric Lips .............................................. 245
Formcode 120: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Inclined Lip ...................................................... 247
Formcode 121: Cold-Formed Sigma Section....................................................................... 248
Formcode 122: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Stiffened ....................................................... 249
Formcode 123: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section .............................................................. 250
Formcode 124: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Eaves Beam ................................................. 251
Formcode 125: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section Eaves Beam ......................................... 252
Formcode 126: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Both Lips Inclined ............................................ 253
Formcode 127: Cold-Formed I-Plus Section........................................................................ 254
Formcode 128: Cold-Formed IS-Plus Section ..................................................................... 255
Formcode 129: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Asymmetric ................................................... 256
Formcode 150: Rail Type KA ............................................................................................... 257
Formcode 151: Rail Type KF ............................................................................................... 258
Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio ........................................................................ 259
Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio .................................................................. 259
Calculation buckling ratio – general formula ........................................................................ 259
Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals ............................................................. 261
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal ................... 261
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension diagonal ......................... 262
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal .......................... 262
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal .......... 263
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned compression diagonal ................. 263
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal ................. 264
Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements ......................................................... 265
Definitions ............................................................................................................................ 265
Calculation of the critical Euler force ................................................................................... 265
Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members .......................................................... 267
Default slenderness limits .................................................................................................... 268
Leg with symmetrical bracing .............................................................................................. 268
Leg with intermediate transverse support ............................................................................ 269
Leg with staggered bracing.................................................................................................. 269
Single Bracing ..................................................................................................................... 270
Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System) ....................................................... 270
Cross bracing ...................................................................................................................... 271
Cross bracing with SBS ....................................................................................................... 272
K Bracing ............................................................................................................................. 272
Horizontal Bracing ............................................................................................................... 273

Horizontal Bracing with SBS ................................................................................................ 273
Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member ......................................................... 274
Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis ....................................................... 275
References ............................................................................................................................... 275
Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for LTB....................................................... 277
Introduction to the calculation of moment factors ............................................................... 277
Calculation moment factors ................................................................................................... 277
Moment distribution generated by q load ............................................................................. 277
Moment distribution generated by F load............................................................................. 279
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam ...................................... 280
References ............................................................................................................................... 280
Annex D: Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................ 281
Adaptation of torsional constant ........................................................................................... 281
References ............................................................................................................................... 282
Annex E: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis ......................................... 284
Introduction to LTBII ............................................................................................................... 284
Eigenvalue solution Mcr ......................................................................................................... 284
2
nd
Order analysis ................................................................................................................... 286
Supported National Codes ..................................................................................................... 286
Supported Sections ................................................................................................................ 287
Loadings .................................................................................................................................. 289
Imperfections ........................................................................................................................... 289
Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM ................................................................. 290
Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE ................................................................... 290
Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes ........................................... 291
LTB Restraints ......................................................................................................................... 292
Diaphragms ............................................................................................................................. 293
Linked Beams .......................................................................................................................... 294
Limitations and Warnings ...................................................................................................... 295
References ............................................................................................................................... 296
Annex F: Warping check ............................................................................................... 297
Stress check ............................................................................................................................ 297
Calculation of the direct stress due to warping .................................................................... 298
Calculation of the shear stress due to warping .................................................................... 301
Plastic Check ........................................................................................................................... 303
Standard diagrams for warping torque, bimoment and the St.Venant torsion .................. 306
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt ........................................ 307
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt ...................................... 308
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt .............................. 310
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt ............................. 311
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt .................... 312
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt ........... 313
Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line ................................................................................ 314
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 ...................................................................... 315

Decomposition for situation 2 .............................................................................................. 315
References ............................................................................................................................... 315
Annex G: Check of numerical sections ....................................................................... 317
Stress check ............................................................................................................................ 317
Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections) ..................... 318
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 318
Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate bending .............................................. 318
Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear force .......................................... 321
Plastic check for plate in bending ......................................................................................... 322
Stress check for slim floor beams ......................................................................................... 323
Normal stress check ............................................................................................................ 323
Shear stress check in plate.................................................................................................. 323
Torsion check due to unbalanced loading ........................................................................... 324
References ............................................................................................................................... 326
Annex I: Effective cross-section properties for lattice tower angle members ........ 327
Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members ............ 327
References ............................................................................................................................... 328




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
1

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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EC3 – ENV 1993

EC3 – ENV code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, art.3.2.2.1.)


(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340 175 320
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410 205 380
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490 275 450
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting the proper
data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows:


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
3

with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy
fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90° bends in the section


Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 5.3.1. (class 1,2,3 or 4). The section is checked for
tension (art. 5.4.3.), compression (art. 5.4.4.), shear (art. 5.4.6.) and the combination of bending, shear
and axial force (art. 5.4.9.).

For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to art.5.5.. The following criteria are
considered :
- for compression : art. 5.5.1.
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5.5.2.
- for bending and axial compression : art. 5.5.4.

The shear buckling resistance is checked using the simple post-critical method from art. 5.6.3.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 5.3., 5.4., 5.5. and 5.6. in the
following table. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.


5.3. Classification of cross sections
5.3.1. Basis x
5.3.2. Classification x
5.3.3. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis
5.3.4. Cross-section requirements when elastic global analysis is used
5.3.5. Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section x (*)
5.3.6. Effects of transverse forces on webs

5.4. Resistance of cross-sections
5.4.1. General x
5.4.2. Section properties (*)
5.4.3. Tension x
5.4.4. Compression x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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5.4.5. Bending moment x (*)
5.4.6. Shear x
5.4.7. Bending and shear x
5.4.8. Bending and axial force x
5.4.9. Bending, shear and axial force x (*)
5.4.10. Transverse forces on webs

5.5. Buckling resistance of members
5.5.1. Compression members x (*)
5.5.2. Lateral-torsional buckling x (*)
5.5.3. Bending and axial tension
5.5.4. Bending and axial compression x (*)
5.6. Shear buckling resistance
5.6.1. Basis x
5.6.2. Design methods
5.6.3. Simple post-critical method x
5.6.4. Tension field method
5.6.5. Intermediate transverse stiffeners
5.6.6. Welds
5.6.7. Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial force x

5.9. Built-up compression members
5.9.3. Battened compression members
5.9.3.1. Application x(*)
5.9.3.2. Constructional details
5.9.3.3. Second moment of inertia x
5.9.3.4. Chord forces ar mid-length x
5.9.3.5. Buckling resistance of chords x
5.9.3.6. Moments and shear due to battening x

Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
5
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower
angle members'.
Section properties
5.4.2.2 : The net area properties are only taken into account in the Tension Check in case of lattice
tower angle sections with bolted diagonal connections if the LTA functionality has been activated.
For more information, reference is made to the Theoretical Background Bolted Diagonal
Connections. In all other cases the net area properties are not taken into account.

5.4.2.3 : The shear lag effects are neglected .

Bending moment
5.4.5.3 : The holes for fasteners are neglected.



Bending, shear and axial force
The reduced design plastic resistance moment for the interaction of bending, shear and axial force,
is taken from Table 5.17. Ref. |2|

Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Annex F: Warping
check'.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections)’
Compression members
5.5.1.5 For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Annex B: Calculation of
buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |1|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to
"Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by


z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (=
lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


See also Ref. |3|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Shear Buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check for cold formed sections
See Ref.[4] 5.8 :

The shear resistance of the web Vw,Rd shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling resistance
Vb,Rd and the plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd.

The shear resistance of the web should be checked if:



The shear buckling resistance Vb,Rd is given by


The plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd is given by



with
w ì
the relative web slenderness
fyb the basic yield strength
fy the average yield strength
sw the web length
t the web thickness
E the modulus of elasticity
fbv the shear buckling strength
¸M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by yielding (=1.1)
¸M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by buckling (=1.1)
The value for fbv is given by :

E
f
t
s
346 . 0
f
f
83 . 0
yb
w
w
_
1 M
0 M
y
yb
w
_
· = ì
¸
¸
· s ì
1 M
bv w
Rd , b
f t s
V
¸
· ·
=
3
f t s
V
0 M
y w
Rd , pl
¸
· ·
=
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
8


fbv
<1.40
w
yb
f
48 . 0
ì

>1.40


Remarks:

For an arbitrary composed section, the total Vb,Rd and Vpl,Rd is taken as the sum of resistance of
each web, where the angle u (teta) is larger than 45° (see figure)

The basic yield strength is taken equal to the average yield strength.



Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
See Ref.[4] 6.2.3.

The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained
using buckling curve b, and with relative slenderness given by :

w
_
ì
²
f
67 . 0
w
_
yb
ì
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
9




with |A the ratio Aeff/A (see Ref.[1] 5.5)
fyb the basic yield strength
o
cr
the critical stress
ocr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling

ocr,TF
the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Bending and axial compression
When the torsional buckling and/or the torsional-flexural buckling is governing, the formula (6.12)
from Ref.[4], article 6.5.2. is applied.


Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
11
The following additional checks are performed:
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,Sd
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

4
a V
M
2
V
V
N N
s
G
s
G
SD f, G
=
=
=


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

4
a V
M
2 h
a V
T
s
0
s
=
=


For the calculation of Vs, the value of Ms is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

l
a
ho


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance
Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

) f ( A Q Q G
d j , k j , 2 1 , k 1 , 1 k GA
E + ¢ E + ¢ + ¸ E


with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions
Qk,1 characteristic value of the (main) variable action
Qk,j characteristic values of the other variable actions
Af(d) design values of actions from fire exposure
¸GA partial safety factor for permanent actions in the accidental situation
¢1,1 ¢2,j combination coefficients


Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

a
, a
, E
y
, p
, p
y
, y
, y
E
E
k
f
f
k
f
f
k
u
u
u
u
u
u
=
=
=


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
, proportional limit
kp,u
and modulus of elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in Ref.[6], table 3.1.

For cold formed members ky,u
is taken from Ref.[7], table III.2.5.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
13


In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis:

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. See
Ref.[8], Section 4, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.

Nominal temperature-time curve
The following temperature-time curves can be selected :

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]
oc the coefficient of heat transfer by convection



- ISO 834 curve





- external fire curve





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
14
- hydrocarbon curve




- smoldering fire curve


during 21 minutes, followed by the standard ISO 834 curve

Net heat flux

r , net r , n c , net c , n d , net
h h h ¸ + ¸ =

with hnet,d the net heat flux
hnet,c the convective heat flux
hnet,r the radiative heat flux
¸n,c factor depending on NAD [1.0]
¸n,r factor depending on NAD [1.0]



with u configuration factor [1.0]
cres resultant emissivity
= c
f
c
m

cf emissivity related to fire compartment
= [0.800]
cm emissivity related to surface material
= [0.625]
ur = ug
gas temperature in [°C]
um surface temperature of member in [°C]
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
15
Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At

t h
c
V / A
d , net
a a
m
t , a
A
µ
= u A

with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

c
a
the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At



with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0

For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in 'ENV 1993-1-2:1995' and/or 'Model Code on Fire Engineering - ECCS N° 111'.
The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check are
performed.
The following checks are executed :

EC3-1-2 :
- classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. 4.2.3.5.
- critical temperature : art. 4.2.4.

ECCS Model Code on Fire Engineering
- resistance for tension members : art. III.5.2.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. III.5.3.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. III.5.4.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art. III.5.5.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. III.5.6.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. III.5.7.
- critical temperature : art. III.5.8.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
17
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.

The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
18
References

|1| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

|2| Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N° 65, 1991

|3| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[4] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
ENV 1993-1-2:1995, 1995

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N° 111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 2-2 : Actions on structures - Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 1991-2-2:1995


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
19
EC3 – EN 1993

EC3 – EN Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1: General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009








Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
20
Consulted articles
An overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with “X” are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following
paragraphs.

EN 1993-1-1

Article Title

1. General

1.7 Conventions for member axes
X(*)


2. Basis of design



3. Materials
X(*)


5. Structural analysis

5.2 Global analysis
X
5.3 Imperfections

5.3.1 Basis
5.3.2 Imperfections for global analysis of frames
5.3.3 Imperfections for analysis of bracing systems
5.3.4 Member imperfections
X
X(*)

X
5.4 Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities
X(*)
5.5 Classification of cross-sections
X(*)


6. Ultimate limit states

6.1 General
X
6.2 Resistance of cross-sections

6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Section properties
6.2.3 Tension
6.2.4 Compression
6.2.5 Bending moment
6.2.6 Shear
6.2.7 Torsion
6.2.8 Bending and shear
6.2.9 Bending and axial force
6.2.10 Bending, shear and axial force
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
6.3 Buckling resistance of members

6.3.1 Uniform members in compression
6.3.2 Uniform members in bending
6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
6.4 Uniform built-up compression members

6.4.1 General
X(*)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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6.4.3 Battened compression members
X(*)


Annex A Method 1:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3.(4)
X
Annex B Method 2:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3.(4)
X

EN 1993-1-5

Article Title
4.4 Plate elements without longitudinal stiffeners X
5. Resistance to shear X
5.1 Basis
5.2 Design resistance X
5.3 Contribution from webs X
5.4 Contribution from flanges X
5.5 Verification X
7.1 Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial force X
Annex D Plate girders with corrugated webs X(*)


Convention
As indicated in EN 1993-1-1 art. 1.7(4) NOTE, all checks given in this Eurocode relate to principal
axis properties. Within Scia Engineer, the principal axis system is denoted by the 'y-axis' and 'z-
axis'. For background information, reference is made to the Theoretical Background for Cross-
Section Characteristics.

The Eurocode rules are written out in such a way that the y-axis is seen as the strong (major)
principal axis. Therefore, in case the cross-section has Iz > Iy within the check the axis will be
switched.

For the following sections no switch of axis is done:
I-Section (FC 1)
RHS (FC 2)
Channel-Section (FC 5)
T-Section (FC 6)
IFBA (FC 154)
IFBB (FC 155)
SFB (FC 153)
THQ (FC 156)
VARH element (see Definitions )

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 3.1.
Within the material properties the rules for reduction of the yield strength in function of the thickness
can be edited. This allows the definition of any custom material with custom thickness reduction.

 For cold formed sections, the reductions of the yield strength in function of the
thickness are not applied.

Imperfections
Global initial sway imperfections are determined according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 5.3.2(3)a.
Local bow imperfections are determined according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 5.3.2(3)b.

Plastic Hinges
For material non-linearity using plastic hinges according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 5.4.3 reference is made
to the manual for Non-linear analysis.

Classification of Cross-sections
The classification of cross-sections is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 5.5.2 and Table 5.2.

For each intermediary section, the classification for cross-section design is determined and the
proper section check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the classification for member buckling design is determined as
the maximal class along the member. This class is used to perform the stability check since stability
effects are related to the whole member and not to a single cross-section.

To determine this critical classification, all sections in the Ly and Lz system lengths of the buckling
system are checked and the worst classification is used as the critical. Note that only sections on the
actual member are used so in case the system length spans multiple members, only the sections of
the actual member are used to determine the critical classification.

For non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary
section.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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The classification according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 is done using the general formulation for
‘parts subjected to bending and compression’. In this way the beneficial effect of tension is also
accounted for.
- For example, for class 1, in case of bending combined with a tensile axial force the cross-
section is less subjected to compression thus leading to an o value smaller than 0,5. This in
turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for ‘part subject to bending’.

- For example, for class 1, in case of an asymmetrical section in bending, depending on the
geometry of the section the cross-section is less subjected to compression thus leading to an
o value smaller than 0,5. This in turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for
‘part subject to bending’.


Specifically for sheet welded Iw and Iwn cross-sections the weld size as inputted in the cross-
section is accounted for in the classification as follows:





With: Hw Web height
a Weld size

 The alternative regulations given in EN 1993-1-1 art. 5.5.2(9) & (11) are not supported.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Section properties
Net Area
The net area according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.2.2 is not supported.
Shear lag effects
Shear lag effects according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.2.3 is not supported.
Effective cross-section properties of Class 4 cross-section
The effective cross-section properties for Class 4 sections are determined according to EN 1993-1-5
art. 4.3 & 4.4. The calculation of the effective properties is performed using the yield strength
instead of the actual compressive stresses (so called "Direct Method").

The effective width of internal compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 Table
4.1. The effective width of outstand compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5
Table 4.2.

Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to a moment about the relevant
axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.

Additional moments ΔMEd due to the possible shift eN of the centroid of the effective area Aeff are
accounted for according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.2.5(4). These additional moments are neglected in
case they would have a favourable effect on the check result.

 CHS members with Class 4 cross-sections are checked as elastic, Class 3.

Section Checks
Tension
The Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.3.
The net area Anet is taken equal to the gross area Ag.

Compression
The Compression Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.4.

Bending Moment
The Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.5.

 Fastener holes are not accounted for.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Shear
The Shear Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.6.
By default the plastic shear resistance according to art. 6.2.6(2) will be determined for those cross-
sections which have a shear area Av defined. The following table gives an overview of the shear
areas:

Cross-section type Shear Area Source
Rolled I-section (FC 1)

EN 1993-1-1
ECCS 85
Rolled Asym. I-section
(FC 101)

EN 1993-1-1 (mod)

ECCS 85 (mod)
Welded I-section (FC 1)

EN 1993-1-1
EN 1993-1-1
Rolled U-section (FC 5)

EN 1993-1-1
EN 1993-1-1 (mod)
Welded U-section (FC 5)

EN 1993-1-1 (mod)
EN 1993-1-1
Rolled T-section (FC 6)

EN 1993-1-1
EN 1993-1-1 (mod)
Welded T-section (FC 6)

EN 1993-1-1
EN 1993-1-1 (mod)
Rolled RHS (FC 2)

EN 1993-1-1

EN 1993-1-1
Cold-Formed RHS (FC 2)

EN 1993-1-1

EN 1993-1-1
Welded RHS (FC 2)

EN 1993-1-1
EN 1993-1-1
CHS (FC 3)

EN 1993-1-1

EN 1993-1-1
Full Rectangular Section
(FC 7)

ECCS 85
ECCS 85
Full Circular Section (FC
11)

ECCS 85
ECCS 85
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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IFBA (FC 154)

With h the height of the rolled section

ECCS 83

ECCS 83 (mod)
IFBB (FC 155)

With h the height of the rolled section

ECCS 83

ECCS 83 (mod)
SFB (FC 153)

With h the height of the rolled section

ECCS 83

ECCS 83 (mod)
THQ (FC 156)

With h the height of the rolled section

ECCS 83

ECCS 83 (mod)
Numerical

(Taken from the cross-section)

(Taken from the cross-section)


The first column in this table indicates the type of the cross-section including the formcode (for
background information see Annex A.)

The last column indicates the source from which this shear area was taken. The reference list
contains their full denomination, see Ref.[1], [11], [37] and [38]. The suffix (mod) indicates that the
formula has been modified based on the cross-section type. A typical example of this is the
modification of the shear area formula given for a symmetric I-section in order to account for the
different flange geometries of an asymmetric I-section.

For any cross-section which does not have a shear area Av defined in the above table the elastic
shear resistance according to art. 6.2.6(4) is determined.

 The reduction factor ρ for shear, as defined in art. 6.2.8 and 6.2.10, is based on the
plastic shear resistance. As a result, in case an elastic shear verification is done, ρ
cannot be determined and thus an elastic combined section check will be done for this
section.
 Through the Steel Setup it is possible to indicate that, instead of an elastic shear
check, the plastic shear check can be done using the shear areas Ay and Az from the
cross-section.
 When using the Elastic verification setting in the Steel Setup, the elastic shear
verification will be done for all sections, even those which would normally be checked
plastically.

For Shear Buckling reference is made to Shear buckling check.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Torsion
The Torsion Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.7.

Formula (6.23) is checked as follows:

With:
tt,Ed
Maximal torsion stress in the cross-section fibres

tRd

¸

Torsion and Shear
The Combined Shear and Torsion Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.7(9).

The following table gives an overview for which cross-section type which formula from art. 6.2.7(9)
is used.

Cross-section type Formula
Symmetric I-section (FC 1) (6.26)
Asymmetric I-section (FC 101) (6.26)
IFBA (FC 154) (6.26)
IFBB (FC 155) (6.26)
SFB (FC 153) (6.26)

U-section (FC 5) (6.27)

RHS (FC 2) (6.28)
CHS (FC 3) (6.28)
THQ (FC 156) (6.28)

The first column in this table indicates the type of the cross-section including the formcode (for
background information see Annex A.)
The warping shear stress tw,Ed in formula (6.27) is taken as the maximal value along the fibres in the
cross-section. For its calculation reference is made to Calculation of the shear stress due to
warping.

In case of one of the following, the Combined Torsion and Shear check cannot be executed:
- No plastic shear resistance is available i.e. an elastic shear check was done which means torsion
cannot be accounted for in a plastic interaction check.
- A plastic shear resistance is available but the cross-section does not match any of those listed in
the above table. This implies that the code does not give a formula to account for torsion in a plastic
interaction check.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
28
- A plastic shear resistance is available and the cross-section matches one of those listed in the
above table, but due to extreme torsion the reduction is so big that it would cause a negative
resulting shear resistance Vpl,T,Rd.
In each of those cases an elastic verification using the yield criterion according to art. 6.2.1(5) will be
done instead.

 The combined plastic interaction checks according to art. 6.2.9.1 account for the
presence of torsion by reducing the plastic shear resistance (which in turn reduces
the plastic bending resistance). Thus in case there is no shear, the torsion cannot be
accounted for in a plastic verification. In such a case an elastic verification using the
yield criterion according to art. 6.2.1(5) will be done instead.

Warping
In case the warping check has been activated within the buckling data of a member, the torsional
moment will be split into an internal Saint-Venant torsional moment and an internal warping torsional
moment as indicated in EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.7(2).

Two distinct combined checks are supported, depending on the type of section and type of analysis:
- By default the elastic verification using the Von Mises yield criterion is verified.
- For doubly symmetric I-sections of class 1 or 2 a plastic interaction is verified.

Reference is made to Annex F: Warping check

Bending, Shear (and Axial force)
The influence of the Shear force on the Bending resistance is accounted for according to EN 1993-
1-1 art. 6.2.8 & 6.2.10.

In case of one of the following, the influence of the Shear force on the Bending resistance cannot be
accounted for using the specified article:
- No plastic shear resistance is available i.e. an elastic shear check was done which means the
reduction factor ρ cannot be determined.
- Due to extreme shear the reduction factor ρ > 1 which would lead to a negative reduction.
- In case there is no corresponding bending moment the reduction for shear cannot be applied (for
example Vz combined with Mz and thus no corresponding My).

In each of those cases an elastic verification using the yield criterion according to art. 6.2.1(5) will be
done instead.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Bending and Axial force
The Combined Bending and Axial force Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.2.9.
 In case the elastic verification has been activated within the Steel Setup, for any cross-
section class the elastic verification using the yield criterion according to art. 6.2.1(5)
is verified instead.
As specified in the code, the type of the check depends on the classification.
Class 1 & 2 cross-sections
Class 1 & 2 cross-sections are by default verified by art. 6.2.9.1

This article gives formulas for the following cross-section types:
- Full Rectangular Sections (FC 7)
- Doubly Symmetric I-sections (FC 1)
- Rectangular Hollow Sections (FC 2)
- Circular Hollow Sections (FC 3)

For these sections the moment resistance is reduced due to the presence of an axial force.
In case of an extreme axial force which would lead to a negative reduction the formulas from this
article cannot be applied. In this case the plastic linear summation according to art. 6.2.1(7) is
applied.

For any other class 1 or 2 cross-sections which do not have a reduced moment resistance defined
within this article also the plastic linear summation according to art. 6.2.1(7) is applied.


Circular Hollow Sections
For Circular Hollow Sections (FC 3) the reduced moment resistance due to axial force is calculated
according to the formula given in the 2009 correction sheet Ref.[11].

In addition, the resultant shear force and resultant moment is determined. The resultant shear force
is used to calculate the reduction for shear according to Bending, Shear (and Axial force).

The unity check is then executed as follows:







Class 3 cross-sections
Class 3 cross-sections are by default verified by art. 6.2.9.2.
For shear, reference is made to Bending, Shear (and Axial force). The reduction factor ρ to be used
in formula (6.42) is taken as the maximum of ρy and ρz see Ref.[38].

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Class 4 cross-sections
Class 4 cross-sections are by default verified by art. 6.2.9.3 formula (6.44).


Stability Checks
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Buckling curves are determined according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.2.
In case the cross-section of the member is not listed in this table, the buckling curves are taken from
the user inputted values in the cross-section properties.

For non-prismatic members with cross-sections that are not listed in Table 6.2 all generated
sections will receive the user inputted values of the buckling curves of the first section in the span.

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), and Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS), the elastic
critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref.
|10|.
For any other section, the elastic critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by:



With E Modulus of elasticity
G Shear modulus
L Length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw Warping constant
It Torsional constant
Iz Moment of inertia about the minor axis
C1 Moment factor which by default is taken as 1,00. Within the Steel setup
it can be set to use the calculated value of C1 instead of 1,00.

See also Ref. |4|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Circular hollow sections (CHS) are taken as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling.

Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling if the
following condition is fulfilled (Ref.[9] pp.119).

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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ì

With: h Height of RHS section
b Width of RHS section
ì

Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling


Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.




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Determination of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3
The coefficients C1, C2 and C3 can be calculated according to three different methods:
ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F
ECCS 119/Galea
Lopez, Yong, Serna

By default the method according to ECCS 119/Galea is applied.
The following paragraphs give information on these methods.
ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to ENV 1993-1-1 Annex
F Ref.[10].
Detailed information can be found in chapter "Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for LTB".

ECCS 119/Galea
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to ECCS 119 Annex B
Ref.[9].
The figures given in this reference for C1 and C2 in case of combined loading originate from Ref.[28]
which in fact also gives the tabulated values of those figures as well as an extended range.


The actual moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. These
standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a nodal F load, or
where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.

The standard moment distribution which is closest to the actual moment distribution, is taken for the
calculation of the factors C1 and C2.

Linear Moment
In case of a linear moment diagram the C1 coefficient is determined using formula (301) of ECCS 119
Annex B Ref.[9].
The coefficient C2 is taken as zero in this case.

Point Loading
In case of Point loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 5-8 of Galea Ref.[28].
A double interpolation is used for intermediate values.

Line Loading
In case of Line loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 1-4 of Galea Ref.[28].
A double interpolation is used for intermediate values.

In case k differs from 1.00 the C1 and C2 values determined from Galea Ref.[28] are overruled by
the values from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 63 and 64
For all cases the factor C3 is taken from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 63 and 64. The C3 value
is determined based on the case of which the C1 value most closely matches the table value.
The table for C3 uses the value ¢f which is taken as 0 by default.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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For asymmetrical I-sections (Form code 101) ¢f is calculated as follows:

Ifc and Ift concern the moments of inertia of the compression ( c ) and tension ( t ) flange about the
minor axis.
For this method ¢f should be within the following range:
¢

When this is not the case ¢f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.


I-section Cantilevers
ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 65 to 68 give values for C1, C2 and C3 for I-section cantilevers.
These coefficients are used only in case the following conditions are met:
- The member concerns a cantilever.
A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a buckling system which has free ends for both
buckling about the y-y and z-z axis. In addition, the LTB length should correspond to the full
system length of the buckling system.
- The cross-section is an I-section (Form code 1) or Asymmetric I-section (Form code 101).
This method differentiates between ‘warping prevented’ and ‘warping free’ at the fixed end. This
setting is taken from the buckling system.

This method uses the value ¢
f
which is calculated as specified above.
For this method ¢f should be within the following range:
¢

When this is not the case ¢f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.


This method uses the coefficient

which is defined as follows:

With: L System length for LTB
E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
Iz Inertia about the weak axis
It Torsion constant
hs Distance defined as follows:
Form Code 1: H - t
Form Code 101: H – 0,5 * tt – 0,5 * tb

should be within the following range:
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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When this is not the case

is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.

In addition this method should be used in combination with k equal to 2,00 and kw equal to 1,00
When this is not the case an additional warning is given.


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Lopez, Yong, Serna
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to Lopez, Yong, Serna
Ref.[29].
When using this method the coefficients C2 and C3 are set to zero.
The coefficient C1 is calculated as follows:






With: k1 Taken equal to kw
k2 Taken equal to kw
M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 The moments My determined on the buckling system in the
given sections as shown on the above figure.
These moments are determined by dividing the beam into 10
parts (11 sections) and interpolating between these sections.

Mmax The maximal moment My along the LTB system.

 This method is only supported in case both k and kw equal 0.50 or 1.00


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Modified design rule for LTB of Channel sections
In case this setting is activated within the Steel Setup, the reduction factor for Lateral-Torsional
Buckling of Channel sections is determined according to Ref.[22].

More specifically the calculation is done as follows:

This Modified design rule is applied only in case the following conditions are met:
- The section concerns a Channel section (Form Code 5)
- The General Case is used for LTB (Not the Rolled and Equivalent Welded Case)
- 15 <= Lltb/h <= 40 (with Lltb the LTB length and h the cross-section height)



Correction factor k
c

In case Lateral-Torsional Buckling curves for the ‘Rolled and equivalent welded’ case are used
according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.3.2.3 the correction factor kc can be determined in two ways:

By default kc is taken from Table 6.6

Alternatively, kc can be determined from C1 as follows Ref.[30]:

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

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Combined bending and axial compression
For prismatic members the value My,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
strong axis in the member. The value Mz,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My,Ed and Mz,Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

 When Torsional(-Flexural) buckling is governing the _z value in equation (6.62) is taken
as the minimum of _z and _TF.


Interaction Method 1 – Annex A

For Czz the corrected formula given in correction sheet EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Ref.[11] is used:

ì

ì

Interaction Method 2 – Annex B

Doubly symmetric I sections which have a reduction factor for Lateral Torsional Buckling _LT equal to
1,00 are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.

Circular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.

Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations if the
following condition is fulfilled (Ref.[9] pp.119).

ì

With: h Height of RHS section
b Width of RHS section
ì

Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling


Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections)’.

Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member:

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc


 This specifically concerns hot rolled sections i.e. cold-formed pair sections are not
supported.
Battened compression members are evaluated according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.4.1 and 6.4.3.

Two links (battens) are used.

The following additional checks are performed:
Section check of chord as beam in field between battens
This check is executed according to articles 6.4.3.1 & 6.2.9.1 using the following internal forces:

4
a V
M
2
V
V
N N
Ed
G
Ed
G
Ed ch, G
=
=
=

With: Nch,Ed Chord force according to formula (6.69)
VEd Shear force in the built-up member according to
formula (6.70)
a Distance between battens

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For I-sections a classification is made which thus supports both an elastic or plastic interaction. For
U-sections always an elastic interaction is made.
Buckling check of chord
This concerns a weak axis buckling check of a single chord according to articles 6.4.3.1 & 6.3.1.1
using chord force Nch,Ed.


Section check of single batten
An elastic section check of a single batten is executed according to articles 6.4.3.1, 6.2.9.2 & 6.2.6
using the following forces:

4
a V
M
2 h
a V
T
Ed
0
Ed
=
=

With: VEd Shear force in the built-up member according to
formula (6.70)
a Distance between battens
h0 Distance between centroids of chords

l
a
ho


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Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs
Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs (“SIN beams”) are covered in EN 1993-1-5 Annex D. The
method given in this chapter is specified in Ref.[33]. Background information can be found in Ref.[16].



The check is executed for sheet welded cross-sections of type Iw c and Iwn c. The corrugations are taken
to be perpendicular to the upper flange.

The dimensioning of corrugated web girders is executed for the in plane effects NEd, Vz,Ed and My,Ed.
Transformation of internal forces

For every point of the plate girder the chord forces N,og and N,ug are found by transformation. These
chord forces are still parallel to the member axis while the shear force is orthogonal to the axis.
The following angles are defined:
- α = the slope of the lower chord against the upper chord
- β = the angle between the centre line and chords.





The shear force Vz is decomposed into a corrugation-parallel component V* and an axis-parallel
component N(V)*.



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N(V)* can be added directly to the calculated normal force N. The chord forces can now be determined as
follows:


With: A,og Area of the upper flange
A,ug Area of the lower flange
H,steg Web height
t,og Thickness of the upper flange
t,ug Thickness of the lower flange


From the chord forces the chord-parallel components and the corrugation-parallel components are
determined. For the upper chord this becomes:



For the lower chord the following intermediate step is used:




The actual force in the lower chord is then:



The actual component of the shear force can then be written as:

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The chord forces Nog* and Nug* are now known. By summation of the V* and V(Nog)* and V(Nug)*
components the total shear force is obtained.
Resistance of sinusoidal corrugated web girders

The normal force and bending moment are taken by the flanges while the shear force is taken by the
corrugated web.

Flanges
For the flanges the following limits are checked:
- Yielding
- Local buckling
- Global buckling

Yielding

NRd,yield = bf * tf * fy / ¸M0

With: bf Flange width
tf Flange thickness
fy Yield strength
¸M0 Partial safety factor


Local buckling
Local buckling of the compression flange is checked according to EN 1993-1-5 article 4.4.

To avoid local buckling the slenderness is limited to 0,748. By substituting this into the formula
for the slenderness the following limit is obtained for the width:



For a sinusoidal corrugated web member the total flange width thus becomes:


The resistance for local buckling can then be written out as:

NRd,local = b * tf * fy / ¸M0

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Global buckling
Global buckling of the compression flange (Lateral-Torsional Buckling) is checked according to EN
1993-1-1 article 6.3.2.4:

This is written out to the following resistance for the compression flange:


With: b Flange width
t Flange thickness
fy Yield strength
E Modulus of Young
Lc Length between lateral restraints (LTB length)
kc Correction factor according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.6

The design value can then be written out as:

NRd,global = NRk / ¸M1

With: ¸M1 Partial safety factor


Web
For the web the shear resistance is determined according to EN 1993-1-5 Annex D article D2.2:

Where _c is taken as the lesser of the reduction factors for local buckling _c,l and global buckling
_c,g.
According to Ref.[34] it was found by testing and FEM that no local buckling occurs for all actually
produced beams with sinusoidal corrugated webs. Therefore only the reduction factor for global
buckling _c,g needs to be accounted for.




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44



With: fy Yield strength
E Modulus of Young
v Poisson ratio
tw Web thickness
hw Web depth
Iz Second moment of area of one corrugation of length w,
calculated as:


a3 Height of a sinus wave
Taken as 40 mm for tw < 3 mm
Taken as 43 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm

w Length of the projection of a half wave

s Unfolded length of a half wave
Taken as 178 mm for tw < 3 mm
Taken as 182 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm




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Moments on columns in simple construction
This NCCI presents a method for determining the moments on columns in simple construction due
to the eccentricity of the beam-to-column joints. This method is intended for braced frames with
nominally pinned joints. The method is detailed in Ref.[31] and [32].
Conditions
In case the setting is activated in the Steel Setup the additional moments will be calculated on
columns in which the following conditions are satisfied:

- The column cross-section concerns an I-section (Form code 1) or RHS section (Form code 2)
- The column has structural type Column, Gable column or Secondary column
- The column is uniform i.e. does not have arbitrary sections or haunches
- Only connected beams with structural type Beam or Rafter are accounted for. In addition these
beams should have a hinge at the side where they are connected to the column.
- There can maximally be two connected beams in the same plane in the same node. These two
connected beams must have the same X-axis direction of their LCS.
Additional moments
When the above conditions are satisfied the additional moments are calculated in the following way:

With: Rb1,Ed Shear force in the considered plane in the connected beam at the
specified distance
h Profile height for an I-section
Profile height or width for an RHS-section
tw Web thickness for an I-section
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The distribution of the additional moments to the upper and lower column sections is carried out in
proportion to their stiffness, except where the ratio of the stiffnesses (I/L) does not exceed 1.5,
when the moments may be shared equally. This is illustrated on the following picture:

With: MU Distributed moment to the upper column section
ML Distributed moment to the lower column section
IU Inertia in the considered plane of the upper column section
IL Inertia in the considered plane of the lower column section
LU System length in the considered plane of the upper column section
LL System length in the considered plane of the lower column section
These additional moments are then added to the sections in the column just above and just below the
connected beam.
 The simplified procedure given in this chapter allows to account for eccentricities
without specifically adding these eccentricities in the calculation model. In case
however an actual member eccentricity is defined on the column member the above
procedure will not be used since additional moments will already be generated during
the analysis.


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Scaffolding
The scaffolding member and coupler check are implemented according to EN 12811-1 Ref.[23].
The following paragraphs give detailed information on these checks.

Scaffolding member check for tubular members
The check is executed specifically for circular hollow sections (Form code 3) and Numerical
sections in case the proper setting is activated in the Steel Setup.

The check is executed according to Equation 9 given in EN 12811-1 article 10.3.3.2. However, the
EN 12811-1 only gives an interaction equation in case of a low shear force.
Since the EN 12811-1 is based entirely on DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 Ref.[26] the interaction formulas
according to Tabelle 7 of DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 are applied in case of a large shear force.


The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Conditions Interaction for tubular member
and

and

and

and







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With: M

V




Npld

Vpld

Mpld

A Area of the cross-section
Wel Elastic section modulus
Wpl Plastic section modulus
N Normal force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mz Bending moment about the z axis
fy Yield strength of the material


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1

 As specified in EN 12810 Ref.[25] & 12811 Ref.[23] the scaffolding check for tubular
members assumes the use of a 2
nd
order analysis including imperfections.

In case these conditions are not set the default EN 1993-1-1 check should be applied
instead.


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Scaffolding coupler check
The scaffolding couplers according to EN 12811-1 Annex C Ref.[23] are provided by default within
Scia Engineer.
The interaction check of the couplers is executed according to EN 12811-1 article 10.3.3.5.

The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Coupler type Interaction equation
Right angle coupler


Friction sleeve



With: Fsk Characteristic Slipping force
Taken as Nxk and Vzk of the coupler properties
2Fsk = Nxk + Vzk
Fpk Characteristic Pull-apart force
Taken as Vyk of the coupler properties
MBk Characteristic Bending moment
Taken as Myk of the coupler properties
N Normal force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers


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Manufacturer couplers
In addition to the scaffolding couplers listed above, specific manufacturer couplers are provided
within Scia Engineer.
The interaction checks of these couplers are executed according to the respective validation reports.

Cuplock
The cuplock coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-
208 Ref.[35].

The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Cuplock Coupler Interaction equation
Interaction 1


Interaction 2



With: Nxk Taken from the coupler properties
Myk Taken from the coupler properties
Mxk Taken from the coupler properties
N Normal force in the ledger
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mx Torsional moment about the x axis
Nv Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal
o Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers




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Layher Variante II & K2000+
The Layher coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-
64 Ref.[36]. Both Variante II and Variante K2000+ are provided.



Layher
Coupler
Interaction equation
Interaction 1 Variante II:


Variante K2000+:


Interaction 2





With: NR,d
= Nxk /
With Nxk taken from the coupler properties
My,R,d
= Myk /
With Myk taken from the coupler properties
MT,R,d
= Mxk /
With Mxk taken from the coupler properties
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Vz,R,d
= Vzk /
With Vzk taken from the coupler properties
N Normal force in the ledger
(+) This index indicates a tensile force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mx Torsional moment about the x axis
Nv Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal
o Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard
e = 2,75 cm for Variante II
= 3,30 cm for Variante K2000+
eD = 5,7 cm for Variante II and Variante K2000+
ç = 1,26 cm for Variante II
= 1,41 cm for Variante K2000+


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers




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EC3 – EN Fire Resistance

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules – Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009


Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by (see EN 1990 – Ref[5])

Eq. 6.11b EGk,j + P + Ad+ (¢1,l or ¢2,l)Qk,l+ E¢2,iQk,i

The choice between ¢1,l or ¢2,l is done by the user. Default is ¢1,l.


with Gk,j characteristic value of permanent action j
P relevant representative value of prestressing action
Qk,l characteristic value of leading variable action l
Qk,i characteristic value of accompanying variable action i
Ad design value of the accidental action
¢1,l ¢2,l combination coefficients


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54
Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

a
, a
, E
y
, p
, p
y
, y
, y
E
E
k
f
f
k
f
f
k
u
u
u
u
u
u
=
=
=


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
, proportional limit
kp,u
and modulus of elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in ref.[6], table 3.1.

For cold formed members ky,u
is taken from Ref.[7]; table III.2.5.

In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis :

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. See
Ref.[8], Section 3, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.

Nominal temperature-time curve

The following temperature-time curves can be selected :

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]
oc the coefficient of heat transfer by convection

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- ISO 834 curve



- external fire curve



- hydrocarbon curve



- smoldering fire curve



during 21 minutes, followed by the standard ISO 834 curve

- user defined temperature-time curve


Net heat flux

r net c net d net
h h h
, , ,
+ =


with hnet,d the net heat flux
hnet,c the convective heat flux
hnet,r the radiative heat flux

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56


with u configuration factor [1.0]
cres resultant emissivity
= cf cm
cf emissivity related to fire compartment
= [1.00]
cm emissivity related to surface material
= [0.70]
ur = ug
gas temperature in [°C]
um surface temperature of member in [°C]
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection


Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At

t h
c
V A
k
d net
a a
m
sh t a
A = A
, ,
/
µ
u


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
ksh correction factor for the shadow effect [1.0]
The correction factor is calculated for I sections only



The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At

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57



with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0


For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).
Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in 'EN 1993-1-2:2005'. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the
temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check are
performed.
The following checks are executed :

- classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. 4.2.3.5.
- check for class 4 sections : Annex E


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EC3 – EN Cold-Formed

The members are checked according to the regulations given in:

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 3: Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009


Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 5: Plated Structural elements
EN 1993-1-5:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-5:2006/AC:2009





Consulted articles
An overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with “X” are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following
paragraphs.

Article Title
1 Introduction X

2 Basis of design X

3 Materials
3.1 General X
3.2 Structural Steel X(*)

5 Structural Analysis
5.1 Influence of rounded corners X(*)
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5.2 Geometrical proportions X(*)
5.3 Structural modelling for analysis X
5.5 Local and distortional buckling
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Plane elements without stiffeners
5.5.3 Plane elements with edge or intermediate stiffeners
5.5.3.1 General
5.5.3.2 Plane elements with edge stiffeners
5.5.3.3 Plane elements with intermediate stiffeners
X
X(*)

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)

6 Ultimate Limit States
6.1 Resistance of cross-sections
6.1.1 General
6.1.2 Axial Tension
6.1.3 Axial Compression
6.1.4 Bending moment
6.1.4.1 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at
the compressed flange
6.1.5 Shear Force
6.1.6 Torsional Moment
6.1.7 Local Transverse Forces
6.1.8 Combined Tension and Bending
6.1.9 Combined Compression and Bending
6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment
6.1.11 Combined Bending moment and local load or support
reaction
X
X(*)
X(*)

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)

X(*)
6.2 Buckling Resistance
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Flexural buckling
6.2.3 Torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
6.2.4 Lateral Torsional buckling of members subject to bending
6.2.5 Bending and axial compression
X
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
6.3 Bending and axial tension X(*)

10 Special considerations for purlins, liner trays and sheetings
10.1 Beams restrained by sheeting
10.1.1 General
10.1.2 Calculation methods
10.1.3 Design criteria
10.1.4 Design resistance
10.1.5 Rotational restraint given by sheeting
10.1.5.1 Lateral spring stiffness
X(*)
X
X
X(*)

X(*)
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 As specified in EN 1993-1-3: 1.1(3) the code does not apply to cold -formed CHS (FC 3)
and RHS (FC 2) sections. For these form codes the default EN 1993-1-1 provisions
apply.

 Haunches, arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not
supported for the EN 1993-1-3 code check. In this case the default EN 1993-1-1 code
check is executed.

 The checks are executed according to the principal axis in accordance with EN 1993-1-
3 art. 1.5.1(4) NOTE except where stated otherwise.

Material properties
The steel grades given within EN 1993-1-3 Table 3.1b are available in the default Material Library of
Scia Engineer.

Average Yield Strength
The average yield strength is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 3.2.2.

The average yield strength is applied in the following resistance calculations:
- Axial Tension
- Axial Compression
- Bending Moment
- Torsional moment
- Flexural Buckling
- Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
- Purlin design – Cross-section resistance
 The average yield strength is calculated using Ag of the Initial shape.

Steel Core Thickness
The steel core thickness is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 3.2.4.

The steel core thickness is only available for the following sections:
- Cross-section which have form code FC 111 – FC 126 & FC 129
- Cold-formed pair sections (2CFUo, 2CFUc, 2CFCo, 2CFCc, 2CFLT)

The ranges for the core thickness are set ‘for sheeting and members’.
 Form codes 172 & 128 are not supported for the Steel Core Thickness.
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Initial Shape
For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed, the Initial Shape can be
defined.

For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the
Initial Shape.

The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types:

F Fixed Part – No reduction is needed
I Internal cross-section part
SO Symmetrical Outstand
UO Unsymmetrical Outstand

Parts can also be specified as reinforcement:

None Not considered as reinforcement
RUO Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener)
RI Reinforced Intermediate (intermediate stiffener)
DEF Double Edge Fold (edge stiffener)

ROU and DEF reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO.
RI types can be set only to elements of type I or UO or SO.

For general cross-sections neighbouring elements of type RI are seen as one stiffener for the
calculation of the stiffener area and inertia.




The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types:
- Standard profile library cross-sections
- Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections
- General thin-walled sections
- General sections with thin-walled representation
- Thin-walled geometric sections
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- All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings

For standard profile library cross-sections, the flat parts are taken between the roundings. The
roundings are set as fixed parts.

For predefined sections without roundings, the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions
i.e. the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines.

For standard profile library cross-sections and pair sections the Initial Shape is generated
automatically. Within this automatic generation the stiffeners are handled as follows:
o For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as RUO
FC 114 Cold formed C-section
FC 115 Cold formed Omega section
FC 116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam
FC 118 Cold formed ZED section
FC 119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips
FC 120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric

o For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as DEF
FC 117 Cold formed C-Plus section
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 127 Cold formed I-Plus section
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section

o For the following form codes internal stiffeners are automatically set as RI
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric
Geometrical Proportions
The Geometrical proportions are checked according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.2(1) Table 5.1.
The limits for edge stiffeners (c) and double edge folds (d) are checked in case the correct stiffener
type (RUO or DEF) has been set in the initial shape.

The limit ratio’s given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.2(2) are checked. Lip dimensions c and d are however
always accounted for and will not be ignored.

In addition the limit for the internal radius given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1(6) is checked.

 For general sections, the geometrical proportions are checked for elements I, UO and
SO using their respective part lengths. Flanges including RI stiffeners are thus
considered part by part and not as one whole flange.
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Effective Shape
Influence of rounded corners
Within Scia Engineer the exact method is applied i.e. all properties and dimensions are determined
including the influence of rounded corners.

The approximate procedure given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1(3) and following is thus not supported.

Notional widths
The notional widths are specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1 and Figure 5.1.


The initial shape elements are taken between the roundings (i.e. internal dimensions w).

The notional widths bp are then calculated as follows:

- For an internal element (I)
bp = w + rm * sin ( |left / 2) + rm * sin ( |right / 2)

- For an outstand element (UO, SO)
bp = w + rm * sin ( | / 2)

In addition to the notional with bp, for each element the centerline length lc is determined as follows:

- For an internal element (I)
lc = bp + gr,left + gr,right

With gr,left = rm * [tan ( |left / 2) - sin ( |left / 2)]
gr,right = rm * [tan ( |right / 2) - sin ( |right / 2) ]
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- For an outstand element (UO, SO)
lc = bp + gr

With gr = rm * [tan ( | / 2) - sin ( | / 2)]


General procedure for one element

By default, EN 1993-1-3 specifies that the stress f (ocom,Ed) to be used for the effective section
calculation should be taken as fyb/¸M0

The reduction of an element is in general given by:
beff = p * b

With: beff Effective width
p Reduction factor
b Full width

- Step 1:
For the given stress f the normal stress over the rectangular plate element of the initial
geometrical shape is calculated.
These stresses are calculated based on the nominal width bp.


o beg : normal stress at start point of rectangular shape – compression stress is
positive
o end : normal stress at end point of rectangular shape – compression stress is
positive
If the rectangular shape is completely under tension, i.e. o beg and o end are both
tensile stresses, no reduction is needed, p = 1.0
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- Step 2: Determine f1 and f2:
in case o o
f1 = o beg
f2 = o end
in case o o
f1 = o end
f2 = o beg

- Step 3: Calculate the stress gradient ¢:

- Step 4: If ¢ = 1 the element is under uniform compression, else the element is
under stress gradient.

Depending on the stress gradient and the element type, the effective width can be
calculated as specified in the following paragraphs.

 EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not
supported i.e. always an elastic stress distribution is used.


Internal Compression Elements
The effective width of internal compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art. 4.4
and Table 4.1.
This applies to elements of type I.
The notional width bp is used as

Outstand Compression Elements
The effective width of outstand compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art.
4.4 and Table 4.2.
This applies to elements of type UO and SO
The notional width bp is used as

 When activating the checkbox “Use Lambda,p,red 4.4(4)” the reduced slenderness is
determined using ocom,Ed as the maximal compressive stress f1 f2 in the element.
 When activating the checkbox “Use Annex E E.1(1)” the formulas given in Annex E
are used to determine the reduction factor µ.

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Plane Elements with Edge Stiffeners
The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with edge stiffeners is given
in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.3.2 and art. 5.5.3.1.
This applies to elements of type RUO and DEF

General remarks regarding the stiffness K of the edge stiffener given in formula (5.10b) .
- hw is taken as lc (centreline length) of the biggest adjacent element. Adjacent
elements are those elements connected to the flange. For typical cross-sections,
there is only one adjacent element, the web.
- For Sigma sections, hw is taken as the sum of the centreline lengths of the web
elements.
This concerns the following form codes:
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric

- General Cross-section: hw for stiffener:
o Elements connected to the stiffener are not accounted for since they are
considered as flanges
o Elements connected to those flanges are all accounted for in case they are
of type I and the summation is made of the lengths of these elements
o Roundings are not accounted for

- General Cross-section: In case there is only one edge stiffener
kf is taken as zero. (i.e. no interaction between two flanges since there is only one
flange).
- General Cross-section: In case there are two edge stiffeners
kf is determined by default. (i.e. interaction between the two flanges is accounted
for).
- General Cross-section: In case there are more than two edge stiffeners
The same logic is followed as for a single stiffener. The factor kf is thus taken as
zero.
 The formula for K given in the EN 1993-1-3 is based purely on simple sections with two
flanges. In case of more complex cross-sections, the only exact procedure is to
perform a numerical analysis (finite strip method) to determine the critical stresses for
local and distortional buckling. This is referenced as the ‘Advanced Procedure’ given
in art. 5.5.1(7).
 Critical stresses for local and distortional buckling obtained from a numerical analysis
can be inputted in the cross-section manager.

 The reduced effective area of the stiffener As,red according to art 5.5.3.2(11) is
calculated using ocom,Ed =fyb/¸M0.

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Plane Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners
The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with intermediate stiffeners
is given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.3.3 and art. 5.5.3.1.
This applies to elements of type RI

The stiffness K of the internal stiffener is determined from formula (5.11):

o

v

 The reduced effective area of the stiffener As,red according to art 5.5.3.3(10) is
calculated using ocom,Ed =fyb/¸M0.

General procedure of Effective Shape calculation
The general procedure which combines the effective section calculation of plane elements without
and plane elements with stiffeners is given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.2(3) and art. 5.5.3.

This procedure can be written out as follows:
- Step 1: The effective width of the flanges and edge/intermediate stiffeners within the
flanges are calculated based on gross section properties.

This includes the optional iterative procedure for the edge/intermediate stiffeners as
specified in art. 5.5.3.2(10) and art. 5.5.3.3(9).

- Step 2: This partially effective shape of the previous step is used to determine the
stress gradient and effective width of the web.

This includes the optional iterative procedure for the intermediate stiffeners as
specified in art. 5.5.3.3(9).

- Step 3: The end result of the previous two steps is the effective cross-section and its
properties can be calculated.

- Step 4: This process can now be optionally iterated using the stress ratio based on
the effective cross-section in place of the gross cross-section.

Both iteration procedures (iteration of stiffeners and iteration of the full cross-section) can be set in
the Steel Setup.

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Manufacturer provided effective section properties

In case in the Steel Setup the option ‘Use manufacturer provided effective section properties’is
activated, effective section properties from the manufacturer are taken from the Effective Section
Library instead of calculated by EN 1993-1-3.

The following properties can be defined in the Effective Section Library:

Property Description
fy [MPa] Steel grade for which the effective properties have been derived
Aeff [mm^2] Effective Area for compression
eN,y [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for compression
eN,z [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for compression

Ieff,y My+ [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a positive moment
My
Weff,y My+ [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a
positive moment My
eM,z My+ [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for a positive moment My

Ieff,y My- [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a negative moment
My
Weff,y My- [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a
negative moment My
eM,z My- [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for a negative moment My

Ieff,z Mz+ [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a positive moment
Mz
Weff,z Mz+ [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a
positive moment Mz
eM,y Mz+ [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for a positive moment Mz

Ieff,z Mz- [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a negative moment
Mz
Weff,z Mz- [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a
negative moment Mz
eM,y Mz- [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for a negative moment Mz

 In case the yield strength used for the cross-section does not match any of the yield
strengths defined in the Effective Section Library the default EN 1993-1-3 calculation
will be used.

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Section Checks
Axial Tension
The Axial Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.2.

The net section resistance Fn,Rd is taken as:


With Anet taken equal to Ag since bolt holes are not accounted for.

Axial Compression
The Axial Compression Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.3.

The choice between formula (6.2) and (6.3) is made by comparing the gross area Ag from the initial
shape with the effective area Aeff of the effective shape for compression.
The gross area Ag used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.

 This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the following
reasons:

- Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial
shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books, tables, …) and
are mostly rounded off.

- For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the
initial shape concerns a thin walled representation.

Each element on which a distortional buckling reduction factor _d is applied is seen as ‘stiffened’.
All other elements are seen as ‘plane’.

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Bending Moment
The Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.1.

The choice between formula (6.4) and (6.5) is made by comparing the elastic section modulus Wel
from the initial shape with the effective section modulus Weff of the effective shape for bending.
The elastic section modulus Wel used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.

 Note: This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the
following reasons:

- Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial
shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books, tables, …) and
are mostly rounded off.

- For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the
initial shape concerns a thin walled representation.

An element of type I is seen as ‘plane’.
An element of type UO or SO is seen as ‘outstand’.

As indicated in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.1(2) formula (6.5) is only applied in case:
- There is only single bending i.e. My OR Mz
- There is no torsion i.e. Mx = 0
- There is no Torsional (-Flexural) buckling i.e. _TF = 1,00
- There is no Lateral Torsional buckling i.e. _LTB = 1,00
- There is no Distortional buckling i.e. all reinforcement types of the cross-
section elements should be ‘none’ or, in case there are stiffeners, they should
not be in compression.
- The angle | between the web and flange exceeds 60°.

In case formula (6.5) should be applied but the above conditions are not fulfilled, formula (6.6) is
applied.

EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not supported i.e.
always an elastic stress distribution is used.

EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.3 concerning the effects of shear lag is not supported.

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Shear Force
The Shear Force Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.5.

General
The shear resistance is calculated for each ‘web’ element separately and the cross-section
resistance is taken as the sum of these element resistances.
Only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for.
In addition, elements with stiffener type RUO or DEF are not accounted for.

Formula (6.8) is rewritten as follows for both directions:

With: oi = Angle of element i related to the principal y-y axis
lc,i = Centreline length of element i

 By default the Shear Check is executed ‘without stiffening at the support’
In case Local Transverse Forces data are inputted which have the checkbox ‘No Local
Transverse Forces Check’ activated, the Shear Check in those sections is executed
‘with stiffening at the support’.

Elements without Internal stiffeners
The centreline length lc,i for each element i is taken from the Initial shape.

The angle oi for each element i is determined as the angle related to the principal y-y axis.

The relative web slenderness for each element i is determined according to formula (6.10a).

The slant height sw,i is taken as the notional width bp,i of the element under consideration as
indicated on the following picture.
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Sections with Internal stiffeners
Special considerations are required for cross-sections with internal stiffeners (Type RI).
The following picture illustrates a web with internal stiffener:

The internal stiffener and connected elements are seen as ‘one web’. This ‘composed’ web is seen
as ‘one’ element i in the shear calculation.

For such a ‘composed’ web, the different distances are determined as follows:
- The slant height sw is taken as the distance between
- The starting point of the nominal width bp,i of the first element in the web.
- The end point of the nominal width bp,i of the last element in the web.
- The total developed slant height sd is taken as the sum of the nominal widths bp,i of all the
elements in the web.
- The slant height sp concerns the notional width bp,i of the largest plane web element.

The relative web slenderness is determined according to formula (6.10b).
The inertia of the stiffener(s) Is is taken from the Initial shape

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The centreline length lc of this composed web is calculated as follows:
- In case the first or last element of the composed web has element type SO or UO:
lc = sw + gr
With gr = rm * [tan ( | / 2) - sin ( | / 2)]

If the first element is an outstand, gr is taken as gr at the end point of the last
element.

If the last element is an outstand, gr is taken as gr at the starting point of the first
element.
Reference is made to Notional widths.

- In case both the first and last element of the composed web has element type I:
lc = sw + gr,first + gr,end

With gr,first taken as gr at the starting point of the first element.
gr,end taken as gr at the end point of the last element.

The angle o of the ‘composed’ web concerns the angle of the centreline length lc relative to the
principal y-y axis.

 Neighboring connected elements are seen as one ‘web’. A typical example of this is a
sigma section: the web has two internal stiffeners which both are connected to the
same internal element. As such they are recognized as forming one web.


Torsional Moment
The Combined Stress Check including Torsion and Warping is executed according to EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.6.
Regarding warping reference is made to Annex F: Warping check.

The average yield strength fya in all three formulas (6.11a), (6.11b), (6.11c) will only be used in
case for all three force components separately (N, My, Mz) the average yield strength may be used
(Aeff = Ag ; Weff,y = Wel,y ; Weff,z = Wel,z).

Local Transverse Forces
The local transverse forces check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art 6.1.7 and following.

The check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vz shear force diagram.

Remarks:
- The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is
evaluated. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling
system.
- The Flange Condition depends on the definition of the initial shape. In case there is an
element with reinforcement type ROU or DEF the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened ’.
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- The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account
adjacent members. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same
buckling system.
- In case the cross-section has multiple webs, for determining the load condition the maximal
web height is used.
- As opposed to EN 1993-1-3 art.6.1.7.2(4), the exact inputted bearing length ss will be used
at all times i.e. the simplification of using the minimal length for both opposing loads is not
supported.
- As indicated on EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.6, the local transverse force resistance is taken
relative to the support, not according to the principal z-axis. Therefore FEd, is determined
according to the LCS axis system and not according to the principal axis system!

General Procedure
This paragraph specifies the general procedure to determine the local transverse web resistance
which is applied for any type of cross-section except for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega).

 In case the cross-section has any element with stiffener type RI, the procedure for
stiffened webs is applied first.
In a first step the web height hw is determined for each ‘web’ element:
- Only elements of type I are accounted for.
In addition elements with stiffener types RUO and DEF are not accounted for.
- For each of those elements i the centreline length lc,i is read from the Initial shape
- For each of those elements i the angle |i is determined as the angle of the element
relative to the horizontal axis (based on Figure 6.6).
In addition, only elements with an angle |i ≥ 45° are accounted for.
- The web height for each element i is calculated as:

|

- In case none of the cross-section elements fulfil the above conditions, the local
transverse forces check is not supported for the cross-section.

When hw,i is determined, the local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i for each of those elements is
determined based on EN 1993-1-3 art.6.1.7.2
The final cross-section resistance is taken as the sum of the individual element resistances.

By default, the local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i is determined using EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.7a &
6.7b.

The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in the
tables.


Loading Condition Table Case
End One Flange (EOF) 6.7a a) i)
Interior One Flange (IOF) 6.7a a) ii)
End Two Flange (ETF) 6.7b b) i)
Interior Two Flange (ITF) 6.7b b) ii)
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In case Web rotation prevented was set using Local Transverse Forces data instead of EN
1993-1-3 Figure 6.7a & 6.7b the formulas given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.2(4) are used.
The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in this
article.

Loading Condition Article Case
End One Flange (EOF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) a) i)
Interior One Flange (IOF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) a) ii)
End Two Flange (ETF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) b) i)
Interior Two Flange (ITF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) b) ii)

Omega Sections
Specifically for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega) cross-sections the special procedure for sections with
two or more unstiffened webs is applied. The local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i for each of those
webs is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.3.
 Other cross-sections with two or more unstiffened webs will always be calculated
according to the General Procedure, not this special procedure.

The value of o in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.3(5) is taken for ‘liner trays and hat sections’.

The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the categories defined in
EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.9.


Loading Condition Category
End One Flange (EOF) 1
Interior One Flange (IOF) 1
End Two Flange (ETF) 1
Interior Two Flange (ITF) 2

 Figure 6.9 does not directly specify ETF. However since two flange loading is specified
as category 1 and End loading is also specified as category 1, the combined condition
of ETF is considered as category 1.

 According to [27] to use la =10 mm for the end support reaction force (category 1)
results in a very conservative resistance. A modification is given for case 2 and 3 of
Figure 6.9: la =c +Ss.
By activating the setting “Use la correction in (6.18)” this modification is applied.


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Stiffened Webs
This paragraph outlines the special procedure in case of stiffened webs according to EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.7.4.
This method is used only in case there are one or more elements with stiffener type RI

The procedure consists of four steps.

Step 1: Creating ‘composed’ webs
In a first step, ‘composed’ webs are created using the same procedure as outlined in Sections with
Internal stiffeners.
This includes the determination of the centreline length lc,i of those ‘composed’ webs.


Step 2: Evaluation of ‘composed’ webs
The special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.4 is only valid under certain conditions.
Therefore, each ‘composed’ web is evaluated to see if it meets the following requirements:
- There is one or more elements with stiffener type RI
- Each RI element should have element type I (i.e. it is at both sides connected to
other elements signifying it’s a fold instead of a stiffener).
- Elements connected to this RI element should not have stiffener type RI. This
implies that the procedure is not applied in case of neighbouring stiffener elements
i.e. elements forming ‘one’ big stiffener.
Composed webs which do not meet these requirements are further evaluated in step 3.
Composed webs which meet all requirements are further evaluated in step 4.

Example:

All four sections have ‘composed’ webs.
Section A contains two RI stiffeners which are connected. The web thus does not meet the
requirements.
Section B contains a single RI stiffener which meets all the requirements. This stiffener is thus a
‘true’ two fold stiffener so the special article applies.
Section C contains several RI stiffeners however not all match the requirements (one is an outstand,
others are connected etc). The web thus does not meet the requirements.
Section D has a composed web which contains two RI stiffeners. Both meet all the requirements
and are thus ‘true’ two fold stiffeners. The special article applies.


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Step 3: Composed webs which do NOT meet the requirements
For composed webs which do not meet the requirements, the special article is not valid. The local
transverse force resistance of these webs will be determined according to the General Procedure
In this case, the centre line length lc,i of the composed web is used in the determination of hw.
The angle |i is determined as the angle of the centre line length relative to the horizontal axis.


Step 4: Composed webs which meet all requirements
For composed webs which meet all requirements, the special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.7.4 is applied.
The ‘system line’ of this web is taken as the centre line length lc,i.

The eccentricity e is determined at each end of an RI within the ‘composed’ web. Eccentricity emin
and emax are then taken as the min and max value for the considered composed web.
In case the limit specified in formula (6.21) is not fulfilled, the special article is not applied and the
composed web is considered as a web which does not meet all requirements. For such a web the
procedure outlined in step 3 is applied.


For the developed width of the loaded flange bd any RI stiffeners of element Type I are always
included, independent of their angle. RI stiffeners of element Type UO or SO are always ignored.
Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135° are accounted for as „one‟ flange for
the determination of bd.
In case there is no connected flange, for example when using a general section, then bd is
considered as zero. Practically this implies that there is no limit for ka,s.

The data is then used to determine ka,s according to formula (6.22).
The Rw,Rd,i value of the composed web is then calculated as:
Rw,Rd,i = ka,s * Rw,Rd,i,general
With Rw,Rd,i,general calculated according to the General Procedure
The value of hw,i for this composed web is calculated using the centre line lc,i of the composed web
as outlined in step 3.

Combined Tension and Bending
The Combined Tension and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.8.

The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for
bending.

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Combined Compression and Bending
The Combined Compression and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.9.

Additional moments due to the shift in neutral axis are calculated at the beginning of the check and
added to the internal forces.

 This ensures specific bending checks are executed also in case there is no initial
moment but only an additional moment.

The shifts in neutral axis eNy and eNz are read directly from the effective shape for compression.

As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.3(3) additional moments are only accounted for in case they
lead to an unfavourable check result.

The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for
bending.

Combined Shear Force, Axial Force and Bending Moment

The Combined Shear Force, Axial Force and Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN
1993-1-3 art. 6.1.10.

In the following paragraphs formula (6.27) is written out for both directions.

Shear Vy
In case of shear Vy formula (6.27) is written out as follows:

Remarks:
- Mf,Rd is taken as zero in case of Vy

(In case of weak axis bending, the ‘web’ becomes a ‘flange’. Since there is only a
single ‘flange’ in that case, the moment resistance of this flange is negligible. In
addition, in case of more webs like in a box section EN 1993-1-5 art. 7.1 (5)
specifies Mf,Rd = 0. Therefore, as a general conservative approach for Vy the value
of Mf,Rd is taken as 0.)

Shear Vz
In case of shear Vz formula (6.27) is written out as follows:

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Remarks:
- According to [Ref.16] pp70 Mf,Rd is calculated as follows:

This is generalised in the following way:
a) Only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for
b) Only elements which have an angle o with the principal y-y axis which is s 45°
are considered

In case there is only one or none of such element, Mf,Rd = 0.
c) Of these elements, the one with the lowest beff is considered. The width beff
concerns the effective with of this element, read from the effective shape for
bending.
d) Af = beff * t with t the thickness of the considered element.

e) Next only elements which have an angle o with the principal y-y axis which is >
45°are considered.

In case there are no such elements, set Mf,Rd = 0.

f) Of these elements, the one with the highest value of lc * sin(o) is considered,
with lc the centreline length of the element.
g) hf = lc * sin(o)
h) Mf,Rd is now be calculated as:

- According to [Ref.16] pp70 Mpl,Rd is calculated as follows:

with Wpl read from the gross section properties.

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Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction
The Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction Check is executed according to
EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.11.

In formula (6.28c) the internal force MEd is taken as the actual moment in the section considered, not
the moment at the edge of the support.

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Stability Checks
Flexural Buckling
The Flexural Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.2 and EN 1993-1-1 art.
6.3.1.

Table 6.3 regarding the buckling curves is revised as follows:

Form code Description about axis Curve
1 I section y-y
z-z
a
b
101 Asymmetric I section y-y
z-z
a
b
114 Cold formed C section any b
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam any b
117 Cold formed C-Plus section any b
118 Cold formed ZED section any b
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips any b
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip any b
121 Cold formed Sigma section any b
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened any b
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section any b
124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam any b
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam any b
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined any b
127 Cold formed I-Plus section y-y
z-z
a
b
128 Cold formed IS-Plus section y-y
z-z
a
b
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric any b
2CFCo with a = 0 y-y
z-z
a
b
2CFCc with a = 0 Closed section rule 6.2.2(3)
2CFUo with a = 0 y-y
z-z
a
b
2CFUc with a = 0 Closed section rule 6.2.2(3)
2CFLT with a = 0 any c
Any other section any c
All other sections fall in the ‘other cross-section’ case of curve c for any axis.

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio"
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Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
The Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.3 and EN
1993-1-1 art. 6.3.1.4.

The buckling curve for torsional (-flexural) buckling is taken as the z-z buckling curve according to
the table given in Flexural Buckling.

The value of the elastic critical load Ncr is taken as the smallest of Ncr,T (Torsional buckling) and
Ncr,TF (Torsional-Flexural buckling).

Calculation of N
cr,T

The elastic critical load Ncr,T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.[17].

t

With: E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
It Torsion constant
Iw Warping constant
lT Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode
y0 and z0 Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid
iy radius of gyration about the strong axis
iz radius of gyration about the weak axis




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Calculation of N
cr,TF
The elastic critical load Ncr,TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.[17].

Ncr,TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N:

0

With: Ncr,y Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis
Ncr,z Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the z-z axis


Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling
Lateral Torsional Buckling
The Lateral Torsional Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.4 and EN 1993-
1-1 art. 6.3.2.2.
For additional information reference is made to Lateral-torsional buckling.
For information regarding the influence of diaphragms on the Lateral Torsional Buckling Check
reference is made to Use of Diaphragms.


Bending and Axial Compression
For determining the Combined Bending and Axial Compression check according to EN 1993-1-3 art.
6.2.5 EN 1993-1-3 allows two possibilities:
- Use the EN 1993-1-1 interaction according to article 6.3.3
- Use the alternative according to EN 1993-1-3 article 6.2.5(2)
The choice between these two methods is set in the Steel Setup.

Interaction according to EN 1993-1-1
The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.3.3 using interaction factors from Annex
A & B.
In both Method 1 (Annex A) and Method 2 (Annex B) the cold - formed sections are seen as ‘class
3 or 4’.

Alternative interaction according to EN 1993-1-3
The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.5(2).

Nb,Rd is taken as the lowest value of
- the flexural buckling resistance about the y-y axis
- the flexural buckling resistance about the z-z axis
- the torsional (-flexural) buckling resistance


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 Formula (6.36) includes the strong axis bending resistance Mb,Rd. There is however no
indication for a weak axis bending moment. Therefore, in case a weak axis bending
moment is present, this interaction cannot be applied and the general interaction
according to EN 1993-1-1 is applied.

Bending and Axial Tension
The Combined Bending and Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.3.
The code specifies that the same equations as for compression should be used. These interaction
equations are however not fully valid in case of tension.

The purpose of the interaction check for bending and tension is to check the stresses at the
compression fiber. In the AISI NAS 2007 Ref.[18] code the following formula is given in article C5:


This formula is rewritten using EC-EN notations as follows:

With: Mb,y,Rd The Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance.
Mc,z,Rd,com The moment resistance for the compression fiber in case of Mz.
Nt,Rd The Tension Resistance


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Use of Diaphragms
The influence of a diaphragm is outlined in the following diagram.



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First of all the lateral stiffness S of the diaphragm is determined and compared to the required
stiffness Serf.
The lateral stiffness S is calculated according to Ref.|19|,3.5 and Ref.|20|,3.3.4.

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4


with a The frame distance
L
s
The length of diaphragm
K1 Diaphragm factor K1
K2 Diaphragm factor K2

The required stiffness Serf is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.1


In case S < Serf the member is seen as Inadequately braced. In this case, when the diaphragm is
located on the compression side, the Lateral Torsional Buckling check is executed using the
augmented torsional stiffness It. Reference is made to Adaptation of torsional constant.

G
l
vorhC I I
2
2
t id , t
t
+ =
0


with l The LTB length
G The shear modulus
vorhC
u
The actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm

 As specified in art. 10.1.1 the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S in case the
diaphragm is connected every second rib only.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is seen as Fully braced. In this case, a first test is executed to
evaluate if the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied.

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More specifically, this chapter is applied only in case the cross-section concerns a Z, C, E or U
section:

Form code Description
5 Channel section
102 Rolled Z section
112 Cold formed channel
113 Cold formed Z
114 Cold formed C section
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam
117 Cold formed C-Plus section
118 Cold formed ZED section
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip
121 Cold formed Sigma section
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric


 The code specifies that the chapter is also valid for hat (Omega) sections however in
all further paragraphs; no specific formulas are given for Omega sections. For
example the free flange geometry is described only for Z, C and E sections, not for
Omega sections. Therefore, Omega sections are not supported for this special
chapter.


In case the cross-section does not match any of the above, the default checks are executed. Since
the member is seen as fully braced, no Lateral Torsional Buckling check needs to be executed in
case the diaphragm is located on the compression side.

In case the cross-section does match the list of set form codes, a second test is executed. More
specifically, the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied only in
case:
- The dimensional limits of article 10.1.1(1) are satisfied
- The section is only loaded by N, Vz, My

 Chapter 10 specifies only checks related to in plane effects N, Vz and My. Therefore, in
case of other loading components, the special articles are not valid and the default
checks will be applied.

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For a section which meets all requirements, the following is done:
- Reduced default Checks are executed i.e. not all default checks will be executed.
- Special purlin checks according to Chapter 10

More specifically, the following ‘default’ checks will be executed:

Section Check Article
Axial tension 6.1.2
Axial compression 6.1.3
Bending moment 6.1.4
Shear force 6.1.5
Torsional moment NOT
Local Transverse Forces 6.1.7
Combined tension and bending NOT
Combined compression and bending NOT
Combined shear, axial force and bending moment 6.1.10
Combined Bending and Local Transverse Force 6.1.11
Stability Check Article
Flexural buckling only for y-y 6.2.2
Torsional and Torsional-Flexural buckling NOT
Lateral-Torsional buckling NOT
Bending and axial compression NOT
Bending and axial tension NOT

The Torsional moment check will never occur in this case since the prerequisite is to have only N,
Vz, My.

The combined axial and bending checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special
purlin checks.

The flexural buckling check is executed for y-y buckling in accordance with EN 1993-1-3 art.
10.1.4.2(2).

Torsional buckling and Lateral-torsional buckling are prohibited by the fully braced diaphragm. The
compression in the free flange is included in the special purlin checks.
The combined stability checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special purlin
checks.

 In contrast to art. 10.1.3.3(2) the Local Transverse Load Check and its interaction with
the bending moment is executed even if the support reaction is a tensile force.

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Special considerations for Purlins
As outlined in Use of Diaphragms for a section which meets all requirements, special purlin checks
according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 will be executed:
Diaphragm on the compression side
- Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1
- In case of compression in the free flange also Stability of the free flange according
to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2

Diaphragm on the tension side
- Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1
- Stability of the free flange according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2

Resistance of Cross-Section
The Resistance of the Cross-Section is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1.
Since this check concerns a separate formula for each flange (10.3a) and (10.3b) the effective
section modulus Weff,y is determined for each flange separately.

The average yield strength will only be used in case for both force components separately (N, My)
the average yield strength may be used (Aeff = Ag ; Weff,y = Wel,y).

Definition of the free flange geometry
The dimension h is taken as the full cross section height.

The properties of the free flange are calculated according to the z-z axis of the full cross-section.
The following table shows the supported cross-sections including the contributing web height.

Form code Description Contributing web
5 Channel section 1/5 h
102 Rolled Z section 1/5 h
112 Cold formed channel 1/5 h
113 Cold formed Z 1/5 h
114 Cold formed C section 1/5 h
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam 1/5 h
117 Cold formed C-Plus section 1/5 h
118 Cold formed ZED section 1/5 h
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips 1/5 h
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip 1/5 h
121 Cold formed Sigma section 1/6 h
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened 1/6 h
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section 1/6 h
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124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam 1/6 h
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam 1/6 h
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined 1/5 h
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric 1/6 h

 As the code indicates in Figure 10.2, for sigma sections the rounding which leads to
the web depression is also accounted for in the height of the free flange. Therefore, to
generalize this principle, within Scia Engineer the rounding between the flange and the
web is always accounted for in the free flange height (for all section types).

Determination of the equivalent lateral load
The equivalent lateral load on the free flange qh,Ed is determined from the vertical load qEd on the
purlin using formula (10.4).

For any given moment diagram, the equivalent vertical line load qEd is determined as the line load
which results in approximately the same bending moment diagram..

The factor kh is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Figure 10.3.
 For kh0, the general formula for Z,C or E sections is applied. The formula for a simple
Z-section is not supported.
For Gravity loading, the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned at the outside of the web. For
Uplift loading the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned exactly in the middle of the flange
width.

For Gravity loading the general formula including the shear center distance e is used.
For Uplift loading the general formula including the shear center distance f is used. In case of a
symmetrical Z section this distance will become a.

The load qh,Ed is given a positive sign in case it follows the same convention as shown in the code.
The load is given a negative sign in case it points in the other direction.

Determination of the lateral bending moment
Table 10.1 provides the formulas to determine Mfz,Ed for specific positions within the beams: at the
ends (e) and at the position of the maximal moment (m).
Within Scia Engineer however, the check is executed in different sections. Therefore, the values of
Mfz,Ed need to be known in each section.

To this end, as indicated in the code in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1(7), the general equations have
been derived using the theory of beams on an elastic Winkler foundation.

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The differential equation for the displacement of a beam on elastic foundation loaded by a line load
is written out as follows Ref.[21]:

With: E Section modulus
I Bending stiffness
L Member length, taken as La
q Line load, taken as qh,Ed
K Foundation stiffness, taken as lateral spring stiffness K
ì

A,B,C,D Integration constants

The integration constants are determined depending on the boundary conditions for the cases given
in Table 10.1.
Using the beam equation with the second derivative of the displacement the equation for the
bending moment Mfz,Ed is obtained and leads to the following solutions:
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Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged end conditions




Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged-Fixed end conditions




Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Fixed end conditions



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The determination of a hinged or fixed end for Mfz,Ed is done as follows:
- A single span member is always considered to have hinged ends.
A single span member is defined as a member with only one part in the buckling
system for Ly.
- An LTB restraint is always considered as a fixed end.
- For multi-span members, the ends of the buckling system for Ly are considered as
hinged. The internal points of the buckling system for Ly are considered as fixed.

As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1(5) in case the free flange is in tension Mfz,Ed is taken equal
to zero.

To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated:
(My,Ed / Weff,y,free flange) + (Ned / Aeff)
In case this stress results in tension, the free flange is considered to be in tension.
In case this stress results in compression, the free flange is considered to be in compression.

The sign of Mfz,Ed determines the tension/compression side of the free flange and thus determines
which Wfz is used in the check.

 The limit of R s 40 given in art. 10.1.4.1(6) does not apply since the general Winkler
theory is used instead of table 10.1.

Determination of the distance between anti-sag bars
The code defines anti-sag bars as bars which provide lateral rigid support to the free flange. Within
Scia Engineer, LTB restraints are thus seen as anti-sag bars.

In case LTB restraints are defined at the free flange, the length La is taken as the length between
these restraints. In case there are no LTB restraints defined at the free flange, La is read from the
buckling system.

Determination of the lateral spring stiffness
The lateral spring stiffness K is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.5.1(4).

The developed height of the purlin web hd is taken as the total developed slant height sd used in the
Shear Check, as described in Shear Force.

The rotational restraint CD is taken as vorhC, the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm, as described
in Adaptation of torsional constant.

The dimension bmod depends on the direction of the equivalent horizontal load qh,Ed and the type of
cross-section. According to the code this depends if the load brings the purlin into contact with the
sheeting at the purlin web or at the tip of the purlin flange.

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This is clarified in the following picture:

The distance a i.e. position of the fastener is taken as 0,5 b. The fastener is thus assumed to be
positioned in the middle of the flange.

Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange
The Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2.

To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated:
(My,Ed / Weff,y,free flange) + (Ned / Aeff)
In case this stress results in tension, the free flange is considered to be in tension.
In case this stress results in compression, the free flange is considered to be in compression.
For a free flange in tension the buckling resistance does not need to be checked.

For determining the buckling length lfz of the free flange a difference is made between gravity
loading (downward –z loading) and uplift loading (upward +z loading).

Gravity Loading
In case of downward –z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to
formula (10.9).
The qi factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10.2a.

 Art. 10.1.4.2(4) is not supported.
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Uplift Loading
In case of upward +z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to
formula (10.9).
The qi factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10.2b.

 The method according to art. 10.1.4.2(6) & (7) is not supported.
General Notes
For both loading types, Tables 10.2a & b differentiate between ‘simple span’, ‘end span’ and
‘intermediate span’. This is based on the Ly system length.
In case the member under consideration has only one part for Ly then it is considered as ‘simple
span’.
When the member has more parts for Ly it is considered as multi-span. For a multi-span, sections
located in the first or last part of the system length are considered as ‘end span’. Sections located in
the other parts are considered as ‘intermediate span’.

 Table 10.2a does not specify ‘simple span’. The values for a ‘simple span’ are taken
equal as an ‘end span’.

The ‘number of anti-sag’ bars used in Tables 10.2a & b concerns the number of LTB restraints
defined on the actual member. Only LTB restraints at the side of the free flange are accounted for in
this ‘number’.


EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2(5) specifies a method for the buckling length in case of a ‘relatively large
axial force’. Within Scia Engineer this is quantified using a limit value, which is set in the Steel
Setup.

In case the axial load is considered as large, the method described in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2(5)
is applied.

This procedure applies to both gravity and uplift loading using Table 10.2a and 10.2b respectively.


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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.

The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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References

|1| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

[2] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules
Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006

|3| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
EN 1993-1-5 : 2006

|4| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] EN 1990
Eurocode – Basis of structural design
EN 1990:2002 E

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N° 111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Actions on structures
Part 1-2 : General Actions - Actions on structures exposed to fire
prEN 1991-1-2:2002

[9] Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1
Background documentation and design guidelines
ECCS - N° 119
2006




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[11] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[12] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[13] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules
Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[14] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
EN 1993-1-5 : 2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[15] Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N° 65, 1991

[16] Commentary and Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-5 “Plated Structural Elements”
Johansson B., Maquoi R., Sedlacek G., Müller C., Beg D.,
JRC - ECCS, 2007.

[17]
SN001a-EN-EU
NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes
Access Steel, 2006
www.access-steel.com

[18]
AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

[19] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
100
[20] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[21] D. Vandepitte
Berekening van Constructies
Boekdeel 1 pp522
www.berekeningvanconstructies.be

[22] Design rule for Lateral Torsional Buckling of Channel Sections
A-2007.9
O-2007.21
Karin de Louw
2007

[23] EN 12811-1
Temporary works equipment
Part 1: Scaffolds – performance requirements and general design
2004

[24] EN 12810-1
Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components
Part 1: Products specifications
2004

[25] EN 12810-2
Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components
Part 2: Particular methods of structural design
2004

[26] DIN 4420 Teil 1
Arbeits- und Schutzgerüste
Allgemeine Regelungen, Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfungen
Dezember 1990

[27] Corrections and amendments to EN 1993-1-3
Meeting of ECCS-TWG 7.5
T. Höglund
2010

[28] Déversement élastique d’une poutre à section bi-symétrique soumise à des moments
d’extrémité et une charge répartie ou concentrée.
Y. Galéa
CTICM, Construction Métallique, n° 2-2002.




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
101
[29] Lateral-Torsional buckling of steel beams:
A general expression for the moment gradient factor.
A. López, D. J. Yong, M. A. Serna
Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures, 2006.

[30] SC001a-EN-EU
Code commentary: Collection No. 1
Access-Steel, 2007.

[31] SN005a-EN-EU
Determination of moments on columns in simple construction
Access-Steel, 2005.

[32] Steel Building Design
Medium Rise Braced Frames
SCI PUBLICATION P365.

[33] Target specification Dimensioning Profiles
ZEMAN & CO. GmbH
Wien, 2006.

[34] New proposals for EN 1993-1-5, Annex D:
Plate girders with corrugated webs.
H. Pasternak, J. Robra, G. Kubieniec
IABSE-FIB Conference, Dubrovnik, 2010.

[35] Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-208
Modulsystem "CUPLOK"
Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, 2006.

[36] Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-64
Modulsystem "Layher-Allround"
Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, 2008.

[37] Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel
Design Guide for Slim Floors with Built-in Beams
ECCS N° 83 - 1995

[38] Design Handbook for Braced or Non-Sway
Steel Buildings According to Eurocode 3
ECCS N° 85 - 1996

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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DIN18800
DIN18800 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990



Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80
fy fu fy fu
S235
S 235
St 37-2
240 360 215 360
S275
S 275
280 430 255 430
S355
S 355
St 52-3
360 510 325 510

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t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550


Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to DIN18800 Teil I, Table 12,13,14,15
and 18.. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender section, EL/EL
(elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, DIN18800 Teil I, Element (746), (747), (748), (749), (750) are used.
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table (16) ,(17). The
PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table (16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling, lateral
torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria are used :

- compression : Element (304),(306)
- lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
- bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
- bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :
- calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
- buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
- LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3. The
following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)




A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts following table. The
chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.



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Teil 1
7.5. Verfahren beim Tragsicherheitsnachweis Nachweise (*)
7.5.1. Abgrenzungskriterien und Detailregelungen (*)
7.5.2. Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(745)………………………………………………………………………………
(746) ………………………………………………………………………………
(747) ………………………………………………………………………………
(748) ………………………………………………………………………………
(749) ………………………………………………………………………………
(750) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch
(753) ………………………………………………………………………………
(756) ………………………………………………………………………………
(757) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Plastisch-Plastisch
(758) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x

Teil 2
3.2. Planmässig mittiger Druck
3.2.1. Biegeknicken
(304) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x (*)
3.2.2. Biegedrillknicken
(306) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.3. Einachsige Biegung ohne Normalkraft
3.3.1. Allgemeines
(307) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
3.3.2. Behinderung der Verformung
(309) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.3.3. Nachweis des Druckgurtes als Druckstab
3.3.4. Biegedrillknicken
(311) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.4. Einachsige Biegung mit Normalkraft
3.4.1. Stäbe mit geringer Normalkraft
(312) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
3.4.2. Biegeknicken
(314) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
3.4.3. Biegedrillknicken
(320) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
3.5. Zweiachsige Biegung mit oder ohne Normalkraft
3.5.1. Biegeknicken
(321) ………………………………………………………………………………
(322) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x(*)
3.5.2. Biegedrillknicken
(323) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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4. Mehrteilige, einfeldrige Stäbes
4.1. Allgemeines
4.2. Häufig verwendete Formelzeichnen
(404) ………………………………………………………………………………
4.3. Ausweichen rechtwinklig zur stofffreien Achse
(405) ………………………………………………………………………………
(406)……………………………………………………………………………….
(408)……………………………………………………………………………….
(409)……………………………………………………………………………….
x(*)


x

x
x
x
x

7. Planmässig gerade Stäbe mit ebenen dünnwandigen
Quenschnittsteilen
7.1. Allgemeines
(701) ………………………………………………………………………………
(702) ………………………………………………………………………………
(704) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
7.2. Berechnungsgrundlage
(705) ………………………………………………………………………………
(706) ………………………………………………………………………………
(707) ………………………………………………………………………………
(708) ………………………………………………………………………………
(709) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
7.3. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(711) ………………………………………………………………………………
(712) ………………………………………………………………………………
(713) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x (*)
x
7.4. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch
7.5. Biegeknicken
7.5.1. Spannungsnachweis beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(715) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
7.5.2. Vereinfachte Nachweise
(716)
………………………………………………………………………………
(718)
………………………………………………………………………………
(719) ………………………………………………………………………………
(721) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
7.6. Biegedrillknicken
(722) ………………………………………………………………………………
(723) ………………………………………………………………………………
(725) ………………………………………………………………………………
(726) ………………………………………………………………………………
(728) ………………………………………………………………………………
(729) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Teil 3
5. Nachweise
(504) ………………………………………………………………………………
(*)
x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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6. Abminderungsfaktoren
(601) ………………………………………………………………………………
(602) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Net area properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .
The holes for fasteners are neglected.

Plastic interaction formula for RHS section


b
s/2
h
AG
AS/2

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For RHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction formula
according to Ref.[13], can be selected.

- Used variable :

A sectional area
AS = s h
AG = (A-AS)/2.0
Wel,y elastic section modulus around y axis
Wel,z elastic section modulus around z axis

fy,d yield strength
ty,d shear strength

Vz,pl,Rd = AS ty,d
Vy,pl,Rd = 2AG ty,d

NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
MT,Sd torsional moment

2
Rd , pl , z
Sd , T
Sd , z
z
z
Rd , pl , z
Sd , T
Sd , z
V
b
M
V
1 else
0 . 1
4
1
V
b
M
V
if
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = q
= q s
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
108
2
Rd , pl , y
Sd , T
Sd , y
y
y
Rd , pl , y
Sd , T
Sd , y
V
h
M
V
1 else
0 . 1
4
1
V
h
M
V
if
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = q
= q s
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+



Ar= qzAS + 2qyAG
r
S
z
A
A
q = o


Npl,Rd = Ar fy,d
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷
=
yd y , el Rd , pl Rd , pl , y
f W 25 . 1 , hN
4
2
min M


|
.
|

\
|
o +
=
yd z , el Rd , pl Rd , pl , z
f W 25 . 1 , bN
4
1
min M


Rd , pl
Sd
N
N
n =

Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
M
M
m =


- The following interaction formula are checked :


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
110
Plastic interaction formula for CHS section

For CHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction formula
according to Ref.[14], Tafel 6.74, is used :

|
.
|

\
|
|
t
=
| =
qt =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = q >
= q s
|
=
+ =
+ =
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
s el Q , pl Q , pl
s r Q , pl
r
2
pl
v
pl
v
pl
v
s
pl
2
z
2
y v
2
z
2
y v
plQ
v
Q , pl
v
W 25 . 1 , N
d
min M
A N
dt A
Q
Q
1 :
4
1
Q
Q
1 :
4
1
Q
Q
3
dt 2
Q
M M M
Q Q Q
1
2 N
N
cos
1
M
M



with Qy,Qz internal shear force
Nv internal normal force
My,Mz internal bending moments
|s yield strength
d,t dimensions from CHS
Wel elastic section modulus

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
111
t
d

Torsion check

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Annex F: Warping
check'.

The stability check (DIN 18800 T2, formula 28 & 30) for doubly symmetric I section becomes
(Ref.[9], pp. 259) :

) 30 ( 0 . 1 k
M
M M
k
M
M
N
N
) 28 ( 0 . 1 k
M
M M
k
M
M
N
N
z
d , z , pl
w , z z
y
d , y , pl M
y
d , pl z
z
d , z , pl
w , z z
y
d , y , pl
y
d , pl
s
+
+
k
+
k
s
+
+ +
k



with Mz,w
h
M 2
w
=
Mw bimoment (see chapter 'Standard diagrams for warping torque,
bimoment and the St.Venant torsion')
kz = 1.50 In case there is no compression force kz is taken as 1.00
(Ref.[9], pp. 270).

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections)’

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112
Calculation of the buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Annex B: Calculation of buckling
ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[10], Annex D.
Torsional buckling

The slenderness for torsional buckling ìvi is given by (see Ref.|6| , 7.5):



with l0 the torsional buckling length, refers to the input value for the
system length lyz
lz the system length for buckling around zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the
shear force centre.
|z refers to the buckling ratio around the zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the
shear force centre.
|0 refers to end warping and is input by the value kxy
zM the shear center
iy the radius of gyration around major axis
iz the radius of gyration around minor axis
ip² = iy² + iz²
iM² = ip² + zM²
Iw the warping constant
Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis
It the torsional constant


With this slenderness ìvi and the buckling curve c, the reduction factor k is calculated.
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113
Use of diaphragms

(see also Ref.|7|,3.5 and Ref.|8|,3.3.4.)

The shear stiffness S for diaphragm is calculated as follows:

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4



with a the frame distance
Ls the length of diaphragm
K1 factor K1
K2 factor K2



The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms:

G
l
vorhC I I
2
2
t id , t
t
+ =
0



with l the LTB length
G the shear modulus
vorh
C
u

the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
114
LTB Check

For aysmmetric I sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow
Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F.2. Annex
F Ref. |4|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Annex C:
Calculation of moment factors for LTB".

Depending on the input of the basic data, Mcr for symmetric I sections is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |4|, by the DIN formula (19), or by formula according to Ref.[11] "Roik,
Carl, Lindner, Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst &
Sohn, 1972".

DIN formula (19) :




with l,l0 the LTB length
|z refers to rotational end-restraint ‘in plan’ (about the z-z local axis).
|0 refers to end warping
zp the point of load application
Iw the warping constant
Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis
It the torsional constant
A the sectional area
E the modulus of elasticity
ìvi the slenderness for torsional buckling ( see above)
, the moment factor ( equivalent for factor C1)





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
115
Roik, Carl & Lindner


z
t w
p
2
p
z
cr y , ki
I
I ² l 039 . 0 I
c
²
z 5
² c
²
z 5
² l
² EI
M M
· · +
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

t
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
, = =


with , moment factor according to Roik, Carl, Lindner
E modulus of elasticity
I
z
moment of inertia around weak axis zz
l system length for LTB
z
p
application point for loading, negative value is on top and has negative
influence
I
w
warping constant
I
t
torsional constant


The factor , is supported for the following cases (described in Ref.[11], tables 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.18,
5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.33) :

Linear moment distribution :



Moment line according to distributed loading

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
116





Moment line according to concentrated loading



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
117



For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. |5|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For full rectangular sections the value of n according to DIN 18800-2 tabelle 9 is taken as 1,5
according to Ref.[8] pp 175.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.




Combined flexion for check method 2

The value My is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in the member.
The value Mz is the maximum value of the bending moment around the weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My and Mz are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
118
Battened compression members

The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.
The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with NG
- section check of single chord, using internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

4
a maxV
M
2
maxV
V
W
A
)
l
a
sin( M max
2
N
N
y
G
y
G
*
z
G
z G
=
=
t + =


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

2
Te
M
2 h
a maxV
T
y
y
=
=


For the calculation of maxVy, the value of Mz is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
119
l
a
hy
e


Effective area properties

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k) according
to the El-El procedure (DIN18800 T2, 7.3.).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved. The most
critical effective area properties are the effective area properties on the position where the
appropriate moment of inertia is the minimum.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
120
Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence
The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when there is a
bending moment present.
It means that kk=1 if ¢<0.9. See also Ref.[3], Element 503.

Cold formed thin gauge members
The following table includes a list of DASt-Richtlinie 016 (Ref.[12]) elements which are implemented
in Scia Engineer by using the related DIN18800 T2 (Ref.[2]) element.


Supported elements from
DASt - Richtlinie 016
Covered by DIN 18800
T2 elements
Remarks
3.7.1. Grenzzustand der Tragfähigkeit
328 Tab.26
329 712
330 712
333 Tab.27
335 706

4.3.1. Biegemomententragfähigkeit
404 715

4.4. Biegedrillknicken biegebeanspruchter
Bauteile
4.4.3. Allgemeiner Nachweis

421 311
422 311
423 725, 726

4.5. Druckbeanspruchte einteilige Stäbe
4.5.1. Allgemeines

429 708-710
430 708-710
431 708-710
432 708-710
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
121
433 708-710
434 708-710
4.5.2. Planmä|ig mittiger Druck
435 716 A
D
ef is not used
436 manual input / input in
profile library for KSL
437 723
438 723
4.5.3. Einachsige Biegung mit Druck
440 707
441 718
442 728
4.5.3. Zweiachsige Biegung mit Druck
443 707
444 721 A
D
ef is not used
445 729



Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.

The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
122

I

RHS CHS L U T PPL RS E O COM NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PL-PL x x
Section check EL-PL x x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender
section
x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender
section
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.




References

|1| DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

|2| DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

|3| DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[5] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[6] G. Hünersen, E. Fritzsche
Stahlbau in Beispielen
Berechnungspraxis nach DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 3 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1991
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
123

[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[8] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[9] Stahlbau Kalender 1999
DSTV
Ernst & Sohn, 1999

[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[11] Roik, Carl, Lindner
Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe
Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn
1972

[12] DASt-Richtlinie 016
Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen
kaltgeformted Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft - 1992

[13] H. Rubin,
Interaktionsbeziehungen für doppeltsymmetrische I- und Kasten-Querschnitte bei
zweiachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft
Der Stahlbau 5/1978, 6/1978

[14] Stahl im Hochbau
14. Auflage, Band I / Teil 2
1986, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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ONORM B 4300
ONORM B 4300 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

ÖNORM B 4300-1
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen
DK 624.014.2.046, März 1994

ÖNORM B 4300-2
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

ÖNORM B 4300-3
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
125
Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, 2.1. and Ref. |4|, Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are:

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80
fy fu fy fu
St 360
S235
S 235
240 360 215 360
St 430
S275
S 275
280 430 255 430
St 510
S355
S 355
360 510 325 510


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to ONORM B 4300-1 Tab.3,4,5 and to
DIN18800 Teil I, Table 15,18. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender
section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, ONORM B 4300-1 Art. 5.2. is used. (The 7% increase of the moment of
inertia is taken into account for rolled I section - see Ref. |1|, Art. 5.2.5.4.).
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table (16) ,(17). The
PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table (16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
126
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling, lateral
torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria are used :

- compression : Element (304),(306)
- lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
- bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
- bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :
- calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
- buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
- LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3. The
following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in "DIN18800 Code check".

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical sections

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
127


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PL-PL x
Section check EL-PL x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender
section
x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender
section
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x


(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.

References


|1| ÖNORM B 4300-1
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen
DK 624.014.2.046, März 1994

|2| ÖNORM B 4300-2
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

|3| ÖNORM B 4300-3
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

[4] DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

[5] DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
128
[6] DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
129
NEN
NEN6770/6771 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991-januari 2000


Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, art.9.1.2.1.1.)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340 175 320
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410 205 380
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490 275 450
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
130
Consulted articles

The cross section is classified according to NEN 6771 Table 1. (Class 1, 2, 3 or 4).

The section is checked on following criteria:
- Tension: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.1., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.1.
- Compression: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.2., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.2.
- Shear: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.4., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.4.
- Bending, shear and axial force: NEN 6770 Art. 11.3., NEN 6771 Art. 11.3.

For the stability check, the element is checked on following criteria:
- Compression: NEN 6771 Art.12.1.1.1/ 12.1.2./12.1.3.
- Lateral torsional buckling : NEN 6771 Art.12.2.
- Bending and axial compression: NEN 6771 Art.12.3.
- Shear buckling : NEN 6771 Art.13.8. / 13.9.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for NEN6770 part 11,12 and NEN6771 part
10,11,12,13. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.

NEN6770
11.Toetsing van de doorsnede
11.1. Algemeen
x
x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten
11.2.1. Axiale trek
x
x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie x
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten
11.3.1. Enkele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving
x
x
11.3.2. Dubbele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.4. Vloeicriterium x
11.5. De invloed van de boutgaten (*)

NEN6771
10.2.4. Doorsneden x (*)

11.Toetsing van de doorsnede
11.1. Algemeen
x
x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten
11.2.1. Axiale trek
x
x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
131
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten x

12. Toetsing van de stabiliteit
12.1. Op druk belaste staven
12.1.1. Knikstabiliteit
x
x
x (*)
12.1.2. Torsiestabiliteit x
12.1.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.1.4. Verend gesteunde staven
12.1.5. Staven in vakwerken
12.1.6. Samengestelde staven
12.1.6.1 Algemeen
12.1.6.2. Benodigde grootheden
12.1.6.3. Toetsing van het middenveld van de samengestelde staaf
12.1.6.4. Toetsing van de eindvelden van de samengestelde staaf
12.1.6.4.2 Staven met raamwerkverband
x(*)
x
x
x
x
x
12.2. Op buiging belaste staven(kipstabiliteit)
12.2.1. Toepassingsgebied
xx
x
12.2.2. Toetsingsregel x
12.2.3. Ongesteunde lengte
12.2.4. Opleggingen en zijdelingse steunen
12.2.5. Het theoretisch elastische kipmoment x (*)
12.3. Op druk en buiging belaste staven
12.3.1. Knikstabiliteit
x
x
12.3.2. Torsiestabilteit x
12.3.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.4. Op trek en buiging belaste staven

13. Toetsing van de plooistabiliteit
13.1. Algemeen
x
x
13.2. Geometrie van het verstijfde en onverstijfde plaatveld x
13.3. Geometrie van de verstijvingen
13.4. Belasting in het vlak van het plaatveld
13.4.1. Normaalspanning in langsrichting
x
x
13.4.2. Schuifspanningen x
13.4.3. Normaalspanningen in dwarsrichting
13.4.4. Platen in en loodrecht op hun vlak belast
13.5. Belasting op verstijvingen
13.6. Ideële kritieke plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld x
13.7. De plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld
13.7.1. Bepaling van de relatieve slankheid van het plaatveld
x
x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
132
13.7.2. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met als opleggingen
dwarsverstijving(en) en/of randen

x
13.7.3. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met ten minste een
langsverstijving als oplegging

13.8. Eisen waaraan plaatvelden en verstijvingen moeten voldoen
13.8.1. Onverstijfd plaatveld
x
x
13.8.2. Dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.3. Langsverstijvingen
13.8.4. Stijfheidseisen te stellen aan langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.5. Doorsnedecontrole voor langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.9. Interactie tussen plooi en knik
13.9.1. Algemeen
x (*)
x
13.9.2. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden al of niet verstijfd met
dwarsverstijvingen

x
13.9.3. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden verstijfd met langsverstijvingen
en/of niet verstijfd met dwarsverstijvingen

13.9.4. Berekeningen van de dwarsverstijvingen

Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected.
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
133
For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower
angle members'.
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Annex F: Warping
check'.
Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections)

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer tochapter "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.
Lateral-torsional buckling
For symmetric I sections and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment
for LTB Mcr is given by the formula of Ref |2|, part 12.2.5.. When the factor o > 5000, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref |3|. For
asymmetric I sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in
EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref |3|.
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to Ref.[7], tables 9 (case 1), 10
and 11.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
134


See also Ref. |4|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
135
Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.
The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,s;d
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

4
a Q
M
2
Q
V
N N
f;s;d
G
f;s;d
G
f;s;d G
=
=
=


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

4
a Q
M
2 h
a Q
V
d s; f;
d s; k;
0
d s; f;
d s; k;
=
=


For the calculation of Qf;s;d, the value of My;s;d is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
136
l
a
ho

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence
The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when there is a
bending moment present, i.e. if ¢<0.9.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
137
NEN6072 - Fire Resistance
For more info, reference is made to to Ref.[8], Ref.[9].
Fire actions effect

The design effects of actions for the fire situation are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the special combination rules according to Ref.[10], NEN6702 6.2.2., for
calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.

This special combination is given by

rep ; a a ; f rep ; i i q ; f rep g ; f
F Q G ¸ + ¢ ¸ E + ¸


with Grep characteristic values of permanent actions
Qi characteristic value of the variable action
Fa;rep design values of special action (from fire exposure)
¸f;g partial safety factor for permanent actions in the special combination
=1.0
¸f;q partial safety factor for variable actions in the special combination
=1.0
¸f;a partial safety factor for special actions in the special combination
=1.0
¢I the 'momentaaan' factor for the variable action


Material properties

The yield strength is depending on the steel temperature :

d ; y d ; ; y
f f ¢ =
u


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ¢ is given by :

- ¢=1.0 when ua s 400° C
- when 400°C < ua s 1200° C


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
138
with |
2 . 39
482
a
÷ u
=
ua steel temperature in °C
fy;d design value for yield strength at room temperature
fy;u;d design value for yield strength at increased temperature


The following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis :

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Nominal temperature-time curve
The standard temperature-time (ISO 834) curve is used :

) 1 t 8 ( log 345 20
10 g
+ + = u

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]


Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
P = Am/V
ut gas temperature in [°C]
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
139
ua steel temperature [°C]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
At the time interval [seconds]
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
cr resultant emissivity
= 0.5
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection
= 25 W/(m²K)



The increase of temperature Aua in an insulated (non intumescent coating) steel member during a time
interval At


with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
ci the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
di the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µi the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua the steel temperature at time t
ut the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aut the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìi;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
140
The increase of temperature Aua in an insulated (intumescent coating) steel member during a time interval
At




with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
Kd;ef coefficient of heat transfer of the intumescent coating
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
ua the steel temperature at time t
ut the ambient gas temperature at time t
ìi;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
141
Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength (unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ua,cr is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time is calculated (the time domain).

The critical steel temperature ua,cr is given by :



with q degree of utilization at time t=0
k correction factor
= 1.00 for tension elements
= 1.00 for beams, statically determined, 4 side exposure
= 0.70 for beams, statically determined, 3 side exposure
= 0.85 for beams, statically undetermined, 4 side exposure
= 0.60 for beams, statically undetermined, 3 side exposure
= 1.20 for compression elements (inclusive the buckling check)
= 1.20 for compression and bending elements (inclusive the buckling and
LTB check)

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in NEN6770/6771, adapted with the yield strength for the increased temperature
and the correction factor. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the
temperature/time domain. Shear buckling is not considered.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
142
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
143
References
|1| Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

|2| Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991

|3| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[7] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, januari 2000

[8] NEN 6072
Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 1991

[9] NEN 6072/A2 - Wijzigingsblad
Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 2001

[10] NEN 6702
Belastingen en vervormingen TGB 1990
December 1991

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
144
AISC – ASD : 1989

AISC - ASD Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Manual of Steel Construction
Allowable Stress Design
Part 5 : Specification and Codes
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989


The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria:

- tension : D1
- compression : E2, E3
- flexural members : F1,F2,F3,F4
- plate girders : G2
- combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling
1.Classification of Steel Sections
2.Slender Compression Elements
(*)
x
x
B6. Rotational Restraint at Points of Support
B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders
B11. Proportioning of Crane Girders
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
145

D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Allowable Stress x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Ratio x (*)
E2. Allowable Stress x
E3. Flexural-torsional Buckling x (*)
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members
E6. Column Web Shear

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)
F1. Allowable Stress : Strong Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members and Channels
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
3.Members with Compact or Non-Compact Sections with Unbraded Length Greater
then Lc
x

x
x
x
F2. Allowable Stress : Weak Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members, Solid Bars and
Rectangular Plates
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
x

x
x
F3. Allowable Stress : Bending of Box Members, Rectangular Tubes and Circular Tubes
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
x

x
x
F4. Allowable Shear Stress x
F5. Transverse Stiffeners
F6. Built-up Members
F7. Web-tapered Members

G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Web Slenderness Limitations
G2. Allowable Bending Stress x
G3. Allowable Shear Stress with Tension Field Action
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Combined Shear and Tension Stress

H. COMBINED STRESSES
H1. Axial Compression and Bending x
H2. Axial Tension and Bending x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
146

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B5. Local Buckling x

Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.

Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
Flexural Torsional Buckling

The slenderness ratio for flexural torsional buckling (KL/r)e is given by

Fe
E
r
KL
e
t =
|
.
|

\
|


See Ref. |1|, Commentary Chapter E1.
The calculation of Fe is given in Ref. |2|, Appendix E.

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections and channel sections, the allowable LTB stress is given in F1.
For RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) , the allowable
LTB stress is given in F3.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the allowable LTB stress is given in Ref. |1|, pp.309-314,
“Specification for allowable stress - Design of single-angle members”.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
147
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


See also Ref. |4|, part 7.


With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress oLTB is calculated :

y
cr
LTB
W
M
= o

with Wy the section modulus about the major axis

The slenderness ratio for LTB ìLTB, is given by

LTB
LTB
E
o
t = ì

The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness ìLTB with the formulas given in
Ref.|1|, E2.
See also Ref. |5|, Bijlage E.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
148
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
149
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RH
S

CH
S

L

U

T

PP
L

R
S

E

O

CO
M

NU
M
Classification x x x x x x x x
x
(1
)
(1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x


Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x
x
x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x

(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

References

|1| Manual of Steel Construction
Allowable Stress Design
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989

|2| Manual of Steel Construction
Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, First Edition, 1986
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
150

|3| Manual of Steel Construction
Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, Volume I, Second Edition, 1995

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] NBN B 51-001
Stalen Bouwconstructies
BIN, 5e uitg. April 1977


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
151
AISC – LRFD : 2001

AISC - LRFD Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

AISC – Manual of steel construction
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Part 16 Specifications and Codes
Third Edition
2001



The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria :

- tension : D1
- compression : E2, E3, Appendix E3
- flexural members : F1,Appendix F1, Appendix F2
- plate girders : Appendix G2, Appendix G3, Appendix G5
- combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area for Tension Members
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling
1.Classification of Steel Sections
2.Slender Compression Elements
3.Slender-Element Compression Sections
(*)
x
x
x
B6. Bracing at Support
B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
152
B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders

D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Design Tensile Strength x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members and Eyebars

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Limitations
1.Effective Length
2.Design by Plastic Analysis
x
x (*)
E2. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling x
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)
F1. Design for Flexure
1.Yielding
2.Lateral-Torsional Buckling
x
x
x
F2. Design for Shear x
F3. Web-tapered Members
F4. Beams and Girders with Web Openings

G. PLATE GIRDERS x

H. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
H1. Symmetric Members Subject to Bending and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric Members and Members under Torsion and Combined Torsion,
Flexure, Shear and/or Axial Force
x
H3. Alternative Interaction Equation for Members under Combined Stress

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B5. Local Buckling x

APPENDIX E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x

APPENDIX F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS
F1. Design for Flexure x
F2. Design for Shear x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
153
F3. Web-tapered Members

APPENDIX G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Limitations
G2. Design Flexural Strength x(*)
G3. Design Shear Strength with Tension Field Action x(*)
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Flexure-Shear Interaction x(*)
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections, channel sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, T sections,
rectangular sections, and asymmetric I sections, the critical LTB moment is given in F1 and
Appendix F1.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the critical LTB moment is given in Ref. |1|, pp.281-288,
“Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle members”.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
154
See also Ref. |2|, part 7.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.
Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PP
L

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x

(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
155
References


|1|
AISC – Manual of steel construction
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Third Edition
2001

|2| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
156
ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005

ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

ANSI/AISC 360-05
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2005

The steel code check can be executed according to either ASD or LRFD provisions.

The cross section is classified according to Table B4.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria:

- tension : Chapter D
- compression : Chapter E
- flexural members :Chapter F
- shear : Chapter G
- combined forces : Chapter H

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B2. Loads and Load Combination x
B3. Design Basis
1.Required Strength
2.Limit States
3.Design for Strength using LRFD
4.Design for Strength using ASD



x
x
B4. Classification of Sections for Local Buckling x

D. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION
D1. Slenderness Limitation x
D2. Tensile Strength x
D3. Area Determination x(*)

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
157
E. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION
E1. General Provisions x
E2. Slenderness Limitations and Effective Length x(*)
E3. Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling of members without Slender
Elements
x
E4. Compressive Strength for Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of
members without Slender Elements
x
E7. Members with Slender Elements x

F. DESIGN FOR MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE
F1. General Provisions x
F2. Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about
their Major Axis
x
F3. Doubly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Compact Webs and Noncompact
or Slender Flanges Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F4. Other I-Shaped Members with Compact or Noncompact Webs Bent about
Their Major Axis
x
F5. Doubly Symmetric and Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Slender
Webs Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F6. I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about Their Minor Axis x
F7. Square and Rectangular HSS and Box-Shaped Members x
F8. Round HSS x
F9. Tees and Double Angle Loaded in Plane of Symmetry x
F10. Single Angle x
F11. Reactangular Bars and Rounds x
F12. Unsymmetrical Shapes

G. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR
G1. General Provisions x
G2. Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened Webs x
G4. Single Angles x
G5. Rectangular HSS and Box Members x
G6. Round HSS x
G7. Weak Axis Shear in Singly and Doubly Symmetric Shapes x

H. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
H1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H3. Members Under Torsion and Combined Torsion and Combined Stress x


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
158
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Lateral-torsional buckling
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
159
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PP
L

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

References


|1| ANSI/AISC 360-05
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2005
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
160
ANSI/AISC 360-10:2010

ANSI/AISC 360-10 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

ANSI/AISC 360-00
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2010, Second printing 2012.

The steel code check can be executed according to either ASD or LRFD provisions.

The cross section is classified according to Table B4.1a. for axial compression and Table B4.1b. for
flexure.

The member is checked on following criteria:

- Tension : Chapter D
- Compression : Chapter E
- Flexural members : Chapter F
- Shear : Chapter G
- Combined forces : Chapter H

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B2. Loads and Load Combination x
B3. Design Basis
1.Required Strength
2.Limit States
3.Design for Strength using LRFD
4.Design for Strength using ASD



x
x
B4. Member Properties
1. Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
2. Design Wall Thickness for HSS
3. Gross and Net Area Determination

x

D. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION
D1. Slenderness Limitation x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
161
D2. Tensile Strength x
D3. Effective Net Area x(*)

E. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION
E1. General Provisions x
E2. Effective Length x(*)
E3. Flexural Buckling of Members without Slender Elements x
E4. Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Members without Slender
Elements
x
E7. Members with Slender Elements x

F. DESIGN FOR MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE
F1. General Provisions x
F2. Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent
About Their Major Axis
x
F3. Doubly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Compact Webs and Noncompact
or Slender Flanges Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F4. Other I-Shaped Members with Compact or Noncompact Webs Bent about
Their Major Axis
x
F5. Doubly Symmetric and Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Slender
Webs Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F6. I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about Their Minor Axis x
F7. Square and Rectangular HSS and Box-Shaped Members x
F8. Round HSS x
F9. Tees and Double Angle Loaded in Plane of Symmetry x
F10. Single Angle x
F11. Rectangular Bars and Rounds x
F12. Unsymmetrical Shapes

G. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR
G1. General Provisions x
G2. Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened Webs x
G4. Single Angles x
G5. Rectangular HSS and Box Members x
G6. Round HSS x
G7. Weak Axis Shear in Singly and Doubly Symmetric Shapes x

H. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
H1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H3. Members Subject to Torsion and Combined Torsion, Flexure, Shear
and/or Axial Force
x

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
162
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Lateral-torsional buckling
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PP
L

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x x x x
(1) Sections are classified as non-compact / non-slender section by default.

References

|1| ANSI/AISC 360-10
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2005 , 2nd Printing February 2012

[2] Comparison Of ANSI/AISC 360-10 To ANSI/AISC 360-05
E. Bolin and T. Dehlin
www.aisc.org

[3] Design Examples version 14.1
www.aisc.org
2011
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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AISI NAS S100-2007

AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

AISI S100-07-E1
Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition
February 20, 2008
Amended September 25, 2008
Amended June 4, 2009

AISI S100-07/S1-09
Supplement No. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members, 2007 edition
August, 2009

AISI S100-07/S2-10
Supplement No. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members, 2007 edition
February, 2010


The steel code check is supported for the United States provisions and can be executed according to
either ASD or LRFD principles. The Canadian LSD method is not supported.
Consulted articles
An overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with “x” are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following
paragraphs.

Article Title
A General Provisions
A4 Allowable Strength Design X
A5 Load and resistance Factor Design X

B Elements
B1 Dimensional Limits and Considerations X(*)
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B2


Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements
B2.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements
B2.3 Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress
Gradient

X(*)
X(*)
B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements
B3.1 uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements
B3.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with
Stress Gradient

X(*)
X(*)

B4 Effective Width of Uniformly Compressed Elements with a
Simple Lip Edge Stiffener
X(*)


C Members
C1 Properties of Sections X(*)
C2 Tension Members X(*)
C3 Flexural members
C3.1 Bending
C3.1.1 Nominal Section Strength
C3.1.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength
C3.1.3 Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular
Members
C3.1.4 Distortional Buckling Strength

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
C3.2 Shear
C3.2.1 Shear Strength of Webs without Holes
C3.3 Combined Bending and Shear

X(*)
X(*)
C3.4 Web Crippling
C3.4.1 Web Crippling Strength of Webs without Holes
C3.5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling

X(*)
X(*)
C3.6 Combined Bending and Torsional Loading X(*)
C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
C4.1 Nominal Strength for Yielding, Flexural, Flexural-
Torsional and Torsional Buckling
C4.2 Distortional Buckling Strength
X(*)

X(*)
C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending
C5.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending
C5.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending

X
X(*)

D Structural Assemblies and Systems
D6 Metal Roof and Wall Systems
D6.1 Purlins, Girts and Other Members
D6.1.1 Flexural Members Having One Flange Through-
Fastened to Deck of Sheeting
D6.1.3 Compression Members Having One Flange
Through-Fastened to Deck of Sheeting


X(*)

X(*)

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Appendix 2 Second-Order Analysis
2.1 General requirements

X(*)

 Haunches, arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not
supported for the AISI NAS S100-2007 code check. In this case the default AISC 2005
code check is executed.
Initial Shape
For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed, the Initial Shape can be
defined.

For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the
Initial Shape.

The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types:

F Fixed Part – No reduction is needed
I Internal cross-section part
SO Symmetrical Outstand
UO Unsymmetrical Outstand

Parts can also be specified as reinforcement:

None Not considered as reinforcement
RUO Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener)

ROU reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO.
The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types:
- Standard profile library cross-sections
- Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections
- General thin-walled sections
- General sections with thin-walled representation
- Thin-walled geometric sections
- All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings

For standard profile library cross-sections, the flat parts are taken between the roundings. The
roundings are set as fixed parts.

For predefined sections without roundings, the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions
i.e. the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines.

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Dimensional limits
Dimensional limits are supported according to article B1.1 and B1.2.

Article B1.1 (a) (1) for a simple lip is checked for an internal element (I) connected to a stiffener
(RUO).

Article B1.1 (a) (2) is checked for an internal element (I).

Article B1.1 (a) (3) is checked for an outstand element (UO or SO).

Articles B1.1 (b) concerning flange curling and (c) concerning shear lag effects are not supported.

Article B1.2 (a) is checked for web elements under stress gradient. Webs are defined as elements
perpendicular (tolerance +/-45°) to the axis of bending.

Effective Widths
Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements is calculated according to article
B2.1 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ = 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.


Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient
The effective width of Webs and Other Stiffened elements under stress gradient is calculated
according to article B2.3 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ ≠ 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.


Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements is calculated according to article
B3.1 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type
RUO) with stress gradient ¢ = 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.

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Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient
The effective width of Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient is calculated
according to article B3.2 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type
RUO) with stress gradient ¢ ≠ 1

The alternative methods for unstiffened C-sections are not supported.
Serviceability Determination is not supported.

Effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener is
calculated according to article B4 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ = 1 which are connected to
a fixed element (rounding) which in turn is connected to an element of type UO or SO with
reinforcement type RUO.

Serviceability Determination is not supported.

 Effective section properties can never be bigger than gross section properties (for
example in case of manually inputted gross section properties which have been
rounded down).

Properties of Sections
Deductions for holes, openings and cut-outs are not supported.

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Tension Members
The tensile strength is determined according to article C2.

For yielding in the gross section:

|

For rupture in the net section:

|

With: Fy Yield strength
Fu Tensile strength
Ag Gross area of cross-section
An Net area of cross-section

Since deductions for holes, openings … are not supported An = Ag.

Flexural Members
Nominal Section Strength
The nominal section strength is determined according to article C3.1.1. More specifically Procedure
I - Based on Initiation of Yielding is applied.



Lateral Torsional Buckling Open Section
The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for open sections is determined according to article C3.1.2.1
(a).
For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

The simplified formulas of article C3.1.2.1 (b) are not supported.


Doubly symmetric sections
For Doubly symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is used for either axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
1 (Symmetric I shape)
7 (Rectangular section)
11 (Solid tube)
In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUo, 2CFUc, 2CFCo, 2CFCc
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Formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is rewritten as follows:


Remarks:
- For x-x bending the LTB length is used instead of the effective length KyLy.
- For y-y bending Kx is taken as the buckling ratio about the x-axis and Lx the system
length for buckling about the x-axis.
- The equation for r0 is expanded to allow any type of cross-section:

- Cb for x-x bending is calculated according to formula (C3.1.2.1-6)
- Cb for y-y bending is taken as unity.





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Point symmetric sections
For Point symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-5) is used for either axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Formula (C3.1.2.1-5) is rewritten as follows:


The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.


Singly symmetric sections
For Singly symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is used for bending about the x-x axis and
formula (C3.1.2.1-10) for bending about the y-y axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
121 (Cold formed Sigma section)
122 (Cold formed Sigma section stiffened)
123 (Cold formed Sigma-Plus section)

Formulas (C3.1.2.1-4) and (C3.1.2.1-10) are written as follows:

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The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.
The parameter j is calculated using the formula for C-sections given in Ref. [4].
Other section types
All other cross-sections which are not covered by the previous paragraphs are considered to be
doubly symmetric, except for the following form codes:
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

Lateral Torsional Buckling Box Section
The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for box sections is determined according to article C3.1.2.2.
This applies to the following form code:
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUc and 2CFCc with distance a = 0 mm

Formulas (C3.1.2.2-1) and (C3.1.2.2-2) are rewritten as follows:

The same remarks are valid as for open doubly symmetric sections.


Flexural Strength Closed Cylindrical Tubular members
The Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular members is determined according to article
C3.1.3.
This applies to the following form code:
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

 In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0,441 E/Fy the check is not
executed and a warning is issued on the output.



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Distortional Buckling Strength
For both bending axis the distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C3.1.4.
More specifically the general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C3.1.4-6).

The check is executed in case the following conditions are met:
- The cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type RUO
- For the given bending moment in the section, at least one of these elements is in
compression
More specifically this implies that, if the stiffener is in compression distortional buckling can occur
(even if the flange itself is partially in tension). This is in accordance with the distortional buckling
shapes for weak axis bending of typical C-sections obtained using numerical analysis Ref. [9].

Remarks:
- The unbraced length Lm is taken as the LTB length and this for both bending axis.
- In case a diaphragm is positioned on the compression side and the diaphragm
provides full bracing, the member is regarded as continuously restrained and Lm =
Lcr.
- The rotational stiffness of the restraining element is by default taken as zero.
In case a diaphragm is located on the compression side, is taken as the
rotational stiffness vorhC
u
of the diaphragm.

For diaphragms reference is made to Use of diaphragms.

- For calculating the compression flange properties, the default Scia Engineer axis
convention is used (x-y axis system located at the centroid of the flange, with the x-
axis measured positive to the right from the centroid and the y-axis positive up from
the centroid)

- The elastic section modulus of the full unreduced section relative to the extreme
fiber in first yield Sfy is taken as Sfy,x for x-x bending and Sfy,y for y-y bending.
- In determining the stress gradient in the web, pure symmetrical bending is
assumed. This implies that for x-x bending this parameter equals 2 and for y-y
bending this parameter equals zero.
- The distance b0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the width property.
For a general section this is taken as the summation of the Internal (I) parts of the
flange.
- The distance h0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the height property.
For a Sigma section (Form Code 121 – 125) this is taken as the (full) height
property. For a general section this is taken as the maximal height of the ‘web’
elements.
Web elements are defined as elements with an angle > 45° to the horizontal axis.
- When there is no ‘web’ element (i.e. CHS section ), distortional buckling is not
checked.
- Flanges are defined as elements with angle < 45° to the horizontal axis.
Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135° are accounted for as
‘one’ flange for distortional buckling.
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- For cross-sections with roundings, the flange/web junction is taken to be at the
intersection between the flange/web rounding and the flat part of the flange.
- The thickness t is taken as the smallest thickness of the cross-section elements.
- For Omega sections (Form Code 115) the top flange is not seen as flange for
distortional buckling.

Shear
The shear strength is determined according to article C3.2.1.
In the calculation of Aw only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for. In
addition, elements with reinforcement type ROU are not accounted for.

For each element i the shear area Aw,i is calculated as follows:



With: i = The number (ID) of the element.
xend = End position of element i .
xbeg = Begin position of element i.
t = Thickness of element i.
o = Angle of element i to the horizontal x-x axis

In addition, for each element i the nominal shear stress Fv,i is calculated.

The shear strength of the element then becomes Vn,i = Aw,i * Fv,i

The nominal shear strength Vn for the cross section is taken as the sum of the Vn,i of the related
elements.

Transverse stiffeners are not supported, therefore the shear buckling coefficient kv is taken as 5,34.

 AISI NAS S100-2007 does not give provisions to calculate the shear resistance for
circular hollow sections (Form Code 3). Therefore the default AISC 2005 provisions are
used in this case.

Combined Bending and Shear
The combined bending and shear check is determined according to articles C3.3.1 and C3.3.2.
Transverse stiffeners are not supported; therefore the equations for unreinforced webs are used.

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Web Crippling Strength
The web crippling strength is determined according to article C3.4.1.
More specifically the general equation (C3.4.1-1) is applied.
The alternative given in equation (C3.4.1-2) is not supported.

The web crippling check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vy shear force
diagram.

Remarks:
- The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is
evaluated. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling
system.
- The angle u between the plane of the web and the plane of the bearing surface is taken as
90°.
- The Flange Conditions depend on the definition of the initial shape. In case there is an
element with reinforcement type ROU the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened or Partially Stiffened
Flanges’.
- The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account
adjacent members. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same
buckling system.

The following paragraphs specify the supported cross-section types.

Built-Up Sections
For built-up sections table C3.4.1-1 is used.

This applies to cold formed pair sections 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm and the
following form codes:
127 (Cold formed I-Plus section)
128 (Cold formed IS-Plus section)

Since these pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding
the values of each web.

Single Web Channel and C-Sections
For single web channel and C-sections table C3.4.1-2 is used.
This applies to the following form codes:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
In addition this applies to the following pair sections:
2CFUc and 2CFCc
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm
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Since the pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding
the values of each web.

Single Web Z-Sections
For single web Z-sections table C3.4.1-3 is used.
This applies to the following form codes:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Single Hat Sections
For single hat sections table C3.4.1-4 is used.
This applies to the following form code:
115 (Cold formed Omega section)

Since these sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding the
values of each web.

Other Sections
For any other cross-section types as those listed in the previous paragraphs no web crippling check
is executed.

In addition table C3.4.1-5 is not supported.

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Combined Bending and Web Crippling
The combined bending and web crippling check is determined according to articles C3.5.1 and
C3.5.2.

Requirement (a) is applied to the following form codes/sections:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)
115 (Cold formed Omega section)
2CFUc and 2CFCc
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm

Requirement (b) is applied to the following form codes/sections:
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm

Requirement (c) is applied to the following form codes/sections in case the check is executed within
a lapped zone:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Remarks:
- The exception given for requirement (a) is not supported.
- In case a lapped Z section does not meet the limits for requirement (c) the provisions of
requirement (a) are applied instead.
- For requirement (c) it is assumed that conditions (1), (2), (3) & (4) are fulfilled.

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Combined Bending and Torsion
Combined bending and torsion loading is evaluated according to article C3.6.
In each fiber of the cross-section the bending stresses Sigma Mx and Sigma My are calculated.
These stresses are based on the effective cross-sectional properties and calculated in the fibers of
the gross cross-section.
In addition, in each fiber the shear stress due to torsion Tau t is calculated based on gross section
properties.
Using these stresses, the R factor is calculated according to equation (C3.6-1) using the following
expressions:

f bending = Sigma Mx + Sigma My
f torsion = Tau t
f bending + f torsion =

(composed stress)

The critical fiber is taken as the fiber with the biggest composed stress.

The increase of the R factor in case of C-sections is not supported.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

Compression Members
Nominal axial strength
The nominal axial strength is determined according to article C4.1 using Fn = Fy.

Flexural Buckling
The stress Fe for flexural buckling is determined according to article C4.1.1.

For the calculation of the effective length factor, reference is made to “Calculation buckling ratio –
general formula”.


 In case an LTB restraint of type ‘Both’ is inputted, it specifies that both the top and
bottom flange are held into position. As such, this point is seen as a fixed point for
weak axis buckling.

This implies that the system length Ly is taken between the LTB restraints of type
‘Both’ and the member ends. In addition the effective length factor ky is set to 1,00.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

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Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
The stress Fe for torsional (-flexural) buckling is determined according to the general method given
in Ref. [7].

Doubly symmetric and hollow sections are taken as not subject to torsional (-flexural) buckling.
This applies to the following form codes:
1 (Symmetric I shape)
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
3 (Circular Hollow Section)


For any other section the stress Fe is taken as the smallest of Sigma,t and Sigma,TF

Sigma,t = Ncr,T / Ag
Sigma,TF = Ncr,TF / Ag

With: Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling
Ncr,TF Critical axial load for torsional-flexural buckling


Ag Gross section area


Determination of N
cr,T

The elastic critical load Ncr,T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.[7].

t

With: E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
J Torsion constant
Cw Warping constant
lT Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode
x0 and y0 Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid
rx radius of gyration about the x-x axis
ry radius of gyration about the y-y axis


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Determination of N
cr,TF
The elastic critical load Ncr,TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.[7].

Ncr,TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N:

0

With: Ncr,x Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the x-x axis
Ncr,y Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis


Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling

The smallest value of Fe (flexural, torsional and torsional-flexural buckling) is used for calculating Fn
according to article C4.1.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.


Closed Cylindrical Tubular sections
The axial strength for closed cylindrical tubular sections is determined according to article C4.1.5.
This applies to the following form code:
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

 In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0,441 E/Fy the check is not
executed and a warning is issued on the output.

Distortional Buckling Strength
The distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C4.2. More specifically the
general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C4.2-6).

The check is executed in case the cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type
RUO.

Remarks:
- The same remarks are valid as for distortional buckling of flexural members.
- The elastic distortional buckling stress Fd is determined for each flange separately. The
minimal Fd is taken as the limiting value of the cross-section.

Because of this separate determination, a diaphragm on only one flange is accounted for in
the Fd calculation of that specific flange.
In addition, this procedure allows stiffened flanges of unequal dimensions.


For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.
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Combined Compression and Bending
The combined compression and bending check is executed according to article C5.2.
The shifts ex and ey of the neutral axis are determined for the required compressive axial strength.
The additional moments due to these shifts are then calculated by multiplying the required
compressive axial strength with these respective shifts.

The special provisions for angle sections apply for the following form codes:
4 (Angle section)
111 (Cold formed Angle section)

In case of 2
nd
order analysis, reference is made to “2nd Order using Appendix 2”.

Use of diaphragms
Diaphragms are used specifically in conjunction with article D6.1 concerning purlin and girt design.

The lateral stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm
is set as ‘br’: (Ref.|11|,3.5 and Ref.|12|,3.3.4.):


With a Frame distance
Ls Diaphragm length
K1 Diaphragm stiffness factor K1
K2 Diaphragm stiffness factor K2

For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S (Ref.|11| p22).

For the rotational stiffness vorhC
u
of a diaphragm reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional
constant”.

The available lateral strength S is compared to the required lateral strength Serf Ref.[8]:

With E Modulus of Young
CW Warping constant of the purlin
L LTB length of the purlin
G Shear modulus
J Torsion constant of the purlin
Iy Second moment or area about the y-y axis of the purlin
h Height of the purlin
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In case the available lateral strength S is higher than or equal to the required strength Serf, the
diaphragm is providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as fully braced.
In case the available lateral strength S is lower than the required strength Serf, the diaphragm is not
providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as inadequately braced.


The influence of a diaphragm on different checks (bending, compression and torsion) is outlined in
the following overview.

Bending
Diaphragm on the compression flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced.
As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis.
Distortional buckling still needs to be checked. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC
u
.

 See Ref.[2] pp 47 “Since the distortional buckling has an intermediate buckling half
wavelength; the distortional buckling still needs to be considered even for braced
members.”

In case S < Serf the member is seen as inadequately braced.
As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed using the augmented torsional
stiffness J.
Reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional constant”.

Distortional buckling still needs to be checked. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC
u
.

Diaphragm on the tension flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced on the tension flange.
In this case article D6.1.1 is applied.
As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis.
In addition, no distortional buckling check is required.

In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6.1.1 are not met, the member is seen as
inadequately braced.
As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed by default, without an
increased torsional stiffness J.
In addition distortional buckling is checked taking as zero.

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Compression
Diaphragm on one flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced.
In this case article D6.1.3 is applied.
As a result no distortional buckling check is required.

In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6.1.3 are not met, the member is seen as
inadequately braced .
As a result the default compression checks are executed.
In addition distortional buckling will be checked taking as zero.

Diaphragm on both flanges
In this case the specifications of the previous step apply using the largest lateral stiffness S of both
diaphragms.

Torsion
Diaphragm on any flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced against torsion.
In this case the reduction due to torsion is not applied.

In case S < Serf, the member is taken as inadequately braced.
As a result the reduction for torsion is determined by default.


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Flexural members having one flange through-fastened to sheeting
The nominal flexural strength is determined according to article D6.1.1.

This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:
- The member is in bending about the x-x axis
- The diaphragm is located on the tension flange
- The diagram is through fastened
- The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf
- The conditions for article D6.1.1 are met

Remarks:
- The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i.e. elements with
reinforcement type ROU).

This applies to the following form codes:
114 (Cold formed C-section)
116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

- For determining the R factor a difference is made between simple span and continuous
spans. This difference is based on the system length Lx.
When the member under consideration has only one part for Lx it is taken as simple span.
When the member has more parts for Lx it is taken as continuous span.
- The article is not applied for cantilevers. A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a
buckling system which has free ends for both buckling about the x-x and y-y axis.
- In addition, the article is not applied for continuous beams in the region between inflection
points adjacent to a support.
- It is assumed that conditions (8), (9), (10), (11), (12) & (13) are fulfilled.
- The correction factor r for compressed insulation is not supported.


Compression members with one flange through-fastened to sheeting
The compressive strength is determined according to article D6.1.3.

This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:
- The member is in compression
- The diaphragm is located on one or both flanges
- The diagram is through fastened
- The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf
- The conditions for article D6.1.3 are met

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Remarks:
- The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i.e. elements with
reinforcement type ROU).

This applies to the following form codes:
114 (Cold formed C-section)
116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

- The fastener distance x is taken as 0,5.
- It is assumed that conditions (7) & (8) are fulfilled.

2
nd
Order using Appendix 2
In case the proper setting is activated in the steel setup, the provisions according to article 2.1 of
Appendix 2 are applied.


More specifically, when the check is executed for a non-linear combination the following changes
are applied:
- Effective length factor Kx is set to 1,00
- Effective length factor Ky is set to 1,00
- ox for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- oy for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- Cmx for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- Cmy for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00

Article 2.2 of Appendix 2 is not supported.

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Lapped Purlin Design
For the analysis, the purlin line is considered prismatic i.e. the increased stiffness due to the doubled
cross-section within the lap is ignored Ref.[5].

 Since the lap length is defined along the member axis, it is important to specify
a sufficient ‘number of sections on average member’ in the Solver Setup when using
overlaps.

Combined Strength
The strength within the lapped zones is taken as the sum of the strengths of the individual members
Ref.[4].

The use of the combined strength of the individual members is applied for the following checks:
- Nominal Bending Check
- Shear Check
- Combined Bending and Shear Check
- Web crippling Check
- Combined Bending and Web Crippling Check
- Bending – Distortional Buckling Check

For distortional buckling, the distortional buckling stress Fd is calculated for the critical flange i.e. the
flange resulting in the lowest Fd value.

The following equations are then used:
Mcrd = (Sfsection 1 + Sfsection 2) * Fd
My = (Sfysection 1 + Sfysection 2) * Fy

Special considerations for Lateral Torsional Buckling
Within a lapped zone, at the bottom flange the LTB check depends on the Bottom flange fully
braced setting within the Overlap data.

In case this setting is activated it implies the bottom flange within the lapped zone is fully fixed and
thus no LTB occurs.

This has the following implications:
- Within the lapped zone, in case the bottom flange is in compression, no LTB check is
executed.
- Outside of the lapped zone the LTB length is taken to the end of the lap.

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Diaphragm on the tension flange

In case the following conditions are met:
- Diaphragm on the top flange which provides full bracing
- Setting Bottom flange fully braced activated in the overlap data
- The top flange is in tension
By default it would imply article D6.1.1 should be applied however this article is only valid in case the
compression flange is free. Since in this case the compression flange is fully braced this article is
not applied and the nominal bending strength is used.

References

[1] AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

[2] AISI S100-2007-C
Commentary on North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members
2007 edition

[3] AISI S100-07-E1
Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members
2007 edition
February 20, 2008
Amended September 25, 2008
Amended June 4, 2009

[4] AISI SG03-2
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual
2002 edition

[5] G. J. Hancock, T. M. Murray, D. S. Ellifritt
Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001

[6] A Gerhsi, R. Landolfo, F.M. Mazzolani
Design of Metallic cold formed thin-walled members
Spon Press, London, UK, 2002

[7] SN001a-EN-EU
NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes
Access Steel, 2006
www.access-steel.com
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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[8] EN 1993-1-3:2006
Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules - Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
CEN, 2006

[9] Schafer, B.W., Ádány, S.
Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel members using CUFSM: conventional and
constrained finite strip methods.
Eighteenth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures,
Orlando, FL. October 2006.

[10] J. Schikowski
Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung
von Trapez- und Sandwichelementdeckungen, 1999
http://www.jschik.de/

[11] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[12] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[13] AISI S100-07/S1-09
Supplement No. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members, 2007 edition
August, 2009

[14] AISI S100-07/S2-10
Supplement No. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members, 2007 edition
February, 2010



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CM66

CM66 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982


Consulted articles

The cross-section is checked for tension (art. 3,1), bending (art. 3,2.) and shear (art. 3,3.).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered:
- for compression : art. 3,4.
- for compression and bending : art. 3,5
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 3,6.
- for double bending and axial compression : art. 3,7.
- for shear buckling : art 5,212

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


3 Règles générales concernant les calculs de résistance et de déformation
3,0 Données numériques x

3,1 Pièces soumises à traction simple x (*)

3,2 Pièces soumises à flexion simple ou déviée x
3,21 Flexion simple x(*)
3,22 Flexion déviée

3,3 Effet de l’effort tranchant dans les pièces fléchies x

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3,4 Pièces soumises à la compression – flambement simple
3,40 Généralités x(*)
3,41 Pièces comprimées a parois pleines x
3,42 Pièces composées a treilis
3,43 Pièces composées a traverses de liaison
3,44 Conditions spéciales imposées aux éléments comprimés a parois minces x

3,5 Pièces soumises à compression avec flexion dans le plan de flambement
3,50 Principe x
3,51 Coefficient d’amplification des contraintes de flexion x (*)
3,52 Vérfication des pièces a parois pleines

x
3,53 Vérification des pièces composées à treilis
3,54 Vérification des pièces composées à traverses de liaison

3,6 Déversement en flexion simple
3,60 Généralités x
3,61 Pièces symétriquement chargées et appuyées
3,611 Poutres à äme pleine x(*)
3,612 Poutres à treilis
3,62 Cas des piéces soumises à deux moments différents au droit des appuis x(*)
3,63 Cas des poutrelles en console parfaitement encastrées
3,64 Coeffcients utilisés pour la détermination de kd
3,641 Coefficient D x
3,642 Coefficient C x(*)
3,643 Coefficient B x(*)

3,7 Flexion composée
3,70 Domaine d’application x
3,71 Notations x
3,72 Principe des vérifications x
3,73 Formules enveloppes pour les pièces à parois pleines x (*)

3,8 Flambement dans les systémes hyperstatiques

3,9 Déformations x

5 Règles spéciales à certains éléments
5,212 Poutres composées à âme pleine – âmes x

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Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .

Plastic coefficient
The plastic coefficients are calculated according to the Ref.[1], 13,212 (Valeurs du coefficient ψ
d’adaptation plastique).

Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Factor kf
The factor kf is calculated using the formula given in Ref[1], 3,516
3 ; 1
l M
A
1 72 . 1 25 . 0
k
2
med
M
f
÷ µ
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ + µ
=


If Mmed ≈ 0.0, the formula 3,513 is used :
3 . 1
25 . 0
k
f
÷ µ
+ µ
=
LTB Check
The LTB check is performed for symmetric I sections. For other cross sections the factor kd=1.0.
For the calculation of the coefficient C, we refer to "Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for
LTB".
The coefficient B is calculated by interpolating the table for B given in Ref[1] 3,643, and using the
calculated C value with table for C given in Ref[1] 3,642.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.
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Combined flexion
The values ofx is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the bending around
the strong axis. The value ofy is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the
bending around the weak axis.
For non-prismatic sections the values ofx and ofy are the local (i.e. in each intermediary section)
bending stresses.
Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.


Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

R
S

E

O

COM

NUM
Section check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section buckling
check
x x x x x x x x
LTB Check x
Shear buckling check x x x x


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References


|1| Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982

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194
CM66 - Additif 80

CM66 - Additif 80 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Additif 80
Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to art. 5,12. (classification 'plastic' or 'elastic').
The section is checked for tension and compression (art. 4,2), bending (art 4,3), shear force (art.
4,4), the combination of bending and axial force (art. 4,5 and art 4.6).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered:
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5,2.
- for compression : art. 5,31.
- for compression and bending : art. 5,32

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the
following chapters.

4 Resistance des sections
4,1 Règle générale (*)
4,2 Effort normale x
4,3 Moment de flexion x
4,4 Effort tranchant x
4,5 Moment de flexion et effort normal x
4,6 Momens de flexion, effort normal et effort tranchant x

5 Stabilité des éléments
5,1 Conditions de non voilement local x (*)
5,2 Résistance au déversement des poutre fléchies
5,21 Règles de contreventement latéral au voisinage des sections plastifiées
5,22 Moment ultime de déversement en flexion simple x (*)
5,23 Dimensionnement des entretoises
5,24 Résistance au déversement en flexion déviée x
5,3 Résistance au flambement
5,31 Eléments simplement comprimés x
5,32 Eléments comprimés et fléchis x
5,33 Longueur de flambement (*)
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.


Section check
If the sections are not according to the conditions specified in art. 5,1, the sections are checked
according to the regulations given in Ref.[2].
If a torsional moment is present, the sections are checked according to the regulations given in
Ref.[2].
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).



Lateral-torsional buckling
For the calculation of the moment factors C1 and C2, we refer to "Annex C: Calculation of moment
factors for LTB", using the EC3 values.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification Add
80
x x
Plastic section check
Add 80
x x
Buck:ling check Add
80
x x
LTB check Add 80 x x
Compression +
bending Add 80
x x

References

[1] Additif 80

|2| Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982



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BS5950-1:1990

BS5950-1:1990 Code Check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

British Standard BS 5950
Structural use of steelwork in building
Part1. Code of practice for design in simple
and continuous construction:hot rolled section
British Standard distribution BS5950 Part1 1990 revised in 1992




Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength py is defined according to the thickness of the element
(see Table 6 Art.3.1.1.). The standard steel grades are :

Grade 43 : yield strength defined between 245 and 275 N/mm²
Grade 50 : yield strength defined between 325 and 355 N/mm²
Grade 55 : yield strength defined between 415 and 450 N/mm²


(pY in N/mm², t in mm)


Steel grade

Thickness
limits

PY



Grade 43

ts16 mm

275 N/Mm²

ts40 mm

265 N/mm²

ts63 mm

255 N/mm²

ts100 mm

245 N/mm²



ts16 mm

355 N/mm²
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Grade 50

ts40 mm

345 N/mm²

ts63 mm

340 N/mm²

ts100 mm

325 N/mm²



Grade 55

ts16 mm

450 N/mm²

ts25 mm

430 N/mm²

ts40 mm

415 N/mm²

ts63 mm

400 N/mm²


Remark: For cold-formed section, values for Py are not influenced by the previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as
material for the selected code.


Consulted articles
According to Art. 3.5. and table 7, cross sections are classified in 4 types:

- Plastic
- Compact
- Semi-compact
- Slender

A reduction factor is applied to the design strength of the material in use for slender sections by
following the rules described in Art. 3.6 and in Table 8. Partial safety factor of design strength is
included in py value.
The section is checked for bending (Art.4.2.), tension (Art.4.6.), compression (Art.4.7.), shear
(Art.4.2.3.), combined moment and axial force (Art. 4.8.) and biaxial moments (Art.4.9.). For the
stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling, shear buckling,
compression and bending with axial compression. Articles used for this stability check are the
following:

- for lateral torsional buckling : Art. 4.3.
- shear buckling : Art. 4.4.5.
- for compression : Art. 4.7.
- for bending and axial compression : Art. 4.8.


A more detailed overview of used articles is given in the following table.
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Part. 3 Section properties
3.5. Limiting proportions of cross sections Art. 3.5.1.
Art. 3.5.2.
Art. 3.5.4.
Table 7
Fig.3
3.6. Slender cross section Art. 3.6.1.
Art. 3.6.2.-3.6.3.
Art. 3.6.4.
Table 8
Part. 4 Design of structural elements
4.2. Member in bending Art. 4.2.1.3. (a) (c)
Shear capacity Art. 4.2.3.
Moment capacity with low shear Art. 4.2.5.
Moment capacity with high shear Art. 4.2.6.
4.3. Lateral torsional buckling


Member in bending Art. 4.3.7.
LTB factor
General Art. 4.3.7.1.
Equivalent uniform moment Art. 4.3.7.2.
Buckling Resistance Art. 4.3.7.3.
Bending strength pb Art. 4.3.7.4.
Equivalent slenderness ìLT, |, q, u, v

Art. 4.3.7.5.
Appendix B.
Factors m, n Art. 4.3.7.6.
Equal flanged rolled section Art. 4.3.7.7.
Buckling resistance moment for single angle Art.4.3.8.

4.4. Plate Girders


General Art. 4.4.1.
Dimensions of webs and flanges Art. 4.4.2.2. Art. 4.4.2.3.
Moment capacity Art. 4.4.4.
Section with slender webs Art. 4.4.4.2. (a)
Shear buckling resistance of thin webs Art. 4.4.5.1.
Design without using tension field action Art. 4.4.5.3. and Appendix H.1.

4.6. Axially loaded tension members



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Tension capacity Art. 4.6.1.
Effective Area of simple tension members Art. 4.6.3.1. Art. 4.6.3.3.

4.7. Compression member


Slenderness Art. 4.7.3.2.
Compression resistance Art. 4.7.4.
Compressive strength Art. 4.7.5. Appendix C

4.8. Axially loaded members with moments


Tension members with moments Art. 4.8.2. + EC3 5.4.9.&Annex F
Compression members with moments Art. 4.8.3.
Local capacity check Art. 4.8.3.2.
Buckling check with exact approach Art. 4.8.3.3.2.

4.9. Members with biaxial moments


See 4.8.



Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Slender cross-section
Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. British Standard code (Art. 3.6.) defines
stress reduction factor to prevent this phenomenon. For webs subject to moments and axial load
and for circular hollow sections, the design strength py should be assumed such that the limiting
proportions for semi-compact section are met. For other sections, where a slender outstand is in
compression, the design strength should be reduced by the factor given in Table 8.

Section properties
The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to fastener
holes: Art. 3.3. Shear area of a cross-section is calculated by using Art. 4.2.3.

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Bending moment
Before any calculation of members in bending, it's necessary to determine the shear capacity. For
plastic and compact section with high shear load, moment capacity is calculated with the plastic
modulus only for I and PLL sections (Art. 4.2.6. and 4.8.). For other cross-section, with plastic or
compact section classification, characterised or not by a low shear load, we assumed that the
moment capacity is calculated by using the same approach than for semi-compact section: the
elastic modulus (elastic calculation).

Bending, shear, axial force
For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Art. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed approach to
determine the unity check of axially loaded members with moments. The detailed relationship allows
a greater economy for plastic and compact section . In this expression, we use a reduced moment
capacity Mr respectively about the major and the minor axis. Those values are determined by using
EC3 Art.5.4.9. (see Ref.[5]). For semi-compact and slender section, the simplified approach is
applied following Art. 4.8.2.and Art. 4.8.3.2. (a).

Lateral torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric PPL), rectangular sections (solid and hollow), T sections,
channel sections and angle section, the critical lateral torsional buckling moment is given by the
general formula Art. 4.3.7. and Annex B2&3. For other sections, we follow conservative
recommendation described in Art. 4.3.7.5. and calculation proposed in EC3 to determine the elastic
critical moment Mcr EC3 Annex F1.1. Formula (F.1.) see Ref [5].

The condition to be satisfied in all the cases is that



with

Mb=Sxpb

and



(m is an equivalent uniform moment factor)

pb is the bending strength and is related to the equivalent slenderness :


in which n is an equivalent slenderness factor.

For beam without loading point between points of lateral restraint, n=1 and m depends on the ratio
of the end moments at the points of restraint.
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For beam loaded between point of lateral restraint, m=1 and n depend on the ratio of the end
moments at the points of restraint and on the ratio of the larger moment to the mid-span free
moment.
There are thus two methods for dealing with lateral torsional buckling namely:
'm approach' i.e. the 'equivalent uniform moment method' with n=1
'n approach' i.e. the 'equivalent slenderness method' with m=1
In any given situation, only one method will be admissible, taking into account that it is always
conservative to use m=n=1. Since the publication of BS5950 Part 1 1990, doubt has been cast on
the correctness of using n factors less than 1 in combination with an effective length LLTB less than
the length of the member L in the calculation of ìLTB. However, as a interim measure, pending
clarification ina future version of BS5950, it is recommended that ìLTB is taken as the smaller of the
two following values:


By using the settings of BS5950, the user can define which method correspond to his situation or
define his choice as the conservative method m=n=1.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Compression member
For member submitted to compression, we applied the recommendations given in BS 5950 and
Appendix C to determine the compressive strength.

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x

(1)sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default



References


[1] British Standard BS5950 Part 1 : 1990+Revised text 1992
Structural use of steel work in building
Part1 Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled sections

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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[2] Plastic design to BS5950
J.M. Davies & B.A. Brown
The steel Construction institute

[3] Steelwork design
Guide to BS5950: Part 1: 1990
Volume 2 Worked examples (revised edition)

[4] Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N° 65, 1991

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

[6] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988


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BS5950-1:2000
BS5950-1:2000 Code Check

The background to this code check can be found within the document “BS 5950-1:2000 steel code check
Theory”
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SIA263

SIA263 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003


Material properties
The most common steel grades are used in SIA263. Their mechanical properties are described in
table 1 SIA263. The following table gives the yield strength for each type of grade commonly used in
function of the nominal web thickness:


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490
S460
S 460
460 550 430 530


Consulted articles
The classification described in SIA263 is based on the calculation method. The calculation method
in SIA263 distinguish the method used respectively to determine the internal forces and to perform
the section and the stability check.
By facility, we can obviously make a parallel between the calculation method of SIA263 and the
section classification proposed in EC3.

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According to SIA263 Table 5a-5b , cross sections are classified in 4 types:

- PP (plastic-plastic) or class 1
- EP (elastic-plastic) or class 2
- EE (elastic-elastic) or class 3
- EER (elastic-elastic reduced) or class 4

The first letter of the classification denomination is related to the method used to calculate internal
forces in the structure. The second letter indicates if we perform the section and the stability check
with a elastic or a plastic approach. Finally, we must note that the steel code SIA263 is essentially
oriented for symmetrical and bisymmetrical profile like I profiles. In the present modulus, others
profiles are calculated by using a classic elastic approach (EE classification) and EC3 prescriptions.

The section is checked for tension, compression, shear, combination of bending and axial forces.
For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling, shear buckling,
compression and bending with axial compression. A more detailed overview for the used articles is
given in the following table :

4 Analyse structurale et dimensionnement
4.1 Généralités x
4.2 Bases de l'analyse structurale et du dimensionnement
4.3 Modélisation
4.3.1 Classification des sections

x
4.4 Résistance des sections
4.4.1 Effort normal

x
4.4.2 Flexion x
4.4.3 Effort tranchant x
4.4.4 Flexion et effort tranchant x
4.4.5 Flexion et effort normal x
4.4.6 Sollicitations multiaxiales x
4.5 Stabilité
4.5.1 Flambage

x
4.5.2 Déversement des poutres fléchies x
4.5.3 Flexion et compression x
4.5.4 Voilement des éléments plans comprimés x
4.5.5 Voilement des éléments plans cisaillés x
4.8 Situtation de projet incendie
4.8.1 PRINCIPES

x
4.8.2 Propriétés de l'acier en cas d'incendie x
4.8.5 Méthode de calcul simplifiée x
5 Eléments de construction
5.1 POUTRES ET POTEAUX DES CLASSES DE SECTION 1 ET 2

x
5.3 Eléments comprimés à section composée
5.3.1 Barres étrésillonées ( à travers de liaison)

x
5.4 Poutres composées à âme pleine
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5.4.1 Résistance à la flexion x
5.4.2 Résistance à l'effort tranchant x
5.4.3 Interaction entre flexion et effort tranchant x
Annexe B Moment critique de déversement élastique Mcr x
Annexe C Echauffement des éléments de construction en cas d'incendie x

Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each load
case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability
check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. However, for non-
prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section.

Slender cross-section
The design of a section that not satisfies the table 5 of SIA263 is always performed by using a
reduced area. This classification correspond to the EER method. The determination of a reduced
area is based on the effective width of each compression element in the current section (Art. 4.5.4).
The using of a reduced area implies the recalculation of the shear centre position, the inertia and the
elastic modulus.


Sections properties
The holes due to fastener are neglected in the area of a section

Lateral torsional buckling
For double symmetric I profile, we don't have to perform any lateral torsional buckling check if
NEd/Npl,Rd s 0.15 and the conditions provided in Table 6 SIA263 are satisfied. For any other case, a
LTB check must be perform.
Calculations described in Annex B for I,U and PPL can be applied to T sections only if the flange is
subjected to compression. Otherwise, as for section not supported by SIA263 in the LTB check, we
use prescriptions given in EC3 Annex F. Those rules allow us to determine a elastic critical moment
for lateral torsional buckling for symmetrical (formula F.2 EC3) and non symmetrical (formula F.1.
EC3) sections around the minor axis.
In the case of I, U, PPL and, T only with compression in flange, characterised by a reduced area or
not, we have to determined before any calculation irc, defined as the radius of gyration of a section
comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area, taken about an axis in the
plane of the web.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.



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Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.


Stability check
For double symmetric I profile PP or EP, SIA263 provides specific formula to perform the stability
check of member submitted to biaxial moment. For other sections, non symmetric or from EE and
EER classification, a general formula is provided to design member under mono-axial sollicitations.

Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Annex F: Warping
check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections).



SIA263 - Fire Resistance
Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

EGk + Pk + Ad+ E¢2,iQk,i

with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions
Qk,i characteristic value of the variable action i
Ad design values of accidental action from fire exposure
¢2,j combination coefficients
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Pk characteristic value of prestressing action
Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties:

° u u
° u u
=
=
20 , a , E , a
20 , y , y , y
E k E
f k f


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
and modulus of
elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in ref.[1], Figure 15.


In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis :

thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. For
more info, EC3 Chapter 'Temperature analysis - Thermal actions'
Nominal temperature-time curve
See EC3 Chapter 'Nominal temperature-time curve'.

Net heat flux
See EC3 Chapter 'Net heat flux'

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Steel Temperature
See Ref.[1], Annexe C.

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At
t h
c
V / A
d , net
a a
m
t , a
A
µ
= u A


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At


with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0

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212

For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in Ref.[1], 4.8.5.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check
are performed.

The following checks are executed :

- classification of cross section : art. 4.8.5.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.8.5.4.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.8.5.5..
- resistance for beams (class 1,2,3) : art. 4.8.5.6., art. 4.8.5.7., art. 4.8.5.8.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. 4.8.5.9.


Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
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213
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PP x x(2) x(3)
Section check EP x x(2) x(3)
Section check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check EER x x x x x x
Stability check PP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EER x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x
LTB x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4)

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.
(2) check according to EN 1993-1-1
(3) check according to ENV 1993-1-1
(4) general formula for Mcr




References
[1] SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003

[2] SIA263/1
Construction en acier / Spécification complémentaires
SIA263/1:2003



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IS 800

IS:800 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

IS 800 Draft version (for 3
rd
Revision)
Material properties

The following steel grades are supported :

Grade/ Classification Yield stress(Mpa)
Ultimate tensile
stress(Mpa)
A/Fe410WA 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
B/Fe410WB 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
C/Fe410WC 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
Fe440 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to
63mm)
440
Fe440B 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to
63mm)
440
Fe490 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to
63mm)
490
Fe490B 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to
63mm)
490
Fe540 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to
63mm)
540
Fe540B 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to
63mm)
540


The string in the column ‘Grade/Classification’ is used to determine the proper yield stress
reduction.

Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 3.1.
The section is checked for tension (Section 6), compression (Section 7), bending (Section 8) and the
combination of forces (Section 9).

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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the
following chapters.


3.7. Classification of Cross Section x(*)

6.1. Tension members x
6.2. Design strength due to Yielding of Gross section

7.1. Design Strength x

8.2. Design strength in bending x
8.2.1. Laterally supported beam
8.2.1.1. Section with slender webs x
8.2.1.2. When factored shear force < 0.6 Vd x
8.2.1.3. When factored shear force > 0.6 Vd x
8.2.2. Laterally unsupported beam x
8.2.2.1. Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling moment x
8.4. Shear x
8.4.1. The nominal plastic shear resistance x
8.4.2. Resistance to shear buckling x

9.1. General x
9.2. Combined Shear and bending x
9.3. Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment x

Appendix F x


Remarks
- the design of slender compression elements is outside the scope of this implementation
- the shear buckling check is only using the Simple Post Critical Method
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section

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The cross sections are classified as
- class 1 : plastic
- class 2 : compact
- class 3 : semi-compact
- class 4 : slender section

The class 4 (slender) section check is not supported. For this sections a class 3 (semi-compact)
section check is performed.

Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .

Section check
In the case of high shear for class 3 section, the allowable normal stress is reduced with a factor (1-
µ). When torsional shear stress is present, the VonMisis criterium is checked.

Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio". The
buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained
using buckling for buckling around the weak axis, and with relative slenderness given by :

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with fyb the basic yield strength
ocr the critical stress
ocr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
ocr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis







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Lateral-torsional buckling
The elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS
(Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, can be
calculated using the formula given by Annex F.

For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Annex C: Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.



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Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Supported sections

The following standard sections are defined :

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section ( sheet welded, section pairs, …)
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

In the following matrix is shown which sections are supported for the different analysis parts in the
Indian steel Code check :



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E


O

COM

NUM
Section Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4
Shear buckling check x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.
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References

[1] IS:800
2005


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EAE code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Instrucción EAE
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural
Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero
November 2004

Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to
Capítulo VI of Ref. |1|.

Steel Grade fy
(N/mm²)
fu
(N/mm²)
S 235 235 360
S 275 275 430
S 355 355 510
S 275 N/NL 275 390
S 355 N/NL 355 490
S 420 N/NL 420 540
S 460 N/NL 460 570
S 275 M/ML 275 380
S 355 M/ML 355 470
S 420 M/ML 420 520
S 460 M/ML 460 550
S 460
Q/QL/QL1
460 570
S 235 W 235 360
S 355 W 355 510
S 235 H 235 360
S 275 H 275 430
S 355 H 355 510
S 275 NH/NLH 275 370
S 355 NH/NLH 355 470
S 460 NH/NLH 460 550
S 275 MH/MLH 275 360
S 355 MH/MLH 355 470
S 420 MH/MLH 420 500
S 460 MH/MLH 460 530
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222

The name of the steel grade (e.g. 'S 355 W') is used to identify the steel grade.

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting the proper
data flag in the Cross Section input dialog) according to Ref.[4].
The average yield strength is determined as follows :



with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy
fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90° bends in the section


Consulted articles
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in " Instrucción EAE,
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural, Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de
Acero, November 2004".
The cross-sections are classified according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V. All classes of cross-sections
are included. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each
intermediary point, according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V.

The member check is executed according to Capítulo IX. The stress check is taken from art. 34.: the
section is checked for tension (art. 34.2.), compression (art. 34.3.), bending (art. 34.4.), shear (art.
34.5.), torsion (art. 34.6.) and combined bending, shear and axial force (art. 34.7.1., art. 34.7.2. and
art. 34.7.3.).
The stability check is taken from art. 35.: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. 35.1.),
lateral torsional buckling (art. 35.2.), and combined bending and axial compression (art. 35.3.).
The shear buckling is checked according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003, Chapter 5.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.

For integrated beams, the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic moment capacity
and the bending stresses in the section. The out-of-balance loading is checked.


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223
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following
chapters.


Instrucción EAE

20. Clasificación de las secciones transversales
(*)
20.2. Clasificación de las secciones transversales metálicas
x
20.3. Criterios de asignación de Clase en secciones metálicas no rigidizadas
x
20.7. Características de la sección reducida en secciones transversales
esbeltas
x


34. Estado límite de resistencia de las secciones

34.1. Principios generales del cálculo
x
34.1.2. Características de las secciones transversales
x(*)
34.2. Esfuerzo axil de tracción
x
34.3. Esfuerzo axil de compresión
x
34.4. Momento flector
x
34.5. Esfuerzo cortante
x
34.6. Torsión
x(*)
34.7. Interacción de esfuerzos

34.7.1. Flexión y cortante
x
34.7.2. Flexión y esfuerzo axil
x
34.7.3. Flexión, cortante y esfuerzo axil
x
35. Estado límite de inestabilidad

35.1. Elementos sometidos a compresión
x(*)
35.2. Elementos sometidos a flexión
x
35.3. Elementos sometidos a compresión y flexión
x(*)


35.5. Abolladura del alma a cortante
x
35.7. Interacción

35.7.1. Cortante, flexión y esfuerzo axil
x




For cold formed sections EN 1993-1-3 is applied.

6.1.2. Axial tension
x
6.1.3. Axial compression
x
6.1.5. Shear force
x
6.1.6. Torsional moment
x
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .
The shear lag effects are neglected .
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Annex F: Warping
check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Annex H: Section check for built-in beams (IFB,
SFB, THQ sections)’.

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Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |5|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to
"Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (=
lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. |3|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see Annex D: Use of diaphragms.

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Combined bending and axial compression
For prismatic members the value My,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
strong axis in the member. The value Mz,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My,Ed and Mz,Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

Interaction Method Calculation of Czz

By default for Czz the formula given in Ref.[1] is used:

ì

ì

In this formula however the position of the factor eLT is incorrect. For exact analysis the formula
according to Ref.[9] can be used:

ì

ì

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Annex A: Profile Library
Formcodes.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.



References

|1| Instrucción EAE
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero
November 2004

|2| Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N° 65, 1991

|3| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[4] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
ENV 1993-1-2:1995, 1995

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N° 111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 2-2 : Actions on structures - Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 1991-2-2:1995


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Annex A: Profile Library Formcodes
Within Scia Engineer, each shape within the Profile Library is uniquely identified by a so called
Formcode. The Formcode defines the shape, the parameters which describe the shape and in some
cases also additional parameters like distance between bolt holes, unit warping ordinates etc.

In this Annex the different Formcodes and their parameters are described.

Formcode 1: I-Section



Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
a Flange slope
W Internal bolt distance
wm Unit warping at flange toe


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Formcode 2: Rectangular Hollow Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Width
s Thickness
r Outer radius
r1 Inner radius


Formcode 3: Circular Hollow Section


Parameters Description
d Diameter
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w Thickness


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Formcode 4: L-Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Width
t Thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
W1 Bolt distance
W2 Bolt distance
W3 Bolt distance


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Formcode 5: Channel Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
a Flange slope
wm1 Unit warping at flange root
wm2 Unit warping at flange toe


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Formcode 6: T-Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
r2 Radius at web root
a1 Flange slope
a2 Web slope


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Formcode 7: Full Rectangular Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Width


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Formcode 11: Full Circular Section


Parameters Description
d Diameter


Formcode 101: Asymmetric I-Section


Parameters Description
h Height
s Web thickness
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
tt Flange thickness top
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tb Flange thickness bottom
r Radius at flange root


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Formcode 102: Rolled Z-Section


Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe


Formcode 111: Cold-Formed Angle Section


Parameters Description
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s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Width
h Height


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Formcode 112: Cold-Formed Channel Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height


Formcode 113: Cold-Formed Z-Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Total width
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h Height

Formcode 114: Cold-Formed C-Section



Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip


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Formcode 115: Cold-Formed Omega Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Total width
h Height
c Inner length


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Formcode 116: Cold-Formed C-Section Eaves Beam


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip
a Flange angle

Formcode 117: Cold-Formed C-Plus Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
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r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
a Pluslip angle


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Formcode 118: Cold-Formed ZED-Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
c Lip

Formcode 119: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Asymmetric Lips


Parameters Description
s Thickness
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r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom


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Formcode 120: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Inclined Lip


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
a Lip angle


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Formcode 121: Cold-Formed Sigma Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
b1 Web depression


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Formcode 122: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Stiffened


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression



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Formcode 123: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Pluslip angle


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Formcode 124: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Eaves Beam


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
b1 Web depression
a Flange angle


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Formcode 125: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section Eaves Beam


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Flange angle
a2 Pluslip angle


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Formcode 126: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Both Lips Inclined


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
a Lip angle


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Formcode 127: Cold-Formed I-Plus Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
a Pluslip angle


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Formcode 128: Cold-Formed IS-Plus Section


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Pluslip angle


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Formcode 129: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Asymmetric


Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
b1 Web depression


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Formcode 150: Rail Type KA


Parameters Description
h1 Height
h2 Intermediate top height
h3 Intermediate top height
b1 Width bottom
b2 Intermediate width
b3 Intermediate width
k Width top
f1 Intermediate bottom height
f2 Intermediate bottom height
f3 Intermediate bottom height
r1 Radius
r2 Radius
r3 Radius
r4 Radius
r5 Radius
a Wear


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Formcode 151: Rail Type KF


Parameters Description
h1 Height
h2 Intermediate top height
h3 Intermediate top height
b1 Width bottom
b3 Intermediate width
k Width top
f1 Intermediate bottom height
f3 Intermediate bottom height
r1 Radius
r2 Radius
r3 Radius



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Annex B: Calculation of buckling ratio
Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio

For the calculation of buckling ratio, several methods can be applied.
The general method is described in chapter "Calculation buckling ratio – general formula".
For crossing diagonals, the buckling ratio is explained in chapter "Calculation buckling ratios for
crossing diagonals".
For VARH elements, the critical Euler force is calculated according to the method given in chapter
"Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements".
For lattice tower members, see the chapter "Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members".
When using member buckling data the buckling ratio can be calculated from a stability analysis. See
chapter Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis.

Calculation buckling ratio – general formula

For the calculation of the buckling ratios, some approximate formulas are used. These formulas are
treated in reference [1], [2] and [3].

The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[1],pp.21) :

- for a non sway structure :

24) + 11 + 5 + 24)(2 + 5 + 11 + (2
12)2 + 4 + 4 + 24)( + 5 + 5 + (
= l/L
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ


- for a sway structure :

4 +
x
x = l/L
1
2
µ
t



with L the system length
E the modulus of Young
I the moment of inertia
Ci the stiffness in node i
Mi the moment in node i
Fi the rotation in node i




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µ µ µ µ t
µ t µ µ
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
2 1
8 + ) + (
+ 4
= x

EI
L
C
=
i
i
µ

|
i
i
i
M
=
C


The values for Mi and |i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the deformations,
calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms, having an affinity with the buckling
form. (See also Ref.[5], pp.113 and Ref.[6],pp.112).

The following load cases are considered:
- load case 1 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on
the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy =10000 N/m are used.
- load case 2 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on
the columns the global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -10000 N/m are used.


In addition, the following limitations apply (Ref[1],pp.21):
- The values of ρi are limited to a minimum of 0.0001
- The values of ρi are limited to a maximum of 1000
- The indices are determined such that ρ1 ≥ ρ2
- Specifically for the non-sway case, if ρ1 ≥ 1000 and ρ2 ≤ 0,34 the ratio l/L is set to 0,7


The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or semi-rigid
beam connections. For other cases, the user has to evaluate the presented bucking ratios. In such
cases a more refined approach (from stability analysis) can be applied.

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Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals

For crossing diagonal elements, the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane, is
calculated according to Ref.[9] EN 1993-2, Table D.2 and Ref.[4], DIN18800 Teil 2, table 15.
According to this method the buckling length factor β is no longer purely geometric data but is also
dependent on the load distribution in the element.
In the following chapters, the buckling length factor β is defined,

with β Buckling length factor
l Length of the diagonal
l1 Length of the supporting diagonal
I Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the diagonal
I1 Moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the supporting diagonal
N Compression force in the diagonal
N1 Compression force in the supporting diagonal
Z Tension force in the supporting diagonal
E Elasticity modulus of Young


Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous
tension diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2



See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 1.
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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension
diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2





See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 4.

Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension
diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2




See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 5.
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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2


See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 2.

Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2


See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 3 (2).
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Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2



See Ref.[9], Table D.2, Case 3 (3).


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Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements
Definitions

A VARH element is defined as follows :

The member has the properties of a symmetric I secion (formcode=1), where only the height is
linear variable along the member. The system length for buckling around the local yy axis (strong
axis), is equal to member length.
For this non-prismatic section, the critical Euler force is given in Ref[7].


Calculation of the critical Euler force

For a VARH element (form node i to node j), we can define:

L beam length
Ii, Ij moment of inertia at end i and j
Ai,
Aj
sectional area at end i and j
E modulus of Young
Ncr critical Euler force
Ri,
Rj
beam stiffness at end i and j


The stiffness R and R' is given by:

EI
L
R
=
R
EI
L
R
=
R
M
= R
i
j j
i
i i
'
'
u

I
I
=
i
j
ç
The critical Euler force is given by

L
EI
=
N
2
i 2
cr o

To calculate o, the next steps are followed :
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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1. Calculate L, Ii, Ij, Ri, Rj, R'i, R'j, ξ

2. We suppose that

2
1
>
1 - ç
o

3. Calculate a, b, c and d as follows


)] ln cotg( +
2
1
(
1) - (
+ [1
1
= d
]
1 -
) ln ( sin
- [1
1
= c = b
)] ln cotg( -
2
1
1)( - ( + [1
1
= a
4
1
-
) 1 - (
=
2
2
2
2
2
ç | |
ç
ç
o
ç
ç
ç |
|
o
ç | | ç
o
ç
o
|


4. For a beam in non-sway system, we solve

0 =
R R
bc) - (ad +
R
d +
R
a + 1
j i j i ' ' ' '

For a beam in sway system, we solve

0 = bc)) - (ad - d + c - b - (a
R R
+ - ) d - (1
R
+ ) a - (1
R
2
j i
2 2
j
2
i o o o o ' ' ' '


5. When a solution is found, we check if


2
1
>
1 - ç
o


6. If not, then recalculate a,b,c en d as follows :

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267

]
) - (
) ) +
2
1
( - ) -
2
1
1)(( - (
+ [1
1
= d
]
) - (
1) - ( 2
- [1
1
= c = b
]
-
) ) +
2
1
( - ) -
2
1
1)(( - (
+ [1
1
= a
-
-
2
- 2
-
2
ç ç ç
ç | ç | ç
o
ç ç ç
ç |
o
ç ç
ç | ç | ç
o
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |


and resolve the proper equation of 4.

Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members
When the national code EC-EN is selected, the buckling configurations given in the following
paragraphs can be selected. These systems are only used in case of L-sections (Formcode 4).

y
y
z z
v
v


The following properties are defined:

iyy radius of gyration around yy axis
izz radius of gyration around zz axis
ivv radius of gyration around vv axis

When the option 'Bracing members are sufficiently supported' is activated in the buckling data, the
effective slenderness is reduced as follows:
- for vv-axis : vv v eff ì ì · + = 7 . 0 35 . 0 ,
- for yy-axis : yy y eff ì ì · + = 7 . 0 50 . 0 ,
- for zz-axis : zz z eff ì ì · + = 7 . 0 50 . 0 ,

Reference is made to EN 1993-1-1 Annex BB Article BB.1.2 and formula (BB.1).
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Default slenderness limits
For each configuration, the limit slenderness is defined in the Setup and an additional check on this
limit slenderness is executed. The default limit values are taken from Ref.[8].

Type Default Slenderness limit
Leg with symmetrical bracing 120
Leg with intermediate transverse support 120
Leg with staggered bracing 120
Secondary Bracing System 240
Single bracing 200
Single bracing with SBS 200
Cross bracing 200
Cross bracing with SBS 200 and 350 (L3)
K bracing 200
Horizontal bracing 250
Horizontal bracing with SBS 250
Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal
member
250

Leg with symmetrical bracing


vv
i
L
= ì


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Leg with intermediate transverse support


yy
i
L
= ì


Leg with staggered bracing


vv
yy
i
52 . 1 ) 2 a , 1 a max(
i
L
·
= ì
= ì



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Single Bracing


vv
i
L
= ì




Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System)



yy
2
vv
1
i
L
i
L
= ì
= ì



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Cross bracing


yy
com
com
y
E
E
com
com
com
com
1
1
1 b
1
com
sup
1 b
2 b com b
'
2
zz
'
2
yy
'
2
vv
1
i
L
f
E
58 . 0 70 . 0 K
L
L
K
1
1 25 . 0 K
0 . 1 5 . 0
K
1
1 25 . 0
F
F
K
1
1 38 . 0 75 . 0 K
L K L K L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
= ì
t = ì
ì
ì
= ì
ì + =
= o
|
.
|

\
|
+ o >
s +
|
.
|

\
|
+ o +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ o ÷ =
· = · =
= ì
= ì


with Lcom Length of compressed member (L2 from figure)
Fcom Force in compressed member (L2 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L2)
E Modulus of Young
fy Yield strength




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Cross bracing with SBS



3 b com b
'
3
zz
'
3
yy
'
3
zz
2
yy
2
vv
1
L K L K L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
· = · =
= ì
= ì
= ì



with Lcom Length of compressed member (L3 from figure)
Fcom Force in compressed member (L3 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L3)
Kb See Chapter 'Cross bracing'


K Bracing



zz
3
yy
3
zz
2
yy
2
vv
1
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
= ì
= ì
= ì

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
273
Horizontal Bracing

L


1 R 0
P
P
R
73 . 0 R 316 . 0 R 085 . 0 k
i
L
k
1
2
2
vv
s s
=
+ · ÷ · =
= ì


with P1 Compression load
P2 Tensile load
Horizontal Bracing with SBS

L


1 R 0
P
P
R
73 . 0 R 316 . 0 R 085 . 0 k
i
L
k
1
2
2
yy
s s
=
+ · ÷ · =
= ì


with P1 Compression load
P2 Tensile load
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
274
Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member

N1 N2
N1 N2
F F
a
a


( ) o + =
·
= ì
cos ) 2 N 1 N ( , F max F
i
a
,
i
a 2
Sd
vv yy



with F normal force to check
FSd actual compression force in horizontal member
N1 tensile force in diagonal
N2 compression force in diagonal



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
275
Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis
When member buckling data from stability are defined, the critical buckling load Ncr for a prismatic
member is calculated as follows:

Ed cr
N N · = ì

Using Euler’s formula, the buckling ratio k can then be determined:

t

¬

t

With: ì Critical load factor for the selected stability combination
NEd Design loading in the member
E Modulus of Young
I Moment of inertia
s Member length

 In case of a non-prismatic member, the moment of inertia is taken in the middle of the
element.


References


[1] Handleiding moduul STACO VGI
Staalbouwkundig Genootschap
Staalcentrum Nederland
5684/82

[2] Newmark N.M. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns
J.Aero.Sc. Vol.16 Feb.1949 pp.116

[3] Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur
uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap

[4] DIN18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten : Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990

[5] Rapportnr. BI-87-20/63.4.3360
Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen
IBBC Maart 1987

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276
[6] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

[7] Y. Galéa
Flambement des poteaux à inertie variable
Construction Métallique 1-1981

[8] NEN-EN 50341-3-15
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV - Part 3: Set of National Normative Aspects
Number 15: National Normative Aspects (NNA) for The Netherlands

[9] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 2: Steel Bridges
EN 1993-2: 2006



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277
Annex C: Calculation of moment factors for
LTB

Introduction to the calculation of moment factors

For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling (LTB), we use the
standard tables which are defined in Ref.[1] Art.12.25.3 table 9.1.,10 and 11.

The current moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. These
standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a nodal F load, or
where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.

The standard moment distribution which is closest to the current moment distribution, is taken for the
calculation of the factors C1 and C2.

The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[2] - Annex F.

Calculation moment factors
Moment distribution generated by q load



For ENV 1993, IS800 and CM66

if M2 < 0

C1 = A
*
(1.45 B
*
+ 1) 1.13 + B
*
(-0.71 A
*
+ 1) E
*

C2 = 0.45 A* [1 + C* e
D*
(½ | + ½)]

if M2 > 0

C1 = 1.13 A
*
+ B
*
E
*

C2 = 0.45A
*


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
278
For DIN18800 and ONORM4300

if M2 < 0

C1 = A
*
(1.45 B
*
+ 1) 1.12 + B
*
(-0.71 A
*
+ 1) E
*

C2 = 0.45 A
*
[1 + C
*
e
D*
(½ | + ½)]

if M2 > 0

C1 = 1.12 A
*
+ B
*
E
*

C2 = 0.45A
*


with :
l
+q | M2 | 8
l
q
= A
2
2
*

ql
| M2 | 94
= C
2
*



l
+q | M2 | 8
| M2 | 8
= B
2
*
)
ql
| M2 |
-72( = D
2
2
*



For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300

| 0.77 - 1.77 = E
*


For ENV 1993 and IS800

2.70 < E*
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = E*
2
| |

For NEN6770/6771, SIA263

E*=1.75-1.05*|+0.30*|² and E*<2.3

For CM66

2.70 < E*
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = E*
2
| |


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279
Moment distribution generated by F load


F
M2 M1 = Beta M2
l


M2 < 0

C1 = A
**
(2.75 B
**
+ 1) 1.35 + B
**
(-1.62 A
**
+ 1) E
**

C2 = 0.55 A
**
[1 + C
**
e
D**
(½ | + ½)]

M2 > 0

C1 = 1.35 A
**
+ B
**
E
**

C2 = 0.55 A
**


with :
+Fl | M2 | 4
Fl
= A
* *

+Fl | M2 | 4
| M2 | 4
= * * B

Fl
| M2 | 38
= C
* *

)
Fl
| M2 |
-32( = D
2 * *


The values for E
**
can be taken as E
*
from chapter "Moment distribution generated by q load".

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
280
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam

M2 M1 = Beta M2
l


C2 = 0.0

For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300

| 0.77 - 1.77 = 1 C


For ENV 1993 / IS800

2.70 < 1 C and
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = 1 C
2
| |


For CM66

For NEN6770/6771, SIA263 Code

E*=1.75-1.05*|+0.30*|² and E*<2.3


References

[1] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771 - 1991

[2] Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992


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281
Annex D: Use of diaphragms
Adaptation of torsional constant

See Ref.[1], Chapter 10.1.5., Ref.|2|,3.5 and Ref.|3|,3.3.4..

When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used, the torsional constant It is adapted for
symmetric/asymmetric I sections, channel sections, Z sections, cold formed U, C , Z sections.

The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms:

12
³ s
I
) t h (
I E 3
C
200 b 125 if
100
b
C 25 . 1 C
125 b if
100
b
C C
s
EI
k C
C
1
C
1
C
1
vorhC
1
G
l
vorhC I I
s
s
k , P
a
a
100 k , A
a
2
a
100 k , A
eff
k , M
k , P k , A k , M
2
2
t id , t
=
÷
· ·
~
< <
(
¸
(

¸

· =
s
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
+ + =
t
+ =
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0



with l the LTB length
G the shear modulus
vorhC
u
the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm
C
uM,k the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm
C
uA,k the rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm and the beam
C
uP,k the rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam
k numerical coefficient
= 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm
= 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm
EIeff bending stiffness of per unit width of the diaphragm
s spacing of the beam
ba the width of the beam flange (in mm)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
282
C100 rotation coefficient - see table
h beam height
t thickness beam flange
s thickness beam web


References

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[2] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[3] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
283
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
284
Annex E: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis
Introduction to LTBII

For a detailed Lateral Torsional Buckling analysis, a link was made to the Friedrich + Lochner LTBII
application Ref.[1].


The FriLo LTBII solver can be used in 2 separate ways:

1) Calculation of Mcr through eigenvalue solution

2) 2
nd
Order calculation including torsional and warping effects



For both methods, the member under consideration is sent to the FriLo LTBII solver and the
respective results are sent back to Scia Engineer.

A detailed overview of both methods is given in the following chapters.


Eigenvalue solution Mcr

The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
- Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
- End and begin forces
- Loadings
- Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)

The end conditions for warping and torsion are defined as follows:

Cw_i Warping condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Cw_j Warping condition at end j (end of the member)
Ct_i Torsion condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Ct_j Torsion condition at end j (end of the member)

To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see chapter “Linked Beams”.

For this system, the elastic critical moment Mcr for lateral torsional buckling can be analyzed as the
solution of an eigenvalue problem:
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
285



Wi
th
q Critical load factor
Ke Elastic linear stiffness matrix
Kg Geometrical stiffness matrix




For members with arbitrary sections, the critical moment can be obtained in each section, with: (See
Ref.[3],pp.176)



Wi
th
q Critical load factor
Myy Bending moment around the strong axis
Myy(x) Bending moment around the strong axis at position x
Mcr(x) Critical moment at position x

The calculated Mcr is then used in the Lateral Torsional Buckling check of Scia Engineer.

For more background information, reference is made to Ref[2].
0 K K
g e
= · q +
( ) ) x ( M x M
M max M
yy cr
yy cr
· q =
q =
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
286
2
nd
Order analysis

The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
o End and begin forces
o Loadings
o Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)
o Imperfections

To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see chapter “Linked Beams”.

For this system, the internal forces are calculated using a 2
nd
Order 7 degrees of freedom
calculation.

The calculated torsional and warping moments (St Venant torque Mxp, Warping torque Mxs and
Bimoment Mw) are then used in the Stress check of Scia Engineer (See chapter “Warping Check –
Stress Check”).

Specifically for this stress check, the following internal forces are used:
o Normal force from Scia Engineer
o Maximal shear forces from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII
o Maximal bending moments from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII

Since Lateral Torsional Buckling has been taken into account in this 2
nd
Order stress check, it is no
more required to execute a Lateral Torsional Buckling Check.

For more background information, reference is made to Ref[2].




Supported National Codes
The following codes are supported for the analysis of Mcr.

- EC3 - ENV
- EC3 - EN
- DIN18800
- ONORM
- NEN
- SIA
- IS
- EAE

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287
For the following national codes, the 2nd Order analysis approach is supported.

- EC3 - ENV
- EC3 - EN
- DIN18800
- ONORM
- NEN
- SIA
- EAE
Supported Sections

The following table shows which cross-section types are supported for which type of analysis:

FRILO LTBII CSS Scia Engineer CSS Eigenvalue
analysis
2
nd

Order
analysis
Double T I section from library x x
Thin walled geometric I x x
Sheet welded Iw x x
Double T unequal IPY from library x x
Thin walled geometric asymmetric I x x
Haunched sections x x
Welded I+Tl x x
Sheet welded Iwn x x
HAT Section IFBA, IFBB x x
U cross section U section from library x x
Thin walled geometric U x x
Thin walled Cold formed from library x x
Cold formed from graphical input x x
Double T with top flange
angle
Welded I+2L x
Sheet welded Iw+2L x
Rectangle Full rectangular from library x
Full rectangular from thin walled
geometric
x
Static values double
symmetric
all other double symmetric CSS x
Static values single
symmetric
all other single symmetric CSS x

Remark: Haunched sections are replaced by equivalent asymmetric I sections, by ignoring the
middle flanges.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
288

The following picture illustrates the relation between the local coordinate system of Scia Engineer
and FriLo LTBII. Special attention is required for U sections due to the inversion of the y and z-axis.



For more information, reference is made to Ref[2]

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
289
Loadings

The following load impulses are supported:

- Point force in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
- Point force on beam
- Line force in beam
- Moment in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
- Moment on beam
- Line moment in beam (only for Mx in LCS)

The supported load impulses and their eccentricities are transformed into the local LCS of the
exported member.


The dead load is replaced by an equivalent line force on the beam.

Load eccentricities are replaced by torsional moments.

The forces in local x-direction are ignored, except for the torsional moments.

 In Frilo LTBII a distinction is made between the centroid and the shear center of a
cross-section. Load impulses which do not pass through the shear center will cause
additional torsional moments.

Imperfections

In the 2
nd
Order LTB analysis the bow imperfections v0 (in local y direction) and w0 (in local z
direction) can be taken into account.


v0
y, v0
z
y
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
290

For DIN, ONORM, EC-EN and EAE the imperfections can be calculated according to the code. The
codes indicate that for a 2
nd
Order calculation which takes into account LTB, only the imperfection v0
needs to be considered.

The sign of the imperfection according to code depends on the sign of Mz in Scia Engineer.
Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM

The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.[6] article 2.2

For prismatic uniform members:

Resistance check Section Bucking curve v0
EE
(Elastic)
any a0 L/1050
any a L/900
any b L/750
any c L/600
any d L/450

EP
PP
(Plastic)
I section a0 L/700
I section a L/600
I section b L/500
I section c L/400
I section d L/300

For non-uniform members, the bow imperfection is considered at the centre of the buckling system
length L.

Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE

The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.[4] article 5.3.4(3)

0 0
e k v · =

With k Factor taken from the National Annex of EC-EN
Factor taken as 0,5 for EAE
e0 Bow imperfection of the weak axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
291
The value of e0 is taken from following table:

Buckling
curve
eo /L – elastic
analysis
eo/L – plastic
analysis

a0 1/350 1/300
a 1/300 1/250
b 1/250 1/200
c 1/200 1/150
d 1/150 1/100

With L Member system length


Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes

For all other supported codes (EC-ENV, NEN and SIA) as well as DIN, ONORM, EC-EN and EAE
the user can manually input the imperfections v0 and w0.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
292
LTB Restraints
LTB restraints are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[2] p22), with horizontal elastic restraint Cy:

Cy = 1e15 kN/m

The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the LTB restraint (top/bottom).


The use of an elastic restraint allows the positioning of the restraint since this is not possible for a
fixed restraint. (Ref.[2] p23)

Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-
sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported Sections”)

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
293
Diaphragms
Diaphragms are transformed into 'Elastic Foundations' of type ‘elastic restraint’ (Ref.[2] p25). Both a
horizontal restraint Cy and a rotational restraint Cu are used.

The elastic restraint Cy [kN/m^2] is calculated as follows (Ref.[2] p52 and Ref.|5| p40):

2
|
.
|

\
|
· =
L
S Cy
t


Wi
th
S Shear stiffness of the diaphragm
L Diaphragm length along the member

The above formula for Cy is valid in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’. For a bolt
pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S (Ref.|5| p22).

The shear stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows (Ref.|7|,3.5 and Ref.|8|,3.3.4.):

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4


With a Frame distance
Ls Length of the diaphragm
K1 Factor K1 of the diaphragm
K2 Factor K2 of the diaphragm

The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the diaphragm.

Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-
sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported sections”)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
294


The rotational restraint Cu [kNm/m] is taken as vorhC
u
(see Chapter “Adaptation of Torsional
Constant”)


Linked Beams

Linked beams are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[2] p22), with elastic restraint.
The direction of the restraint is dependent on the direction of the linked beam:

If the linked beam has an angle less then 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration,
the restraint is set as Cy. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cz.


The position of the restraint z(Cy) or y(Cz) is depending on the application point of the linked beam
(top/bottom).

The position is only taken into account in case of a flexible restraint (Ref.[2] p23).


The end forces of the linked beam are transformed to point loads on the considered 1D member,
- in z -direction for linked beams considered as y-restraint
- in y- direction for linked beams considered as z-restraint


Specifically for U-sections, if the linked beam has an angle less then 45° with the local y-axis of the
beam under consideration, the restraint is set as Cz. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cy. This
is due to the rotation of U-sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported Sections”)

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
295
Limitations and Warnings

The FRILO LTB solver is used with following limitations

o Only straight members are supported
o LTBII analysis is done for the whole 1D member, not for a part of the member, not for
more members together
o When a LTB system length is inputted which differs from the member length, a warning
will be given.
Intermediate lateral restraints should be defined through LTB restraints, diaphragms and
linked beams.

During the analysis, the FriLo LTBII solver may return a warning message. The most important
causes of the warning message are listed here.

Eigenvalue solution Mcr

- Lateral Torsional Buckling is not governing – relative slenderness < 0,4

Due to the low relative slenderness, no LTB check needs to be performed. In this case it is not
required to use the FriLo LTBII solver.

- Design Torsion! Simplified analysis of lateral torsional buckling is not possible.

Due to the torsion in the member it is advised to execute a 2
nd
order analysis instead of an
eigenvalue calculation.


- Bending of U-section about y-axis!

The program calculates the minimum bifurcation load only.


2
nd
Order Analysis

- Load is greater then minimum bifurcation load (Error at elastic calculation – system is instable in
II.Order )

The loading on the member is too big, a 2
nd
order calculation cannot be executed.

- You want to calculate the structural safety with Elastic-Plastic method. This analytical procedure
cannot be used for this cross-section. It is recommended to use the Elastic-Elastic method.

Plastic calculation is not possible, use imperfection according to code elastic instead of plastic.

For more information, reference is made to Ref[1] and [2].
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
296
References

[1] FriLo LTBII software
Friedrich + Lochner Lateral Torsional Buckling 2
nd
Order Analysis
Biegetorsionstheorie II.Ordnung (BTII)
http://www.frilo.de

[2] Friedrich + Lochner LTBII Manual
BTII Handbuch
Revision 1/2006

[3] J. Meister
Nachweispraxis Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken
Ernst & Sohn, 2002

[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

[5] J. Schikowski
Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der
Scheibenwirkung von Trapez- und Sandwichelementdeckungen, 1999
http://www.jschik.de/

[6] DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990

[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[8] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
297
Annex F: Warping check

Stress check

In cross sections subject to torsion, the following is checked:

Ed , w Ed , t Ed , Vz Ed , Vy Ed , tot
Ed , w Ed , Mz Ed , My Ed , N Ed , tot
M
y 2
Ed , tot
2
Ed , tot
0 M
y
Ed , tot
M
y
Ed , tot
f
1 . 1 3
3
f
f
t + t + t + t = t
o + o + o + o = o
¸
s t + o
¸
s t
¸
s o


with fy the yield strength
otot,Ed the total direct stress
ttot,Ed the total shear stress
¸M = ¸M0 (class 1,2 and 3 section)
= ¸M1 (class 4 section)
¸M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by yielding
¸M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by buckling
oN,Ed the direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant effective cross-
section
oMy,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on the
relevant effective cross-section
oMz,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on the
relevant effective cross-section
ow,Ed the direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section
tVy,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross cross-
section
tVz,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross cross-
section
tt,Ed the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the gross cross-
section
tw,Ed the shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
298
The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for E (= “cold formed
sections”) sections. The definition of I sections and U sections, and E sections are described in
‘Annex A: Profile Library Formcode’.

The other standard sections ( RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular sections) are
considered as warping free. See also Ref.[2], Bild 7.4.40.


Calculation of the direct stress due to warping

The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

m
M w
Ed , w
C
w M
= o


with Mw the bimoment
wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
299
I sections
For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.87, 7.88). This value is added
to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:


The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.[5] pp.135) :

m M
h b
4
1
w · · =


with b the section width
hm the section height (see figure)


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
300
U sections

For U sections, the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.89). These
values are added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure :


The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).

E sections

The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general approach given in
Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3 and Ref.[8] Part 27.


The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
301
Calculation of the shear stress due to warping

The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

}
= t
s
0
M
m
xs
Ed , w
tds w
t C
M



with Mxs the warping torque (see "Standard diagrams for
warping torque, bimoment and the St.Venant
torsion")
wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant
t the element thickness

I sections

The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure)


For I sections, we have the following :

A
4
w t b
tds w
M
2 / b
0
M
=
· ·
=
}

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
302
U sections, E sections
Starting from the wM diagram, we calculate the value


}
s
0
M
t ds w

for the critical points.
The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in figures)




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
303
Plastic Check
For doubly symmetric I sections of class 1 and class 2 (plastic check), the interaction formula given
in Ref.[10] is used.

b
tw
tf
h H
y y
z
z


Used variables

Section Properties
A sectional area
b width
H heigth of section
tf flange thickness
tw web thickness
h = H - tf
Aw = 1.05 (h+tf) tw for rolled section
Aw = h tw for welded sections
f f
t b 2 A · · =

A
A
f
f
= o

f w
1 o ÷ = o

Wz,pl plastic section modulus around z axis
Wy,pl plastic section modulus around y axis

Material Properties
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
304
fy,d yield strength
ty,d shear strength

Internal forces
NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Mw,Sd bimoment
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
Mxp,Sd torque due to St. Venant
Mxs,Sd warping torque

Plastic capacities
Npl,Rd = A fy,d
Mz,pl,Rd = Wz,pl fy,d
Vz,pl,Rd = Aw ty,d
d , y
2
w 2
f Rd , pl , xp
2
t
h bt M t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

My,pl,Rd = Wy,pl fy,d
2
h
M M
Rd , pl , z Rd , pl , w
=

Vy,pl,Rd = Af ty,d
2
h
V M
Rd , pl , y Rd , pl , xs
=


Rd , pl
Sd
N
N
n =

Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , w
Sd , w
w
M
M
m =

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
305
Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
V
V
v =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
V
V
v =

Rd , pl , xp
Sd , xp
xp
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , xs
Sd , xs
xs
M
M
m =


Shear force reduction





Sign
p=sign ( Mz,Sd x Mw,Sd)



|
|
.
|

\
|
o
÷ ì ÷ o ì = o
w w
s w w s
s
n
p 1 s 4



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
306
Unity checks:

Remark: the values between {} must be > 0.


Standard diagrams for warping torque, bimoment and
the St.Venant torsion

The following 6 standard situations are given in the literature (Ref.[2], Ref.[3]).
The value ì is defined as follows :

m
t
C E
I G
·
·
= ì

with Mx the total torque
= Mxp + Mxs
Mxp the torque due to St. Venant
Mxs the warping torque
Mw the bimoment
IT the torsional constant
CM the warping constant
E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
307
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt







Mx

L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
L
b
M M
t xp

Mxp for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
+ ÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
L
a
M M
t xp

Mxs for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
· = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
M M
t xs

Mxs for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
M M
t xs

Mw for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) x sinh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh( M
M
t
w

Mw for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) ' x sinh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh( M
M
t
w


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
308
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt







Mx

L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp for a side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ + ì
· = 3 D
L
1 k 2 k b
M M
t xp

Mxp for b side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ ì ÷
· = 4 D
L
1 k a 2 k
M M
t xp

Mxs for a side
3 D M M
t xs
· =
Mxs for b side
4 D M M
t xs
· =
Mw for a side
1 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=
Mw for b side
2 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
309


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
310
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading
mt







Mx

2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
+ ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh( m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
1
m
M
2
t
w



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
311
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading
mt







Mx

2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ + ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 ( ) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 (
m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
) k 1 ( 1
m
M
2
t
w


)
2
L
tanh(
2
L
1 k
ì
ì
÷ =

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
312
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional
loading Mt







Mx

t xa
M M =


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ · =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
1 M M
t xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
· =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
M M
t xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) ' x sinh( M
M
t
w



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
313
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed
torsional loading mt







Mx

L m M
t xa
· =

Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
+ ì ì ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L ' x
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L
m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì + ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x cosh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x sinh( L 1
²
m
M
t
w

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
314
Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line
Since the Scia Engineer solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping, the
determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment, is based on some standard
situations.

The following end conditions are considered:

- warping free


- warping fixed


This results in the following 3 beam situations :

- situation 1 : warping free / warping free

- situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed


- situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed






Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
315
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3
The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:

- n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt
- one torsion line with constant torque Mt0

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings
Mtn and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp value.

Decomposition for situation 2

The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:

- n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings
Mtn and the distributed loading mt.

References

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules – Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members
and sheeting
CEN 1996

[2] Stahl im Hochbau
14. Auglage Band I/ Teil 2
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1986

[3] Kaltprofile
3. Auflage
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1982

[4] Roik, Carl, Lindner
Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe
Verlag von Wilhem ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1972

[5] Dietrich von Berg
Krane und Kranbahnen – Berechnung Konstruktion Ausführung
B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart 1988

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
316
[6] DASt-Richtlinie 016
Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen
kaltgeformten Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft, Köln 1992

[7] Esa Prima Win
Steel Code Check Manual
SCIA
EPW 3.10

[8] C. Petersen
Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von Stahlbauten
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1988

[9] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[10] I. Vayas,
Interaktion der plastischen Grenzschnittgrössen doppelsymmetrischer I-Querschnitte
Stahlbau 69 (2000), Heft 9



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
317
Annex G: Check of numerical sections

Stress check
The stress calculation for a numerical section is as follows:


with ovm the VonMises stress, the composed stress
otot the total normal stress
ttot the total shear stress
oN the normal stress due to the normal force N
oMy the normal stress due to the bending moment Myy
around y axis
oMz the normal stress due to the bending moment Mzz
around z axis
tVy the shear stress due to shear force Vy in y direction
tVz the shear stress due to shear force Vz in z direction
Ax the sectional area
Ay the shear area in y direction
Az the shear area in z direction
Wy the elastic section modulus around y axis
Wz the elastic section modulus around z axis

z
z
Vz
y
y
Vy
z
zz
Mz
y
yy
My
x
N
Vz Vy tot
Mz My N tot
2
tot
2
tot vm
A
V
A
V
W
M
W
M
A
N
3
= t
= t
= o
= o
= o
t + t = t
o + o + o = o
t + o = o
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
318
Annex H: Section check for built-in beams
(IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
Introduction

For the national codes EC-ENV, EC-EN, NEN6770/6771, DIN18800 and SIA263, special checks are
performed for built-in beams, according to Ref.[1].
Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate
bending

bu
e1
e2=bo
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
319
bu
e1
e2=bo
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q
to



bu
e1
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q
e2=0
to


When the lower plate is loaded by q-load (uniform distributed load), the effective area of the loaded
plate (flange) for the calculation of the plastic capacity is reduced as follows :

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
320
- for THQ and IFB beams :



- for SFB beam :

o o u u eff
A A A ¢ + ¢ =


with e1, e2, tu, bu see the figures above
q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
fy yield strength
¸M partial safety factor
¢ see formula
¢u = ¢
¢o analog to ¢u, but with
bu=bo
e1=bo
tu=to
e2=tw



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
321
Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear
force

The following plastic interaction formula can be used, when single bending around yy-axis My,Sd, in
combination with shear force Vz,Sd, is acting :

y , pl
f m
Rd , z , pl
Sd , z
m
v
Rd , y , pl
Sd , y
W 2
h A
0 . 1
V
V
A
A
M
M
= |
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|






with My,Sd, Vz,Sd internal forces
Mpl,y,Rd plastic bending capacity around yy axis
Vpl,z,Rd plastic shear capacity in z direction
Av shear area (see figure)
Am = A - | Ao,x - Au,x | (see figure)
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
Wpl,y plastic section modulus around yy axis - reduced if necessary


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
322
Plastic check for plate in bending

The following condition for the plate in bending must be verified:


with e1, e2, tu see figures
q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin
ç (Ksi)
q
q q
min max
÷
=
fy yield strength
¸M partial safety factor


0.5 q (1+Ksi) 0.5 q (1-Ksi)



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
323
Stress check for slim floor beams



Normal stress check
At the edges of the bottom plate, the following composed stress check is performed:


Shear stress check in plate
In the middle of the bottom plate, transverse shear stress is checked:

u
min max
M
y 2
x
t
) q , q (
2
3
f
² 3
= t
¸
s t + o

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
324
Torsion check due to unbalanced loading

- for IFB and SFB beams:

12
b Et
EI
GI
EI
h 2 L
L
L
tanh
2
QeL
M
h t b
M
2
3
L
L
L
L
tanh
1
2
QeL
M
I
t M
3
f
3
o o
o
t
o
f k
k
k
max , w
f o o
max , w
max , w
k
k
max , t
t
o max , t
max , t
M
y
max , w max , t
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
± =
= t
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ± =
= t
¸
s t + t


with to, bo see figures
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
It torsional constant for complete section
E modulus of Young
G shear modulus
L system length for Lyz
Q,e see figure

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
325
Q
e



- for THQ beams :

2
V
b
e
1
4
qL
Rd , z , pl
f
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
ç ±


with e, bf see figure
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
q load on flanges, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin
ç (Ksi)
q
q q
min max
÷
=

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
326
q max q min
bf
e e



References

[1] Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel
Design Guide for Slim Floors with Built-in Beams
ECCS N° 83 - 1995



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
327
Annex I: Effective cross-section properties
for lattice tower angle members
Effective cross-section properties for compressed
lattice tower angle members
The effective cross-section properties shall be based on the effective width beff of the leg. See Ref.[1],
Chapter J.2.3.


b


The effective width shall be obtained from the nominal width of the leg, assuming uniform stress
distribution:

b b
f
235
43 . 0 K
K 4 . 28
t
b
eff
y
c
c
p
p
p
µ =
= c
=
c
ì
= ì
= ì



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
328
For a rolled angle:

2
p
p
p
p
p
98 . 0
213 . 1
91 . 0
2 213 . 1 91 . 0
0 . 1 91 . 0
ì
= µ ¬ > ì
ì
÷ = µ ¬ s ì <
= µ ¬ s ì


For a cold formed angle:

2
p
p
p
p
p
98 . 0
213 . 1
3
404 . 0
5
213 . 1 809 . 0
0 . 1 809 . 0
ì
= µ ¬ > ì
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
÷
= µ ¬ s ì <
= µ ¬ s ì

with t the thickness
b the nominal width
fy the yield strength in Mpa


References

[1] EN 50341-1:2001
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General requirements